Science topics: LinguisticsPhonetics
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Phonetics - Science topic

Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
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Dear all,
I am currently working on an oral corpus containing witnesses from ex-deported women. I would be interested in exploring the corpus looking for verbal and para-verbal features related to trauma experience and recalling. What kinds of patterns should I look at? Could you advise me on some relevant literature on this matter?
Thank you in advance!
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Very useful! Thank you!
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Studying one of the varieties of Persian, it is assumed that, regardless of the stress position, all the short (mono-moraic) vowels are reduced to schwa in all of the open syllables. More clearly, all long (bi-moraic) vowels are kept intact and the short vowels have a surface representation only if they are the nucleus of closed syllables. Has any research provided any evidence of a language or a variety which can fit a similar phonological pattern?
Any information would be greatly appreciated.
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Johan Schalin Thanks for the reply. I will read it with great interest.
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Hi,
I would like to calculate formant dispersion, but most phonetic (and non-phonetic) sources assume the reader knows how to do so. I have found one formula (attached), but don't know how to read it.
It's also not entirely clear to me if there are various types of dispersion formulae - so far, this is the impression I'm getting from checking out dispersion for things other than formants.
Many thanks for help!
Míša
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Formula (1), for three formants translates simply as:
((F2-F1) + (F3-F2))/2
and for four formants it would be:
((F2-F1) + (F3-F2) + (F4 - F3))/3
etc.
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My research targeted measuring F1 and F2 of the long and short /a/. My question is related to the possibility of combining these two values into one value called formant. Is that phonetically correct?
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Hi Eman,
It would help to know what you are trying to look into? Like Leônidas suggests a transformation may be appropriate for your research question and there are various ones out there depending on your needs (for example, there are several ways to normalise the vowel space between speakers).
The reason I don't think there is a clear cut answer to which transformation to use and whether to use one at all, is that we are dealing with a complex phenomenon. A useful way of thinking about this is that a formant is an just an acoustic measurement (or perhaps a series of acoustic measurements if you can deal with time series data) that reflects the state of a speakers articulatory system. It arises from some possibly very non-trivial interaction of the voice source and vocal tract resonances.The resonances are not formants per se because they are properties of the physical system that may or may not be fed acoustic energy. There's a developing body of literature on using computational models for determining the resonances and looking at their relation to observed formants. The results tell us that for large low voiced males the picture is mainly the way text books often lay it out, but that there are confounds (like variation in vocal tract anatomy due to age, gender and individual factors and dynamically nasality) that produce surprising effects.
And finally, depending on your question and materials, it might make sense to look at even more formants and possibly transformations between them. Before doing so, I would encourage you to plot the data and see how it behaves, so that you'll have a clearer understanding of what is happening. I've seen F4 recommended as some sort of normalising value for one of the lower formants and then looked at F4 in a data set I was working on only to discover that it was so badly tracked that I could not trust it and had to use other analysis methods.
Best of luck,
Pertti
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Dear Friends,
Greeting.
Happy New Year. I wish everybody a prosperous New Year.
I'm thinking of a project for checking the sound (phonetics) that will lost or promoted while switching from one set of alphabet to another. For example switching from Arabic letters to Latin in Turkey; does the set of Latin letters saved all Turkish phonetics (sound)? What is the advantages and/or disadvantages of such switching?
Did such work carried out anywhere?
Best Regards,
ABDUL-SAHIB
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Dear عائشة عبد الواحد thank you for the invaluable answer.
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My two favourite courses are Phonetics and Phonology and General Linguistics with its other interrelated sub-divisions. I have been teaching them for over 35 years.
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Thank you for this great question,
For me, my favorite lessons are:
Distinctive features in structural phonology and generative phonology,
And the generative phonology in general, especially the modern generative phonology,
Prosodic phonology,
And the leadership of Indians and Arabs in the Ancient phonological studies.
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I am working on ASR creation for an under-resourced Indo-Aryan languange. As a start I want to work on isolated word recognition. I will be requiring phonetic dictionary as part of this work. can you suggest me some good reading materials for automatic phonetic dictionary creation.
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You could check out POnSS as reported in the following study. Rodd, J., Decuyper, C., Bosker, H. R., & Ten Bosch, L. (2020). A tool for efficient and accurate segmentation of speech data: Announcing POnSS. Behavior Research Methods, 53(2), 744-756. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01449-6 Good luck,
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The quality of automatic speech segmentation tools has been improved over the years and there are many proposals. Can you recommend a good free tool for this purpose?
I'm looking for something that can receive as input an audio file and provide a list of time instants as output.
I have the phonetic sequence and I don't need to have "perfect" segmentation boundaries.
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Montreal Forced Aligner is also a good option for speech segmentation.
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English phonetics and phonology
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There are 5 vocal cord positions
1. Median (midline)
2. Paramedian (1.5 mm from the midline)
3. Cadaver (3.5 mm from the midline)
4. Partial Abduction (7 mm from the midline)
5. Full abduction (9.5 mm from the midline)
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Collecting acoustic data during the pandemic faced me with a challenge that I need to overcome. I have to upload some audio files and scripts, and the subjects are required to answer the questions and record their speech to be uploaded. Any information regarding online facilities would be appreciated.
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https://www.phonic.ai/ lacks only one of the sections which I need. I have a long main text and its related audio file which should be uploaded. The subjects are required to listen to the main text and then answer the following questions vocally. Their answers should be recorded and uploaded on a server. This website is only designed for questions and answers and there is no section for the main text, from which the questions are asked.
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This is so far the procedure I was trying upon and then I couldn't fix it
As per my understanding here some definitions:
- lexical frequencies, that is, the frequencies with which correspondences occur in a dictionary or, as here, in a word list;
- lexical frequency is the frequency with which the correspondence occurs when you count all and only the correspondences in a dictionary.
- text frequencies, that is, the frequencies with which correspondences occur in a large corpus.
- text frequency is the frequency with which a correspondence occurs when you count all the correspondences in a large set of pieces of continuous prose ...;
You will see that lexical frequency produces much lower counts than text frequency because in lexical frequency each correspondence is counted only once per word in which it occurs, whereas text frequency counts each correspondence multiple times, depending on how often the words in which it appears to occur.
When referring to the frequency of occurrence, two different frequencies are used: type and token. Type frequency counts a word once.
So I understand that probably lexical frequencies deal with types counting the words once and text frequencies deal with tokens counting the words multiple times in a corpus, therefore for the last, we need to take into account the word frequency in which those phonemes and graphemes occur.
So far I managed phoneme frequencies as it follows
Phoneme frequencies:
Lexical frequency is: (single count of a phoneme per word/total number of counted phonemes in the word list)*100= Lexical Frequency % of a specific phoneme in the word list.
Text frequency is similar but then I fail when trying to add the frequencies of the words in the word list: (all counts of a phoneme per word/total number of counted phonemes in the word list)*100 vs (sum of the word frequencies of the targeted words that contain the phoneme/total sum of all the frequencies of all the words in the list)= Text Frequency % of a specific phoneme in the word list.
PLEASE HELP ME TO FIND A FORMULA ON HOW TO CALCULATE THE LEXICAL FREQUENCY AND THE TEXT FREQUENCY of phonemes and graphemes.
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Hola,
Para el cálculo de la frecuencia léxica de unidades simples o complejas, se suele utilizar WordSmith o AntCon.
Saludos
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This is so far the procedure I was trying upon and then I couldn't fix it
As per my understanding:
- lexical frequencies, that is, the frequencies with which correspondences occur in a dictionary or, as here, in a word list;
- lexical frequency is the frequency with which the correspondence occurs when you count all and only the correspondences in a dictionary.
- text frequencies, that is, the frequencies with which correspondences occur in a large corpus.
- text frequency is the frequency with which a correspondence occurs when you count all the correspondences in a large set of pieces of continuous prose ...;
You will see that lexical frequency produces much lower counts than text frequency because in lexical frequency each correspondence is counted only once per word in which it occurs, whereas text frequency counts each correspondence multiple times, depending on how often the words in which it appears to occur.
When referring to the frequency of occurrence, two different frequencies are used: type and token. Type frequency counts a word once.
So I understand that probably lexical frequencies deal with types counting the words once and text frequencies deal with tokens counting the words multiple times in a corpus, therefore for the last, we need to take into account the word frequency in which those phonemes and graphemes occur.
So far I managed phoneme frequencies as it follows
Phoneme frequencies:
Lexical frequency is: (single count of a phoneme per word/total number of counted phonemes in the word list)*100= Lexical Frequency % of a specific phoneme in the word list.
Text frequency is similar but then I fail when trying to add the frequencies of the words in the word list: (all counts of a phoneme per word/total number of counted phonemes in the word list)*100 vs (sum of the word frequencies of the targeted words that contain the phoneme/total sum of all the frequencies of all the words in the list)= Text Frequency % of a specific phoneme in the word list.
PLEASE HELP ME TO FIND A FORMULA ON HOW TO CALCULATE THE LEXICAL FREQUENCY AND THE TEXT FREQUENCY of phonemes and graphemes.
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It will help if you use a suitable and powerful qualitative research software as Atlas.ti (https://atlasti.com/) or equivalent. This software allows you to introduce and research large amounts of text, written or oral, images, videos, etc. Then, you can select diverse research techniques, including frequencies, correlations, modulations, structures, and several other tools.
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Dear research community,
we are all living in a difficult period which is challenging our plans and concentration. Since fieldwork is now impossible, do you know any reliable internet platform or system to record speakers remotely in good quality files for phonetic research? (for example .wav files, 44 kHz with minimal sound distortion and manipulation)
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I recently know a software for perception study, used by a researcher from Hong Kong of China?
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I need to convert manually annotated IPA transcriptions into digital format. Does anybody know of an OCR system able to recognise IPA symbols (even just for English phonemes)?
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I recently heard from Michael Ashby, current president of the International Phonetic Association, that he wrote a paper on OCR of IPA characters. But this was for printed text, not handwritten transcriptions.
> Ashby, Michael. 2017. Recognition where it’s due: Some experiments in optical character recognition (OCR) for phonetic symbols. Journal of the English Phonetic Society of Japan 21. 63–79.
He told me I could freely distribute it so it's attached
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I have this project for school with my students and we are trying to create a list of the non-native accents in English that are the most difficult to understand (by natives or non natives). In other words, I'm trying to establish if it is English spoken in France, Poland, or Liberia etc. Also, what are the deviant phonological features that make comprehension more difficult? (other than word stress on the wrong syllable). If anyone has thoughts or knows a study regarding these topics, I would be very glad to hear about it. Thanks for your help!
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Linguistically,we do not have an accent that is much knottier than others,nor more prestigous,but it is a matter that is mainly accompained with it spread and usage by the speakers.
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English phonetics and phonology
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Accent is a variety of pronunciation whereas dialect is a variety of language. Allophone is a member of the same phoneme. Allomorph can be tackled within the framework of Grammar. These are some basic concepts. For further details, just have a look at the books of Grammar, Phonetics and Phonology.
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English phonetics and phonology
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Fortis is a term that refers to voiceless consonants as their production is stronger than the production of lenis consonants. They need much more effort. Lenis is a term referring to voiced consonants that need less effort in their production. As for phonemic transcription, both should be enclosed between slashes to make them different from the letters used in ordinary spelling.
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Hello!
Where can I find "North Wind and the Sun" tale written in various languages with the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) transcriptions?
Thank you!
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Morphology focuses on the various morphemes that make up a word. A morpheme is the smallest unit of a word that has meaning. A morph is the phonetic realization of that morpheme, or in plain English, the way it is formed. An allomorph is the way or ways a morph can potentially sound.
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Morphemes are the smallest meaningful constituents of words; Words are composed of morphemes (one or more). sing-er-s, home-work, un-kind-ly, flipp-ed, de-nation-al-iz-ation nej-ne-ob-hospod.ar-ova-tel-nejˇs-´ıho, auto-servis-u Morph. The term morpheme is used both to refer to an abstract entity and its concrete realization(s) in speech or writing. When it is needed to maintain the signified and signifier distinction, the term morph is used to refer to the concrete entity, while the term morpheme is reserved for the abstract entity only.
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Phonetics deals with the production of speech sounds by humans, often without prior knowledge of the language being spoken.
Phonology is about patterns of sounds, especially different patterns of sounds in different languages, or within each language, different patterns of sounds in different positions in words etc .
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Phonetics is realization (acoustic and articulatory reality) while phonology is believed to be about the organization of the system, about combinations. They are different levels of representation. Different models of language perception and production discuss possible mappings between these levels. If you are interested, write to me and I'll send you some reading suggestions.
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I am working on a paper trying to investigate the advisability of using animated charts in teaching phonetics and phonology for non-native speakers of English.
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yes, it can help at a considerable degree. I recommend using CALL programs as Pronunciation Power, it is very effective in the teaching of vowels and consonants for foreign learners as it demonstrates the lips movements, the tongue articulation and the jaw shape ( place and manner of articulation).
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Hi every one..... I am looking for an expert phonetician who is familiar with Arabic IPA (Hejazi dialect) to check the phonatic transcriptions of the word-list that I created for my PhD project. If anyone is interested, kindly contact me: email: DFTurki1@sheffield.ac.uk. Mobil: +447472833133‬ Thank you..
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May I suggest "Techniques of teaching comparative pronunciation in Arabic and English ( Odisho, 2005 )". There's a full phonetic transcription of middle eastern Arabic if this is what you're looking for. I have an idea about this but I may not be a good speaker of Hijazi Arabic to be able to recognize the pronunciation of their dialect. I hope this helps.
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Ohh! Sorry I didn't catch that you were asking about the system used in that conference paper.
Best of luck.
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Phonetics is the science concerned with the study of the sound system in the human language in general. Phonology, however, is the science concerned with the study of the sound system in particular languages. What are the main differences that can be added between the two disciplines?
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Phonetics is the study of the the physical properties of human speech, such as how basic sounds are physically produced, their acoustics, and how they are perceived.
Phonology deals with language sounds in abstract, grammatical terms. It often focuses on the systems of phonemes in particular languages and describes how they work. Phonology also deals with acoustic phenomena at syllable level (e.g., morae) or even sentence-level (e.g., sentence level stress).
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Hi, I am trying to construct a receptive phonology task (i.e., odd-one-out: "bli" "bli" "bla", which sounded different?) for 3-year old children with various language backgrounds. As I want to compare kids with speaking different languages, I need to construct parallel tests with comparable item difficulty. I have found consonant and vowel confusion matirces for German and French (sadly only adult's data) but not (yet) for Italian and Turkish. Can anyone help me out?
Kind regards,
Jessica
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Thank you Christina Valaki! I have also come across that paper since my inquiry! However, I am still looking for information for the Turkish language.. This is turning out to be more complicated than anticipated..
Thank you all for giving me tips! This is all very helpful and highly appreciated!
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Phonemic and Phonetic
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Also, in phonemic transcriptions we use slashes / pei/as normally in phonetic dictionaries , but I have to exchange them to square brackets [ ] in addition to the use of aspiration theory (initially- after /s/ or final position) in phonetic transcriptions
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I am working on project which requires phonetic posteriorgram to find similarity between two audio signals. I know that first I have to extract MFCC features, then train a Multi Layer Perceptron by giving input to this MLP and it will give you phonetic posterior probability for each phonetic class. I also read some papers but didn't find any algorithm. What is algorithm in matlab to train MLP and compute these posteriorgrams?
I have also attached a example of posteriorgram of a phrase.
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Following answers.
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I am interested in creating voice-impaired speech samples for a speech perception task. It seems that, to date, there is no speech synthesizer that can create natural sounding speech with typical dysphonic characteristics (e.g. high jitter or shimmer values). But I might be wrong, since I am new to the field of speech synthesis. If you know of a specific software or can recommend related publications, I'd appreciate your help.
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Hello, Isabel Schiller . I have been dveleoping a physics-based synthesizer of dysphonic voices. In this link you will find more information and a prototype for download: https://cic.unb.br/~lucero/synthesis_en.html . The synthesizer is able to produce sustained vowels with controlled levels of breathiness, jitter, tremor, and other effects, and I am currently working on consonant-vowel sequences.
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My aim is to morph two sounds (e.g., light-right) so that they become an ambiguous sound (i.e., sometimes you'll hear it as 'right', sometimes 'light').
I have been practicing with a MATLAB based software called STRAIGHT-legacy and have had some success with the coding (non-GUI) side of it. However, there is very limited guidance available online, and I would like some more guidance:
Q1. Preferably, some UG students can use the GUI version of the software. From reading Hideki Kawahara's (2009) manual, this can be done by typing “TandemSTRAIGHThandler” in the Matlab command window (after setting path to src). However, this does not work. Since the manual was written some time ago, I'm wondering if the GUI for morphing is still operational, or has it been phased out? If anyone is still using it successfully, I'd appreciate if you can let me know how you activate it (i.e., which version of STRAIGHT did you download, and what version of MATLAB do you use?)
Q2. There are still some minor aspects of the coding interface I have trouble with, too. If anyone has experience of using STRAIGHT for morphing, please get in touch.
Many thanks,
Ryan
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ربما
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Would you recommend any?
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In our paper "Sound to meaning mappings in the Bouba-Kiki effect." we've created hundreds of nonsense words with the aim of determining how the various phonemes contribute to attributed meanings (related the object shape). I don't have the other papers handy, but in our paper we reference several papers that similarly attempt to isolate/characterize how various phonemes are related to meanings. Some reads I would recommend 1) Nielsen, A., & Rendall, D. (2011). The sound of round: evaluating the sound-symbolic role of consonants in the classic Takete-Maluma phenomenon. 2) Magnus (2001) What's in a Word? Studies in Phonosemantics 3) Fort, Martin and Peperkamp (2014) Consonants are More Important than Vowels in the Bouba-kiki Effect
Most of these papers focus on specific sound-to-meaning mapping (e.g. sound-shape mapping)
The thesis by Margaret Magnus takes a more comprehensive look at how sounds in English are mapped to a variety of meanings.
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Pronunciation is the most fundamental and, therefore, most important problem that Spanish-speaking EFL students have to face. Adequate oral communication cannot take place if the speaker does not enunciate clearly, nor if the listener is not tuned to hearing sounds (overt or subtle) that do not exist in his native language.
Often, it can be said that an excellent author has a "good ear" - meaning the author has captured the speech patterns of real speech in the text. So, even to write well, you have to master pronunciation, as well as other language subtleties.
I doubt that there exist adequate written and audio sources to address this problem effectively. I think the EFL teacher has to create his/her own sources.
I have created my own sources written and audio materials for helping Mexican Spanish-speaking students to master American English pronunciation.
If you are interested, I can send you some examples.
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What is being done to address the most fundamental problem that Spanish-speaking EFL students have, namely Pronunciation?
Dear Antonio:
Congratulations and thank you so much for asking this most important question, particularly, the one related that deals with the problem of Spanish-speaking EFL students have with pronunciation.
Like this manner, in the following article, PRONUNCIATION PROBLEMS FOR SPANISH-SPEAKING LEARNERS OF ENGLISH, we may see as well relevant information about this topic.
Although a strong Spanish accent is usually easier to understand than a similarly strong French or Portuguese one, the pronunciation can cause considerable strain for the listener and seem somewhat harsh and flat. More importantly, Spanish speakers often have listening comprehension far below their other skills.
School English lessons in most Spanish-speaking countries also tend to focus much more on reading and grammar than speaking and listening, and so pronunciation work will both help redress the balance and be considered worthwhile by students.
This article will focus mainly on pronunciation problems that cause miscomprehension, including some attempt to prioritize the entries in each section. The sections themselves are arranged more traditionally, starting with individual sounds.
Source:
Likewise, Spanish and Catalan are Romances languages, closely related to Italian and Portuguese; they belong to the Indo-European family. Variations in Spanish are noticeable within Spain itself, and also between metropolitan Spain and the varieties spoken in the Americas. However, these differences are largely confined to pronunciation and vocabulary, morphology, and syntax being fairly standard everywhere. With a little experience, all varieties are mutually intelligible.
Despite its limited geographical spread, Catalan varies appreciably from one area to another, though the variations are largely within pronunciation and vocabulary. There is a large degree of mutual intelligibility, though the variety spoken in the Balearics is significantly different from mainland Catalan.
Bibliographical reference
Swan, M., & Smith, B. (2001). Learner English: a teacher's guide to interference and other problems. pages: 90-97. Cambridge handbooks for language teachers.
Best wishes,
Javier.
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Phonetically Balance word list ,malayalam is available in ISHA battery;however the full article in which the list was published isnt available.Hence we couldnt find out whether or not psychometric function was done for the list.It would be helpful if someone could suggest any other PB word list in malayalam for which the psychometric function was done or direct me to the orginal article in which the list was published.
Thank you.
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What is the evidence that testing with English word lists is not valid. Patients and testers are naturally reluctant for the use of English lists on foreign speakers, but in my experience meaningful results can be obtained.
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they're a criteria for distictive features but i dont understand them quite well
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Distinctive features refer to a trait that distinguishes one speech sound from another. For example, at the articulatory level, the difference between /s/ and /z/ is the voicing. At the phonetic level, that is, the physical manifestation of the signal in instrumental analysis (phonetic), the /s/ has concentration of energy in the high frequency region as opposed to the voiced /z/. Such features were thought to help the listener distinguish between these minimal pairs in perception. But please note that other pairs may have the same phonetic features even though the ear identifies them as different. Therefore, phonetic features do not necessarily have phonological relevance.
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Dear Sandra,
When we talk about homophones; don't you think that we are talking semantics or phonetics rather than morphology or psycholinguistics?
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Dear Ali, In Macedonia' s literature homophones are elaborated in the part that cope with lexical issue. But, one angle of dealing with homophones can be semantics too. It depends on the aspect from which you are approaching,
Kind regrads,
V. Janusheva
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I want to detect some series of code number with some phonetic similiraties.
for exampe:
data 1: TK6315
data 2: TK6319
data 3: PK7631
all of three data have some similarities due 9 and 5 (similar phonetic -- nine and five), and same series of "631"
I have found soundex algorithm. But that's mean i must decode all number data to character first before run the algorithm, which is not very efficient because the data is very large
Any advice and suggestions will be greatly appreciated.
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I would use an WFST for that. Similarities defined through weights on the arc. You can compose the input with your similarity-weighted FST and You can have the n-best (most similar) ones. OpenFst. Soundex is a bit rough for real phoneticians, but I guess it does the job.
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Dear colleagues, 
I've almost completed intonation awareness-rising activities (English intonation training for Russian and Chilese EFL learners). I've got losts of recorded material that I'll now start to analyze. I'll be using RAAT for displaying tones (falling, rising, fall-rising). 
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Praat is so useful dear.
Regards
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For the forensic evidence analysis of speech samples, the speaker specific phonetic and other linguistic parameters of acoustic signals are to be measued to compute the likelyhood ratio.  
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A group of parameters are important for that purpose, for example:
Pitch, Harmonics, First five formants at list, Duration, Melody, Intonation, Sonority, Transitions of phonemes, etc.
Best regards,
D. Escobedo
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Does anyone know of any sources to check the relative frequency of various consonant places of articulation in word-initial position in English (or any other language)?
In other words, what percentage of word-initial consonants in English are coronal, labial, dorsal, etc.?
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If you were able to find a database of English words in IPA and import that into SIL's Phonology Assistant program (https://www.sil.org/resources/software_fonts/phonology-assistant, its free) you could easily answer your question and also look at it from multiple angles. 
If you can't find a database in IPA, you could import the CMU corpus above, but you would have to define the phonological features of each of the graphemes and digraphemes. If would be a little bit of work, but not too much. You could then easily compare your results against a token frequency list such as found at (http://www.wordfrequency.info/)
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Sounds, when organized into specific frequencies, can have emotional effects e.g. minor, major chords, etc. Can the resonating harmonic frequencies of voice have similar affect?
If so, could this correlate with historically charismatic individuals, like Hitler, Cesar Chavez, or Fidel Castro?
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I think the effect that it has is that we can recognise the harmonic pattern and thus recognise the speaker. Someone who has heard my voice a few times will, upon hearing it again, pick up on the specific harmonic content and associate it with the memory of the previous times, even if I were speaking at different loudness or in a different mood.
Consider also that the emotive respones to major and minor chords may be learned responses, specific to certain cultures.
Whether or not certain historical figures had similar harmonic patterns, I'm not so sure, but they certainly used other aspects of speech to ellicit emotional responses in their audience, like prosody, as mentioned above. They also may have utilised up and coming broadcast technologies to allow their messages to be sent with higher fidelity than before, as radio and microphone technologies certainly improved in the 1930s.
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I need some practical sources to find out self-assessment and self-repair forms in foreign language teaching/learning?
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Mean syllable duration, Number of filled pauses, Number of silent pauses, Mean duration of silent pauses, Number of corrections, and Number of repetitions. I do really need suggestion as I am not sure whether PRAAT can measure all of that. Maybe there are someone who knows well about PRAAT and how to analyze that. I would be very thanksful. Thank you
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I am looking for the frequency average values of RP consonants in order to compare this with the accented English consonants pronounced by the students
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Hello, there are many "speech banana" diagrams on the internet. Here is a link to one site: http://www.agbell.org/SpeechBanana/
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In doing acoustic analysis of a certain segmental or supra-segmental feature of a language, a researcher usually decides on the age range of speakers to be recorded and analyzed. This age range should represent a "generation". What is the most appropriate age range that better represents the current status of the intended feature in the language under analysis? 
Some studies record males or females only, while some studies record both and report certain variations based on gender difference. The question is, is it essential to have both sexes recorded even if the researcher is not interested in gender variation? 
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Ammar: For methodological tips on informant choice, as well as sampling and analysis of previously unrecorded languages, the Handbook of the IPA may be a good place to start:
The Journal of the IPA regularly publishes phonetic illustrations of previously unrecorded languages (vowels, consonants, prosody), and is dedicated to research on the phonetics of any language. Browsing a couple of journal issues will give you a few more tips:
You may even consider submitting to this journal an article on your findings about the vowel system of the language you’re working on, and/or a full illustration of its phonemic inventory? Instructions for contributions are here:
All best for your research
Madalena
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We are looking for a French text in which speech sounds are selected such as to obtain a fixed proportion of voiced and unvoiced sounds (or more degrees of sonority). This text would we used in a contrastive multilingual experiment on vocal load.
In addition, we are interested in phonetically balanced corpora for French.
Thank you!
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You may find these books useful although quite old.
Lucile Charles & Annie-Claude Motron (2001). Phonetique Progressive du Francais avec 600 exercices. Paris: CLE International.
Lhote Elizabeth (1990). Le paysage sonore d'une langue, le francais. Hambourg: Buske Verlag.
Best wishes
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According to Deniel JOnes Phonetics Study, 26 alphabet in English produce 44 sounds. these sounds are divided into Monopthongs, diphtongs and Consonant sounds. Like this, is there any study on American English Phonetics?
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Mainz, Germany
Dear Schroeder,
Thanks for your contributions here, which seem generally sound.
As for the "political" motivation of Webster's reforms of American spelling, these might also be regarded as more purely cultural. Certainly, it was important, especially in the early republic to be able to distinguish easily writings by Americans as contrasted with British writers.
It strikes me as parallel to the differences, say, between "standard German" in its German and Swiss varieties. They are pretty similar, though the differences tend to stand out. I am not sure I would say that the differences are primarily a political expression.
One question left unexamined is whether Webster's 19th-century reforms of American spelling actually facilitated something distinctive in general American pronunciation. But it strikes me that, e.g., "center" as contrasted with "centre" emphasizes the retention of the final "r." Right? The older British spellings are often hold-overs from Norman French or other French borrowings into English.
H.G. Callaway
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I'm trying to design an audiogram with speech banana, so I looking for informations about the distribution of french phonemes in the audiogram, and what's the difference between french and english phonemes distribution. 
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Jorge is right ...
Something like ...
eng - BA-Naah-na (lengthened middle syllable, stressed first syllable)  
Fre - ba-na-Naah (lengthened and stressed last syllable) 
Trevor
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There are many reasons why Shakespearean Drama,English Poetry and Prose are neglected these days both in Universities,Colleges and also by the People. Phonetics and Linguistics have usurped the position of poetry, prose and drama.English Language has almost become a scientific language with different sounds and symbols, transcriptions and pronunciation etc. The English Language has been made more complicated and is interesting only to the minority lot. Students especially in Asian Countries find Phonetics and Linguistics very difficult to follow and understand. They are of the opinion that English has lost its charm.
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I am of the similar arguments above. Phonetics is difficult for most learners of English in Asian countries not only because they focus on English as a foreign language at  a later age but also learn it in a non immersion classroom . In addition, most students in these countries learn English as a third even fourth language after their mother tongues. For example, students in my province study English as a fourth language, that is, Acehnese (mother tongue), Bahasa Indonesia, Arabic, then English. Of course, they might be introduced to the last three languages at the same time and thus phonetically that is a big burden for them.
When related to the teaching of pronunciation, my simple suggestion is to avoid using the terms such as bilabial stop, interdental fricative, and alveolar ridge even though learners can memorize the terms and label the sounds well. Rather  we should focus on practical aspect, that is, being able to pronounce English words correctly. Using authentic English movies will help.
Scientific knowledge of phonetics and phonology only become a necessity if students are prepared for future English language teachers.
Linguistics and literature can go together. In my view, systemic functional linguistics can be incorporated with literature and the approach will increase students' interest in both fields. 
Above all, I agree with Ladd that without strong conscious or unconscious knowledge of phonetics, no one can speak good English. And, if I may add, without being fed on good literature, students will be brutal.
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 Intonation pattern in regarding declarative questions, yes/no questions, and wh-questions, as well as declarative Statement.
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You may well find this kind of comparative information in : 't Hart, Collier & Cohen (2006). A perceptual study of intonation. An experimental-phonetic approach to speech melody. Cambridge: University Press. This approach has applied the same analysis method to different languages (Dutch, English, German, Russian) so that there is potential for sensible comparison.
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I am interested in to finding out the solid acoustic reasons for multiple pronunciation.
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1) Words are generally word in context: this means that they are surrounded by other sounds, that generally influence the way in which they are performed, even by the same speaker.
2) Speech accomodation (see Giles's works): it has been demonstrated that speakers tend to mimic the prosodic & phonetic features of their conversational counterpart. This means that we change the way we utter a word according to whom we are speaking with.
3) Social cognition: close to the previous point, but slightly different. Thanks to our interactional ability (that is, the "social" variant of the linguistic ability), we are able to modulate our way to produce sounds. We all know when is appropriate or inappropriate to yell, to whisper and which effect may produce shortening or strenghtening sounds.
As for the "pure" acoustic reasons, I think it may be useful to think of speech as a motor action, that needs a coordinate effort of muscles and complex inputs from the primary motor cortex to be performed, exactly as throwing a ball: is the way you throw a ball always the same, and will the ball always fall in the same place? No. Similarly, the action "pronouncing the word: apple" may yield different outcomes.
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1.Many colleges in Asia have done away with teaching of phonetics however they make the students write transcriptions which is ridiculous.
2. Lack of competent and qualified teachers is another important factor and that's why students do not get proper inputs.
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Dear Dr Ravikumar,
My observations in Hong Kong and Singapore are that universities have now taken a very corporate model where students are customers. Phonetics is a very hard subject that straddles both the arts and the sciences, but because it is often associated with Language (normally codified as an Arts subject), the customer-students in the arts find themselves in an uncomfortable zone of trying to learn about scientific things they feel poor at. A downward spiral begins when these customer-students from the Arts pressure the curriculum to be more popular-oriented rather than educationally-oriented, to which the corporate university reacts.
I know there are good teachers, but good teachers have their jobs threatened by the customer-student dynamics.
Best,
Lian-Hee
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I have used P2FA force alignment system to anotate the .wav files. However, the results of phonemic anotation is not good. Is there any open source force alignment software available for American English? By the way, if the software using the CMU dictionary, it will be good for me.
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Check out the prosodylab aligner by Kyle Gorman and Michael Wagner
Info and tutorial here:
code on github:
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I'm basically looking for any ideas about what the sound patterns of early Quebec French (or corresponding French from France) would have sounded like and/or was represented. Merci!
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Dear Rebekah,
I've found this information that might be useful.
R. Mougeon &  É. Beniak (dir.), 1994. Les origines du français au Québec. Québec: Les Presses de l'Université Laval.  
You can read it at:
(see also the table of contents in the document for further references).
There is also this website titled:
DIACHRONIC SOCIOLINGUISTIC RESEARCH ON THE EVOLUTION OF VARIATION IN QUEBEC AND EUROPEAN FRENCH
With reference such as:
Poirier, C. 1975. La prononciation québécoise ancienne d'après les graphies d'un notaire du XVIIe s. Dans M. Juneau & G. Straka (dir.). Travaux de linguistique québécoise, vol. 1. Québec: Les Presses de l'Université Laval, 193-256.
I hope this helps.
With best wishes,
Jose A. Mompean
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I'm interested in differences in the use of /r/-liaison between native speakers of non-rhotic English (e.g. RP) and the use of that phenomenon by EFL learners.
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Dear Jose,
You might have a look the article on the /r/ sound by following the link below:
Hope you find it useful! 
Ali. 
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Have asked in Statistical Area. Am interested in identifying probabilistic and statistic distributions of Mandarin tones [either in general or in specific corpora].
I have developed some very general data eg Tone 1 occurs around 18% of the time, Tones 2 and 3 slightly higher than Tone 1, Tone 4 occurs > 40%, and the neutral is relatively low. But I'd like to obtain more detailed data and also theories as to how experts view tones in probability [if this style can even be accomplished]. Would Bayesian probabilities not be appropriate?
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Stephen, that's really cool stuff! Thanks. 
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I'm looking for literature on dyslexics troubles with consonants. I found this one http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0010027795006974 that found that dyslexics confused /t∫a/ with /∫a/ and /pa/ with /fa/ significantly more than did controls.
Does anybody know of any others?
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The language plays a very important role. It may help you to search for language depentent studies. Reading in German, Italien and Spanish is much easier compared to Frensh or English.
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I am trying to calculate the Breathiness Index, suggested by Fukazawa et al. (1988), as a measure for breathy voice. The paper indicates a range of 8.3 to 75.7 for values of BRI, but my calculations yield values at an order of 1015.
I refer to the definition of BRI as the ratio between the energy of the second derivative of a signal and the energy of the non-derived signal.
I performed the analysis in Praat. The original sound was converted to a matrix, then I applied a formula ((self [col+1] - self [col]) / dx) twice, to obtain the second derivative, and cast the matrix to a sound. Energy was calculated using the Get energy command (which calculates the integral of the squared signal between two time points).
Any idea what I am missing here?
Alternatively, can anyone suggest another measure for spectral tilt that does not require an arbitrary cut-off frequency between low and high frequencies?
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Dear Carlos Ariel Ferrer-Riesgo,
Thank you for the ideas.
I tried resampling the sound at 8 kHz and calculating  the integrals in the spectral domain. Though I received lower values than before, they are still orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the Fukazawa paper (they actually sampled at 20 kHz).
I still don't know what's going on, and, at this point, I don't think I'll use that measure in my study.
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I am working with intonational bilingualism, but I am addressing the linguistic issue in a general way and answers from segmental phonology are welcome:
if on one hand I have a pair of synonymous (due to bilingualism), phonetically similar but phonologically distinct patterns that converge phonetically in a gradient way, creating a continuity of in-between forms without creating new phonological categories (gradent phonetic fudging), thus progressively (in time) eliminating their phonological distinction, and on the other hand I have another synonimous pair which creates a third intermediate fusion-form but also a fusion-category associated to it (phonological discrete fudging), am I allowed to say that (or is there a possible way to assess, and in this case, are there studies assessing whether) the first process is a more "below the level of awareness" than the second one (and therefore, is more bound to result in permanent change)?
Probably the very definition of phonological implies a "more" conscious process, but I mean specific self-awareness tasks, which in intonation may be of the kind "have you said it with an accent?" giving clearly polarized answers in some cases and many "I don't know"s or "sort of"s in others.
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Interesting but complex questions! Without going into any of them directly, I would like to mention an unpublished (and now lost, alas!) paper I wrote on the ability of a speaker who made the COT:CAUGHT distinction regularly and natively, to distinguish it after having lived among speakers who lacked it. The surprising result (to me) was that the speaker failed to recognize the distinction when listening to recorded word lists. I am sure that I have seen this point documented elsewhere, but I don't recall where just now. The moral is that what happens in production does not necessarily always mirror what occurs in reception. (Sometimes the result runs the other way: the hearer recognizes the distinction in the speech of others, but does not produce it -- pointing to the hazards of making internal psycholinguistic inferences based on external events.)
    --Rudy
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Where can I compare and contrast the elimination of phonological processes between English speaking and mandarin speaking children?
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It may be also worthwhile to have a look at Professor Sharynne McLeod's work e.g. multilingual website
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Given my rudimentary knowledge in phonology, I am somehow struck by this question of phonological rule condensation. 
There are three phonological rules:
a. A → B / C__D
b. A → B /    __DE
c. A → B / C __E
Now can you help me to collapse these three rules into a single rule schema? I would appreciate your help!
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I'm tempted to say that abbreviations are only useful (in phonology as elsewhere) if one remembers what they mean. Oops, I said it! Please bear with me, formalisms are so pedantic ...
1. Pankaj's formulation says nothing about word-initial position. The rules can apply anywhere within a word, initially or not, provided that the context terminates at a word-final boundary.
2. The rule
A→B/_
actually means that A is replaced by B everywhere (whether there is a word boundary or not). But Pankaj's formulation implies simply
A→B#
which means that A is replaced by B only before a word boundary (forgetting the other rules for a moment).
3. The full resolution of Pankaj's formulation
A → B / (C)__(D)(E)#
is the following set of 8 rules (i.e. 2^3 rules, as there are 3 binary options):
CADE# → CBDE#
CAD# → CBD#
CAE# → CBE#
CA# → CB#
ADE# → BDE#
AD# → BD#
AE# → BE#
A# → B#
This means that I have to revise my previous comments, as I had ignored the word boundary in the formulation. The solution is neither sound (in that it generates unwanted items) nor complete (in that it only generates contexts which contain a word-final boundary). In contrast, the original rule apply whatever follows, i.e. whether there is a word-final boundary or not (since no word boundary is specified in the rules).
4. Interestingly, in a context CADE, application of the rules is indeterminate: either of the following original rules can apply:
CAD → CBD
ADE → BDE
In each case, the output would be CBDE.
If the two rules had different rule changes, e.g. if the second of these two were
ADE → GDE
it would mean that a principle of rule ordering would be needed in order to decide whether the output should be CBDE or CGDE. Since the output is the same in each case in the given example, the ordering is irrelevant and the rules can be said to be unordered.
Next challenge: find a real language to which rules with comparable structural descriptions and structural changes apply! :)
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I am looking for a software to support phonetic transcription of a sound recording in a phonetically undocumented language. I have heard about PRAAT, but I wonder if there is a software that can identify isolated recorded sounds according to the IPA.
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I have used Praat but principally for spectral analysis and measurements. Your case is pretty difficult because the language you are working on may not be documented and therefore the sounds (phonemes) involved may not be IPA compatibles. Besides, even if you find a software that does it, please take the warning from Ladefoged who asserted that instruments are only a help, but the final arbiter in all phonetic judgement is the trained ear of a phonetician. Regardless of the size of the data you have to transcribe, you will find that you are assured of the best results doing it manually. Even if you use a software, you'll still need to listen and ensure that the software had done its job. But if you are working on a language whose phonemic units you are not conversant with,, I would be scared to think that you can get a machine to do the work. Good luck. .
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I'm still looking for the algorithm to quote the Voice Outcome Survey, may someone help me? Otherwise could I use the V-RQOL algorithm's for the VOS?
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Instruments that assess quality of life allow the measurement of the individual's perception about effect of an illness on their personal, social and professional relations .Somtimes a sigle tool like V-RQOL  many not be sufficient to assess the impact specific illnessess as  it is has been observed V-RQOL  has  lot  of significace in the assessment of patients following thyroplasty for unilateral vocal cord paralysis but not significant  in assessment alayngeal population So multiparameters like V-RQOL, VHI, VAPP can be used  for individuals with different vocal problems
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Need an energy based method to detect the phoneme boundaries in unsupervised manner.
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The tool "Prosogram" could perform an automatic segmentation into local peaks in the intensity of the band-pass filtered speech signal. The tool does not need a labeled corpus. Yet, even if I have used several times, I do not know its accuracy when making an automatic segmentation without labels. You can try. 
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I am studying the acoustic correlates of breathy voice. Two of the measures I use are the difference between the amplitude of the first harmonic and the amplitude of a harmonic near the frequency of the first and third formant, respectively. While they make sense for stable monophthongs, they are less suitable for diphthongs and vowels near glides and liquids, where there is a long transition phase. What measures should I use in such cases? (just to be clear, I'm interested in the full segment, not just the stable edges)
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1. There is a follow-up to this paper that extends the methods to continuous speech rather than the sustained vowels that were used in the 1994 paper: 
Hillenbrand, J.M., and Houde, R.A. (1996). “Acoustic characteristics of breathy vocal quality: Dysphonic voices and continuous speech,” Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 39, 311-321.
The methods are described in somewhat more detail.
2. Software for the CPP-S measure that is described in this paper can be downloaded here:
Look for these links:
  cpps.exe (right click and choose "Save target as"); Readme file
The 'readme' file gives the basics for using the software.
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I am looking for cases of progressive voicing assimilation where the +voice value spreads to the right (dt>dd). The only case I found was limited the past tense suffix in Dutch. Does anyone know of any others? Are they limited to specific morphemes like in Dutch?
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It seems that a post-consonantal obstruent will either appear syllable/word-finally which is usually the context for devoicing and not voicing or it will be syllabified as an onset in which voiceless consonants will be aspirated in many languages. In other words, the context for voicing is not available. I do however have dissimilation examples from Persian, examples such as /goftan/> [gofdam] 'I said' and /biskuyit/ > [bisguyit].
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It has been pointed out to me that in some recent research individual listener variability has been found to be high and I have been asked how precise I can be in predicting learner difficulties in purely phonetic terms in my second language perception experiment without understanding more about individual listeners..
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Dear Anna,
I agree with the other contributions that there is a complex interplay of factors in speech perception and in particular in Second Language Acquisition research. The issue of individual differences is therefore very interesting; Antje Meyer at the MPI in Nijmegen has her research focus on individual differences in speech processing - you also might find some publications there (for instance an edited book by Leah Roberts and Antje Meyer (2012) on Individual Differences in Second Language Learning, published by Wiley: http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-111848634X.html).
If I understand your question correctly, you have a group of participants (or more groups) that behaved in a particular way and you would like to make a statement for the group (or groups) as a whole. One option would be to inspect the 95% confidence interval for each participant individually (calculated from the different trials that the participants gave responses to). That would give you a first indication on the differences across participants in your group(s). 
Best,
Bettina
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I'm recently collecting some data with regards to VOT duration in London, and I'm  looking for more readings about VOT in BE.
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To my surprise, I also did not find other studies on British English. There are quiet some (and early) ones on American English though. Here I list the earliest ones I have come across. Maybe they will help a little bit. Ah... I don't know.
Does anyone know some references on the difference between British and American stops? That would also help I guess.
Lisker, L. (1957). Closure duration and the intervocalic voiced-voiceless distinction in English. Language, 33(1), 42-49.
Lisker, L., & Abramson, A. S. (1964). A cross-language study of voicing in initial stops: acoustical measurements. Word, 20(3), 384–422.
Lisker, L., & Abramson, A. S. (1967). Some effects of context on voice onset time in English stops. Language and speech, 10(1), 1–28.
Lisker, L. (1972). Stop duration and voicing in English. Valdman, Papers in linguistics and phonetics to the memory of Pierre Delattre, 339–343.
Lisker, L. (1975). Is it VOT or a first-formant transition detector. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 57(6), 1547–1551.
Lisker, L., Liberman, A. M., Erickson, D. M., Dechovitz, D., & Mandler, R. (1977). On pushing the voice-onset-time (VOT) boundary about. Language and speech, 20(3), 209.
Diehl, R. (1976). Feature analyzers for the phonetic dimensionstop vs. continuant. Perception & Psychophysics, 19(3), 267-272. doi: 10.3758/bf03204180
Lisker, L. (1978). In qualified defense of VOT. Language and speech, 21(4), 375.
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Does anyone know of any perceptual studies of contrasts between voiced pulmonic consonants and voiced implosives? 
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Best, C. T., McRoberts, G. W., & Goodell, E. (2001). Discrimination of non-native consonant contrasts varying in perceptual assimilation to the listener's native phonological system. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 109(2), 775-794.
Antoniou, M., Best, C. T., & Tyler, M. D. (2013). Focusing the lens of language experience: Perception of Ma'di stops by Greek and English bilinguals and monolinguals. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 133(4), 2397-2411.
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Firstly I would like to try one small exercise. I have a recorded phoneme. So I would like to try concatenating them to get a word in MATLAB. Is this possible? Will anyone provide some resources to proceed?
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Try with "strcat"
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It seems that many now agree that in early versions of the Chinese script 人千身仁 and 年 are all in the same xiesheng series. But, my question is if, what are the _semantic components_ of these various characters. I don't necessarily mean this question in terms of 'what are their kaishu' transcriptions, but rather 'what other examples of say the "belly" semantic that distinguishes 千 and 身 in the Chu script?' etc.
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Perhaps the "Zhuan Zhu" 转注, from traditional "Liu Shu" 六书, could be used  to understand the structure of these characters. There are not necessary to treat the characters as a combination of phonetic and semantic parts. It's kinda like Zhi Shi指事, making difference by adding a stroke, but in Zhuan Zhu, or in the cases you mentioned, the new created scripts are as well phonetically related to the original ones.  
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Any thoughts how to teach foreign language pronunciation especially IPA notation and transcription to students who are blind? 
For me IPA has an enormous value in learning foreign language pronunciation, what about my students who are blind how to adapt it? Do you have any ideas, did you come across blind student of linguistics who learnt IPA? Maybe you are a professional who encountered blind student and was wondering how to adapt IPA? Is IPA and transcription for the blind totally omitted and the topic marginalised. Share your ideas and reflections with me as the topic seems extremely interesting for me.
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We have a recent article in Teaching Linguistics that might be useful to you: A tactile IPA magnet board system: a tool for blind and visually-impaired students in phonetics and phonology classrooms.  
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Are they the same or different?
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As far as i know, a trend of eclecticism in teaching started to develop in the 1980s and the early 1990s, initiated by Sweet and Palmer. They believed that a good method is an eclectic one which requires the teacher to utilize her/his knowledge of language besides her/his experience in psychology. Based on Palmer's multiple line of approach, an eclectic method adopts every good idea and leaves the door open for future developments.
However, the term post-method is recently being used in language teaching circle to represent a seemingly new idea. It argue that teachers are not to imprison themselves and their students in any method, even in an eclectic one. It enables teachers to construct classroom-oriented theories of practice. In other words, the post-method condition gives the authority to teachers to make decisions and generate innovative techniques specific to their own classroom (Rashtchi, 2002).
Through this, post-method condition tries to search for an alternative to method rather than alternative method.
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Thanks!
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write these terms in Google Scholar and you will find what there is
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Hi everybody. I'm working in intonation and I'd like to know what you think about recording with a wireless recorder. Do you think that I could lose valuable information on my recordings? Should I take account anything about wireless signals? I'm using a TASCAM DR-40 recorder and my micro is a electric condenser micro Shure pg30 and its frequency response is 60 Hz to 20,000 Hz and it's cardiod (Output impedance 1200 Ω@ 1Khz) and I also use a wireless microphone system Shure SVX (details in the attached file). On the other hand, are there papers about suitable microphones (or suitable microphone systems) that I should use in intonation (or in phonetics, at least). Could anybody help me? Thanks for any information.
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From the experiences in our studies and recordings, I can agree to the answers. We used head-mounted mics / headsets (e.g. from Sennheiser) and achieved good results in automatic (emotional) speech recognition. Since we are also analysing pitch, f0, etc features, I would state that wireless mics could be used.
The signal-to-noise-ratio is usually quite good. The best idea is to perform some test recordings and analyse these to estimate the quality of your recordings. Usually, data collection is influence not only by mics but more by the environment.
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Hi everybody. I'm working in intonation and I'd like to know what you think about recording with a wireless recorder. Do you think that I could lose valuable information on my recordings? Should I take account anything about wireless signals? I'm using a TASCAM DR-40 recorder and my micro is a electric condenser micro Shure pg30 and its frequency response is 60 Hz to 20,000 Hz and it's cardiod (Output impedance 1200 Ω@ 1Khz) and I also use a wireless microphone system Shure SVX (details in the attached image). On the other hand, are there papers about suitable microphones (or suitable microphone systems) that I should use in intonation (or in phonetics, at least). Could anybody help me? Thanks for any information.
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Eddy Brixen's advice is very good. To add to it, you can consult advice offered by Bartek Plichta, e.g. on the companion website of the excellent Data collection in sociolinguistics (http://sociolinguisticdatacollection.com/teaching-tools/), and on his own Akustyk website (http://bartus.org/akustyk/, look under "Microphones" and "Reviews").
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My research will be about impact of brand name on consumer choice and memory. I would like to examine our local consumer's willingness to choose specific product depending on the brand name and which brand names are easy to remember. I have already found some articles linked with phonetic symbolism and would like to include them to my research. However, I have some difficulties with methodology of my research and need some of the latest articles on this topic. I would be very gratefull if you could share some of them. 
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Hi, Madina:
I hope you find the following 7 articles useful for what you're looking for:
  1. Aaker, Jennifer L. (1997), Dimensions of brand
personality, Journal of Marketing
Research, 34(Aug), pp 347-356.
  1. Bowlby, J. (1979), The making and breaking of
Affectional bonds, London: Tavistock
  1. Chaplin, Lan, N. and Deborah, R. J. (2005), The
development of self brand connections
in children and adolescents, Journal of
Consumer Research, 32.1, pp 119-129.
  1. Fournier, S. (1998), Consumers and their
brands: Developing relationship theory
in Consumer Research, Journal of
Consumer Research, 24.4, pp 343-373.
  1. Geuens, M., Bert, W. and Kristof, de Wulf
(2009),A new measure of brand
personality, International Journal of
Research in Marketing,26.2,pp 97-107.
  1. Kent, Robert J. and Chris, T. Allen (1994),
Competitive interference effects in
consumer memory for advertising: The
role of brand familiarity, Journal of
Marketing, 58(July),pp 97-105.
  1. Thomson, M., MacInnis, D.J. and Park, C. (2005),
The ties that bind : Measuring the strength
of consumers’ emotional attachment to
brands, Journal of Consumer
Pyschology,15.1,pp 77-91.
Nadeem
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I am looking for books, which could help me write my BA thesis on differences between Standard Scottish English and Received Pronunciation. Are there any easily accessible books on that topic?
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Hi Paulina,
Your best bet for a description of "Standard Scottish English" is:
Robinson, C. & Crawford, C. A. (2001). Scotspeak: A guide to the pronunciation of modern urban Scots. Perth: Scots Language Resource Centre.
The comparison with Received Pronunciation is something you'll have to do yourself!
Lachlan
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I have sibilant fricative productions- and I want to "get rid" of the anatomical variation due to sex differences. Any formula that the community knows of which has proven to be reliable. Or a good literature recommendation?
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Thank you all for you thoughts and ideas. Nice thing is that I have both sibilant and vowel values for my (>100) speakers (60%f : 40%m). Infact I see sign. COG differences - which I interpreted - in line with Susanne - as intended (gender signal). Just wanted to make sure that the normalization issue, which is quite common when discussiing vowel results doesnt pop up for my sibilants. Maybe I should nevertheless also analyze the vowels and display gender differences  for consonants in comparison to gnder differences for vowel spaces and contrasts. Best X.
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I think within fluently spoken language we can’t hear syllables. We find syllables only in non-natural pronounciation. I know the final-obstruent devoicing in German is said to need the syllable for it’s explanation/description. But I think another description might be possible.
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