Science topic

Photosynthesis - Science topic

The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
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What are the direct and immediate effects of climate change on plants photosynthesis and growth?
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The following link is also very useful RG link:
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I cannot find any references in the scientific literature that report what the most common plant is. Does anyone have any sources? Does anyone know which plant is responsible for the most photosynthesis overall?
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It's the coccolithaphore Emiliania huxleyi:
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Light (PAR) is necessary for photosynthesis. But how to calculate the minimum amount of sunlight necessary for the expected growth of a crop( no crop loss ) and beyond this PAR the plant is considered to be subjected to low light stress?
Is there any paper of systematic protocol?
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To optimise most plant growth it is recommended that they receive 500–1000 µmols of PAR light for every m² (PPFD). Less than this and growth rates will be low :)
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I have plenty of data from leaves, but is there a way to calculate their photosynthesis rate?
I count with:
  • Leaf temperature
  • Leaf VPD
  • Stomatal conductance and density (stomata/cm2) and their % aperture
  • RH & Temperature from the environment
  • Irradiation from the sun (W/m2)
  • PAR Light
I know that the best way to obtain photosynthesis rate is with a enclosed chamber and measure the decrease of CO2, but is there a way to calculate it with some of the data that I already have?
I have been searching for a mathematical model or any kind of coupled equations, but I haven't found any info.
Thanks in advance.
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photosynthesis depends on the light energy captured by the chlorophyll pigments, this green light is made up of three Green-Red and Blue bands.can infiltration of light energy damage cells to cause leaf senescence?
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Senescence is the final stage of plant development and is characterized by a series of programmed disassembly and degenerative events. As leaves age, chloroplast degeneration is initiated, paralleled by catabolism of macromolecules, including nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. The released nutrients are exported to other developing organs, such as new buds, young leaves, flowers or seeds, which leads to increased reproductive success.
However, during photosynthesis, excess natural or artificial light can cause photo-oxidative damage to chloroplasts. It has been shown that chlorophagy, the intracellular destruction of chloroplasts, is induced by exposure to UV-B irradiation (280–315 nm) and high light. Researchers have also demonstrated that entire photo-damaged chloroplasts are transported to the plant cell vacuole for destruction.
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I'm trying to figure out how to measure chlorophyll/unit leaf area and photosynthesis/unit chlorophyll, and I have DMSO and SPAD chlorophyll data. If you have any suggestions, please let me know.
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i sorry i am not measure chlorophyll in the leaf but i measured
chlorophyll/unit photosynthesis/unit chlorophyll, in coral reef only
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Hi everyone
I need some good papers which can explain the above-asked question. I need to know what exactly LRCs tell about the photosynthesis in plants which is not covered by chlorophyll fluorescence alone. If anyone can explain in simple words (with some references), it would be highly appreciable.
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Light response curves can be based on either gas exchange or chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (including ETR and NPQ). In LRCs, we analyze a photosynthetic parameter relative to light intensity instead of time. This allows us to understand the dynamics of the photosynthetic apparatus relative to light intensity and understand such things as optimal light intensities, define light limiting environments, and more.
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I am not ruling out that answers are already in some published papers.
Could you please give more references?
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With the data of each variables, PCA can give good results
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The percentage of light used by plants durning photosynthesis.
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when I was a student, we were taught that it was about 1%
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Hello,
In addition to transpiration and assimilation, which physiological, anatomical or morphological traits you think could have significant impact on water use efficiency in plants?
Moreover which WUE assessment technique you find to be the most robust and representative?
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Stomata are pore spaces that allow for the exchange of gases and water. Is it possible to increase stomatal density to help in photosynthesis?
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Stomatal parts are the ones through where the photosynthesis gas for exchange passes, and defintely if the density of the stomata bodies/pores increase per given area of leaf, then there will be an increase on photosynthesis.
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Does quantum coherence relate to one particle?
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Despite having the same roots of origin, namely quantum superposition, coherence and entanglement are conceptually different.
For example, coherence can be present in single quantum systems, where entanglement is not well-defined. Entanglement shows a correlation between the pais of photons where changing the spin of one of them will affect their pair photon in a predictible way no matter the how far apart they are, Einsten call this: "spooky action at the distance"
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To construct an theoretical framework to balance cost of carbon gain at the expense of water, it was interpreted that Michaelis constant plays crucial role in developing model. However, there are numbers of publications just described this parameters in one line with no complete description which is confusing for followers. Please me to help get out of this confusion with suggestions and answers.
Thanks in advance
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Hello. I've been working on photosynthesis pigment content in in vitro grown trees and was examining the formulas for determining the concentration of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids based on absorbance, i.e. using a spectrophotometer. I've found various formulas, and even though they all share the same general design: concentration=coefficient1*adsorbance1-coeficeint2*adsorbance2, the coefficients differ among sources. I was curious as to the reason behind this. Is it due to the use of different equipment, i.e. every spectrophotometer is different, or something else? I'm new to this field, thus any help, directions to relevant introductory literature, articles, would be great.
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Philipp Girr Thanks, you made my day.
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If anyone have a link for a reliable tools to measure the photosynthesis parameters in bug trees
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Also, kindly check:
Emerging approaches to measure photosynthesis from the leaf to the ecosystem:
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Trees have different effects on the climate directly or indirectly. These effects emanate from trees’ reactions to varying climate-related factors. Factors such as greenhouse gases emission, production and emission of aerosols, albedo (whiteness), carbon and nitrogen deposition, transpiration and photosynthesis can affect the speed of climate change.
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Pollution (addition of gases into the air from human activities, such as carbon dioxide) is the main cause of climate change today.
Trees absorb some of the CO2 from the air, but people have been cutting down trees for all kinds of reasons, such as building roads, houses, etc. Therefore, unless you plant more trees and some are doing that, the CO2 builds up in the atmosphere and has the tendency to absorb heat that is being sent back into space. Instead of going to space this (outgoing) heat stays in the air and warms up the air (global warming).
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I am working on photosynthesis mechanisms on a new alga strain that has no previous studies and want to separate a special LHC under a specific light enviornment. At first, I want to compare the protein on the thylakoid membrane of this strain with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by SDS-PAGE, therefore to determine the specific protein of each band. However, I found this is not accurate unless I undertake immunoblotting steps further. If I use BN-PAGE to separate complex first and to compare the result with C. reinhardtii, is it possible for me to determine these complexes on the thylakoid membrane and find the special LHC by following 2D-PAGE electrophoresis?
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Electrophoresis results are at best semi-quantitative. Starting with loading errors and gel-to-gel variability, there are many things that can go wrong. As with all dye-binding assays, colour yield depends on protein. If you have standards (in the same gel!), you'd at least get an idea what the error margins are.
If the staining is not too strong (in the linear range of the densitometer), you could scan the gels and integrate the peaks. Laser-based densitometers are better at this than simple scanners, because of a larger linear range (up to 4 AU). Even better results may come from fluorescent dyes like RuBPS and fluorescent scanners, simply because fluorescence starts from zero, whilst in absorbance you measure the small difference of two large numbers.
You could also cut out the bands, elute the bound dye and determine that photometrically.
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I am working on a synthetic biology project in which I am redesigning the pathways in photosynthesis of Synechococcus elongatus to become more efficient, evaluated by increase in biomass. We want to computationally model this in R but we are struggling to find packages that can help us with this. I've looked at deSolve::aquaphy which models C and N assimilation but photosynthesis rate is an input and we want to model this also.
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Hello,
I am looking for a model that corresponds to the photosynthesis of a plant (with the physiological signal). Please, does anyone have a clue ?
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Pepito Payet , You may refer to this reference which may be helpful to you.The reference is in the attachment.
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micro plastic contamination will reduce sunlight penetration and affect the photosynthesis activities and other impact. do have any report or case studies in this regard
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Hello all,
I am trying to do photosynthetic response curves at different leaf temperatures in Montreal trees. The goal is to measure from 25 to 40˚C using a Licor 6400XT. When I increase the temperature, the block can achieve until 38˚C, but the leaf temperature never exceeds ~31-32˚C. In many articles I see curves until 40˚C, can someone recommend me a technic to increase the leaf temperature or how to exceed 31˚C in the leaf temperature.
Thanks so much!
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Hi Johanna
Leaf temperature usually depends on both air temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Increasing air VPD with a good watering will lead to lower leaf temperature compared to air. It also depends on the boundary layer, but as Licor leaf chamber has a mixing fan it will blow away the boundary layer which leads to decrease in leaf temperature. If the mixing fan can be turned off, then do it first.
Then try to decrease VPD by increasing humidity of the chamber by controlling air flow rate, or of it has a humidity control, then use it.
These two methods can increase leaf temperature to a higher level. Increasing light intensity also can lead to temperature increase, but use sunlight if you can, as its wavelength temperature is significantly higher than Licor's light.
If you couldn't reach higher levels you have to give a water stress to the plant so that it decrease the transpiration rate.
All of these will finally lead to significant damage to the photosynthetic apparatus (when temperature increases above ~37 (depending on the species), so you can't hold it for long. Attached photo shows what happens to the leaf when it is kept in high temperature for too long (thermal degradation of chlorophyll), which I experienced in a branch enclosure system.
Hope it helps
Ehsan
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Light is inevitable for the process of photosynthesis reaction. Naturally sunlight plays the vital role for this process. Light may be of different colours like white, red, yellow, blue etc. However, is the rate of photosynthesis depend on different colour?
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Dear Dr Azad,
There are a few more aspects if I look at the answers given. Not all wavelengths are absorbed with the same efficiency. Green light is in this respect the least efficient. Several scientists have proposed that due to this inefficiency green light can penetrate deeper in a leaf and drive photosynthesis there. At the same time blue light is known to be absorbed by phototropins that can drive chloroplast movements and thereby affect the light absorption profile of a leaf on a minutes time scale. Red light does not do this. Phytochromes that are sensitive to red and far-red light are known to affect plant morphogenesis, etc. In other words, your question depends on the time scale considered.
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Does the shade of green in plants affect the rate of sunlight needed for survival. Can deeper green shaded plant tolerate more lowlight.
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Light, its intensity and quality, are factors that affect the concentration of different chlorophylls, especially the ratio of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b. Plants that get abundant sunlight have less overall chlorophyll concentration and higher amounts of chlorophyll a than chlorophyll b. Plants that grow under shade, like those in densely forested areas, have a high overall chlorophyll concentration, but have more chlorophyll b than chlorophyll a.
Hybrid plants of maize, pearl millets and sorghum have more tolerance to shading stress (due to increased plant density) than those of open-pollinated varieties.
Under similar growing conditions, I did never emprically observe any difference in color intensity of leaves of hybrid and open-pollinated varieties of these crops. Therefore, dark green leaves appear to be a consequence of shading effect. I agree with J.D. Franco-Navarro and Francisca Higueras-Fredes
Best wishes, AKC
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I am working with photosynthesis, and I wanted jobs to compare my data, in periphyton communities the values are expressed in different ways, does anyone know any work in µmol O2 µg chl-a -1 h-1?
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Are you looking for photosynthetic ability of periphyton microbes..??. If so , , why not to compare with rhzisosphere microbes as well...
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Hi all,
we are looking to buy a photosynthesis meter that can potentially measure photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, CO2 assimilation, PS1 and PSII efficiency (if possible), etc. it would be great if the experts in the field can give their opinion that will save our time and money. please drop a link if you know about something.
Thanks
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فتوسنتزمتر
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Do iron salts increase photosynthesis, or do they increase the size of chloroplasts, or cytochromes when iron is sufficient? In other words, is greening-up functional or structural under these conditions?
There is plenty of research showing how iron deficient plants will "green up" when Fe2+ is applied, usually attributed to increased photosynthesis. Unfortunately, iron is typically over-applied to golf course greens entirely for aesthetic purposes. As a result, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Si, W, and Zn are antagonized, increasing susceptibility to disease, followed by over-application of pesticides.
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I agree with omar
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As it is not directly my field, I would like to ask for help in terms of the correlation between light intensity, wavelength, frequency and amplitude.
Let's say, I have a radiophotometer which measures the light intensity of 3 different light source with different wavelengths (blue, green, red). They are all set to 100 umol m-2 s-1 photon flux.
I am using these conditions to algae culturing.
My question is the following;
if blue light has shorter wavelength, higher frequency, therefore higher energy than red light, although intensity is set to equal (100 umol m-2 s-1),
Is it fair to assume that I am exposing my algae to higher energy for photosynthesis when I use blue light?
I hope my question is understandable,
Thank you very much for the responses in advance.
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Although red, green and blue quanta have different energies (different frequency), photosynthesis is driven by the number of quanta (within the visible spectrum which is approximately the PAR spectrum), not by their energy. Thus 100 uM of red quanta = 100 uM blue quanta.
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I am planning to buy a Photosynthesis System. Can you recommend me which instrument is the best?
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CID Photosynthesis System
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If we are serious about feeding the world's growing population, and to grant food security for the next generations, we must think about boosting food production without ruining our planet.
One of the avenues being recently explored is the improvement of photosynthetic capacity by installing the C4 photosynthetic pathway into C3 crops.
By increasing the photosynthetic capacity, crops with an enhanced photosynthetic mechanism would better utilize the solar radiation that can be translated into yield.
I want to know how can we insert a C4 photosynthetic pathway into C3 ? And what are the disadvantages of this technique !?
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Thank you all for your helpful answers.
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Hello, I hope somebody could help in clarifying this point.
I am following an experiment on young olive plants in southern Italy, and I will take chlorophyll fluorescence measurements using a Fluorpen (PSI).
I will use the OJIP protocol and I am in the process of setting the saturating light intensity: I understand that in order to obtain proper Fmax measurements in dark adapted samples, one should make sure that the intensity of the initial flash of high intensity light is strong enough to temporarily close all Reaction Centers.
My questions is: which is the procedure to find the saturating light intensity ?
I already performed a series of OJIP measurements setting the light intensity from 300 to 3000 micromoles of PAR but it is not clear for me which value I should choose.
According to the Fluorpen instruction manual, one should choose the light intensity which results in the maximum Fv/Fmax ratio.
In my case this occurs at 1200 micromoles of PAR, while this ratio decreases at higher sat pulse intensities.
I also found a different suggestion in a recent review by M. Tsimilli-Michael (Revisiting JIP-test, Photosynthetic 57, 90.107, 2019): to test different light intensities (I) and to select the value for which Fpeak/I gets saturated. In my case this ratio reaches a peak at 1200 micro moles of PAR after which it starts decreasing, but I cannot see it reaching a steady value.
Am I following the right procedure ? Actually, I am not sure that 1200 micro moles could actually be a strong enough light to close all RCs in olive plants, since the “midday" PAR intensity can be over 2000 in this season.
I am looking forward to reading your comments.
Thank you
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Dear Stefano,
On the one hand, the manufacturer should provide the PAR value emitted by the diode. On the other hand, you can visit colleague at the nearest physics / optics department and ask for an exact measurement for your instrument. You can also try to measure with an ordinary PAR meter, although the measurement will be probably burdened with a significant error. Either way, if you measure a value above 3000 everything is ok.
Plants have evolved in sunlight (~2000 PAR), so 3000 and more are likely to saturate the photosynthetic apparatus.
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I have an experiment in which I want to estimate the photosynthetic activity and carbon dioxide flux of wheat plant. However, in my institute does not have potable photosynthesis equipment. Is there any institute in Northern India from where I can hire this device on a payment basis. The device will be needed on a thirty days interval for six months. Is there any institutes which provide this facility?
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Many Icfre institutions also have PP systems. You may contact them for more info.
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Will the plant become poisonous when increased in reception of cosmic rays?
The plant's food is converted into photosynthesis
Through this process, excess radiation is received, which intends to convert it into toxic substances
These substances affect a person if he consumes the plant and results in cancers and other diseases
The affected areas are the mountainous and northern regions
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In order for cosmic rays to arrive at the surface of the earth, you have to get rid of the solar wind (which blocks cosmic rays) something not likely to happen.
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I am interested in locating nutrients important for photosynthesis. How can I locate them in lemongrass leaf using SEM or some other protocol.
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Plants utilize light as a source of information in photomorphogenesis and of free energy in photosynthesis, two processes that are interrelated in that the former serves to increase the efficiency with which plants can perform the latter. Only one pigment involved in photomorphogenesis has been identified unequivocally, namely phytochrome. The thrust of this proposal is to investigate this pigment and its mode(s) of action in photosynthetically competent plants. Our long term objective is to characterize phytochrome and its functions in photosynthetically competent plants from molecular, biochemical and cellular perspectives. It is anticipated that others will continue to contribute indirectly to these efforts at the physiological level. The ultimate goal will be to develop this information from a comparative perspective in order to learn whether the different phytochromes have significantly different physicochemical properties, whether they fulfill independent functions and if so what these different functions are, and how each of the different phytochromes acts at primary molecular and cellular levels.
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I am interested in locating nutrients important for photosynthesis. How can I locate them in lemongrass leaf using SEM or some other protocol.
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Dear Riya Mehrotra,
Hi, SEM is often used to view the surface characteristics and properties of organs. You must use TEM to view intracellular organelles.
Best regards,
Saeed
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Hello all,
Wish to know the detail working of a plant photosynthesis meter (infrared gas analyser) with special reference to
1. Controls that are used for analysis
2. Time of Measurements of photosynthesis i.e. before placing the leaf and after placing the leaf (stability check)
3. Analysis of the data obtained.
Request for these with special reference to the IRGA CIRAS3.
Thanks,
Balasubramanya Sharma
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Thank you for the response. Yes, we are using a CO2 cartridge and it helps. We do not have a LED light source and hence this was the main reason for the variation. We are in the process of procuring the light source.
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What are the current advances in techniques of remote sensing for either photosynthesis or gas exchange evaluations? What are the most promising systems? Any relevant aspect that differentiates the methods applied for a local and global scale will be very welcome.
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Recent findings in my lab showed that optical sensors measuring chlorophyl concentration give better results relative to indices such as NDVI. Chlorphyl concentration measurmements were comparable to fAPAR ( Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation) measurements.
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Hello everyone,
I have been googling quite a bit but without much success but I would say someone had to have the same problem before. What I am doing is pretty much proteome-wide (translated CDS) alignments of >60 species, many of them non-model ones, to identify changes in coding regions possibly related to different photosynthesis strategies. Of course I have a list of "favourite" genes the, alignments of whic I can check manually. But I want to compare in a more non-target way to hopefully find some new genes we have not been considering as relevant so far. How can I proceed to identify such cases, e.g. new domains or amino acid substitutions occurring in a subset of species in a mremore automated way?
Is there a tool doing exactly that? Or a way to achieve this with a script (in the best case with R)?
Thank you for your suggestions.
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What is you actually want to do?
Because in your question it seems you want to do a lot of things which does not seem to be done as one thing.
1. How to identify differences across a big number of long protein alignments?
>> Do you mean difference within one alignment (single protein), or differences across different alignments (several proteins)?
2. You are also thinking about finding new genes, that is a bit different approach.
If you can enlist exacly what you want to do, it would be easier to answer.
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I will be cryo-fixing a variety of plant species (woody eudicots) for ultrastructure studies via transmission electron microscopy. Previously, I have used standard chemical fixation techniques, which have not provided optimal morphology preservation. Given that cryo-fixation may be better suited for preservation and eliminating artifacts, I am interested in maximizing leaf sucrose content (sucrose serves as a cryo-protectant) in order to minimize crystal formation.
In the past, my lab has left plants in our dark room overnight (16 hours) to allow for starch degradation. My thought is that degradation of starch for chemical fixation is ideal, as starch decreases fixation penetration efficiency and time. In the context of cryo-fixing, I would guess that maximizing starch content is ideal as this will allow for faster freezing.
Any thoughts or suggestions on minimizing artifacts with cryo-fixing plant tissues would be greatly appreciated!
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Dear Sirs, if you agree with a contribution on this forum you can show your appreciation by recommending an answer or a question.
Now please stop diluting actual information with your spam answers.
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Main aim is to make Egyptian rice consume less water as it is a plant that requires to be flooded in water in order for the C3 photosynthesis to start. This proposal is for college and it aims to solve the water scarcity problem in Egypt and its effect on agriculture and limiting the water demanding crops such as Rice. Feel free to provide me with any thoughts, advice, sources, or genome editing tools.
thanks
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No. Maybe uplland rices resistance to Pyricularia leaf blight. But on soybeans I know many geens to target. Sorry.
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Please I need How Can I make the determinations?
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Dear Yoslen
Chlorophyll mainly determines the photosynthetic rate and primary productivity in plant. Chlorophyll content will be changed with the change of external environment, which could further lead to the photosynthetic capacity change. Therefore, chlorophyll content could be used as an important diagnostic indicator for plant growth study. The assessments of chlorophyll contents are based on the extraction of chlorophyll with solvents from the destructive leaf followed by spectrophotometric determination.
Li, Y., Sun, Y., Jiang, J. et al. Spectroscopic determination of leaf chlorophyll content and color for genetic selection on Sassafras tzumu. Plant Methods 15, 73 (2019).
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Using a Horiba FluoroMax - just getting going on this procedure for the first time and can't find any explicitly clear literature online.
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Some statements in Literature (Jennings et al., 2005; 2006; 2007) suggest the possibility that the second law of thermodynamics might stand in contradiction to the primary photochemistry of plants. Such an opinion seems to be rather challenging, if not to say wrong.
The necessary rise of the overall entropy when a plant grows is correlated with dissipation of energy into the environment. If a system absorbs photons and then relaxes to a final state emitting more photons than previously absorbed (in particular the production of phonons or any bosons fullfills the necessary increase of entropy) then the final state can be of lower entropy than the initial state in full accordance to the second law of thermodynamics because the environment has taken up entropy. I am currently searching for a quantitative analysis of this problem.I know (Lavergne, 2006) however the final discussion does not seem to be completely finished.
Jennings R.C., Engelmann E., Garlaschi F., Casazza A.P., Zucchelli G. Photosynthesis and negative entropy production, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2005, Vol. 1709, p. 251.
Jennings R.C., Casazza A.P., Belgio E., Garlaschi F.M., Zucchelli G. Reply to commentary on: Photosynthesis and negative entropy production, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2006, Vol. 1757, p. 1460.
Jennings R.C., Belgio E., Casazza A.P.,Garlaschi F.M., Zucchelli G. Entropy consumption in primary photosynthesis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2007, Vol. 1767, p. 1194 Lavergne J. Commentary on: Photosynthesis and negative entropy production by Jennings and coworkers, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2006, Vol. 1757, p. 1453.
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Pleas read the paper " Photosystem I, when excited in the chlorophyll Q y absorption band, feeds on negative entropy
  • December 2017
  • Biophysical Chemistry 233
  • It is a clear, though limited, case of entropy consumption.
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Hi,
I am looking for a list of plants that utilize CAM photosynthesis. I have been searching but seems like I am missing something, anyone came across this? perhaps a document?
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Could you please look at this website:
Best regards,
Quynh Nguyen
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I am using FluorPen FP 100 (PSI, CZ) for measuring OJIP transients of various Panicum antidotale grass accession collected from various locations to assess their potential for drought tolerance. Of various JIP-test parameters, computed parameters are Phi_Pav, Pi_Abs. I assume that these two parameters are related with performance index. However, on our manuscript the reviewer commented that you have to take measurements two times for the calculations of performance index which is most suitable. 
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Hy dear Habib Athar
you can use of this article and words that i sent for you.
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In several research papers including review articles, it has been mentioned that under non-stressed or optimum growth conditions, the Fv/Fm of PSII should be in the range of 0.81-0.83 and stress conditions might reduce the value. However, elevated [CO2] generally stimulates photosynthesis and growth of C3 plants when nitrogen supply is not limited and air temperature is within the optimum range for growth. Can Fv/Fm also increase beyond 0.83 in that case (High CO2 & N under optimum temperature) especially when taken early in the morning (8 - 11 am) after 20 min dark-adaption?
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Thank you.
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I need structural differences as well as functional differences for the three types of photosynthetic plants and how they carry out photosynthesis
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Hi
In the attached article, you can get some good information on comparing photosynthesis of C3, C4 and CAM plants.
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It is known that water in the hydrogel is bound.
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If the size of a small water system (confinement) coincides with that of a semiconductor, then the photocatalytic decomposition of water is enhanced. Quantum entanglement seems to be happening. This is the subject of our patent application.
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The increase in plant biomass during feeding depends on the intensity of chlorophyll photosynthesis, and the NDVI is too coarse for this index - it poorly follows the high chlorophyll content and gives “duplicate” -identical values for different spectra (15-26% on wheat crops)
What alternative NDVI more accurate indices (photosynthesis rate-chlorophyll concentration) were found?
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In our region (drylands), we found that the results of the MSAVI2 and GDVI indices are working better than the NDVI.
Good luck and best regards.
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Hi all
I am meeting a problem of measuring light response curve with Licor LI-6400XT. When everything is ready, the leaf temperature (Tleaf) displayed in LPL screen goes up to around 70℃ as the lamp (LED source) is turned on, but will go down to room temperature (around 20℃) as the lamp is turned off. The Tblock and Tair remain at room temperature no matter the lamp is turned on or off. Has anyone of you met the similar problem or had any possible solutions?
Thank you in advance.
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We had a similar problem. We ended up having a tiny break in the thermocouple wire which was used to measure leaf temperature. We ended up swapping it out and the problem was fixed right away. But Joshua is right, contact support, they will know exactly what to do
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Troposphere sphere contains 99℅ (by weight) of the total atmosphere. CO2 is water soluble and continuously washed during rain. Some CO2 is also get dissolved in surface water. A big percentage is trapped during photosynthesis. Still we blamed CO2 for global warming and climate change?
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Hello dear ,
I think that is troposphere
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I read in a book Environmental Chemistry that" in anoxic region of water bodies , some bacteria use sulfate ion as an electron receptor where as other bacteria reduce iron(III) to iron (II). These two products react to give a black later of iron (II) sulfide sediment. This frequently occurs during winter, alternating with production of calcium carbonate by product from photosynthesis during the summer. "
Can anyone help me understand why this phenomena occurs during summer and winter??
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Dear Samiksha,
during winter months when the water column is oxic, Fe oxide reduction only occurs in the strongly reducing sediment column. Reduced Fe(II) diffuses to the sediment-water interface where it is immediately oxidized to Fe oxide. As a result, there is no buildup of dissolved Fe in the water column during winter. In early summer the lake becomes thermally stratified. As summer progresses, oxygen is consumed by biological processes and the bottom waters become anoxic. Reductive dissolution of Fe oxide continues to occur in the sediments. Fe(II) diffuses into the anoxic bottom water and is oxidized at the oxycline forming a peak in particulate Fe in the water column. Below the oxycline, where the water is strongly reducing, dissolved Fe(II) is stabilized and its concentration increases with time. In early winter, mixing processes re-oxygenate the entire water column and Fe(II) is rapidly oxidized and precipitated.
After creating an account (free), you can read the article for free.
With best regards,
Johannes
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Several studies on the mechanisms of acclimation in C3, C4 and CAM plants to global changes such as temperature and CO2 level fluctuations are extensively discussed. There is no distinct separation on the reported effects between the three pathways due to the involvement of many factors when studying climate change and the distribution of species in biomes of varied climate patterns; lack of data and understanding of the concepts in climate change is often cited by researchers. Though if we were to generalize a specific pathway of photosynthesis as being the most positively associated with climate change, which pathway should be considered?
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With rise in temperature the productivity of C4 plants would increase, while those of C3 plants would decrease due to increase in rate of 'photorespiration'. Thus plants with C4 pathway of photosynthesis would be benefited from climate change.
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I want to measure photosynthesis rate of a wheat ear by IRGA. Which is the most suitable chamber for it? Since its 3 dimensional, how will the area of ear be taken care of
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Some more alternatives below. I have used a custom-made solution for measuring gas exchange in shoot apex in cucumber and tomato plants. Maybe relevant! Good luck!
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I grew Podocarpus seedlings at elevated temperatures for 16 weeks after which I ran temperature response curves using a Licor 6400 IRGA.
The optimum temperature for photosynthesis remained roughly the same for heat acclimated and none-heat acclimated plants, however, max photosynthesis decreased in the heat acclimated plants. The graph is attached!
Does anyone have an explanation for this?
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Besides other parameters mentioned by Kathryn, did you look at stomatal density?
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I've run multiple RLC's (6 reps for each of; 3 seagrass species, 5 time periods and 6 treatments). I'm am looking for a R script that can pull out the slope, ETRmax and saturating irradiance parameters.
Thank you for your help.
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Hi, here is R code for building a loop which fits a light curve model (Platt et al. 1980) to the data, extracts the coefficients into a data frame and plots the results into tiff files (one file for each fitted curve) using "phytotools" package mentioned above. This is largely based on the code examples provided by the authors of the phytotools package. One should be able to fit the other models in the package also by modifying the plot and fitting sections of the script (model equations I think are specified in phytotools documentation). This is a bit late answer but I'll upload it in any case if someone still finds this useful.
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In general nature Escherichia coli bacteria does not contain any gene which can perform photosynthesis. whether it can develop the capability of photosynthesis after the artificial addition of photosynthesis gene from the plants to the bacteria.
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Is there a "photosynthesis gene" to be introduced? No! Consider, Vinas, the genetic complexity and the higher-order interactions of photosynthesis and also of the bacterium - then you may understand why I say it is unlikely to be achieved. But some live in hope!
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As we seen that everincresing problems of GHG those affecting plant biological activities sp. Photosynthesis etc. Any mechanism or way in which can we make crop plant tolerant.
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In general crop rotation reduces the green house gasses, for example corn rotate with soyabean or wheat is found to be very effective in reducing GHG.
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Hello,
Do you think using colorimetric methods to investigate the type of photosynthetic mechanism might be appropriate?
What methods do you recommend other than Spectrophotometry and HPLC methods? I would like to know your suggestions.
Thank you
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I think GC-MASS teqniqu may be useful.
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Is it growth parameters & biomass yield, photosynthetic pigments, nutrients, compatible solutes, photosynthesis, enzyme activities,ultrastructure?
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Thank you very much Drs for your valuable contributions. I greatly appreciate it.
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What is the key mechanisms of biostimulant and also calcium application on stomatal conductance and photosynthesis of plants under water stress condition?
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If I assume biostimulants as osmoprotectants, then effect shall be as under.These osmoprotectants such as glycine betaine,Thio urea and Salicylic Acid help to trap harmful radicles produced in plants in response to water or heat stress.These chemicals temporarily squeeze these harmful ions but this effect prevails only for short duration droughts but not useful under prolonged stress conditions.
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Using a chlorophyll fluorometer (Mini-PAM; Walz; Effeltrich, Germany) I plotted ETR vs PPFD curves. What software / r package/excel sheet can I used to fit this data to a rectangular hyperbola model or other models.
Most literature focuses on fitting gas exchange data, not fluorescence.
Can the same models/excel sheets as created in Lobo et al. 2013 (Fitting net photosynthetic light-response curves with Microsoft Excel - a critical look at the models work?)
Suggestions are welcomed!
Thank you.
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Dear Joshua,
If you are fluent in R use (not my case unfortunately):
The Ritchie paper is really woth reading for your very initial question:
You will need to have at least some real measurements of dioxygen evolution and / or CO2 incorporation to translate rETR as true production values.
And in my own experience, @Raymond J Ritchie in Researchgate is certainly able to give you precises answers.
Hope this will help,
Christophe
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It is difficult to work on crops and chances of successful experiments are very less, that is why we prefer these model organisms to study the mechanism and then apply the same knowledge on other crops. So, according to you, for different traits and developmental studies which is better?
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I have worked with Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana. As for me tobacco is more easy culture to grow and work with. But for arabidopsis there is full genome and special resourse about genes and etc https://www.arabidopsis.org/
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I am trying to use paraquat (methyl viologen) to test a hypothesis related to my research on chlorophyll fluorescence. Most of the literature on paraquat that I've seen (at least to study photosynthesis) uses thylakoid suspensions. I'm not having much luck using it on whole diatom cells and I was wondering if anyone had any advice.
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So after some experimenting I discovered that an incubation time of at least one hour was necessary to see results. After that, fluorescence didn't show any further change. I'm leaving this answer for any who has the same question I did.
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In immobilized algae beads, nutrients such as NH4 and PO4 get adsorbed by the immobilizing matrix (such as alginate), following which they are assimilated by the microalgae via process of photosynthesis. In most research studies, the removal of nutrients by immobilized algae beads is much higher than blank beads. So is the assimilation process faster than the adsorption process?
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It more complex then rate perse. When algae (or any living organism) assimilate nutrients they convert simple, small molecules (here NH3 and PO4) to large complex molecules (proteins, nucleic acids etc), and finally to new cells. The absorption on the alginate is a much simpler process. Furthermore, given the above the alginate (or any other absorbing material) will reach saturation much faster as there is no conversion. Thus the rate of alginate (absorption) + micro-algae (assimilation) will be much faster.
And two small correction:
(i) Photosynthesis of micro-algae does not assimilate NO3 or PO4 directly. It provide the cells with a carbon source. The oxygen produced by the water splitting in the photosynthetic could result in oxidation of NO3 to nitrate though.
(ii) The process does no have to go "absorption in alginate --> assimilation". Depending how you make them the alginate beads can be pretty pours.
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The figure cannot be 8 ot 9 like in oxygenic photosynthesis because NADPH2 is made by reverse electron flow in RC-2 type PS Bacteria.
Any help would be appreciated.
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The figure roughly calculated in our paper Larkum, Ritchie and Raven 2018 is around 16. This based on how much ATP & NADPH2 is needed to fix CO2 and that PS bacteria have only one photosystem and the roundabout way PS bacteria have to make the ATP + plus NADPH2 required.
The measurements needed have largely not been seriously attempted for about 50y.
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I will like to know how one can model photosynthesis, and the different parameters that is important for modeling photosynthesis
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Dear
Gergino Chounna Yemele read below the attached file which title is "Mathematical modelling of natural and artificial photosynthesis "
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I am trying to measure photosynthesis of citrus (grapefruit) using Licor 6400XT. The problem is I am getting negative values. I tried with several other plants including weeds but I am not getting a positive result. I performed all the task like warming up, however, the reading is still negative. Please advice...
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You are welcome, Dinesh! Hope the problem will be solved soon. I know it can be very frustrating.
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We're looking in addition to LICOR, and Delta-T leaf area bench meters for other options, which can be made/distributed within American or European continent (Restricted due to shipping and handling fees).
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If you want to measure leaf area, I recommend LeafByte. It's a free and open source app for iPhones and iPads. It measures leaf area and herbivory (if you have it) much more quickly than ImageJ and related software. It also automatically saves your data for you in a spreadsheet. Did i mention that it's free?
You can download it in the app store or read more about LeafByte at the website below. You can also check out the FAQ page for ways to measure leaves non destructively and in the field.
Disclaimer-I was involved in making this app, but since its free I make no money from its use.
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I am looking for scientific data concerning alterations in chlorophyll content, Chla/b and Chl/Car. How fast such changes can be in nature? Can they occur in hours, minutes?
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Look up any microalgal paper regarding light cycling or formation of lipids, especially recent ones.... If I gave you too much "proof" I might have to "get Putin" on ya....this type of stuff stays out of the "published" realm because of the crossover it has with biofuel research. Needless to say, the microalgal candidate literature (patents and journals) is full of proof and insinuation of the transition of fast photosynthesizing cells (full of chlorophyll) to senescent cells (full of TGs and lipids) in hours --I've done it in less than 8. Do a search on "lipid trigger" to get you started down the rabbit hole :)
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Dear Colleagues,
I am relatively a newcomer to the amazing fields of photophysics and photochemistry.
From the available scientific literature, we may read that induced chlorophyll a fluorescence is mainly emitted by chlorophyll a molecules, located in Photosystem II (PSII), upon illumination onset. It has been reported about 300-500 chlorophyll a molecules in a single Photosystem II.
PSI fluorescence is constant and much lower than fluorescence from PSII. Its contribution to emitted plant fluorescence is considered negligible.
Some authors speak about P680 (a pigment named P680, located in Photosystem II), the reaction center RC or the special pair or the special chlorophyll dimers pigments PD1 or PD2, as the only source of fluorescence. I have a bit of confusion because it is not clear what chemical species is emitting the fluorescence that we can sense with our portable fluorometers.
1) If the Special Pair or RC is closed (it has been chemically switched to its reduced state), during the time that the Special pair is in that state, is the full bunch of chlorophyll a molecules in PSII going to dissipate their excitonic energy as fluorescence?
2) Why fluorescence emitted from PSI is not variable but constant? Does it has this fact something to do with the ratio [Chl a] to [Chl b] ???
Thank you so much in advance for your precious and kind help!
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Howdy Stancho,
First Chlrorphyll fluorescence is not a photophysical or photochemical phenomenon, but a photobiological one.
Chlorophyll fluorescence is light re-emitted by chlorophyll molecules (yes
chlorophyll!) during return from excited to non-excited states. It is used as an indicator of photosynthetic energy conversion in higher plants, algae and bacteria. Excited chlorophyll dissipates the absorbed light energy by driving photosynthesis (photochemical energy conversion), as heat in non-photochemical quenching or by emission as fluorescence radiation. As these processes are complementary processes, the analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence is an important tool in plant research with a wide spectra of applications.
The Kautsky effect
Upon illumination of a dark-adapted leaf, there is a rapid rise in fluorescence from Photosystem II (PSII), followed by a slow decline. First observed by Kautsky et al., 1960, this is called the Kautsky Effect. This variable rise in chlorophyll fluorescence rise is due to photosystem II. Fluorescence from photosystem I is not variable, but constant.
The increase in fluorescence is due to PSII reaction centers being in a "closed" or chemically reduced state. Reaction centers are "closed" when unable to accept further electrons. This occurs when electron acceptors downstream of PSII have not yet passed their electrons to a subsequent electron carrier, so are unable to accept another electron. Closed reaction centres reduce the overall photochemical efficiency, and so increases the level of fluorescence. Transferring a leaf from dark into light increases the proportion of closed PSII reaction centres, so fluorescence levels increase for 1–2 seconds. Subsequently, fluorescence decreases over a few minutes. This is due to; 1. more "photochemical quenching" in which electrons are transported away from PSII due to enzymes involved in carbon fixation; and 2. more "non-photochemical quenching" in which more energy is converted to heat.
PSII yield as a measure of photosynthesis
Chlorophyll fluorescence appears to be a measure of photosynthesis, but this is an over-simplification. Fluorescence can measure the efficiency of PSII photochemistry, which can be used to estimate the rate of linear electron transport by multiplying with light intensity. However, researchers generally mean carbon fixation when they refer to photosynthesis. Electron transport and CO2 fixation correlate well, but may not correlate in the field due to processes such as photorespiration, nitrogen metabolism and the Mehler reaction.
Relating electron transport to carbon fixation
A powerful research technique is to simultaneously measure chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange to obtain a full picture of the response of plants to their environment. One technique is to simultaneously measure CO2 fixation and PSII photochemistry at different light intensities, in non-photorespiratory conditions. A plot of CO2 fixation and PSII photochemistry indicates the electron requirement per molecule CO2 fixed. From this estimation, the extent of photorespiration may be estimated. This has been used to explore the significance of photorespiration as a photoprotective mechanism during drought.
Fluorescence analysis can also be applied to understanding the effects of low and high temperatures.
  • Sobrado (2008) investigated gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence responses to high intensity light, of pioneer species and forest species. Midday leaf gas exchange was measured using a photosynthesis system, which measured net photosynthetic rate, gs, and intercellular CO2 concentration. His results show that despite pioneer species and forest species occupying different habitats, both showed similar vulnerability to midday photoinhibition in sun-exposed leaves.
Measuring stress and stress tolerance
Chlorophyll fluorescence can measure most types of plant stress. Chlorophyll fluorescence can be used as a proxy of plant stress because environmental stresses, e.g. extremes of temperature, light and water availability, can reduce the ability of a plant to metabolise normally. This can mean an imbalance between the absorption of light energy by chlorophyll and the use of energy in photosynthesis.
  • Favaretto et al. (2010) investigated adaptation to a strong light environment in pioneer and late successional species, grown under 100% and 10% light. Numerous parameters, including chlorophyll a fluorescence, were measured. Overall, their results show that pioneer species perform better under high-sun light than late- successional species, suggesting that pioneer plants have more potential tolerance to photo-oxidative damage.
  • Neocleous and Vasilakakis (2009) investigated the response of raspberry to Boron and salt stress. Leaf chlorophyll fluorescence was not significantly affected by NaCl concentration when Boron concentration was low. When Boron was increased, leaf chlorophyll fluorescence was reduced under saline conditions. They be concluded that the combined effect of Boron and NaCl on raspberries induces a toxic effect in photochemical parameters.
  • Lu and Zhang (1999) studied heat stress in wheat plants and found that temperature stability in Photosystem II of water-stressed leaves correlates positively and well, to the resistance in metabolism during photosynthesis.
Nitrogen Balance Index
A portable multiparametric fluorometer using the ratio between chlorophyll and flavonols can be applied to detect nitrogen deficiency in plants Because of the link between chlorophyll content and nitrogen content in leaves, chlorophyll fluorometers can be used to detect nitrogen deficiency in plants, by several methods.
Based on several years of research and experimentation, polyphenols can be assigned as indicators of the nitrogen status of a plant. For instance, when a plant is under optimal conditions, it favours its primary metabolism and synthesises the proteins (nitrogen molecules) containing chlorophyll, and few flavonols (carbon-based secondary compounds). On the other hand, in case of lack of nitrogen, we will observe an increased production of flavonols by the plant.
The NBI (Nitrogen Balance Index), allows the assessment of nitrogen conditions of a plant by calculating the ratio between Chlorophyll and Flavonols (related to Nitrogen/Carbon allocation) .
Hence Stancho,
I hope this short summary elucidates soma aspects of the photobiology of plant chlorophyll fluorescence. A lot more information is available. For example models to simulate plant fluorescence. An interesting one can be found at:
Success with your studies,
Frank
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The presence of free radicals in photosynthetic and respiratory systems is inevitable, even in optimal condition for growth.
In these conditions, How much free radicals can be loss in yield?
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In a optimum condition for growth, I sprayed my plant with cytokinin, the levels of antioxidant enzymes (POD, SOD, catalase) in these plant was higher than control (foliar with distilled water). why?? It's not a results due to reduce free radicals?
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Genetic methods to screen for mutations in plant genes, enable genes and function to be identified. High-throughput screens are needed to be able to identify low frequency mutations. Since photosynthesis has many genes and pathways, what are the components of photosynthesis that are most amendable to identify mutants using different screens?
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I think chlorophyll fluorescence can capture the emergent properties of the photosynthesis system and is very fast, so it should be a good tool for screening photosynthesis mutants. Also, a thermal camera can give information on relative leaf cooling, which rapidly captures the emergent properties of stomatal openness and transpiration, and they give information about the stomatal limitations to photosynthesis, which should be coordinated with carboxylation capacity. Traditional gas exchange approaches (a-ci curves, light response curves), give more detailed information, but are time-consuming and not practical for screening large numbers of mutants.
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Indoor plants that are known to survive in low light environments and also improve indoor air quality by removing some of the indoor air pollutants. Most plants perform photosynthesis and release oxygen during the day and during the night release CO2 during the respiration process.
1. Does the same scenario occur in indoor plants?
2. If so, what amount of oxygen is released during the day and the CO2 emitted during the night from the particular leaf area?
2a. Is there any ration between oxygen and carbon-di-oxide release?
2b. If so, the ratio is same for indoor and outdoor plants?
3. If not and then the houseplants also release O2 overnight. So, what is the mechanism behind this?
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in the night plants cannot do photosynthesis as for this sunlight is required. Plants then do respiration, which consumes oxygen. then they also produce co2 (which they also do during day, but only during day they have photosynthesis.
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Apparently it is already possible to produce in laboratory conditions photochemical systems capable of conducting processes of artificial photosynthesis?
Will the construction of photochemical systems capable of conducting processes of artificial photosynthesis reduce in the future the excessive emission of greenhouse gases and protect the Earth, natural ecosystems and humans against the growing cry of accelerating the global warning process and the potential negative effects of increasingly frequent climatic cataclysms?
Will man manage to build photochemical systems capable of conducting artificial photosynthesis processes on an industrial scale to buffer the negative effects of increasing greenhouse gas emissions and inhibit the global warming process?
Please reply
Best wishes
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It depends on what you mean by photosynthesis in this context. Do you mean the creation of more energetic molecules from less energetic ones and using them to make products like polymers and such like? Or do you you simply mean extracting energy from the solar input and converting it to something useful like electricity? We can do the second very well now; but the first probably won't scale up because in the end you are simply trying to redesign biological systems to make them "more efficient". But now you need to define what you mean by efficient and examine the ecological price of obtaining such an improvement. Since the input energy - sunlight - is free, it isn't clear why you want to do better than the existing biological mechanisms; any replacement would have to scale up to the same level of production and that will be an environmental nightmare as you may find the two systems are not compatible and you end up destroying the very ecosphere you set out trying to save.
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Carbon fixation is the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms. The most prominent example is photosynthesis, although chemosynthesis is another form of carbon fixation that can take place in the absence of sunlight. Organisms that grow by fixing carbon are called autotrophs. Autotrophs include photoautotrophs, which synthesize organic compounds using the energy of sunlight, and lithoautotrophs, which synthesize organic compounds using the energy of inorganic oxidation. Heterotrophs are organisms that grow using the carbon fixed by autotrophs. The organic compounds are used by heterotrophs to produce energy and to build body structures. "Fixed carbon", "reduced carbon", and "organic carbon" are equivalent terms for various organic compounds
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C4 plants are more efficient in CO2 fixation due to the absence of photorespiration .. CAM plants photosynthes is usually take place in desert and succulent plants that close their stomata during day time to minimize lost of water .
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a) Cyanobacteria b) Fungi c) Viruses d) Cyanobacteria, Fungi and Viruses
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