Science topics: LinguisticsPhonology
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Phonology - Science topic

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
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As a doctoral student specializing in phonology, I want to know the most important and newest theories in my field, and then try to apply it on Arabic language and other languages.
Thank you to everyone who participated in answering my question.
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generative phonology and natural phonology.
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I am working on loan phonology. I am particularly interested in the morphophonological features/structures of English loanwords in Yoruba, especially within Optimality Theory (OT).
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Dear Mr Ezekiel,
I hope you will be able to get what you need from the following publications. You can download them online or from researchgate.
Bamisaye, T.,Ojo, G.A.(2015).Phonotactic Adjustments in Yoruba Adaptation of English Syllable Structures. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 5(4),379-388.
Oyinloye, M.E. (2020).Monophthongization in the Adaptation of Selected English Loanwords in Yorùbá: A Constraint-Based Analysis. Journal of Universal Language, 21(1),29-67
Ogundepo, A.O.(2015). Contrastive study of English and Yoruba morphological systems- implications for Nigerian teachers and learners of English.
International Journal of English Language and Linguistics Research, 3(4),1-8.
Tone Loans: The Adaptation of English Loanwords
into Yoruba by Michael Kenstowicz. You can download it from Research gate
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Studying one of the varieties of Persian, it is assumed that, regardless of the stress position, all the short (mono-moraic) vowels are reduced to schwa in all of the open syllables. More clearly, all long (bi-moraic) vowels are kept intact and the short vowels have a surface representation only if they are the nucleus of closed syllables. Has any research provided any evidence of a language or a variety which can fit a similar phonological pattern?
Any information would be greatly appreciated.
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Johan Schalin Thanks for the reply. I will read it with great interest.
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Dear Friends,
Greeting.
Happy New Year. I wish everybody a prosperous New Year.
I'm thinking of a project for checking the sound (phonetics) that will lost or promoted while switching from one set of alphabet to another. For example switching from Arabic letters to Latin in Turkey; does the set of Latin letters saved all Turkish phonetics (sound)? What is the advantages and/or disadvantages of such switching?
Did such work carried out anywhere?
Best Regards,
ABDUL-SAHIB
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Dear عائشة عبد الواحد thank you for the invaluable answer.
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In most of the existing cotton crop simulation models, the phenological events or developmental rate processes are not parameterized as a function of CO2. I wanted to investigate this since it will impact model results in case if the phonology is affected by atmospheric CO2 levels.
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My two favourite courses are Phonetics and Phonology and General Linguistics with its other interrelated sub-divisions. I have been teaching them for over 35 years.
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Thank you for this great question,
For me, my favorite lessons are:
Distinctive features in structural phonology and generative phonology,
And the generative phonology in general, especially the modern generative phonology,
Prosodic phonology,
And the leadership of Indians and Arabs in the Ancient phonological studies.
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can anyone tell me which part of cognitive phonology is suitable and rich enough to be used as a sample for a descriptive analytic study?
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I'd focus on memory span for sounds, louds, words and/or sentences as it's a well researched performance and part of working memory.
Alternative you could chose another performance related to the phonological loop of the working memory.
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I was trying to determine whether there are differences in the frequencies of words (lemmas) in a given language corpus starting with the letter K and starting with the letter M. Some 50 000 words starting with K and 54000 words starting with M altogether. I first tried using the chi-square test, but the comments below revealed that this was an error.
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Did you try Python word count?
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English phonetics and phonology
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There are 5 vocal cord positions
1. Median (midline)
2. Paramedian (1.5 mm from the midline)
3. Cadaver (3.5 mm from the midline)
4. Partial Abduction (7 mm from the midline)
5. Full abduction (9.5 mm from the midline)
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I am asking for the new trends in writing researches in English phonology.
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specialized journals would help .
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I seek your guidance on the methodology that I should use to collect, analyse and document false friends. My research concerns false cognates in Lusoga and Luganda.
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If I were you I would use advanced dictionaries which help you find out the entomology of both words.
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This is so far the procedure I was trying upon and then I couldn't fix it
As per my understanding here some definitions:
- lexical frequencies, that is, the frequencies with which correspondences occur in a dictionary or, as here, in a word list;
- lexical frequency is the frequency with which the correspondence occurs when you count all and only the correspondences in a dictionary.
- text frequencies, that is, the frequencies with which correspondences occur in a large corpus.
- text frequency is the frequency with which a correspondence occurs when you count all the correspondences in a large set of pieces of continuous prose ...;
You will see that lexical frequency produces much lower counts than text frequency because in lexical frequency each correspondence is counted only once per word in which it occurs, whereas text frequency counts each correspondence multiple times, depending on how often the words in which it appears to occur.
When referring to the frequency of occurrence, two different frequencies are used: type and token. Type frequency counts a word once.
So I understand that probably lexical frequencies deal with types counting the words once and text frequencies deal with tokens counting the words multiple times in a corpus, therefore for the last, we need to take into account the word frequency in which those phonemes and graphemes occur.
So far I managed phoneme frequencies as it follows
Phoneme frequencies:
Lexical frequency is: (single count of a phoneme per word/total number of counted phonemes in the word list)*100= Lexical Frequency % of a specific phoneme in the word list.
Text frequency is similar but then I fail when trying to add the frequencies of the words in the word list: (all counts of a phoneme per word/total number of counted phonemes in the word list)*100 vs (sum of the word frequencies of the targeted words that contain the phoneme/total sum of all the frequencies of all the words in the list)= Text Frequency % of a specific phoneme in the word list.
PLEASE HELP ME TO FIND A FORMULA ON HOW TO CALCULATE THE LEXICAL FREQUENCY AND THE TEXT FREQUENCY of phonemes and graphemes.
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Hola,
Para el cálculo de la frecuencia léxica de unidades simples o complejas, se suele utilizar WordSmith o AntCon.
Saludos
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This is so far the procedure I was trying upon and then I couldn't fix it
As per my understanding:
- lexical frequencies, that is, the frequencies with which correspondences occur in a dictionary or, as here, in a word list;
- lexical frequency is the frequency with which the correspondence occurs when you count all and only the correspondences in a dictionary.
- text frequencies, that is, the frequencies with which correspondences occur in a large corpus.
- text frequency is the frequency with which a correspondence occurs when you count all the correspondences in a large set of pieces of continuous prose ...;
You will see that lexical frequency produces much lower counts than text frequency because in lexical frequency each correspondence is counted only once per word in which it occurs, whereas text frequency counts each correspondence multiple times, depending on how often the words in which it appears to occur.
When referring to the frequency of occurrence, two different frequencies are used: type and token. Type frequency counts a word once.
So I understand that probably lexical frequencies deal with types counting the words once and text frequencies deal with tokens counting the words multiple times in a corpus, therefore for the last, we need to take into account the word frequency in which those phonemes and graphemes occur.
So far I managed phoneme frequencies as it follows
Phoneme frequencies:
Lexical frequency is: (single count of a phoneme per word/total number of counted phonemes in the word list)*100= Lexical Frequency % of a specific phoneme in the word list.
Text frequency is similar but then I fail when trying to add the frequencies of the words in the word list: (all counts of a phoneme per word/total number of counted phonemes in the word list)*100 vs (sum of the word frequencies of the targeted words that contain the phoneme/total sum of all the frequencies of all the words in the list)= Text Frequency % of a specific phoneme in the word list.
PLEASE HELP ME TO FIND A FORMULA ON HOW TO CALCULATE THE LEXICAL FREQUENCY AND THE TEXT FREQUENCY of phonemes and graphemes.
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It will help if you use a suitable and powerful qualitative research software as Atlas.ti (https://atlasti.com/) or equivalent. This software allows you to introduce and research large amounts of text, written or oral, images, videos, etc. Then, you can select diverse research techniques, including frequencies, correlations, modulations, structures, and several other tools.
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I need research material on Brazilian Portuguese phonology.
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Não tenho certeza, entretanto, se você estiver interessado em Português do Brasil, entre em contato comigo. Fico feliz em trocar ideias. I am making an effort to communicate, hoping that one day, it will be easier! Um abraço
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I am looking for a good journal with sufficient ranking level for publishing a paper on a dialectology phonological processes. Can any one suggest me a good journal?
a phonological
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Depending on the analysis, I'd go for LabPhon or Phonology. But more phonetics oriented journals (Phonetica, Journal of Phonetics, Journal of the International Phonetic Association) would I'm sure also be good outlets if the analysis includes phonetic aspects as well.
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i am working on the phonological system of a language and now i want to analyze the phonology of this language using Autosegmental and Lexical phonological framework . if there is anybody who can help that would be appriciated.
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You can use Pratt software for analysis(open source),what parameters you are concentrating.
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Some language learners believe that some languages are too hard to learn due to their sound system (phonetics and phonology). Which language, do you think, is the most difficult one for learners, and why?
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Wouldn't it depend in part of your native language?
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Hi there, 
Me and my colleague are interested in developing experimental tasks to investigate lexical access in bilinguals speaking French and Turkish. We thus wonder if a Turkish lexical database exists in order to select materials according to lexical frequencies, phonological and orthographical neighborhood of words.
We know about "TELL project" but it does not provide the information we need.
We will be very grateful for your precious help.
Best regards.
Stéphanie Bellocchi
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I have this project for school with my students and we are trying to create a list of the non-native accents in English that are the most difficult to understand (by natives or non natives). In other words, I'm trying to establish if it is English spoken in France, Poland, or Liberia etc. Also, what are the deviant phonological features that make comprehension more difficult? (other than word stress on the wrong syllable). If anyone has thoughts or knows a study regarding these topics, I would be very glad to hear about it. Thanks for your help!
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Linguistically,we do not have an accent that is much knottier than others,nor more prestigous,but it is a matter that is mainly accompained with it spread and usage by the speakers.
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English phonetics and phonology
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Accent is a variety of pronunciation whereas dialect is a variety of language. Allophone is a member of the same phoneme. Allomorph can be tackled within the framework of Grammar. These are some basic concepts. For further details, just have a look at the books of Grammar, Phonetics and Phonology.
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English phonetics and phonology
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Fortis is a term that refers to voiceless consonants as their production is stronger than the production of lenis consonants. They need much more effort. Lenis is a term referring to voiced consonants that need less effort in their production. As for phonemic transcription, both should be enclosed between slashes to make them different from the letters used in ordinary spelling.
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I am a student of Comparative Literature (Persian and English) and I am reading about the prosody of the English language. To master its metrical system and prosody, I think I should read more about the English phonetics more in the first place. So I would be extremely grateful if you recommend any advanced book on this subject.
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You can buy Peter Roach's "English Phonetics and Phonology Paperback with Audio CDs (2): A Practical Course"
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To study the phonological processing abilities with non-word repetition task in children who stutter, we performed three non-word repetition tasks in two groups of children who stutter and who don't stutter. Responses from the nonword repetition task were scored into two different methods in below:
First, the per cent correct nonwords were scored based each nonword as a correct or error response.
Second, the overall per cent correct phonemes (the total number of phonemes that were correctly produced in each nonword divided by the total number of phonemes ∗ 100).
Each of these tasks has been made taking into account some of the factors affecting the non-word repetition performance. Each of these assignments includes sub-scales (one to five syllable). The aims of our study were:
1) To compare the performance of the two groups in three tasks to identify the task that distinguishes better between the two groups.
2) To identify items from each sub-scale for each task that could better differentiate between the two groups and put them in the form of a non-word repetition list.
I want to know which statistical methods I should use. Please guide me about the above issues.
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if ROC can be estimated for each task and then that can be compared for all three tasks to decide which task is better...probably..
Manova/ ANOVa for group comparison might help,, i guess...
selection of paramtric tests would depend on normalcy of data
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I need an explanation of the Optimality Theory and hw I can use it as a framework for my study of the phonological features of Swazi English.
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I need information on the Optimality Theory and how I can use it as a framework for my research on the phonological features of Swazi English. Can anyone recommend sites/ sources where I can get information on OT.
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The optimal unit of phonological system is a separated sound when it is meaningful and able to form a meaningful semantic unit in combination with other well organized sounds. Of course the sound quantity changes causes grammatical categorization. Please read my papers about that subject, i hope that they would be useful for you, especially PHONO-GRAMMAR.
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Do you know any implication research studies on American Sign Language phonological alterations on lexicon of "1st-person" or "self-possession"?
(Ex: Me, I, and We)
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Hi, Carey
Check: Hou, L., & Meier, R. P. (2018). The morphology of first-person object forms of directional verbs in ASL. Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics, 3(1), 114. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/gjgl.469
Christina
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I am working on a paper trying to investigate the advisability of using animated charts in teaching phonetics and phonology for non-native speakers of English.
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yes, it can help at a considerable degree. I recommend using CALL programs as Pronunciation Power, it is very effective in the teaching of vowels and consonants for foreign learners as it demonstrates the lips movements, the tongue articulation and the jaw shape ( place and manner of articulation).
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Hello,
Any article recommendations on Spanish learners of Russian, particularly — the acquisition of the Russian sound system?
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هل نستطيع أن نتبع آلية محددة لدراسة النص التراثي بلاغيا؟
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In English, AdSD is characterized by hyperadduction during phonation on vowels. AbSD, is characterized by prolonged voiceless consonants before vowel onset.
Also the perceptual quality of SD in English is different than French perceptual qualities as you will find in the Pearlmann-Lorch & Whurr 2009 study.
I was wondering if you found any differences in perceptual qualities or specific phonological instances where AdSD symptoms arise during the reading passage in Mandarin? I would really appreciate any feedback since I am assisting a professor with related research and I am trying to look for research that has addressed SD symptoms in other languages. Thank you so much
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I also suggest you contact the authors on Researchgate. I'm sure they'll provide answers to your questions.
I can also provide the extended abstract which gives a detailed description of the experiment, methods and material, in English. Just let me know and I'll attach it in a message.
Christina
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I am looking for recordings of "The North Wind and the Sun" in Romanian for a research about the phonetics and phonology of this language.
Do you know whether I can find any on the web?
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Thanks, @diana.
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Dr. Mann.
So glad you are working in a school! Your research about morphology and literacy has been an important influence.
While I continue to publish, my main focus is working directly with schools and educators to help them understand English orthography so that they can target that understanding in literacy instruction from the beginning of formal instruction. My 2018 article with my brother, Jeff Bowers (https://tinyurl.com/y9gh6l8e) addresses this issue. Morphology is key, of course, but it's really about the interrelation of morphology, etymology and phonology. The evidence from meta-analyses of morphological instruction is that it brings the greatest benefits to younger and less able students.
However, few have an image of what morphology instruction can look like in early literacy instruction let alone orthographic instruction. I thought you might be interested in
Some practical examples from schools I've been working with. This recent piece shares examples from pre-school to Gr. 2 that may interest you. https://tinyurl.com/y7oan9wz.
If you find that useful, I'd be delighted to discuss any aspect of this kind of instruction further with you. I'm not good at Research Gate. Feel free to email me at peterbowers1@mac.com
You can see the practical work I'm doing at my website www.wordworkskingston.com
Regardless, I'm always excited to see researchers diving into schools!
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Phonetics is the science concerned with the study of the sound system in the human language in general. Phonology, however, is the science concerned with the study of the sound system in particular languages. What are the main differences that can be added between the two disciplines?
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Phonetics is the study of the the physical properties of human speech, such as how basic sounds are physically produced, their acoustics, and how they are perceived.
Phonology deals with language sounds in abstract, grammatical terms. It often focuses on the systems of phonemes in particular languages and describes how they work. Phonology also deals with acoustic phenomena at syllable level (e.g., morae) or even sentence-level (e.g., sentence level stress).
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Hi, I am trying to construct a receptive phonology task (i.e., odd-one-out: "bli" "bli" "bla", which sounded different?) for 3-year old children with various language backgrounds. As I want to compare kids with speaking different languages, I need to construct parallel tests with comparable item difficulty. I have found consonant and vowel confusion matirces for German and French (sadly only adult's data) but not (yet) for Italian and Turkish. Can anyone help me out?
Kind regards,
Jessica
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Thank you Christina Valaki! I have also come across that paper since my inquiry! However, I am still looking for information for the Turkish language.. This is turning out to be more complicated than anticipated..
Thank you all for giving me tips! This is all very helpful and highly appreciated!
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I am interested in investigating the phonological development for children speaking Arabic (Saudi-Hejazi in particular), and I developed a word list to conduct a single naming task on children to have their speech sample. So, do I need to collect some sample from children as connected speech to complete my data and get a full picture of their speech skills? If you think it is important, could I have some references that support this idea?
Thank you.
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Mohammad Hamad Al-khresheh Thank you for your answer. My study design is cross-sectional, and the sample size will be 200 participants. I know that a longitudinal study is more useful than cross-sectional. But I cannot conduct this design because it is a PhD project and I will travel collect the data, so it would be impossible to follow the participants.
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This article was brought to my attention by my good friend, Firmin Ahoua. Congrats to the authors for this research but they could have done it without framing it as if they found something contrary. In so doing they are being dishonest with their framing of this issue. They refer to my CSLI book the Structure of Dagaare and claim that I say the vowle /a/ is neutral to ATR harmony, but there is nowhere in my book that I say this. On page 23 of my book I acknowledge that /a/ occurs in both + and - ATR. They claim they see variants of /a/ but of course we all who work on vowel harmony systems know that as this low vowel is influenced by its ATR environment in each phonological word. So I really find the contestation here dishonest. It looks like an attempt to embellish their finding to sound as if it is a breakthrough but they are only providing evidence through instrumental analysis (which was not available in earlier studies) to confirm what myself and others say about ATR harmony in Dagaare and other Mabia languages.
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On page 21 of your book on Dagaare, you state that there are nine oral vowels in Dagaare and as you note in your response to our paper, on page 23 of your book you state that ‘even though /a/ is realised phonetically as a [-ATR] vowel it occurs both with the set of [+ATR] vowels and the set of [-ATR] vowels.’ The paper of ours that you refer to reports on data from 5 speakers and appears to be inconsistent with this position. Taking measurements for tongue root values at three points throughout the low vowel, including points where we would not expect to see significant coarticulatory effects from the following vowel, we interpret our data as motivating a tenth phonological vowel. The formant differences observed are larger than what we would expect from coarticulation alone. We certainly know that ATR systems can vary as to whether they have nine or ten contrastive vowels. The data we report on in this short paper suggest that at least the variety of Dagaare that we examined is indeed a ten-vowel system phonologically. The question of whether Dagaare has nine or ten vowels is an interesting one and will be resolved through data collection and analysis. It is unclear why raising this question, and contributing data to it, would be interpreted as a dishonest framing of the issue.
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My aim is to morph two sounds (e.g., light-right) so that they become an ambiguous sound (i.e., sometimes you'll hear it as 'right', sometimes 'light').
I have been practicing with a MATLAB based software called STRAIGHT-legacy and have had some success with the coding (non-GUI) side of it. However, there is very limited guidance available online, and I would like some more guidance:
Q1. Preferably, some UG students can use the GUI version of the software. From reading Hideki Kawahara's (2009) manual, this can be done by typing “TandemSTRAIGHThandler” in the Matlab command window (after setting path to src). However, this does not work. Since the manual was written some time ago, I'm wondering if the GUI for morphing is still operational, or has it been phased out? If anyone is still using it successfully, I'd appreciate if you can let me know how you activate it (i.e., which version of STRAIGHT did you download, and what version of MATLAB do you use?)
Q2. There are still some minor aspects of the coding interface I have trouble with, too. If anyone has experience of using STRAIGHT for morphing, please get in touch.
Many thanks,
Ryan
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ربما
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Dear Colleagues,
Perhaps you could help me find answers to several questions on the neural organization of alphabet and number recitation:
1. Could recitation of numbers and letters rely on phonological long-term memory without accessing lexical information? Alternatively, could lexical information be accessed only for numbers (since they are words) but not letters (that are not words)?
2. Several neuroimaging studies (including clinical reports) have shown a dissociation between letter and number sequencing (recitation, reading and writing). Why do you think this is the case?
3. A patient could not recite the alphabet but could sing it upon electrical brain stimulation. Any suggestions why this happened?
Help with any of the questions will be greatly appreciated!
Thank you!
Monika
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Dear Monika! Please see related articles in Attachment. All the best. Vladimir
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Would you recommend any?
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In our paper "Sound to meaning mappings in the Bouba-Kiki effect." we've created hundreds of nonsense words with the aim of determining how the various phonemes contribute to attributed meanings (related the object shape). I don't have the other papers handy, but in our paper we reference several papers that similarly attempt to isolate/characterize how various phonemes are related to meanings. Some reads I would recommend 1) Nielsen, A., & Rendall, D. (2011). The sound of round: evaluating the sound-symbolic role of consonants in the classic Takete-Maluma phenomenon. 2) Magnus (2001) What's in a Word? Studies in Phonosemantics 3) Fort, Martin and Peperkamp (2014) Consonants are More Important than Vowels in the Bouba-kiki Effect
Most of these papers focus on specific sound-to-meaning mapping (e.g. sound-shape mapping)
The thesis by Margaret Magnus takes a more comprehensive look at how sounds in English are mapped to a variety of meanings.
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The mapping of word-level accentual phenomena and musical prominence and melody in text-setting is well-known. This leads to the question as to whether higher-level prosodic constituents are also mirrored in music, and if so how.
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Here’s a paper on prosodic structure and musical structure: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01962/full
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Hello,
I would like to see the full-version of the article " Short-term Memory and Language Processing: Further Evidence for the Existence of Separate Phonological and Semantic Short-term Memory Components " from MAJERUS S., VAN DER LINDEN M. & RENARD C.
Is it possible to publy it ?
Thank you
MINDER Camille
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Hi,
the page in researchgate does not state in what journal it was publish. However, there is probably another related paper available, also by Majerus. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3709421/
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Below are the case:
30 students to answered 4 types of questions : spelling, reading, writing and phonology test. I need to know which instrument is the most correct answered and the most worst instrument? My data have a few outlier due to 0 marks in a few instruments which resulted non-normalize distribution. Therefore I cannot simply use the mean ans the SD as in normal distribution. Then what types of statistical test should I used?
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As suggested above for each group you can provide median and Interquartile range.
.
Also you can go for kruskal Wallis test for the comparison between the groups, and then further you can do pairwise comparisons also for each pair so that you can see which pair is differing.
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impact of regional prosody on severity and Which parameter varies ?
I suppose impact on prosody on patients living in Aix les Bains is different from Aix en provence, since regional prosody is different...
Thanks for your opinion.
Denis
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I am completing a study on VOT effects in a standardized reading, one of the most interesting findings is the neutralization of regional prosodic variation within the study group, therefore, I recommend a data collection strategy that allows comparing speech in different contexts in order to be able to measure prosodic variations.
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Both short and tall children
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Quite simple selection criteria
- Height + or - 2.5 SDS
- Unknown cause for growth disorder
- DNA available (index case and family members)
- Phenotype well characterized
For short children We give priority to syndromic children born small for gestational age AND children with autosomal dominant disproportion short stature (abnormal sitting height : total height ratio SDS) without clear skeletal dysplasia
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I'm creating an artificial language that consists of auditorily presented CV nonwords. Because there are not that many CV nonwords that meet my criteria (neither in English nor in German, both of which I've considered using), I was wondering whether I could include letter names along with some actual nonwords.
Is there any evidence (ideally, from EEG/ERP studies, but not necessarily) for letter names (for example, /di/ in English) being processed as real words? My hint is that I shouldn't use them but I'm hoping that perhaps if all my items have an identical phonological structure (i.e., CVs starting with a plosive), and if most of them (~85%) are nonwords, then the letter names (~15%) won't be processed differently compared to the nonwords. I'd be thankful for any advice/references!
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I think letter names are words so they are stored in the lexicon as words (dee, tee etc).  Just because they represent a visual item (letter) there is no difference between a word representing a physical item such as a table.  Hope this helps.
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We are doing research about a gesture system called Visual Phonics.  The hand shapes, corresponding to sounds, can be useful in literacy instruction with young children, both with and without disabilities.  The individual hand shapes are fairly abstract initially, but, with repetition, do take on meaning.  Does this indicate a shift from one type of gesture to another?
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No. Iconic symbols must be perceptually similar to their targets (possibly in a broad way) and presumably at least partly understandable out of context. When an abstract symbol takes on a conventionalised meaning it does not change its nature.
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What is assessment for you as a teacher. How do you improve your students learning? Which assessment way do you follow?
Now a days, I'm teaching "literary pedagogy" subject to my BS-4 students. I have prepared a teaching program and have divided my few lectures into two-two phases. In my last class, I involved my students into different works, including group discussion to judge their capacity to work in team, leader participation to judge their role as a leader, written task to evaluate their writing ability and critical thinking.. as well as I focused on their minor grammatical mistakes in writing  and speaking etc. After one phase, I gave feedback to the works of my students. I gave them scores on the basis of group discussion, leader participation, individual participation and their critical thoughts.
How do you assess your students' task..
I welcome you to join this discussion and  I thank you, in advance for your intellectual contribution.  
Best Wishes,
Sabah Zaib
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Dear Sabah,
I work with discursive approach (oral and written text production) in order to not hygienizing the observed subjects’ ways and desires.  This assessment supports pluralities: this practice becomes effective social work. This perspective is called "fourth-generation qualitative assessment"
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In reading research, a frequently used dependent variable (DV) is the response/reaction time (RT). How sure are that we start uttering the word (thus triggering the response capture device (i.e., mic)) ONLY after accessing the full phonology of the word to be read?! 
Or put in simple words, how sure are we that the entire word is processed before we utter the word, in a reading experiment task?!
Regards..
G. Krishnan
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As far as I know, the evidence is not that clear. See for instance the work of Kathie Rastle and her colleagues: 
Reading aloud begins when the computation of phonology is complete.
Rastle, Kathleen; Harrington, Jonathan; Coltheart, Max; Palethorpe, Sallyanne
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Vol 26(3), Jun 2000, 1178-1191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.26.3.1178
A lot will depend on the ecological validity of the task and whether or not participants will be able to make use of strategic behavior.
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The aim of my study was to see the effectiveness of my selected literature teaching method in my classroom. There were 24 students in class so I divided them into four groups of six members each. I narrowed down my purpose and gave to my students several tasks to see the effectiveness of this method with regards to 1. students' creative writing skills 2. their Critical thinking strategy, 3.their other language skills like reading, discussing, 4.  and their general opinion about this method. The response of my students are open ended. I first noted down the response of my students collectively with respect to their groups as "Group A said about this method "fantastic", G-B, innovative, etc. I also got their individual responses.
Now the data provides me in-depth knowledge. I'm confused how should I analyse my data systematically.
I need your guidance to analyse and interpret my data. 
Thanks in advance.
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Dear Sabah Zaib,
The French Discourse Analysis (Pêcheux, Les Vérités la Palice) uses the method of Carlo Ginzburg (Clues, Myths and historical Method), with a research strategy  based on reading clues and traces that reveal hidden information.
I wish you success in your search!
Dionéia Monte-Serrat
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Mean syllable duration, Number of filled pauses, Number of silent pauses, Mean duration of silent pauses, Number of corrections, and Number of repetitions. I do really need suggestion as I am not sure whether PRAAT can measure all of that. Maybe there are someone who knows well about PRAAT and how to analyze that. I would be very thanksful. Thank you
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I am looking for the frequency average values of RP consonants in order to compare this with the accented English consonants pronounced by the students
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Hello, there are many "speech banana" diagrams on the internet. Here is a link to one site: http://www.agbell.org/SpeechBanana/
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We are looking for a French text in which speech sounds are selected such as to obtain a fixed proportion of voiced and unvoiced sounds (or more degrees of sonority). This text would we used in a contrastive multilingual experiment on vocal load.
In addition, we are interested in phonetically balanced corpora for French.
Thank you!
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You may find these books useful although quite old.
Lucile Charles & Annie-Claude Motron (2001). Phonetique Progressive du Francais avec 600 exercices. Paris: CLE International.
Lhote Elizabeth (1990). Le paysage sonore d'une langue, le francais. Hambourg: Buske Verlag.
Best wishes
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Genealogically, some languages may be attributed to a single source referred to as their proto-language. Similarly, dialects of the same language are related in a number of aspects but may differ phonologically.
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Hi David,
An interesting aspect is that some phonological variations within language are non-continuous in space (i.e, distinct locations may share features while closer locations may show different features). This was been found for intonation contours, for example, and draws a picture unlike that found for segmental variation in most cases. The sources for this 'dispersion' may be various: some sound patterns may depend and/or interact with other aspects of grammar (e.g., , morphology, syntax, pragmatics); population drift within a country may also have a relevant impact; cultural issues can lead certain local communities to easily adopt the more general pattern or, by contrast, to persevere in the more local pattern. So, the array of factors is complex. We provided some illustrations in the Interactive Atlas of the Prosody of Portuguese (for intonation contours, phrasing, and rhythm features).
Hope this adds to the discussion...
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In my doctoral thesis I am comparing the pronunciation of different types of toponyms in Switzerland. I am wondering whether there is similar research being done in other projects at the moment.
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Murray Spiegel has done comprehensive work on name pronunciation for US place names and personal names for Text-to-Speech systems. He has an article "Proper name pronunciations for speech technology applications" in International Journal of Speech Technology 6, 419-427, 2003.  In this article you can find references of his earlier publications in 1985 and 1990, as well as other works on name pronunciations for speech technologies.
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Length, tone and intonation can be distinctively used like phonemes, especially in the African languages. Therefore, they function as phonemes in such languages.
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Hi David! Whether these concepts are legit might depend on the theoretical framework one adopts. For example, if length is used as a phonological feature [+long], then the notion lengtheme and the feature would be synonymous and could be justified simply by providing a minimal pair. However, if one adopts a theoretical framework where length is derivate, say as a sequence of two segments, then the notion is redundant and because it is not a primative.
In the treatment of tone, some researchers have analysed them as being compositional (features High and Low, see Hyman 1993 or Bao 1999 for details). In such approaches, the toneme would really just be a feature. For some researchers, tones may not be thought of as compositional. In Chinese languages, a syllable [ma] is contrastive if it has a high flat tone, a rising tone, a low tone or a falling tone. If you think of rising and falling tones as non-compositional (i.e. cannot be stated as aa sequence of tonal features), then the toneme would include all the various tone melodies. In African languages, it seems that there is a lot of evidence for treating tones as sequences of H and L, as can be seen in the patterns found in Mende, Margi etc (see Peng 2013: Chapter 4).
In the treatment of intonation, it is possible also to use only tonal features H and L. One merely has to state the locus where they occur in relation to the utterance (either the syntactic structure or the prosodic structure). If that's the framework adopted, then there is no need for the notion intoneme.
Best,
Lian-Hee
References
Bao, Zhiming (1999) The Structure of Tone. Oxford University Press.
Hyman, Karry M. (1993) Register tones and tonal geometry. In van der Hulst, Harry and Keith Snider (eds.) The Phonology of Tone: the Representation of Tonal Register. Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 75-108.
Peng, Long (2013) Analyzing Sound Patterns: an Introduction to Phonology. Cambridge Univ. Press.
Yip, Moira (2002) Tone. Cambridge Univ. Press.
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Have asked in Statistical Area. Am interested in identifying probabilistic and statistic distributions of Mandarin tones [either in general or in specific corpora].
I have developed some very general data eg Tone 1 occurs around 18% of the time, Tones 2 and 3 slightly higher than Tone 1, Tone 4 occurs > 40%, and the neutral is relatively low. But I'd like to obtain more detailed data and also theories as to how experts view tones in probability [if this style can even be accomplished]. Would Bayesian probabilities not be appropriate?
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Stephen, that's really cool stuff! Thanks. 
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Dialect levelling is the phenomenon where there is a loss of localised features in urban and rural variaties of English in Britain, to be replaced with features found over a wider region.
How does one examine whether this has taken place or not, considering only Lexis and Grammar? Extensive research in the past has been done on Accent and Phonology, but Lexical and Grammatical diffusion seem to be overlooked.
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The prime historical example of lexical leveling in English is American English. Regional differences brought from England were "leveled" over time as children grew up forming new varieties. In England, the spread of Northern forms into the South in the late Middle English and Early Modern periods contributed to the loss of grammatical forms such as case endings, and of course famously, the spread of Danish plural pronouns from East Anglia wiped out the Old English forms. The processes which contributed to such changes are alive and well today. It is much easier to study lexical and grammatical variation/change by questionnaires than phonological variation, though people are always hypersensitive to school-taught notions of correctness, and tend to identify any inquiry as a test of knowledge of social correctness, so there are always hazards. Nowadays, corpora of telephone conversations are probably the best resources to tap for relatively unmonitored usage, but these may not exist in sufficient size or social variety in enough different regions to allow for lexical or grammatical research (phonology is always easier here).
Most leveling will be evident in age-graded differences in usage, so the old regional dialect dictionaries are probably your best starting-point. Most of the early research in England on regional differences was entirely lexical, so there is a large data-base to begin with. It should be easy to construct questionnaires based on these sources. Students can interview grandparents and parents to pick up on generational shifts (and the students can learn in the process).
   Rudy
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I'm working on a research idea related to the mispronunciation of some Arabic words such as "Islam" and "Assalam" by native speakers of English. I noticed that these two words in particular are often mispronounced, especially the syllable -lam which is pronounced as /lɑm/ as explained above instead of /læm/ as in "lamb" which is the closest English equivalent to the native speaker of Arabic's pronunciation of this syllable.
Therefore, I'm trying to trace the syllable /lɑm/ in English to see if it actually exists in the English phonological inventory.
So far I found these results on urbandictionary.com.
UPDATE 11/11/2015: I have found more examples, "llama," "lama (a Buddhist priest of Tibet or Mongolia)," and "Lombard".
Thanks in advance for your help :)
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I found this video on how to pronounce "Muslum"
I'd love to hear comments not only on the tips/ steps to pronounce "Muslim" but also on the comments made by viewers of the video.
Thank you :-)
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Do neurolinguists have any suggested model for phonological transfer direction ?? I want to know if there is any neurological support for the process through which phonological transfer happens.   To be exact i want to know how different parts of brain work when phonological transfer happens?? Any idea? Any model??any sources?? 
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Hallo Sorour,
I am not sure I understand you correctly (whether you talk rather about phonology in general or intonation or both). Transfer in learning ?
The things I have in mind (and which at least I found exciting) for intonation and neural models are these papers here:
But I am not sure they speak to your topic.
Best Susanne
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I am working with intonational bilingualism, but I am addressing the linguistic issue in a general way and answers from segmental phonology are welcome:
if on one hand I have a pair of synonymous (due to bilingualism), phonetically similar but phonologically distinct patterns that converge phonetically in a gradient way, creating a continuity of in-between forms without creating new phonological categories (gradent phonetic fudging), thus progressively (in time) eliminating their phonological distinction, and on the other hand I have another synonimous pair which creates a third intermediate fusion-form but also a fusion-category associated to it (phonological discrete fudging), am I allowed to say that (or is there a possible way to assess, and in this case, are there studies assessing whether) the first process is a more "below the level of awareness" than the second one (and therefore, is more bound to result in permanent change)?
Probably the very definition of phonological implies a "more" conscious process, but I mean specific self-awareness tasks, which in intonation may be of the kind "have you said it with an accent?" giving clearly polarized answers in some cases and many "I don't know"s or "sort of"s in others.
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Interesting but complex questions! Without going into any of them directly, I would like to mention an unpublished (and now lost, alas!) paper I wrote on the ability of a speaker who made the COT:CAUGHT distinction regularly and natively, to distinguish it after having lived among speakers who lacked it. The surprising result (to me) was that the speaker failed to recognize the distinction when listening to recorded word lists. I am sure that I have seen this point documented elsewhere, but I don't recall where just now. The moral is that what happens in production does not necessarily always mirror what occurs in reception. (Sometimes the result runs the other way: the hearer recognizes the distinction in the speech of others, but does not produce it -- pointing to the hazards of making internal psycholinguistic inferences based on external events.)
    --Rudy
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Is apraxia of speech (AOS) the same as language delay? and what are the most featured phonological patterns that characterize apraxic people?
Is there a specific battery used to diagnose apraxia of speech? and in case there is not, what are its symptoms?
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Dafydd Gibbon thank you so much.
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Given my rudimentary knowledge in phonology, I am somehow struck by this question of phonological rule condensation. 
There are three phonological rules:
a. A → B / C__D
b. A → B /    __DE
c. A → B / C __E
Now can you help me to collapse these three rules into a single rule schema? I would appreciate your help!
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I'm tempted to say that abbreviations are only useful (in phonology as elsewhere) if one remembers what they mean. Oops, I said it! Please bear with me, formalisms are so pedantic ...
1. Pankaj's formulation says nothing about word-initial position. The rules can apply anywhere within a word, initially or not, provided that the context terminates at a word-final boundary.
2. The rule
A→B/_
actually means that A is replaced by B everywhere (whether there is a word boundary or not). But Pankaj's formulation implies simply
A→B#
which means that A is replaced by B only before a word boundary (forgetting the other rules for a moment).
3. The full resolution of Pankaj's formulation
A → B / (C)__(D)(E)#
is the following set of 8 rules (i.e. 2^3 rules, as there are 3 binary options):
CADE# → CBDE#
CAD# → CBD#
CAE# → CBE#
CA# → CB#
ADE# → BDE#
AD# → BD#
AE# → BE#
A# → B#
This means that I have to revise my previous comments, as I had ignored the word boundary in the formulation. The solution is neither sound (in that it generates unwanted items) nor complete (in that it only generates contexts which contain a word-final boundary). In contrast, the original rule apply whatever follows, i.e. whether there is a word-final boundary or not (since no word boundary is specified in the rules).
4. Interestingly, in a context CADE, application of the rules is indeterminate: either of the following original rules can apply:
CAD → CBD
ADE → BDE
In each case, the output would be CBDE.
If the two rules had different rule changes, e.g. if the second of these two were
ADE → GDE
it would mean that a principle of rule ordering would be needed in order to decide whether the output should be CBDE or CGDE. Since the output is the same in each case in the given example, the ordering is irrelevant and the rules can be said to be unordered.
Next challenge: find a real language to which rules with comparable structural descriptions and structural changes apply! :)
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I am currently working on English / Arabic contrastive phonology. I need a tool for doing automatic Arabic speech segmentation. Can you recommend one, please? 
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 For HMM algorithm, you can use HTK (HMM tool Kit). HTK can do automatic segmentation and labeling.
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I'm looking for articles about the effects of tonal crowding in intonational languages (tone truncation, tonal compression, schwa epenthesis...). If you've published anything about this subject, I'll be grateful if you let me know.
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Paolo, I have tonal crowding in Pescara, two pitch accents having to be aligned with the same (nuclear) syllable, the outcome being anticipation of the first to the pretonic syllable.
I remember reading about a comparative (I think English/Dutch or English/German) work on final crowding, the outcome being truncation in one language, compression in another...as soon as I find the reference I'll tell you
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I am looking for cases of progressive voicing assimilation where the +voice value spreads to the right (dt>dd). The only case I found was limited the past tense suffix in Dutch. Does anyone know of any others? Are they limited to specific morphemes like in Dutch?
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It seems that a post-consonantal obstruent will either appear syllable/word-finally which is usually the context for devoicing and not voicing or it will be syllabified as an onset in which voiceless consonants will be aspirated in many languages. In other words, the context for voicing is not available. I do however have dissimilation examples from Persian, examples such as /goftan/> [gofdam] 'I said' and /biskuyit/ > [bisguyit].
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(Brainstorming) When we consider that: ''syllable are individually represented and accessed during phonological encoding'', could we say that the syllables -phonological encoding (segment and syllable)- are generated in the LEXICON? what's the difference evidence (from aphasia for example)
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 I think, Yes (in Slavic language). But,  Why!! I cannot see the reason on that encoding
In Croatian as well as kindred South Slavic language (Serbian, Bosnian,..) any word can be graphically represented using 30 letters (grapheme). Acoustic realization i.e. pronunciation of graphemes is very simple in Croatian language. Each written symbol (letter i.e. grapheme) has its own phoneme and vice versa. This rule stands for all words in Croatian language. Therefore reading and writing in Croatian language is very simple. 
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for phonological processing in rhyme judgement tasks  ,what is meaning of baseline and how can we get it ?
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there can be 2 control conditions: some people use a semantic decision as a baseline as in "Do these 2 objects belong to the same category?" or what we used was lines in different orientation to subtract minimally (visual/attention aspect only)
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I want to develop a Persian version of this approach
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Hi Hannane,
Yes you can. Minimal contrasts does not mean minimal syllables. Minimal contrasts in phonology are often referred to as minimal pairs. That is, you have two words that are opposed by just a phonological feature, which could be a toneme or a phoneme. In a tone language like the Yoruba for example, /bo/ on a high tone means to peel, but the same /bo/. on a low tone means to cover. At the same time, /ile/ on Mid/High tones means house', but on the Mid/Low tone it means floor or ground. Also, /pako/ on High/High means plank, but on High/Low it means chewing-stick. It is much like /table/ and /cable/ or /bat/ and /rat/. They are rightly minimal pairs or contrasts. 
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Any thoughts how to teach foreign language pronunciation especially IPA notation and transcription to students who are blind? 
For me IPA has an enormous value in learning foreign language pronunciation, what about my students who are blind how to adapt it? Do you have any ideas, did you come across blind student of linguistics who learnt IPA? Maybe you are a professional who encountered blind student and was wondering how to adapt IPA? Is IPA and transcription for the blind totally omitted and the topic marginalised. Share your ideas and reflections with me as the topic seems extremely interesting for me.
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We have a recent article in Teaching Linguistics that might be useful to you: A tactile IPA magnet board system: a tool for blind and visually-impaired students in phonetics and phonology classrooms.  
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Please if you have any idea about the syllabic writing system, share your knowledge
Thank you in advance
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For those interested in more information on the Mayan language group in general and also in its written form, I recommend "Reading the Maya Glyphs" by Michael D. Coe and Mark van Stone. As I've not these scholar's understanding, I yield to their own words and offer these two snippets for you to test your interest against.
"All of the 31 extant members of the Mayan language family, along with Classic Mayan, are grammatically very different from the languages (all belonging to the Indo-European family) that we either know as native speakers, or from having studied them in school.
"Maya writing has both a semantic dimension and a phonetic one: some signs indicate meaning alone, while others express particular sounds in the language being recorded. In this it is similar to other ancient scripts, such as Egyptian, Chinese, and the cuneiform system of Mesopotamia. We call the "meaning" signs logograms; these stand for whole words or word-stems. For a list of the most common logograms in use among the Classic Maya, see pages 161-166. The phonetic signs are syllabograms, representing syllables (combinations of consonants and vowels), as well as the "pure vowels" (a, e, i, 0, u) unaccompanied by any consonant. Maya writing is thus logosyllaoic. It is no accident that there is no known script in the world, ancient or modern, which entirely consists of logograms - there would simply be far too many discrete signs for anyone to memorize, and too much ambiguity inherent to such a system. Accordingly, the scribes of these early civililizations attached signs known as phonetic complements (PC) to logograms (L) to help in their reading. Maya syllabograms were used in just such a way, as we shall see.
"Yet, in the Maya system, any word that could be spelled with a logogram alone, or by a logogram with one or more phonetic complements, could and often was written purely syllabically (we shall examine the rules for this in 2.2). So why didn't they give up the clumsy logograms, and write everything phonetically with syllabograms? The probably answer is that the Maya elite, including the scribes, put a high value on signs which not only had deep cultural meanings, but which could be relatively difficult to write (at least for neophytes)."
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Thanks!
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write these terms in Google Scholar and you will find what there is
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Does anyone know which webpages, Journals have articles or researches in phonological awareness?
Thank you a lot in advance!!
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Dear Katerina,
Apart from providing a few articles in the general area you are interested in (I don't know if you are interested in phonological awareness in children, or teaching, or other areas, but these are all papers in phonological awareness), I'm going to show you a few ways to access free articles.
Method A: Google Scholar
1) Go into Google Scholar (scholar.google.com) and enter your search keywords.
2) When you get your results, the ones on the right usually include links to .PDF files, etc, that you can freely access.
The link will take you to the search I tried on Google Scholar, with some articles that might be relevant for you.
Method B: Research Gate
1) Click on the icon next to the ResearchGate search bar
2) Click on the one that says "publications". That will allow you to limit your search to publications hosted on ResearchGate only.
3) Type in your search query and sift through results. This method does not guarantee free access, since researchers can't always upload their papers to this platform, but sometimes you will be able to get a full-text.
I'm attaching a screenshot so that you can see where to find this function.
Method C: University Libraries
Your library might be able to provide you with VPN access, so if they are subscribed to journals, etc, you can access them. Some libraries provide their own search engines as well.
Best regards,
Fiorella
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Hi everybody. I'm working in intonation and I'd like to know what you think about recording with a wireless recorder. Do you think that I could lose valuable information on my recordings? Should I take account anything about wireless signals? I'm using a TASCAM DR-40 recorder and my micro is a electric condenser micro Shure pg30 and its frequency response is 60 Hz to 20,000 Hz and it's cardiod (Output impedance 1200 Ω@ 1Khz) and I also use a wireless microphone system Shure SVX (details in the attached image). On the other hand, are there papers about suitable microphones (or suitable microphone systems) that I should use in intonation (or in phonetics, at least). Could anybody help me? Thanks for any information.
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Eddy Brixen's advice is very good. To add to it, you can consult advice offered by Bartek Plichta, e.g. on the companion website of the excellent Data collection in sociolinguistics (http://sociolinguisticdatacollection.com/teaching-tools/), and on his own Akustyk website (http://bartus.org/akustyk/, look under "Microphones" and "Reviews").
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We have an interest in adult dyslexia as we were invited to train in and to diagnose adult dyslexia (funded by the local dyslexia association) and that included the BDA workplace needs assessor programme.  We have therefore developed an interest in reasonable adjustments, which are influencing our thinking within clinic.
This has led to the incidental observation that a signifciant number of our clinic patients would also attend the local dyslexia association and report being dyslexic (not necessarily diagnosed). Also, local evidence points out that those struggling to manage LBP have lower educational attainment (making us wonder whether that is actually an indication of a specific learning difficulty as opposed to general ability).
The project would (currently) hopefully do the following things:
- establish the prevalence of dyslexia in the local adult population (we have a vehicle similar to the household survey that we could access)
-  We would then like to work out whether there is a greater representation of adult dyslexics within our clinic population - compared with the general local adult population. As a long term goal this is of course to improve long term outcomes for chornic pain patients.
- As part of the process, we need to establish the best and feasible screening tool/measure
- we would also like to establish, if indeed, dyslexics are more greatly represented in our chornic pain population, whether they are those who struggle the most to take on board / learn taught/coached pain management skilss and - more importantly - how we would better coach, better teach and better assist them navigating both our department and, therefore, the potential for better navigating healthcare in general.
So far, there is a team of three of us (this is in the middle of clinical work, etc.) and we would be keen to make some links and consider collaborative working opportunities but, in the first instance, wondering whether you would be happy to arrange a time to discuss.
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So, the 切韻 Qièyùn organizes each of its tone categories into 193 rime categories. This is explicit in the organization of the work. But one could also come up with rime categories by forming chains of the 反切下字 fǎnqiè xiàngzì. Does this yield the same 193 categories? Has someone checked? Where can I read about it.
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If there is a 切韻 Qièyùn or 廣韻 guangyun online, this can be calculated straightforwardly. Do you have an electronic version?
Without the database in hand, my guess is that it will be much more than 193 categories for multiple characters are used as 反切下字 for the same rhyme.
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Is there anyone who knows about this methodology. I am considering employing this methodology to analyze speech perception of sounds. Thanks a lot!
Minghui,WU from Radboud University Nijmegen /Shanghai International Studies University
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I suggest that you read Chapter 1 in Volume 1 of the Second Edition of Steven's Handbook of Experimental Psychology. 1988. Published by John Wiley. 
It was written by Duncan Luce and Carol Krumhansl. Carol was a student of Roger Shepard's who developed multidimensional scaling. The answer by Morgan above is ver important. This is because it gives you the assumptions that have to be met before you can use this scaling method. 
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I want to know if I can group minimal pairs and auditory discrimination in phonological awareness category or these three are totally different?
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Phonological awareness, according to its original proposal (at the time referred to as Linguistic Awareness: Mattingly, 1972) refers to an ability beyond that of perceptual discrimination of phonemes. And, according to Mattingly, this ability is the key to the ability to read, which varies among individuals. Auditory discrimination, on the other hand, is more of a lower level, automatic and likely subconscious ability that anyone who can produce and perceive speech must be endowed with. See http://www.haskins.yale.edu/Reprints/HL0516A.pdf
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In a phonology and phonetics, when do you want to use authentic passage to test specific pronunciation of sounds produced by students you will find that the authentic document available does not capture all the items you want to test. In this case will a passage written by the researcher and covering all the items he/she wants to test be a better option?
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Those who are following this thread may find the following Ph.D. thesis interesting and helpful:
C.-J. Ko, Early-stage French as a Foreign Language in Taiwan: a case study involving L2 oral proficiency..., Ph.D. thesis, University of Edinburgh, 2010, 342 pages:
Podcasts provide language teachers and learners with a wide range of possibilities for
listening to authentic conversations inside and outside of the classroom (Stanley, 2006), p. 30.
Texts can be considered authentic that assist learners in discovering the communication
conventions in the target language and allow them to share the interpretation of meaning within the text or any other texts with other fluent users of the language,p. 51.    For example, I have been learning Turkish and have found very helpful newspapers (available at Turkish airports) with split columns (English in one column, Turkish in the adjacent column).