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Photovoltaics - Science topic

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zero-dimensional model - energy- energy model- pv
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I have a project titled: (Development of zero-dimensional energy model of photovoltaic panels). Where should I start?
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In Brazil and in many other countries, transformers that are directly connected to frequency inverters in applications for renewable energy generation (photovoltaic and wind) tend to have high concentrations of gases (mainly hydrogen, methane and ethane).
I would like to know if there is already a root cause identified or if other engineers are also facing similar situations and have found a solution.
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Skin and proximity effect losses are higher at higher frequencies and as a result, produce more resistive loss or heat, and in turn, gassing. In fact, there are higher frequencies flowing into these transformers due to applying more switching components for such applications which leads to higher skin and proximity effect losses.
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I am looking for examples of using home energy storage to reduce energy peaks on a daily basis in the case of PV. There is a need to use many home energy storage (several hundred thousand in Poland) to cut PV energy peaks.
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The aim is to explain how is electricity produced by most common NPN Solar photovoltaic panels.
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Solar PV cells generate electricity by absorbing sunlight and using that light energy to create an electrical current. There are many photovoltaic cells within a single solar panel, and the current created by all of the cells together adds up to enough electricity to help power your home.Feb 15, 2022
How does a photovoltaic solar cell work? - EnergySage Blog
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If on top of a standart photovoltaic module there would be a layer of fluorescent particles attached would it get more or less efficient ? On one hand the particle would absorb UV light and emit visible light on the other hand it would of course limit the direct sunlight.
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I agree with Adam B Shapiro.
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I am interested in any paper addressing the potential environmental effects (positive or negative) of floating photovoltaic systems: in reservoirs, lakes, etc. Any suggestion will be welcome!
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You could check this article, it has been discussed the environmental effects of Floating photovoltaic systems
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Hello everyone, I participate in a project in which we intend to forecast the demand of customers With installed and photovoltaic panels. These are the so-called microinstallations, i.e. their power does not exceed 40 kw. Due to the fact that the distribution system operator installs two-way meters that measure consumption and delivery, we are not able to find out what the customer's auto consumption level is without additional metering. When it comes to forecasting the demand of these customers, usually after the installation of photovoltaics, customers most often decide to install additional receivers so that they can consume the energy produced. Increasingly, these receivers are heat pumps. Thus, the demand of such customers changes dynamically with the change in temperature. To solve this problem, we believe that it will be appropriate to use, for example, linear regression with explanatory variables such as temperature, sunlight, humidity. As for forecasting what customers give to the grid, in this case an efficiency matrix will be built Determining how much energy is given away at a given temperature and sunlight Along with taking into account the Parameters of the sun, i.e. azimuth and Height of the sun. I would like to know what methods do you use to solve this type of task?
regards
Paweł
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I agree with Sir. Md Morshed Alam . You could use a deep learning classifier (MLP, LSTM, DNN, etc.) to forecast the generation and consumption of power for the next day ahead. This would give you a higher level of accuracy in your predictions.
Regards;
Ehtisham
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How do I make a link between the Photovoltaic thermal PV/T and Multi-effect distillation using Trnsys software?
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Thank you for the document. My answer is currently outside your problematic. I was looking at the analysis of the performance and lifetime of all the components of a cell.
Best wishes...
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Hello everyone,
I'm working on forecasting the photovoltaic power, and I want to classify the day ahead and see if it's a clear day or a cloudy day... For that I need to know wich variables are used for this type of classification ? or maybe the models or any informations..
It will be helpful if anyone knows an article, books...etc
Thanks,
Saad
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Hello dear Saad Benslimane,
I hope this helps you!
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I am calculating Responsivity of a pn junction photodiode by irradiating radiation from LED sources. For this purpose, i have two LEDs, one UV and another green LED.
For UV, manufacturer has given radiant power (~20mW). For Green LED, luminous intensity is given (in mcd). Viewing angle is 120°. Now, i have converted mcd into lumens by considering half of viewing angle as apex angle of a cone. Then, i did convert lumens into watts.
My question is, in literature, authors usually mention intensity in watts/cm^2. I got the values in watts, now how do i get to watts/cm^2? am i suppose to divide the power of LED in watts by the area of the photodiode exposed to radiation from LED? I have also seen some convert like this : "X mcd / m^2 into watts / cm^2.
Please explain how do i get from watts to watts/cm^2
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You've already figured out how to convert between radiometric and photometric units, which is often a point of confusion. That's a good start. So let's stick with radiometric units in specifying the characteristics of an LED. There are three quantities to consider (along with their photometric counterparts). First is radiant intensity R, measured in Watts / steradian (corresponding to photometric luminous intensity, lumen / sr). Then there's irradiance E, measured in Watts / m^2 (corresponding to illuminance in lm / m^2). And finally, there's radiance L, measured in Watts / m^2-steradian (corresponding to luminance in lm /m^2-steradian). LED manufacturers who are careful with their spec sheets, like Osram for example, usually spec their products carefully in terms of radiant intensity, e.g., 1.2 W/sr at 1A drive current measured on-axis over a small solid angle, e.g., 0.1sr. They also describe the divergence pattern that gives the half angle of the emission. You can convert from radiant intensity R to irradiance E at distance d (in meters) assuming that the emitter is a point source using E = R / d^2. That's a useful thing to use if you want to know the irradiance (W / m^2) on a target due to a given LED. Radiance can be used to discuss eye-safety since it measures the power per emitter area that ends up going into a given solid angle. Therefore, an LED with wide divergence and one with the same power per area at the emitter aperture but narrow divergence will have different radiance (narrow divergence -> higher radiance) and different effect on your eyes. Finally, you can integrate the total power over a sphere using the divergence pattern given by the manufacturer to understand the radiant intensity at a given angle into a given (reference) solid angle. Use polar coordinates to stay sane. That will ensure that the total radiant power (total optical power) is the sum of the power at each angle. Do this as a check. At that point, you will understand the emission of your LED and you can use E = R / d^2 to figure out what the irradiance (power per area) at any angle relative to the center axis will be. Hope this helps. See also, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Units_of_photometry and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiometry for reference on units.
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My intention is to quantify the effect of drift Velocity on the photocurrent of a pn junction diode. For this purpose, i have various LED light sources.
While calculating Responsivity, optical power of all the LEDs were kept a constant and as a result, photon density is different for various LEDs.
Now, photocurrent depends on photon density and drift velocity at a specific reverse bias. So, i have kept photon density as a constant, which would mean that the optical powers are now different.
My question is, while calculating Responsivity, does it matter whether i keep optical power as a constant ot photon density as a constant ?
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Dear Hamidreza and Nikolay Pavlov
After some research, i realized the answer for my question above.
Responsivity is indeed independent of whether i keep optical power a constant or photon density a constant.
@ Nikolay Pavlov : I am using the photodetector in reverse bias mode (-3 V) , so recombination effect can be neglected.
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Greetings,
Dear researchers,
how can I model the carrier generation mechanism from the photovoltaic effect of solar cells by COMSOL, please?
Bless you,
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With the application of photovoltaics, what are you most concerned about from the perspective of ecological environment development?(No matter which major you can answer)
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Dear
The biggest problem with the development of photovoltaics, but also with the development of energy based on wind farms and other zero-emission energy sources, is the still low efficiency of the energy storage technology and imperfect disposal and recycling systems for waste generated from used batteries. The issue of energy storage is a key limitation in the development of renewable energy sources in a situation of instability, cyclicality and daily, seasonal and climatic variability of energy source factors, i.e. solar and wind energy. On the other hand, the need to improve the disposal and recycling systems of waste generated from used batteries is determined by maintaining high standards of environmental protection and reducing the level of emissions to the natural environment of various types of non-biodegradable pollutants, harmful and poisonous to living organisms.
Best regards,
Dariusz
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I have previously conducted laboratory experiments on a photovoltaic panel under the influence of artificial soiling in order to be able to obtain the short circuit current and the open-circuit voltage data, which I analyzed later using statistical methods to draw a performance coefficient specific to this panel that expresses the percentage of the decrease in the power produced from the panel with the increase of accumulating dust. Are there any similar studies that relied on statistical analysis to measure this dust effect?
I hope I can find researchers interested in this line of research and that we can do joint work together!
Article link:
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Dear Dr Younis
Find attached:
1-(1) (PDF) Spatial Management for Solar and Wind Energy in Kuwait (researchgate.net)
2-(1) (PDF) Cost and effect of native vegetation change on aeolian sand, dust, microclimate and sustainable energy in Kuwait (researchgate.net)
regards
Ali Al-Dousari
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I am new in the field photovoltaics, particularly in CdTe based solar cells. I wanted to look into simulation of band bending in solar cells at different operating conditions. I can code in python, i need some directions to do that. Thanks in advacne.
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The band bending occurs as a consequence of formation of electrostatic field in the material. Both the conduction band edges are affected by the electrostatic potential variations in the materials.
If one has two semiconductor materials with different fermi levels at equilibrium and the one brings them into intimate contact then a band bending will occur in the interface region of the two materials. It is the consequence of the formation of the built in electric field. This electric field can be changes by an external applied voltage on the junction such that one can increase or decrease the band bending at the interface. In case of forward bias the bedding will decrease and in case of reverse biasing the bending will increase.
In order to calculate the band ending you have to understand its origin.
Please follow the book:
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On a global scale, the energy sector is acquiring great dynamism as a result of the notable technological changes that have been taking place in recent decades. This has been motivated by the significant reduction in the cost of renewable energies, such as solar photovoltaic and wind power, and the growing concern caused by climate change, caused by the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide generated, mainly, by massive use of fossil fuels. In this context and considering aspects such as Distributed Generation, Transactive Energy: What would be possible applications of blockchain technology in the field of energy?
I appreciate your participation in this discussion.
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Block-chain technology facilitates energy sales transactions directly, within seconds, which in other cases requires a central intermediary. The energy industry has been consistently catalyzed by innovations including rooftop solar, electric vehicles, and smart metering . Besides this, by allowing consumers to make better use of their distributed energy resources, the model makes renewable energy more accessible. Block-chain can provide consumers greater efficiency and control over their energy sources. Additionally, an immutable ledger provides secure and real-time updates of energy usage data. Various types of energy data include market prices, marginal costs, energy law compliance, and fuel prices and the use of block-chain technology can, for example, be applied to electricity recharging terminals, to allow the recording of electricity transactions and their accounting follow-up in complete transparency and without possible error. Several initiatives are currently emerging.
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I really need real data of voltage output for completing my research. I would be really appreciate if someone can help me.
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Maybe many of you would agree with me that the "Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Photovoltaics and Wind" from John A. Duffie et.al. has been paramount in the world of solar thermal. Now I am looking for equivalent books in solar photovoltaic and renewable energy. Any suggestions.
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"Solar Energy Engineering Processes and Systems " by Soteris A. Kalogirou is an optional book and it has a good flow through the chapters. Try it! Kunaifi Kunaifi
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i have read this paper
in the paper, increasing thickness of transport layer decreases Voc. What is the reason(s) and mechanizm of Voc reduction? Is it generally true?
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The open circuit voltage is independent on the ohmic series resistance. Only nonlinear resistances can decrease the apparent open circuit voltage.
We investigated the effect ohmic and nonlinear series resistance. Please I would like that you refer to the publication in the link:
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  • As we know that energy demands is increasing day by day globally and also to fulfill this demand we are using fossil fuels which are going to impact our atmosphere drastically hence Renewable Resources of energy are promising solution of the above issue and Solar Energy is available in abundant form as we are in Solar belt region using PV we can convert solar energy to electricity but dust accumulation is the major issue with efficiency with Conversion efficiency of Solar PV modules so I would like to work on Synthesis of the Self cleaning Surfaces for that Application.
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You may check the following paper:
Hussein A. Kazem, Miqdam T. Chaichan, Ali H. A. Alwaeli, K Sopian, “A review of dust accumulation and cleaning methods for solar photovoltaic systems”, Elsevier-Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 276, December 2020, pp. 123187.
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I want to model a photovoltaic panel with a back plate, back cover, and back sheet. Therefore, I need specific heat capacity(Cp), density, and thermal conductivity of these layers for modeling. I attached the picture of my model to show the layers.
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I would like to pay your attention to our complete optical electrical and thermal properties of our module which is composed of thee plates. One supporting the solar cells the glass cover and the metal sheet backplate. You can solve for any other module structure following the optical , thermal and electrical model used in the solution.
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Hello everyone. I am looking for someone who can give me a hand by sharing with me a literature references about the characteristic setup of photovoltaic module. in fact, the objective of this internship is to install a photovoltaic module characterization system in a platform, and to develop the module testing procedures. The analysis of characterization results and performance data of photovoltaic modules will also be performed
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The short-circuit current (ISC), open-circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF), and solar energy conversion efficiency () are the basic characteristics of a solar cell. For ideal solar cells, the effects of diode saturation current density and ISC on VOC, FF, and are investigated.
An I-V curve measurement is performed by applying a series of voltages to the device. At each voltage, the current flowing through the device is measured. The supplied voltage is measured by a voltmeter connected in parallel to the device, and the current is measured by an ammeter connected in series.
Pls have a look at the following links for further studies.
Best Regards;
Ehtisham
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I seek help for perovskite UPS analysis for the Valence band and work function calculation. The sample preparation and if there are any critical things?
I have characterized my perovskite layer several times in different architectures; (Glass/Perovskite), (ITO/perovskite), (ITO/PTAA/Perovskite).
My SECO is in the range of 16.87eV but the valence band cut off is always higher (~1.6eV). The perovskite Eg~1.56eV. With these values, the Fermi level is above conduction band. I would appreciate your help in this regard. Thank you.
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Hi Asmat, could you post a picture of the UPS spectrum in question? There are a number of issues that could be the source of your issue. For example, have you collected a UPS spectrum of Au recently using the same parameters you collected your spectrum with? If the photoelectron onset is not calibrated to zero for gold it will offset all measurements. Another issue could be your choice of cutoff energy, so seeing how you did that would be helpful. Finally, do you know if your sample was charging before running UPS? Charging of the sample can really throw off your measurements.
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Dear sir,
What is the interpretation for the co-doped SnO2 film, when there is a decrease in intensity and an increase in width at half height of the most intense peak (110) ?.
and is there any work on Ni/Co co-doped SnO2 for photovoltaic or gas sensor application ?.
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Dear sir,
Thank you for the message, Pro. Noubeil Guermat
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How many times actually we can recycle the solar panels? Is the recycled one cost less? Does using the recycled one affect its energy absorption efficiency?
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The commertial pv construction of the modules is all solid sate such that the solar cells are firmly bonded to the gals superstrate. Accordingly, one can not repair them. Only when their get inoperative they recycles by crushing then together and converting them to powder that can be used in building materials.
I tried to find a solution to this problem by introducing a repairable modules. But nobody payed attention to them.
I would like that you follow these types of modules in the links:
Best wishes
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I need to plot data between which two functions? Bias (V) and Absmean (A) or what where Need to utilize Range and relerrer ?
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The data now probably make much more sense in a IV curve.
For the physics going on with your material, if you have access to them, I recommend you to check
Semiconductor Device Fundamentals by Robert F. Pierret
and/or
Physics of Semiconductor Devices by Sze & Ng
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Control the MPPT is a precise work to get the fine output of a Photovoltaic Solar Cell, so need the best suggestion about the right algorithm as I had already used PID as well as Fuzzy Logic Controller.
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the best answer to this question is simply all of them are good.
Let me explain. Each algorithm has a preference according to the situation and the problem we want to solve. For example, at the uniformed irradiance level, you only need the conventional method like P and O, because they have excellent efficiency in the simple PV curve.
If you face a simple partial shading condition, you need to use the meta-heuristic algorithm. I think every algorithm gives an excellent efficiency in this case.
With Complex partial shading, you need to use an algorithm that has a good balance between exploration and exploitation phases, to make sure the algorithm covers all the PV curve search space.
So a good example for a complex shading condition is the Slime mould optimization and also the grey wolf optimization.
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What is the system you have worked with / suggesting to system analyze all photovoltaic and photoconductive characteristics of all types of solar cells?
Thank you.
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What is the method of attaching photovoltaic panels by TCT method? Is there a scheme for the aforementioned linkage method?
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We synthesize FAPbI3 crystal for photovoltaics applications, but we face the problem of crystal stability.
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Adding to the answer of the colleague Frank, there is a good paper about the stabilization of FAPbI3 crystal. Please follow the paper in the link:
Best wishes
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Although there are a lot of solar photovoltaic projects. Many researchers are still using simulation software. What is the reason for that?
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How the condition is achieved for maximum power operation in solar panels?
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Dear Niva Jayswal , you can install the solar PV MPPT charge controller to be achieved for maximum power operation in solar panels.
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Floating photovoltaic or Floating PV (FPV) is a Photovoltaic (PV) based energy generation approach on water surfaces. Usually, it is considered as the third wave of PV module installation after distributed and rooftop solar installations. FPV has several features including
- No need to land
- Higher power performance due to the cooling effect of water
- Higher land-use efficiency (MWh per hectare)
- Better socio-environmental effect (being out of sight)
- Its potentials to meet World Electricity Demand.
- Its combination with hydropower plants (hybridization)
Which one is the most important driver for FPV installation and why?
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In my opinion, in the first couple of years, the hybridization option and global FPV potential to meet the global electricity demand will rise up the FPV projects worldwide. While in the rest years, solving the land-scarcity issue for solar installation and better socio-environmental effect will be the main drivers to make FPV a pivotal of the annual solar capacity addition in this sector.
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Building PV modules in desert areas have lits of advantages such as inexpensive land and low-cost PV module which can benefit high irradiation.
However, transmission of power has its own challenges. As far as I researched, making supergrids and HVDC lines are the best options. My questions are:
1) What are economical solution to transmit power for PV plants in desert?
2) What are the risks?
3) What are the benefits?
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welcome!
It is the firs time that I read your comment on my post on your question.
I think such projects as Desertec are very required and strategic. However they need intensive cooperation and transparency in dealing with the project as well as fairly distributing its benefits to all partners.
I would like that you read the essay in the link:https://www.ecomena.org/desertec/
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Hi,
I am trying to calculate the NOCT data from STC values. All temperature coefficients are available. The calculation for Pmpp is straight forward.
However, I would like to know the equations that I can calculate Vmpp, Impp, Isc and Voc under NOCT conditions from STC values.
Looking forward to your help.
Greets
Hamed
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Take a look at this paper
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In the case of a photovoltaic cell, minority carrier-lifetime is an important parameter in determining the overall performance. The conventional method, namely time-resolved photoluminescence, is not perceived as a foolproof technique in calculating the above parameter given the high surface recombination, particularly in thin-film (polycrystalline) solar cell. Consequently, many researchers employ the two-photon excitation measurement technique as an alternative.
My enquiry is about the theoretical understanding and methodology of the above procedure.
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welcome!
Th two photo excitation is thought to generate and electron hole pairs by photons simultaneously on the materials. The two photons will be absorbed simultaneously and generate an electron hole pair. The most important thing is that the two photons have larger wavelength than the one photon method such that they can penetrate deeper in the volume of the material far from the surface.
Therefore they will recombine in the volume rather than in the surface orf near the surface as the one more energetic photons.
In both cases the one measures the life time by the photoconductive decay.
For the photocondcutive deacy experiment please follow the references:
For the generation of the two photons and applying it to measure the bulk lifetime please follow the reference:https://www.nature.com/articles/srep02098
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I am working in perovskite photovoltaic lab. We are fabricating carbon based monolithic perovskite solar cell. The structure of our cell is FTO/c-TiO2/m-TiO2/ZrO2/C and perovskite infiltration. We have fabricated the solar but we are not getting ideal IV curve which also results in low efficiency. How to improve the fill factor and get better IV curve?
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Georgi Hristov Yordanov Yes, your assumptions are correct. We have some good results also but we get curve similar to this.
I agree there is severe shunting, how can I avoid this thing in order to have ideal IV Curve? Am i doing anything wrong while fabricating the device?
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Hi,
I am analysing ground measured solar irradiation data for photovoltaic applications. for some days, I noticed that DNI is higher than GHI. Can someone please explain why?
Consider that there was no flag during these data points. Please see the attached figure. The sun Elevation angle at noon was 45 degree towards South.
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The continuous normal incidence on a flat surface is the highest power recieved from the sun radiation. Therefore the solar panels are made to track the sun to maximize the sun radiation incident on them. If the flat plate is horizontal it will receive only the horizontal components of the incident solar radiation which is I cos theta where theta is the incidence angle of the radiation with the vertical direction to the horizontal plane.
I is the intensity of the incident radiation.
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Recent and efficient materials suitable for photovoltaic applications
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Manufacturing materials may not be readily available in some technologies.
1 Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) and Micro-Crystalline Silicon (c-Si) Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is frequently utilized in thin-film solar cells for a variety of reasons.
2. Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS).
3. Cadmium Telluride (CdTe).
Kind Regards
Qamar Ul Islam
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Compared with traditional or overland PV systems, the floating PV systems can benefit from the natural cooling effect of water and operate with higher efficiency, since the decrease of the operating temperature of the PV module tends to increase the PV system efficiency. What is the difference in operational temperature between floating PV modules and overland PV modules?
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In Addition, you can find issues related to other aspects of this structure in my article titled " ".
I will be looking forward to hearing your thoughts.
BR - Hesam
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Hi all,
I am working now in the environmental and economic performance of solar cells, focusing in perovskite solar cells.
I am planning using PVGIS to predict the power output from the cell, but I wonder if they are best tools to do that.
Regards,
António Martins
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I did not use such software but I think it contains the required data to assess the output electrical energy from any PV system provided one has the standard test conditions of the solar panels, the variation of the conversion efficiency with irradiance and temperature. I see that researchers used this software to predict the generated electricity from the PV stations in different geographical locations on the earth. You need only to verify how far the predictions are close to the reality.
Best wishes
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1) what is the difference between solar cells and photovoltaics?
2) this is the same meaning, means why we are called a different name?
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Solar cell means one builds a battery cell using this device. The photovoltaic is a name which reflects the principle of operation of the device where the incident photons on such converter output an electric voltage or an electromotive force.
In the level of the basic converter one normally uses solar cells.
When one build an array one normally speaks of PV system or PV generator.
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Solar Paint technology:- Solar paint, also known as photovoltaic paint, is exactly what it sounds like! It’s a paint that you can apply to any surface that will capture energy from the sun and transform it into electricity. The paint would essentially be your average paint, but with billions of pieces of light-sensitive material suspended in it, material that would transform the typical paint into superpowered energy-capturing paint.
Present I am working on different technologies included in itself and how to develop the infancy to developed stages and what are the implementations and challenges are facing in the future.
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Dear Rajasekhar Reddy,
In my opinion, the photovoltaic painting technology, Solar Paint Technology based on the so-called Solar paint, also known as photovoltaic paint, is a revolutionary innovative solution. If it could be implemented on a large scale and popularized, then the buildings would be able to absorb sunlight through the side walls of buildings and convert solar energy into electricity. I wish you success in developing and implementing this technology. It can be an important element of the pro-environmental transformation of the energy sector and the development of green, sustainable agglomerations.
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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The Polygonal Trough Concentrators (PTC) are more suitable for Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) applications. Learn how to design the PTCs.
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Good Day.
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Photovoltaic (PV) solar panels are a known source of reflected polarised light, and as such can serve as ecological traps for insects that rely on laying their eggs in water, historically the main source of such polarised light on Earth and an environmental cue for these species to indicate breeding locations (e.g. Horvath et al. 2010). This effect is increasingly acknowledged in terrestrial ecosystems, but I am curious to learn more about whether this problem has also been investigated for floating solar PV farms on bodies of fresh water? If so, would insects still prefer to display and lay eggs on the solar panels, rather than on the water surface? What might be an acceptable upper limit to area coverage by floating solar PV infrastructure in water supporting rare or endangered insect species? And what might be done to address this problem, bearing in mind the distinctive needs of floating PV farms?
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The paper in this link treats the light polarization by uncoated and coated surfaces mimicking the solar cells surfaces and studies its effect on the its water insects: http://real.mtak.hu/49328/1/SzazD_etal_KriskaG_JIC_ms.pdf
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I am investigating an active photovoltaic material using time resolved photoluminescence measurements to find out the carrier lifetime of the material, and hence the diffusion length.
There are many PL peaks in it's spectrally resolved PL. Should I measure the lifetime using the band-to-band emission, or can I measure the lifetime of all the PL peaks (including defect-related PL emissions)?
What info does measuring the lifetime of a defect-related PL emission tell us?
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I would rather think more of transient absorption. The former is highly liable to surrounding medium and the crystal surface nature, while the later reflects only the occupancy of the ground state levels.
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(vid. attached images) The Isc and Voc are as expected, but the initial curve appears to show a decline as the voltage increases, which is characteristic of a high resistance and low FF, but suddenly the curve spikes just before the MPP and then, as normal, drops down the Voc. What is causing this spike?
I am using a Keithley 2420 SMU for a 4-wire IV characterisation. Illumination is by a tungsten lamp. Multiple PV cells have been tested. The cables have been changed. Both Kickstart and LabVIEW have been used to automate the SMU. Different manufacturers' PV ribbons have also been tested. None of these changes have had an effect and the kink in the curve persists.
Multiple cells of the same have been soldered type in series as well, since one module made up of nine series-connected cells provided by another researcher from a different laboratory does not exhibit this IV kink. We think this module was made from the same batch of PV cells but are not 100% sure; the manufacturer is definitely the same though. Nevertheless, the same cells soldered in series at our lab still exhibited the same kink in the IV curve.
Thank you
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Dear Alan,
Hope your are well!
Thank you for the word crocodile connector. The word crocodile is misspelled. I corrected it the text. Crocodile is a type of pressure contact similar to crocodile mouth. If you look at the pictures brought by Rajiv Daxini you can see such crocodile connectors.
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We have a variable load which is connected to a pv panel via a boost conveter. As depicted in the figure, the controller controls the output voltage, and doesn't grant mppt. What happens when the load changes from 8 to 16 ohms, supposedly. In direct connection of a load to a pv panel, we easily draw the I_V curve and load curves and determine the operation point. Can we do the same here?
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In a boost converter, the output voltage is always higher than the input voltage. A schematic of a boost power stage is shown in Figure 1. (a) When the switch is closed, current flows through the inductor in the clockwise direction and the inductor stores some energy by generating a magnetic field. Apparently, same applies to PC.
Kind Regards
Qamar Ul Islam
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I conducted a I-V curve to measure the Isc and Voc and try to put the data into origin to fitting the curve to find the n(ideality factor) but just cannot do that.
please show me the way to do so. 
already knew the equation from PVEduation.com please use other way
thanks 
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Dear Suman Miah ,
Thank you very much for the comment. In order to see how one determines the ideality factor experimentally please follow the paper:
This paper contains a complete experimental procedure to determine all SPICE parameters of the solar cell.
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I am trying to extract the single diode lumped parameters of an a-si/μc-Si PV module. To analyze them at a cell level, I have to know how the cells' interconnections are, but the datasheet does not provide that information. Here, the datasheet: https://www.energymatters.com.au/images/sharp/sharp-na-f128gk.pdf (SHARP Na-f128GK). Thanks a lot!
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welcome!
The number of cell in the tandem module is 180 cell. So, in order to get the the the characteristics of one cell you need only to scale the characteristics of the voltga eof the module by 180.
You will get the one cell I-V curve. Then you extract the parameters from this single characteristics.
The other method is to obtain the parameters of one cell from the whole tandem module assuming Ns= 180.
For more information please refer to the book chapter:
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Simulation of multijunction, bandgap grading, tunneling, fermi-level pinning, Voc-temp, Voc-illumination plots, AC simulation (nyquist plots etc), i-v Hysterisis in perovskite, Light soaking in thin films, impact of defects, solar cell device optimisation, Impurity photovolatics IPV (similar to intermediate band solar cell) and many more simulation demos for prospective publications point of view
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Dear Atul Kumar ,
If you find that your youtube is useful as a training materials for SCAPS- 1D then you can collaborate with the founders of such simulation software at Gent university to add it as a training material for the software as many researchers ask about an easy to understand tutorials.
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Simulations showed a 48% rise in #solar #energy accumulation by the #photovoltaic (#PV) panels within the same installation area when installed at a 16° inclined field.
Read more about the research we are doing at the Southern Institute of Technology:
"Optimizing the inclined field for solar photovoltaic arrays."
#solarpv #solarenergy #solarenergysystem #solarpanels #solarinstallation #appropriatetechnology #cleantech #renewableenergy #sustainability #solarnews #newzealand pv magazine Asia Solar PV Magazine NZAID New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade Auckland University of Technology NED University of Engineering and Technology
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Really it is a good research idea is to maximize the recieved solar radiation under with the minimum horizontal area. There are places where the land are not easily available. But in Egypt we do not have such constraints. We have extended Sahara around the Nile delta and valley.
But this can be argument against your study , since the reducing the field will also reduce the cost of cabling and installations.
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Normally solar cells are interconnected in series or parallel within a photovoltaic module. Is there a general rule of thumb for this? Does this depend on the technology: poly-Si, PERC, HIT, CPV, Thin-film, or is there another reason? Thank you very much in advance.
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In agreement with Dounia Chlyeh ,The series or parallel connection on the solar cell depends on the ratings of the load. It is defined by the load voltage and the load current. To increase the voltage one has has to increase the number of solar cells connected in series and then the current requirement is satisfied by connecting the series strings in parallel.
However to make the building of the PV generators is an easy and redundant process one divides the array into modules. The modules or panels have standard sizes that is ramped with time. from 80watt peak power up to 240 watt.
The voltage of the modules is matched to the commercial chemical batteries as 12V and 24V and 36V.So the factory deliver panels and the customer build his system according to the requirement of his loads.
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We intend to use a synthetic mineral dye for use in the dye-sensitized solar cell. But this color is not soluble in any solvent. What method do you suggest for absorbing this dye on the titanium dioxide layer?
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Consider also possibilities to synthetize the dye right on the surface where you want it. This can be surface of TiO2 particles in suspension, or a ready porous layer of titanium dioxide. For the latter ALD (atomic layer deposition) technology probably might be used, proponents of it often say that ALD can be used to make any layers.
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I am urgently looking for information on the amount [t] of waste from used photovoltaic panels and lithium batteries at the level of Poland, the EU and the world from 2019 with projections until 2050.
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recommendations will be highly appreciated
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I did not use this software but I may give you some tips helping you to advance in your research:
Search the literature of this specific application of the soft ware.
Make a physical model or your system and see whether the software is able to solve it or not.
If not then you can go for to build a behavioral model of the cooling system according to the experimental results given in the literature which means you have to build a relation between the the water spray per unit area, the water temperature and the the change in the temperature of the solar cell.
Then you can use your model to solve your problem.
You must know that this problem is a heat transfer problem.
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Hi,
I am working on the fabrication of perovskite solar cells. To improve their performance, I am trying to prepare doped perovskites. However, I am faced with the challenge to optimize the dopant concentration ratio ( mol%). Can anyone please shed light upon the following question?
1: What factors should be considered while deciding the concentration ratio of the additive for perovskites?
Thank you for your support.
Kind Regards,
Abdul Sattar Chaudry
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To start the optimization, initially you may consider few recent literatures to get an idea about a range of additive concentration. You may add particular amount of additives from a stock solution to a precursor solution of perovskite. For polymeric additives, the concentration may be required very less amount (0.1-1 mg/ml) and for small molecules it may be in the range of 1-10 mg/ml. So u can fabricate few opto-electronic devices (Photovoltaic/LEDs etc) and analyze the morphology of the perosvskite materials with wider range of additive concentration to select the optimum one with highest performance.
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In the computer modeling and simulation of floatovoltaic systems in marine environments or freshwater reservoirs, a floating PV photovoltaic array performance model and simulation need to characterize the FSPV or FPV irrigation reservoir water evaporation benefits in sustainability assessment for sustainable development energy projects. Quantifying evaporative water-saving is a key project viability metric in a techno-economic model for FPV hydropower hybrid performance models for hydroelectric facilities, or to estimate floating PV array operating temperature or floating PV module internal cell temperature changes in comparative studies for floating FPV and ground-mounted PV or GPV.
Computer estimation of evaporation from a water surface of a water basin or wastewater basin is often calculated in Matlab or Python through mathematical evaporation models, by using parameters such as solar radiation, air temperature, humidity, water temperature, wind velocity, etc. While various applications and modifications of the Penman method, Penman-Monteith equations or Priestley-Taylor evaporation rates are used to predict or determine evapotranspiration rates in various solar water pond cover configurations, and PV floater design types as a sustainability indicator.
However, most water surface modeling or reservoir evaporation methodologies seem to be based on average daily solar irradiation rates, meaning real-time simulation model predictions need to be adapted to account for more instantaneous hour-to-hour solar irradiation data model inputs, ambient temperature variations, wind variations, airmass, relative humidity, water temperature or weather prediction data obtained from remote sensing and weather prediction data.
In a recent publication (link below) on environmental impact assessment of floating solar PV, we propose a method to time-normalize the hourly predictions of floating solar PV evaporation rates in a water-energy-land-food nexus metric, but would like to know from researchers and scientists if literature is available to discuss other scientific data engineering options for hour-to-hour or even-minute-to-minute evaporation rate estimations on open water surfaces as a means to quantify the evaporation savings of an FPV prototype in a real-time simulation model:
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Excellent question flagged here. Would be eager to know more.
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Dear researchers
Can you please send examples of a technico-economical study of a photovoltaic project?
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Boukhalfa,
you can look at the photovoltaic simulation study:
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Photovoltaic cell
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Floating robots in the ocean oscillate hundreds of times between the surface and the deep ocean where pressure may exceed 60 MPa. It would be nice if we could recharge their batteries while floating at the surface, but what kind of solar cell might resist repeated excursions to such high pressures. If they do not exist, is there a photovoltaic research group interested to collaborate in a project to monitor the ocean environment by developing pressure resistant solar cells?
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Dear Dr. Guust Nolet ,
a solar panel is made up of many silicon solar cells that are all interconnected. While the panels themselves are very durable, the silicon solar cells are made of very thin wafers, usually around 0.20mm thick. Although they have some ability to flex, they can suffer from pressure/stress-induced cracks that are so small they are impossible to see with the naked eye. These are known as micro cracks and are one of the main sources of malfunctioning or even inactive cells. Micro cracks are nearly impossible to avoid and how your panels react to these cracks is very important.
For more details, please see the source:
-Can Solar Panels Break? By Positive Energy Solar (2017)
I suggest you also to have a look at the following paper:
-Effect of Pressing Pressure on the Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells
Lei Shi, Meng Zhang,Yongyoon Cho, Trevor L. Young, Dian Wang, Haimang Yi, Jincheol Kim, Shujuan Huang, and Anita W. Y. Ho-Baillie
ACS Applied Energy Materials, 2(4) (2019)
Available, as full text, on RG at: ttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/331884746_The_Effect_of_Pressing_Pressure_on_the_Performance_of_Perovskite_Solar_Cells
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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Anyone's can suggest me which optimization / estimation techniques is good for solar photovoltaic cells.
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You have three main parameters to maximize in order to maximize the power conversion efficiency PCE of the solar cell.
It is so that the PCE= Isc. Voc . FF/ Incident solar radiation AM1.5
So, as you see the three factors are the short circuit current Isc,
the open circuit voltage Voc and the fill factor.
On has to adjust the physical and the technological parameters of the solar cell to achieve the maximum of the three quantities.
One has to make the absorber thickness at least equal to the absorption depth of the highest radiation wavelength so d>= 1/alph(almbdamax)
where alpha is the absorption coefficient,
The thickness d must also made at the same tome less than the diffusion length of the minority carriers L; so, d<=L
One has to minimize the reverse situation current Is of the dark current to achieve the highest Voc such that:
Voc= nVt ln Isc/Is
Is is minimized by reducing the injection across the junction and the minority carrier life time through out the device.
In order to increase the fill factor one has to reduce the shunt resistance Rs and increase the shunt resistance Rsh.
In this way one gets the highest efficiency.
For more information about building the solar cell to achieve the highest efficiency please refer to the book chapter:
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Hello,
I am working on the fabrication of perovskite solar cells. I am interested to study charge carrier dynamics and recombination resistance. For that, I need to perform EIS of perovskite films. Please suggest any standard electrolyte for EIS of perovskite films. Thank you!
Kid Regards,
Abdul Sattar
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one of the most used electrolyte is I−/I3 − . Please for more details please follow the paper in the link:file:///C:/Users/Dell/Downloads/materials-12-01998.pdf
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It is generally known that a higher surface recombination velocity (SRV) tends to lower the device performance (e.g. Voc) due to a higher recombination at the metal and semiconductor interface. However, how SRV at extreme low cases (e.g. SRV << 10 cm/s) affect the schottky junction in terms of transport? If there are any publications have study the impact of SRV (esepcially at an extreme low SRV) on MS solar cells transport (e.g. FF) ?
I have previously using Silvaco TCAD simulating the Metal-Si junction solar cell to study how work function and SRV effect on device performance. The main transport mechanism at the interface is using schottky thermonic emission model. I find that Voc tends to increases when SRV decreases at all workfunction as I expected, however there is an optmized point of FF interms of SRV as illustrated in the figures. The optimized point of FF is due to a change in the shape of light IV characteristics when SRV is 100cm/S below and finally leading to an s-kirk in the IV at extreme low SRV <=1 cm/S. I have concerns if the model is valid or if such extreme low SRV is physcially existing?
Most of publications studying SRV impact is foucsing its impact on Voc and usually fall in the range of 1E2-1E7 cm/s. I am particular interesting in SRV impact on MS interface. Can anyone suggest any publications, if any, regarding to my questions.
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Dear Chenjin Lu ,
While reviewing my answer of your question and after gaining more insight in the operation of solar cells, I came to an other factor which may affect the performance of the solar cells because of the recombination at the interface between the metal and semicondcutor.
It is so that the photo generated electrons and holes will be separated and collected by the built in electric field in the junction space charge region. If there are recombination centers at the interface they will cause the recombination of electrons and holes inside this region. This effect will be more pronounced when the interface recombination centers increase and the electric field decrease. So, this effect is basically nonlinear. In sense the collected photocurrent will decrease by more forward biasing of the junction.
I analyzed this effect in details in the paper at the link:
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I have calculated the J-V characteristics of the materials but little bit confused about Explanation. Can anyone guide me on this while the voltages are zero and the J-V curve show some +ve current value?
Thanks in advance for your valuable suggestion and precious time
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this results means contacts might not be exactly
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Hi everyone,
I am looking for an expert in simulation of thin film solar cells by SCAPS-1D software. I am interested in investigating the potential photovoltaic performance of ZnSe/PbSe junctions for simple junction-based thin film solar cells. In particular, I want to study the system ITO/ZnSe/PbSe/Ag under diferent conditions. I can provide all the necessary optoelectronic parameters of the cell components for simulations.
I would like to collaborate with an expert in this field, offering a potential publication in a high impact journal. For more details, please contact me by this medium or e-mail (sroadaz8@gmail.com).
Kind regards,
Simón Roa.
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Dear Simon Roa ,
Welcome,
You can cooperate with Dr. Walaa Abdelaziz. She is my coworker and she applied the SCAPS-1D to solve organic solar cells.
Please see the papers in the links:
She is a member of the researchgate and you can message her. I will notify her to reply you on the research gate.
Best wishes
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The attached pfd file has been created with 16.0.1 (6018) version which I do not have access to.
I would appreciate it if someone with the PowerFactory v16.0.1 or newer could import the attached pfd file and export it to an older version (v15.1.7 or older).
Thanks
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I have the same version that you have
The person must have a newer version
I'm so sorry
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Hello
I want to simulate a solar (thermal or photovoltaic thermal) power plant in TRNsys. My goal is to evaluate using nanofluid instead of water in solar panels as coolants. Considering nanoparticles improve the efficiency of power plant by increasing thermal conductivity (TC) of base fluid.
My problem is that none of solar panel composites in TRNsys don't include TC as a parameter, so I can't calculate the increased efficiency by different thermal conductivity of fluids.
I saw a lot of researches in this subject which have been done by TRNsys, but I don't know how they impacted TC of fluid in the simulation.
Here are two examples of the papers that I mentioned:
Thanks a lot for your help!
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Hi, This paper may help you:
An approach to the simulation of PCMs in building applications using TRNSYS
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Hi Everyone,
Hope you are doing well. I am trying to fabricate perovskite solar cells based on nip configuration structure. After patterning FTO Glass slides with Zn and 2M HCL, I am using heat-resistant Kapton tape to mask the targeted areas shown in the figure attached to spin coat subsequent layers. I have the following questions related to the fabrication process:
1: Does Kapton tape adhesive deposited on FTO and Etched side effect charge carrier collection and transportation to the contacts?
2: If yes, how can I remove the adhesive residue of Kapton tape without damaging the perovskite absorber layer?
3: Is there any other way to prevent the deposition of layers on bare FTO and etched surfaces?
Thank you for your time. I really appreciate your help!
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It is so that it is required to keep all solar cell layers free from contamination. So, when pulling up the Kapton tape some adhesive residual must remains sticking on the surface. These residuals must be completely eliminated by selective chemical etching. In the sense you have to use selective etching materials for the adhesive residuals only.
It you could not find any selective etching solution then you have to use other method.
For example you can deposit your layer on the whole surface and then remove the unwanted areas of the intended layer by a photolithographic and selective etching step. Such step is used routinely in the fabrication of integrated circuits and electron devices.
My answer is a conceptual answer that may guide you to solve your problem.
best wishes
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Hello,
Please can you tell me about the design "CDA02-1000V". In this design it uses resistor divider network but the actual design consists of 4 resistors in series and parallel and in the image it is different. Resistor R27 and R28, i do not know how the connection is but i think it is connected with Capacitors (C6 and C9 in parallel). I have attached the design and image below. Please can you share some insights or guide me because i am trying to scale down 1000 V to +-2.5V for photovoltaic application, so please can you have a check ?
Regards,
Kunal
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Hello Mihai, first of all thank you for the solution.
I have kept R12 and R13 values as it is in the datasheet.
I am using (+-)5 volts for TLO32, so the output is scaled to (+-)2.5V (According to TLO32 datasheet) and not 10 V. I am trying with trial and error method for resistors 27, 28. Please can you help me with this resistor values?
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Hello,
we are searching for publications on the occurrence of European nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus) in solar parcs. Does the species breed and/or feed there? How do the photovoltaic modules affect the occurrence of the species?
Thank you for your replies.
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In the following metastudy (in german) it is stated for one area (Turnow-Prellack) that European nightjar was recorded breeding in the border areas of the solarpark. The circumference and the adjacent pine forests were used in an intensity four to eight times higher than the inner zone of the parc by hoopoe, wood lark, wheatear, tawny pipit, great grey shrike and nightjar
If you have more information on that topic, please let me know.
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Dear researchers,
Kindly, The term "reverse saturation current" is confusing in photovoltaics since solar cells almost never operate in reverse bias and rarely in the dark. So why it's called reverse saturation current?
Thanks
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