Questions related to Pharmacy
Hello! What are the oldest literary sources you know that would mention pharmaceutical salts? I am aware of the first cocrystal [benzoquinone + hydroquinone] (1:1) investigated in 1844, but I could not find any mention of the first (or even the first described) pharmaceutical salt (Wohler, F. Untersuchungen über das Chinon / F. Wohler // Ann. Chem. Pharm. – 1844. – V. 51. – P. 145-163). If you know of such sources, please share them. Thanks in advance
Can you please add in the comments the outline /content of the undergraduate Pharmacology courses taught to undergrad students in your institution?
What type of simulation program do you use in your pharmacology courses/What university?
Simulation programs for In Vivo experiments
Pharmacology Practical course for Undergrad students
Before submitting a paper work to a journal, knowing its reputability is important.
What we look at to identify whether a journal is reputable or not? If two journals are reputable, is/are there way/s of selecting the better one?
I want to do liposomes release profile, I was wondering if I can use dialysis bags as I already have them cut of 12 kda instead of using dialysis tubes as I have seen everyone is using that.
Hello everyone !!
What do you think about veterinary pharmacy? I want to know about veterinary pharmacy in other country because in my country, veterinary pharmacy is not popular and not have many veterinary pharmacy. So can you tell me how about veterinary pharmacy in your country?? and what do you think about it?? i mean is it really important or maybe not important?? thanks for your opinion
Can anybody suggest me research paper or materials that discuss mobile or web-based pharmacy recommender systems with list price and nearest location?
I'm planning to grow an E. coli DH10B (Amp-r). My question is, as I'm an student, it's kinda hard to afford to buy lab grade Ampiciline...
Can I use common Ampicillin to grow these bateria? I mean, the Amp you can get in a pharmacy, which is Trihydrate Ampiciline...
When export is higher than import it creates employment. Bangladesh need creating employment opportunity badly. It seems demand for foreign goods is very much responsible for higher imports of Bangladesh. Bangladesh has a lot of industry which is reputable in world, like- RMD Garments, Shipbuilding, Cement, Ceramics, pharmacy etc.
But Bangladeshi people like to wear China's product, government prefer to buy Foreign Ship, people also prefer GSK Pharmaceuticals’ medicine over Square Pharmaceuticals, also want to buy foreign ceramics over ceramics product of Bangladesh. That’s why businessmen and government of Bangladesh imports a lot of product from other country but it can be provided by Bangladeshi companies, if that happened local production will increase, imports will decrease so, employment opportunity will increase.
In view of the above, Is Bangladeshi people's demand for foreign goods responsible for higher import?
In gastric environment (acidic pH), amino group from chitosan became ionized, so it forms ionic interaction with negative-charged-group at gastric mucose.
Disulphide bond always facilitates mucoadhesive strength.
However, can un-thiolated chitosan have interaction with small intestine mucose (pH ~7/ not in acidic environment) and provide mucoadhesive strength?
I've come across a protocol which mentions the ability to reduce protein (bovine serum albumin) dissolution rate in aqueous media through some "special treatment". Unfortunately, no mention is made as to what this special treatment consists of. Do any protocols exist for the modulation of dissolution rates of proteins such as BSA?
Ref in question is:
Hoth, Matthias, and Hans P. Merkle. "Formulation of silicone matrix systems for long term constant release of peptides." Drug development and industrial pharmacy 17.7 (1991): 985-999.
I received this in my email:
Dear (no name), Hello! As a representative of ENCYCLOPAEDIC PUBLISHING PTE.LTD., I sincerely invite you to serve as a member of the editorial board of the new international academic journal "Journal of North Pharmacy". With your professional experience and academic achievements in pharmacy, I sincerely hope that you will join us. "Journal of North Pharmacy" is an open-access international academic journal whose purpose is to publish innovative academic papers for the global "Journal of North Pharmacy" industry, introduce unique scientific research results, and expand international exchanges and cooperation. The language used in the journal is English.
I googled the name of this publisher and it actually exists. Is it just a startup or another spam.a
I am afraid that this is another predatory publisher, looks like the same start of MDPI and alikes.
Please let us know about this publisher or any similar ones. Thanks.
How can you decide the judgment on a specific article whether it is good or not, is your judgment depends on the title of the article or the abstract or the publishing journal or something else?
Please, share us your opinions about the discussion
With the developing stories of the spread of COVID-19 all around the world, which has been declared as a pandemic by WHO recently, I am wondering, in how much time this virus would vanish from the surface of the Earth? Is there any scientific study available for this?
Please share your opinions.
When you read about the treatment goals for Glaucoma, you'll find for example : the target IOP is determined by factors like baseline IOP, Rate of disease progession, etc... I want to know which branch of pharmacy the above Q relates to? The treatment targets and goals aren't clinical Pharmacology, so what branch if I want to delve deeper (How these goals are set, why these goals specifically) I should read?
I read that diabetic retinopathy can affect people with type 1 and 2 diabetes, especially those who have uncontrolled blood sugar and have diabetes for a long time. How can uncontrolled blood sugar cause diabetic retinopathy? and how is the treatment for diabetic retinopathy patients? thank you.
There are number of report in the literature where ruthenium or gold showing highly cytotoxicity towards cancer cells growth but we generally used cis-platin or its derivatives for the treatment of cancer cells line. What are the reason that platinum is so special?
I am a junior pharmacist at the University of Mosul, college of pharmacy.
This topic is my graduation project research!!
I hope you will help me with it.
I describe in my PhD thesis the status and fates Jewish pharmacists in the interwar Czechoslovakia and their fate during Second World War. The largest number of Jewish pharmacists was located on the territory of Carpathian Ruthenia, followed by Slovakia and ultimately historic lands - Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia.
The Munich Agreement, the Second Republic and the beginning of World War II meant a tragedy for Jewish pharmacists . Only a few individuals of them emigrated in time. Largely Jewish pharmacists from Czech lands finished in the Terezin ghetto (where it served as a hospital pharmacy), some killed right in the ghetto, some in the subsequent concentration camps (Dachau, Auschwitz and others). Pharmacies of Jewish owners were Aryanized. The fates of the Jews, who lived in Slovakia and Hungarian Kingdom (occupied Carpathian Ruthenia and south of Slovakia), Sudetenland (occupied Germany) and Cieszyn Silesia (occupied Poland) were somewhat different, but their fate was no less tragic. But I have lack information about their fates.
I have decided to examine the effect of potassium nitrate on certain disease symptom. Unfortunately, there are a few companies which produce potassium nitrate capsules and their capsules are not pure potassium nitrate and some sort of vitamins are added to them which can interfere with my results.
Potassium nitrate is readily available in form of powder. I wanted to know that is that possible that I simply put a desired amount of potassium nitrate powder in empty capsules and give them to patients to use them? I have this questions since capsules usually have excipients such as silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, etc.
Top-tier biomedical journals have very few articles on " pharmacy/pharmacy practice". Do people think there are any specific reasons for this? Comments are welcome.
I endeavour to establish the mental health impact Covid-19 has had on pharmacy personnel in South Africa. I need help designing quantitative questionnaire to attain the required information. Any input will be appreciated
An editorial in the International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy by van Mil and Fernandez-Llimos entitled: What is ‘pharmaceutical care’ in 2013? poses several relevant questions about the current definitions of PC. It shed a light on the mesh of working definitions since the original definition proposed by Hepler and Strand and the subsequent alternative terms proposed by other organizations and groups. I invite those individuals with interest in the subject to share their thoughts in this forum.
- I had published books as a part of my research interest related to pharmacy field (Pharmacology). Now, I am interested to submit books to review in academic journals (Book review publish). Can any one answer me how to submit book reviews and what are the free pharmacy journals without any fee that accepts the book reviews for publication.
Dear Dr. Greetings from Cuba. We develop a project to obtain a formulations of EPN (Cuba strain), did you have possibilities to received young lady fellow? I am agronomic engineer but I have in my team a young lady with a bachelor in Pharmacy but we need help in formulation. Thanks in advanced.
Dr. Mayra G. Rodriguez
Hello all, I am unable to get knowledge of one basic function of Surescripts. I do understand that physician sends directly Rx to a one chosen pharmacy (or a chain of pharmacies?). Now what happens when patient wants (for any reason) to fill his/hers Rx in different pharmacy? Is that somewhat possible? We all talking about Surescripts-sent Rx, not a paper traditional form...
Thank a lot for answer.
Indeed, I have observed that there is some scientific journals that listed in Scopus sources of not good quality from scientific point of view. At the same time some Universities are depending on Scoups in a similar manner to that of Thomson & Routers or Clarivate analytics.
What is the best way to get the plasticizer Oligomeric lactic acid ?
Which is found in scientific article (Luc Avérous, 2001) and they purchased from Sigma.
And in another article(Nuria Burgos, 2012) also used but it says that it is a patent for one company (Condensia Química) which located in Spain?
And is there any chance to purchase here from Malaysia ?
A biosafety level is the level of the biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous biological agents in an enclosed facility. The levels of containment range from the lowest biosafety level 1 to the highest at level 4. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have specified these levels. In the European Union, the same biosafety levels are defined in a directive. Sabanci University is following the same directive in accordance with Turkish biological safety regulation.
Genome sequencing helps find vital information, for example the strain type, virulence, location of origin and differences between strains transmitted within the country and in other countries
FDA has issued guidance to provide recommendations to health care providers and investigators on the administration and study of investigational convalescent plasma collected from individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 (COVID-19 convalescent plasma) during the public health emergency.
The guidance provides recommendations on the following:
- pathways for use of investigational COVID-19 convalescent plasma
- patient eligibility
- collection of COVID-19 convalescent plasma, including donor eligibility and donor qualifications
- labeling, and
- record keeping
Because COVID-19 convalescent plasma has not yet been approved for use by FDA, it is regulated as an investigational product. A health care provider must participate in one of the pathways described below. FDA does not collect COVID-19 convalescent plasma or provide COVID-19 convalescent plasma. Health care providers or acute care facilities should instead obtain COVID-19 convalescent plasma from an FDA-registered blood establishment.
I am making home-made sanitizers according to the WHO protocol. One of the ingredients is hydrogen peroxide. One need to use 3% of hydrogen peroxide, so that the final concentration is 0.125% v/v. The bottle I bought at the pharmacy is written 40 Volume. What does this mean, and how much of hydrogen peroxide of this can I add, if I am making a total volume of 1000mL?
Looking on how students in pharmacy relate their knowledge to disease stage or how they relate mechanisms of action of drugs, I discovered that these areas are not well-addressed. Such design that does integrate physiology, pathophysiology and mechanisms by which drugs act, and understanding that setting in a clinical format is affecting the knowledge of pharmacy students and pushing them into the memorisation of pieces of factual knowledge from here and there.
Do you see what I am saying? I am sure that this problem is everywhere and is not graduating students at the standards that we would like to see. What is your experience? And what did you do with such a problem in the design of the curriculum?
Probiotics are live microorganisms that are intended to have health benefits when consumed or applied to the body. They can be found in yogurt and other fermented foods, dietary supplements, and beauty products.
The virus is primarily spread between people during close contact, often via small droplets produced by coughing, sneezing, or talking. While these droplets are produced when breathing out, they usually fall to the ground or onto surfaces rather than remain in the air over long distances.People may also become infected by touching a contaminated surface and then touching their eyes, nose, or mouth. The virus can survive on surfaces for up to 72 hours. It is most contagious during the first three days after the onset of symptoms, although spread may be possible before symptoms appear and in later stages of the disease.
Dengue fever is a disease caused by a family of viruses transmitted by infected mosquitoes. It is an acute illness of sudden onset that usually follows a benign course with symptoms such as headache, fever, exhaustion, severe muscle and joint pain, swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), and rash.
A hospital-acquired infection (HAI), also known as a nosocomial infection, is an infection that is acquired in a hospital or other health care facility. To emphasize both hospital and nonhospital settings, it is sometimes instead called a health care–associated infection (HAI or HCAI).
Biological techniques are methods or procedures that are used to study living things. They include experimental and computational methods, approaches, protocols and tools for biological research.
The SARS-CoV-2 genome was rapidly sequenced by Chinese researchers. It is an RNA molecule of about 30,000 bases containing 15 genes, including the S gene which codes for a protein located on the surface of the viral envelope (for comparison, our genome is in the form of a double helix of DNA about 3 billion bases in size and contains about 30,000 genes).
Comparative genomic analyses have shown that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the group of Betacoronaviruses and that it is very close to SARS-CoV, responsible for an epidemic of acute pneumonia which appeared in November 2002 in the Chinese province of Guangdong and then spread to 29 countries in 2003.
A total of 8,098 cases were recorded, including 774 deaths. It is known that bats of the genus Rhinolophus (potentially several cave species) were the reservoir of this virus and that a small carnivore, the palm civet (Paguma larvata), may have served as an intermediate host between bats and the first human cases.
Since then, many Betacoronaviruses have been discovered, mainly in bats, but also in humans. For example, RaTG13, isolated from a bat of the species Rhinolophus affinis collected in China's Yunan Province, has recently been described as very similar to SARS-CoV-2, with genome sequences identical to 96 percent.
These results indicate that bats, and in particular species of the genus Rhinolophus, constitute the reservoir of the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 viruses.
A man in China has reportedly died from the hantavirus, which is one of a family of viruses spread by rodents that can cause disease in humans. The man from Yunnan Province in southwest China was traveling east by bus to Shadong Province, and the 32 other people on board are also being tested for hantavirus, according to the state-run Global Times newspaper as reported by Newsweek on Tuesday.
What is the hantavirus?
This family of diseases is spread mainly by rodents — particularly the deer mouse in the U.S. — and can cause different diseases in people around the world. Each hantavirus has a specific rodent host species. Hantaviruses in the Americas are known as “New World” hantaviruses, and can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), with symptoms including fatigue, fever and muscle ache in early stages, and coughing and shortness of breath later on. Other hantaviruses, known as “Old World” hantaviruses, are mostly seen in Europe and Asia, and can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), with symptoms including intense headaches, back and abdominal pain, fever, chills, nausea and blurred vision. Both diseases are considered rare, but can be fatal.
How dangerous is it?
Developing HPS (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome) and HFRS (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) can be fatal. HPS has a mortality rate of 38%. Depending upon which virus is causing the HFRS, death occurs in less than 1% to as many as 15% of patients. But both of these are also pretty rare, and while some patients have long recovery times of weeks or months, many patients make a full recovery without lasting complications.
In my country, general practitioners also provide (sell) the medicine. What do you think of this practice? Please share your views concerning the advantages or disadvantages of this practice.
Do you know of places where it started like this; and then changed so that only pharmacists can dispense medicine? Thanks.
The virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person.
- Between people who are in close contact with one another (within about 6 feet).
- Through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.
Can someone spread the virus without being sick
- People are thought to be most contagious when they are most symptomatic (the sickest).
- Some spread might be possible before people show symptoms; there have been reports of this occurring with this new coronavirus, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.
Spread from contact with contaminated surfaces or objects
It may be possible that a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.
How easily the virus spreads
How easily a virus spreads from person-to-person can vary. Some viruses are highly contagious (spread easily), like measles, while other viruses do not spread as easily. Another factor is whether the spread is sustained, spreading continually without stopping.
The virus that causes COVID-19 seems to be spreading easily and sustainably in the community (“community spread”) in some affected geographic areas.
Community spread means people have been infected with the virus in an area, including some who are not sure how or where they became infected.
New Zealand Pharmacy Council
Work Place Pressures and the stress management strategies adopted for the same.
It is asked from a societal perspective. I know some examples like generic substitution, introducing vaccination through pharmacies decrease national health expenses. I am interested to know more about different strategies that are useful.
A model organism is one which is studied to further our understanding of biological processes. Typical characteristics of model organisms include developing to maturity rapidly, the ability to be easily manipulated, having a short life span, producing a large number of offspring and to having a sequenced genome, in addition to being well understood. Model organisms, if possible, need to have cheap sources and be easy to store in a laboratory as well as being non-pathogenic.
Training of undergraduate pharmacy student represents a challenge even in developed countries. A recent report from the General Pharmaceutical Council (GhC) in Great Britain demonstrated that more than a quarter of pharmacy graduates who took the summer 2019 preregistration assessment did not pass and that pass rate was the lowest it has been since 2011. Several options are available for pharmacy student training either under the supervision of their universities while they are studying or post-graduation and before registration under the control of the national regulatory bodies, what do you think?
Hi everyone! I need your advice.
I have been working with Truven MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters Database and the Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits (COB) Database in the past, and most recently with the SEER-Medicare data.
The oncology medicines I am working with are either injectable ( antibodies or targeted treatment) or chemo ( I guess it can be both orally taken or given infusion in an out-patient setting). I want to pull out all the claim information about the medicines. Should I just use J-code to pull them out from the in-patient (part A in Medicare) and out-patient (part B in Medicare) database? These medicines also show up as NDC# in the pharmacy database ( Medicare part D). Should I include the pharmacy claims in my analysis? All the medicines are reimbursed by Part B in Medicare. I don't understand why they show up in the pharmacy claims (part D). The patients wouldn't go to a pharmacy to pick up an oncology drug right?
Thank you so much for your advice!
As an undergraduate student and for the study requirement we are doing a project in the anticancer study and want to compare the result with the standard drug so would like to know if there are any substitute that can be used?
4.5 half life are required in order for the medication to be eliminated from the body right? Thus in order for the cefipime to be eliminated from the body 2 days (t1/2= 12 hour)? I'm asking because if someone stopped taking the medication for one day, can he continue the medication afterward?
If someone was taking Cefipime IM 1 gm/ 12 hours for 10 days (The course is supposed to be 14 days) for complicated urinary tract infection (Cystitis) then he suddenly stopped taking the medication for one day. Can he continue the medication afterwards or he needs to adjust the dose?
I'm working a research to assess the prevalence the contamination of non-sterile pharmaceuticals (NSPs) with antibiotic resistance bacteria and alternative microorganisms. Different samples of oral and topical NSP products were collected randomly from different drug houses and private pharmacies in Iraq.
My question is: Can I mention the names of the manufacturer companies (more than 50) in my research without taking permission? Or I have to investigate to the products without mentioning the manufacturer sources?
Thank you in advance.
Once I found out that nitrogen gas removed my anthocyanin more than its solvent (ethanol)
The specificity of this question is mainly focused towards medicine, pharmacy, biology, Nursing and other allied health sciences.
Meyer and Land described threshold concepts as ‘portals’ that open up ‘new and previously inaccessible’ ways of thinking about something and ‘a transformed way of understanding or interpreting or viewing something without which the learner cannot progress’ (Meyer & Land, 2003).
A threshold concept is thus seen as something distinct within what university teachers would typically describe as ‘core concepts’. A core concept is a conceptual ‘building block’ that progresses understanding of the subject; it has to be understood but it does not necessarily lead to a qualitatively different view of subject matter.
So, for example, the concept of gravity — the idea that any two bodies attract one another with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the distance between them — represents a threshold concept, whereas the concept of a centre of gravity does not, although the latter is a core concept in many of the applied sciences (Meyer & Land, 2003).
Meyer, J., & Land, R. (2003). Threshold concepts and troublesome knowledge. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.
Is there any reference/resource that can explain the reason behind the contraindications? I'd like to know so I can be sure that if the patient can take the medication (no alternatives available) safely despite the presence of one of the contraindications.
Will you initiate Daflon with this list of medications or not?
Atrial Fibrillation (Managed with 2.5 mg bisoprolol once daily)
Allergic Rhinitis (Managed with 10 mg cetirizine once daily)
Vaginal Hysterectomy (Post-operation medications to prevent surgical site infection include : Clindamycin 300 mg 3 times per day, Cefixime 400 mg once daily along with topical treatment Clindamycin vaginal cream along with Betadine® (Povidone-iodine))
The operation (Vaginal Hysterectomy) was done on 14/3/2019 and she was precribed Enoxaprin 40 (once daily) two days consequently prior to the operation and she did take Enoxaprin on the day after the surgery also.
My Q is: Can she take Daflon one tablet daily for managing chronic venous insufficiency as she used to prior to the operation or taking Daflon can increase the risk of bleeding? Should she wait till she finish the post-op medications?
Medications administered during her stay in Hospital:
meropenem, Levofloxacin 500 mg , Acetaminophen.
53 Y F is taking bisoprolol 2.5 mg once daily (Before sleep), Cetirizine 10 mg once daily , Cefixime 400 mg once daily along with Clindamycin 300 mg 3 times per day. Tamsulosin 0.4 mg is going to be added to this drug regimen. Which time you prefer to administrate Tamsulosin since Tamsulosin may interact with bisoprolol and lower blood pressure even more? I suggested to take both medications at different times during the day, Bisoprolol before sleep and Tamsulosin in the morning because I don't want to lower blood pressure too much during sleep (with no monitoring available during sleep time). What do you think? Agree?
Which is the better for the researcher, studying various topics and making a research for each one, or studying one particular topic and making a series of researches related to it?
Please reply, and share us your opinions about the discussion
Chronic pain is difficult to treat
Acetaminophen is usually inadequate
Non-steroidal agents have long term toxicities- renal and cardiac and annual bleeding risks
Opioids are available in all countries [Oxycontin, Vicodin, Tramadol, Tramacet, etc] and prescribing at low doses invariably lead to higher doses/more powerful opioids and then addiction.
So the BIG question is: how to treat chronic pain conditions effectively, without causing addiction?
In my country, the benefit from a specific paper is proportional according to the sequence of the researcher’s name in the paper, where (100%, 80% and 70%) for the first, the second and the third researcher respectively, and if there are additional researchers, then they will not get any benefit from the research.
Please reply, share us your opinions about the discussion
This specificity of this question is directed towards medicine, pharmacy and nursing.
Understanding differences in the pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapeutic skills of pharmacists and physicians plays a vital role in optimizing inter-professional collaboration and education. These skills include prescription writing, patient communication about medication (Keijsers et al., 2015) and patient education.
What are the additional sets of skills that a graduate should possess that can later transform into competencies.
I am looking forward to Specific, Relevant & To the point answers.
There are wide differences in the template from one journal to another, why this differences, do you agree that the template of the journals should be unified or not? Why
Please share us your opinions