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Pharmacy - Science topic

Pharmacy is the safe formulation and administration of pharmaceuticals.
Questions related to Pharmacy
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Hello! What are the oldest literary sources you know that would mention pharmaceutical salts? I am aware of the first cocrystal [benzoquinone + hydroquinone] (1:1) investigated in 1844, but I could not find any mention of the first (or even the first described) pharmaceutical salt (Wohler, F. Untersuchungen über das Chinon / F. Wohler // Ann. Chem. Pharm. – 1844. – V. 51. – P. 145-163). If you know of such sources, please share them. Thanks in advance
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As far as I understand, at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, there were enough chlorides and sodium salts of the API. However, it is not yet clear when salts with organic counterions began to be used. Perhaps someone has such information?
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Hi , i want to publish my Research Article subject is Pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences
topic is antimicrobials
Thanks
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1. Chemistry and biology interface
2. International journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical research
And most of the scopous index journal have hybrid.
You can publish your article in subscription mode. For open access only you have to pay.
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Can you please add in the comments the outline /content of the undergraduate Pharmacology courses taught to undergrad students in your institution?
What type of simulation program do you use in your pharmacology courses/What university?
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Master of Pharmacy ( Pharmacology) at GLA university and I am working on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury
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Simulation programs for In Vivo experiments
Pharmacology Practical course for Undergrad students
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Ex-Pharm Series Software : https://heb-nic.in/ex-pharm/
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Before submitting a paper work to a journal, knowing its reputability is important.
What we look at to identify whether a journal is reputable or not? If two journals are reputable, is/are there way/s of selecting the better one?
Thank you
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I want to do liposomes release profile, I was wondering if I can use dialysis bags as I already have them cut of 12 kda instead of using dialysis tubes as I have seen everyone is using that.
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Hi,
In addition to suggestion by Adam B Shapiro check recommendations in this article:
D’Souza, S. (2014). A review of in vitro drug release test methods for nano-sized dosage forms. Advances in Pharmaceutics, 2014.
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Hello everyone !!
What do you think about veterinary pharmacy? I want to know about veterinary pharmacy in other country because in my country, veterinary pharmacy is not popular and not have many veterinary pharmacy. So can you tell me how about veterinary pharmacy in your country?? and what do you think about it?? i mean is it really important or maybe not important?? thanks for your opinion
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I believe its good to have trained pharmacist providing meds for animals. In my country most Vets carry their own medical supplies and dispense or have a technician give the medicine. Its an area that needs addressing
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Can anybody suggest me research paper or materials that discuss mobile or web-based pharmacy recommender systems with list price and nearest location?
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Hello.
I'm planning to grow an E. coli DH10B (Amp-r). My question is, as I'm an student, it's kinda hard to afford to buy lab grade Ampiciline...
Can I use common Ampicillin to grow these bateria? I mean, the Amp you can get in a pharmacy, which is Trihydrate Ampiciline...
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Yes you can use marketed Ampicillin.
There will be difference of solubility in marketed ampicillin vs lab grade ampicillin.
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As previously answered by @ResalifaYusita's for research purpose lab grade ampicillin is recommended.
If possible you can perform assay for ampicillin referring latest Pharmacopoeia.
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When export is higher than import it creates employment. Bangladesh need creating employment opportunity badly. It seems demand for foreign goods is very much responsible for higher imports of Bangladesh. Bangladesh has a lot of industry which is reputable in world, like- RMD Garments, Shipbuilding, Cement, Ceramics, pharmacy etc.
But Bangladeshi people like to wear China's product, government prefer to buy Foreign Ship, people also prefer GSK Pharmaceuticals’ medicine over Square Pharmaceuticals, also want to buy foreign ceramics over ceramics product of Bangladesh. That’s why businessmen and government of Bangladesh imports a lot of product from other country but it can be provided by Bangladeshi companies, if that happened local production will increase, imports will decrease so, employment opportunity will increase.
In view of the above, Is Bangladeshi people's demand for foreign goods responsible for higher import?
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Yes, it's all game of demand and supply.
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Higher the demand of other country's products, the higher the import in country vise versa.
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Hi, I was contacted by this Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy journal with a request to publish a study of mine in their journal. Can anyone give me information about it.
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I like to add a warning: the website https://www.resurchify.com/looks misleadingly trustworthy, but I see a number of disturbing things with this website. For example, in their list of journals https://www.resurchify.com/e/journal/all-categories/all-countries/all-years/page/1/there are suspect ones like (just check a couple of pages):
-International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation https://www.resurchify.com/ed/ijitca-2021-international-journal-of-information-technology/10285 https://wireilla.com/ijitca/indexing.html is published by Wireilla Scientific Publications a publisher mentioned in the Beall’s list https://beallslist.net/
-Numerous journals like International Journal of Ad hoc, sensor & Ubiquitous Computing (IJASUC) are published by AIRCC Publishing Corporation which is mentioned in the Beall’s list https://beallslist.net/ as well
So, despite some interesting and seemingly genuine information they also are linked to less reputed journals and publishers. Combined with the misleading suggestion that they give impact factor info (while this is an estimate based on Scopus info) and the total absence of real contact information I do not trust this source.
Best regards.
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In gastric environment (acidic pH), amino group from chitosan became ionized, so it forms ionic interaction with negative-charged-group at gastric mucose.
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Disulphide bond always facilitates mucoadhesive strength.
However, can un-thiolated chitosan have interaction with small intestine mucose (pH ~7/ not in acidic environment) and provide mucoadhesive strength?
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The ALG and PEG surface modification of chitosan nanoparticles improved the particle stability in both simulated gastric and intestinal fluids and improved the mucoadhesive properties, therefore constituting a potential nanocarrier platform for mucosal protein vaccine delivery
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I've come across a protocol which mentions the ability to reduce protein (bovine serum albumin) dissolution rate in aqueous media through some "special treatment". Unfortunately, no mention is made as to what this special treatment consists of. Do any protocols exist for the modulation of dissolution rates of proteins such as BSA?
Ref in question is:
Hoth, Matthias, and Hans P. Merkle. "Formulation of silicone matrix systems for long term constant release of peptides." Drug development and industrial pharmacy 17.7 (1991): 985-999.
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Actually, BSA stabilized the enzyme by hydrophobic interactions with the heated enzyme and that surface hydrophobicity is a major determinant of the extent of stabilization by a protein.
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I'm looking for the journal with no APC in the dept of Pharmaceutical science which should be included in Scopus
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I have provided you the SCOPUS rankings from 2020 and the last 3 years in an Excel table. Apart from the table, you can access the list via https://www.scimagojr.com/journalrank.php?category=3611&type=j
However, there are adjacent categories like Pharmaceutical Science, Pharmacology, Pharmacology (medical) etc. If you need other rankings, you can adjust the search terms. Unfortunately, it is not apparent which of these journals are free (That is if you do not mean Open Access; in this case, a litte symbol left to the journal name indicates it).
Some universitites, like mine, also use the Journal Citation Reports by Clarivate.
If you nee more information, please let me know!
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I received this in my email:
Dear (no name), Hello! As a representative of ENCYCLOPAEDIC PUBLISHING PTE.LTD., I sincerely invite you to serve as a member of the editorial board of the new international academic journal "Journal of North Pharmacy". With your professional experience and academic achievements in pharmacy, I sincerely hope that you will join us. "Journal of North Pharmacy" is an open-access international academic journal whose purpose is to publish innovative academic papers for the global "Journal of North Pharmacy" industry, introduce unique scientific research results, and expand international exchanges and cooperation. The language used in the journal is English.
I googled the name of this publisher and it actually exists. Is it just a startup or another spam.a
I am afraid that this is another predatory publisher, looks like the same start of MDPI and alikes.
Please let us know about this publisher or any similar ones. Thanks.
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The publisher “ENCYCLOPAEDIC PUBLISHING PTE.LTD.” http://en.encyclopub.com/ indeed seems to exist since 2019 (https://www.scilit.net/publisher/12746). It is/used to be primarily focussed on the Chinese market/researchers (by itself of course no problem but I see no real signs for their ambition to become internationally oriented).
Using their contact info (21 Serangoon North Avenue 5, #03-03 Ban Teck Han Building,Singapore 554864) you see a link to PiscoMed Publishing Pte. Ltd. http://www.piscomed.com/ and Frontier Scientific Publishing Pte. Ltd. http://www.front-sci.com/contact/where PiscoMed is mentioned in the Beall’s list (https://beallslist.net/ ) of potential predatory publishers.
Without looking at the actual publications it is to me all too vague and I would stay away from this one.
Best regards.
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How can you decide the judgment on a specific article whether it is good or not, is your judgment depends on the title of the article or the abstract or the publishing journal or something else?
Please, share us your opinions about the discussion
Thanks
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I think depends on
1. Quality of Journal which depends on citations, Quartile, Indexing, Impact Factor etc.
2. Novelty
Regards
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Dear Fellows
With the developing stories of the spread of COVID-19 all around the world, which has been declared as a pandemic by WHO recently, I am wondering, in how much time this virus would vanish from the surface of the Earth? Is there any scientific study available for this?
Please share your opinions.
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Todavía no se puede predecir q desaparecerá el Covid 19. Al parecer tendremos q convivir con él e inmunizarnos con las vacunas aprobadas por la OMS.
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When you read about the treatment goals for Glaucoma, you'll find for example : the target IOP is determined by factors like baseline IOP, Rate of disease progession, etc... I want to know which branch of pharmacy the above Q relates to? The treatment targets and goals aren't clinical Pharmacology, so what branch if I want to delve deeper (How these goals are set, why these goals specifically) I should read?
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I am a clinical Pharmacy Specialist with about 4 years of experience. Mostafa Elsersy
To get this straight, the treatment goal is addressed under pharmacotherapy one area of clinical pharmacy. Unless you have a measurable goal or pre-defined goals (sign or symptoms improvements) it is difficult to assess whether the treatment is adequate or not. Specific to your question, the main goal of Glaucoma treatment is to halt or slow down the disease progression or to prevent further deterioration of the vision. Lowering IOP help to decrease the disease progression or prevents glaucoma in patients with ocular hypertension (without optic nerve damage). If you want to dig more you can read standard textbooks such as Pharmacotherapy: A pathophysiologic approach (Joseph T. Dipiro) or Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs (Caroline S. Zeind)
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I read that diabetic retinopathy can affect people with type 1 and 2 diabetes, especially those who have uncontrolled blood sugar and have diabetes for a long time. How can uncontrolled blood sugar cause diabetic retinopathy? and how is the treatment for diabetic retinopathy patients? thank you.
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Initially, the main treatment was laser treatment to coagulate leaking retinal blood vessels. Today, intravitreal injections from the group of anti-VEGF drugs are standard in the treatment of both macular edema and diabetic retinopathy. The injections are given after local anesthesia with drops through the sclera and are completely painless. Treatment is carried out monthly for several months or years. With the help of these injections, better results are achieved than after laser treatment because the laser also damages the surrounding healthy tissue. Improvement of vision is often achieved, and not only stabilization of existing vision. After improving vision with injections, the treatment is supplemented with classic laser treatment, which then permanently preserves the existing condition. In our Clinic we have the most modern laser photocoagulator Pascal which is significantly less painful
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There are number of report in the literature where ruthenium or gold showing highly cytotoxicity towards cancer cells growth but we generally used cis-platin or its derivatives for the treatment of cancer cells line. What are the reason that platinum is so special?
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Dear Khushwant Singh many thanks for your very interesting technical question. It is well established that a variety of other metal complexes exhibit high cytotoxicity against cancer cells, including complexes of gallium, tin, titanium, palladium, gold etc. However, most of these have been studied only in a single lab, while cis-platin has undergone all clinical trials and has been approved as anti-cancer metallodrug. There are various useful articles available in which potential alternatives are described. However, most of them are still awaiting clinical trials. For more information about this issue please have a look at the following relevant articles:
1. Anticancer Applications and Recent Investigations of Metallodrugs Based on Gallium, Tin and Titanium
This review article has been published Open Access (see attached pdf file)
2. Palladium-Based Anti-Cancer Therapeutics
3. Novel Metals and Metal Complexes as Platforms for Cancer Therapy
and various others.
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Do anybody know anything about implementation of MIS in pharmacy or in a medical section???/
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dear Dani Mirza An effective pharmaceutical management information system (PMIS) can synthesize the large volume of data generated by pharmaceutical management operations. It then processes the data into information for use in planning activities, estimating demand, allocating resources, and monitoring and evaluating pharmaceutical management operations. This information can be in the form of a few key indicators that allow staff at all levels to monitor both their own performance and that of the units for which they are responsible. A good PMIS also alerts staff to problems and triggers critical actions. Another important function is to improve health system accountability. Much of the recording and reporting in a PMIS is intended to create an audit trail for products as they enter or leave a pharmaceutical supply system.
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Hello there!
I am a junior pharmacist at the University of Mosul, college of pharmacy.
This topic is my graduation project research!!
I hope you will help me with it.
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Dear Sufyan Ali Turmeric and especially its most active compound curcumin have many scientifically-proven health benefits, such as the potential to prevent heart disease, Alzheimer's and cancer. It's a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant and may also help improve symptoms of depression and arthritis.In traditional medicine turmeric is used to enhance the immune system and as a cure for different respiratory diseases such as asthma and for allergy [4]. Tumeric has also been traditionaly used for the treatment of diabetes, cough, sinusitis, flu, rheumatism and liver disorders
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 I describe in my PhD thesis the status and fates Jewish pharmacists in the interwar Czechoslovakia and their fate during Second World War. The largest number of Jewish pharmacists was located on the territory of Carpathian Ruthenia, followed by Slovakia and ultimately historic lands - Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. 
The Munich Agreement, the Second Republic and the beginning of World War II meant a tragedy for Jewish pharmacists .  Only a few individuals of them emigrated in time. Largely Jewish pharmacists from Czech lands finished in the Terezin ghetto (where it served as a hospital pharmacy), some killed right in the ghetto, some in the subsequent concentration camps (Dachau, Auschwitz and others). Pharmacies of Jewish owners were Aryanized. The fates of the Jews, who lived in  Slovakia and Hungarian Kingdom (occupied Carpathian Ruthenia and south of Slovakia), Sudetenland (occupied Germany) and Cieszyn Silesia (occupied Poland) were somewhat different, but their fate was no less tragic.  But I have lack information about their fates.
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للاسف كلا
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I have decided to examine the effect of potassium nitrate on certain disease symptom. Unfortunately, there are a few companies which produce potassium nitrate capsules and their capsules are not pure potassium nitrate and some sort of vitamins are added to them which can interfere with my results.
Potassium nitrate is readily available in form of powder. I wanted to know that is that possible that I simply put a desired amount of potassium nitrate powder in empty capsules and give them to patients to use them? I have this questions since capsules usually have excipients such as silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, etc.
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If you are thinking to prepare capsules in very small number, lets say someting around 100. Then physicaly it is possible, but it will be tedious operation. First, you have to decide dose quantity as per available standard reference books. Select approriate size of capsule which can accommodate the dose qty. Make sure that the empty capsule and the active ingredient are of pharmacopoeal grade only, do not use AR grade material. Use electronic balance which have sensitivity to differentiate weight at least of 1mg, if you can get balance of 0.1mg sensitivity then it will be best. You will have to measure dose qty for each capsule, open the capsule, transfer weighed qty into it and close, immeditely put into air tight container. Entire process must be carried out under controlled humidity and temperature conditions. I must make one thing very clear that preparing capsules in such manner even for the purpose of reaserch require permission or license from food and drugs adminisration of the country and you will have to get permission for clinical trial/use also. However, if you are a registered allopathy medical practioner then you may prepare it for the purpose of dispensing to your patients only. In this case also you have to maintain records of purchase of drug matetial and empty capsules.
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How do you feel about prescribing standardised Chinese herbal medicine to patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, especially for irregular or no period?
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Ayurveda has many medicines for PCOD. Among them, Pushpadhanwa Rasa is a very effective Ayurveda medicine for PCOD. Kindly find the research paper on PCOD.
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Top-tier biomedical journals have very few articles on " pharmacy/pharmacy practice". Do people think there are any specific reasons for this? Comments are welcome.
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Most Clinical Pharmacists/Pharmacy Practitioners publish in journals such as Int. J. Pharmacy practice, Int. J. Clinical Pharmacy, Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy etc.
We are a relatively Large profession and publishing in these journals brings our research to the attention of our peers.
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I endeavour to establish the mental health impact Covid-19 has had on pharmacy personnel in South Africa. I need help designing quantitative questionnaire to attain the required information. Any input will be appreciated
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You may consider adapting already established validated and reliable tools to assess mental health status. You can choose any one or two tools based on your research questions and target population. I am sharing some tools for the adult population.
Common Mental Disorders Questionnaire (CMDQ)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder- 7 (GAD-7)
Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10)
Patient Stress Questionnaire (PSQ)
Patient Health Questionnaire -9 or 12 (PHQ-9/12)
Global Mental Health Assessment Tool - Primary Care Version (GMHAT/PC)
General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12)
You can check out standardized tool developed in local context and use for your study or adapt any of the above in your local cultural context with appropriate permission or procurement of the tool.
Hope this is helpful.
Best Wishes for your research!
Apurva
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An editorial in the International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy by van Mil and Fernandez-Llimos entitled: What is ‘pharmaceutical care’ in 2013? poses several relevant questions about the current definitions of PC. It shed a light on the mesh of working definitions since the original definition proposed by Hepler and Strand and the subsequent alternative terms proposed by other organizations and groups. I invite those individuals with interest in the subject to share their thoughts in this forum.
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Pharmaceutical Care is a patient-centered, outcomes oriented pharmacy practice that requires the pharmacist to work in concert with the patient and the patient's other healthcare providers to promote health, to prevent disease, and to assess, monitor, initiate, and modify medication use to assure that drug therapy
The principal elements of pharmaceutical care are that it is medication related; it is care that is directly provided to the patient; it is provided to produce definite outcomes; these out- comes are intended to improve the patient's quality of life; and the provider accepts personal responsibility for the outcomes.
These outcomes are (1) curing a disease, (2) elimination or reduction of a patients' symptomatology, (3) arresting or slowing down a disease process, or (4) preventing a disease or symptomatology.
Clinical pharmacy was originally defined as the area of pharmacy concerned with the science and practice of rational medication use, pharmaceutical care as the responsible provision of drug therapies to achieve definite outcomes
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  • What is the time taken for steady state to be established in adults for ( Mycophenolate mofetil ) ?
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Please bear in mind that there is a large interindividual variability in the bioavailability and therefore the plasma concentration of parent mycophenolate and active metabolite. The variation can b as large as 30%. You may consider checking the plasma concentration in critical cases.
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  1. I had published books as a part of my research interest related to pharmacy field (Pharmacology). Now, I am interested to submit books to review in academic journals (Book review publish). Can any one answer me how to submit book reviews and what are the free pharmacy journals without any fee that accepts the book reviews for publication.
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You should ask it to the book editor of the journal.
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They've invited me to publish and to become a reviewer/editor.
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The journal ”International Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry” is published by SciencePG (or Science Publishing Group) which is listed in the Beall’s list of potential predatory publishers:
This is an important red flag. Other red flags are:
-In the indexing info no serious indexing in fact for example “Directory of Research Journals Indexing (DRJI)” is an example of a misleading metrics: https://beallslist.net/misleading-metrics/
-Misleading location: ‘office’ is USA is a virtual office (something predatory publisher often use to suggest another location than the real location Pakistan)
-See for numerous examples of predatory features of this publisher: http://flakyj.blogspot.com/2017/01/science-publishing-group-sciencepg.html
So better to avoid.
Best regards.
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Dear Dr. Greetings from Cuba. We develop a project to obtain a formulations of EPN (Cuba strain), did you have possibilities to received young lady fellow? I am agronomic engineer but I have in my team a young lady with a bachelor in Pharmacy but we need help in formulation. Thanks in advanced.
Dr. Mayra G. Rodriguez
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Respected mam@
Thank you for your interest. But I don't deal with the formulation part.
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Hello all, I am unable to get knowledge of one basic function of Surescripts. I do understand that physician sends directly Rx to a one chosen pharmacy (or a chain of pharmacies?). Now what happens when patient wants (for any reason) to fill his/hers Rx in different pharmacy? Is that somewhat possible? We all talking about Surescripts-sent Rx, not a paper traditional form...
Thank a lot for answer.
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Here are the steps to transfer your prescription to a different pharmacy:
  1. Call or visit the new pharmacy to request an Rx transfer.
  2. Give the new pharmacy the names of all the medications you want to transfer, along with dosage and Rx numbers.
  3. Provide your current pharmacy’s contact information. The new pharmacy will contact your old pharmacy and take care of most of the process.
  4. Wait for the transfer to be completed, allowing at least 1-3 business days. Jan Bruthans
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Indeed, I have observed that there is some scientific journals that listed in Scopus sources of not good quality from scientific point of view. At the same time some Universities are depending on Scoups in a similar manner to that of Thomson & Routers or Clarivate analytics.
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LanguagesEnglishAccessProvidersElsevierCostSubscriptionCoverageDisciplinesLife sciences; social sciences; physical sciences; health sciencesTemporal coverage2004–presentGeospatial coverageWorldwideNo. of records69 millionLinks
  • Website
  • Title list
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What is the best way to get the plasticizer Oligomeric lactic acid ?
Which is found in scientific article (Luc Avérous, 2001) and they purchased from Sigma.
And in another article(Nuria Burgos, 2012) also used but it says that it is a patent for one company (Condensia Química) which located in Spain?
And is there any chance to purchase here from Malaysia ?
With Thanks 
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Hi,
You may make an inquiry at Alfa Chemistry, they offer kinds of chemicals for research use.
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A biosafety level is the level of the biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous biological agents in an enclosed facility. The levels of containment range from the lowest biosafety level 1 to the highest at level 4. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have specified these levels. In the European Union, the same biosafety levels are defined in a directive. Sabanci University is following the same directive in accordance with Turkish biological safety regulation.
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Genome sequencing helps find vital information, for example the strain type, virulence, location of origin and differences between strains transmitted within the country and in other countries
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You can find a centralized database of genomes on https://www.gisaid.org/ . To access them, you have to register and it can take some time to actually obtain the info. Nevertheless, you can see the authors of the publications and contact them directly.
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FDA has issued guidance to provide recommendations to health care providers and investigators on the administration and study of investigational convalescent plasma collected from individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 (COVID-19 convalescent plasma) during the public health emergency.
The guidance provides recommendations on the following:
  • pathways for use of investigational COVID-19 convalescent plasma
  • patient eligibility
  • collection of COVID-19 convalescent plasma, including donor eligibility and donor qualifications
  • labeling, and
  • record keeping
Because COVID-19 convalescent plasma has not yet been approved for use by FDA, it is regulated as an investigational product.  A health care provider must participate in one of the pathways described below.  FDA does not collect COVID-19 convalescent plasma or provide COVID-19 convalescent plasma.  Health care providers or acute care facilities should instead obtain COVID-19 convalescent plasma from an FDA-registered blood establishment.
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I am making home-made sanitizers according to the WHO protocol. One of the ingredients is hydrogen peroxide. One need to use 3% of hydrogen peroxide, so that the final concentration is 0.125% v/v. The bottle I bought at the pharmacy is written 40 Volume. What does this mean, and how much of hydrogen peroxide of this can I add, if I am making a total volume of 1000mL?
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I fully agree with Theopoline Itenge in that "40 Volume H2O2" means a 12% v/v aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide. A problem with this specification is that it is not used in chemistry but in hairdressing /hairstyling (see attached pictures). 40 Volume is the highest concentration using for hair bleaching. The second picture comes from a book entitled "Science for Hairdressing Students" and explains the situation in detail.
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Looking on how students in pharmacy relate their knowledge to disease stage or how they relate mechanisms of action of drugs, I discovered that these areas are not well-addressed. Such design that does integrate physiology, pathophysiology and mechanisms by which drugs act, and understanding that setting in a clinical format is affecting the knowledge of pharmacy students and pushing them into the memorisation of pieces of factual knowledge from here and there.
Do you see what I am saying? I am sure that this problem is everywhere and is not graduating students at the standards that we would like to see. What is your experience? And what did you do with such a problem in the design of the curriculum?
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I agree with the answer of Dr. John Jackson.
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Probiotics are live microorganisms that are intended to have health benefits when consumed or applied to the body. They can be found in yogurt and other fermented foods, dietary supplements, and beauty products.
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The virus is primarily spread between people during close contact, often via small droplets produced by coughing, sneezing, or talking. While these droplets are produced when breathing out, they usually fall to the ground or onto surfaces rather than remain in the air over long distances.People may also become infected by touching a contaminated surface and then touching their eyes, nose, or mouth. The virus can survive on surfaces for up to 72 hours. It is most contagious during the first three days after the onset of symptoms, although spread may be possible before symptoms appear and in later stages of the disease.
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Khem Raj Meena I agree with you. But everyone is scared again of the vaccination because of the numerous rumours around it
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Dengue fever is a disease caused by a family of viruses transmitted by infected mosquitoes. It is an acute illness of sudden onset that usually follows a benign course with symptoms such as headache, fever, exhaustion, severe muscle and joint pain, swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), and rash.
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A hospital-acquired infection (HAI), also known as a nosocomial infection, is an infection that is acquired in a hospital or other health care facility. To emphasize both hospital and nonhospital settings, it is sometimes instead called a health care–associated infection (HAI or HCAI).
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Please see the following RG link.
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Biological techniques are methods or procedures that are used to study living things. They include experimental and computational methods, approaches, protocols and tools for biological research.
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The SARS-CoV-2 genome was rapidly sequenced by Chinese researchers. It is an RNA molecule of about 30,000 bases containing 15 genes, including the S gene which codes for a protein located on the surface of the viral envelope (for comparison, our genome is in the form of a double helix of DNA about 3 billion bases in size and contains about 30,000 genes).
Comparative genomic analyses have shown that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the group of Betacoronaviruses and that it is very close to SARS-CoV, responsible for an epidemic of acute pneumonia which appeared in November 2002 in the Chinese province of Guangdong and then spread to 29 countries in 2003.
A total of 8,098 cases were recorded, including 774 deaths. It is known that bats of the genus Rhinolophus (potentially several cave species) were the reservoir of this virus and that a small carnivore, the palm civet (Paguma larvata), may have served as an intermediate host between bats and the first human cases.
Since then, many Betacoronaviruses have been discovered, mainly in bats, but also in humans. For example, RaTG13, isolated from a bat of the species Rhinolophus affinis collected in China's Yunan Province, has recently been described as very similar to SARS-CoV-2, with genome sequences identical to 96 percent.
These results indicate that bats, and in particular species of the genus Rhinolophus, constitute the reservoir of the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 viruses.
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The Sarbecoviruses (SARS and SARS-related beta coronaviruses) are a faily diverse clade of coronaviruses. Merbecoviruses (MERS and MERS-related beta coronaviruses) are another clade with similar diversity. The SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 sarbecoviruses are quite distant from each other.
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A man in China has reportedly died from the hantavirus, which is one of a family of viruses spread by rodents that can cause disease in humans. The man from Yunnan Province in southwest China was traveling east by bus to Shadong Province, and the 32 other people on board are also being tested for hantavirus, according to the state-run Global Times newspaper as reported by Newsweek on Tuesday.
What is the hantavirus?
This family of diseases is spread mainly by rodents — particularly the deer mouse in the U.S. — and can cause different diseases in people around the world. Each hantavirus has a specific rodent host species. Hantaviruses in the Americas are known as “New World” hantaviruses, and can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), with symptoms including fatigue, fever and muscle ache in early stages, and coughing and shortness of breath later on. Other hantaviruses, known as “Old World” hantaviruses, are mostly seen in Europe and Asia, and can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), with symptoms including intense headaches, back and abdominal pain, fever, chills, nausea and blurred vision. Both diseases are considered rare, but can be fatal.
How dangerous is it?
Developing HPS (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome) and HFRS (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) can be fatal. HPS has a mortality rate of 38%. Depending upon which virus is causing the HFRS, death occurs in less than 1% to as many as 15% of patients. But both of these are also pretty rare, and while some patients have long recovery times of weeks or months, many patients make a full recovery without lasting complications.
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In my country, general practitioners also provide (sell) the medicine. What do you think of this practice? Please share your views concerning the advantages or disadvantages of this practice.
Do you know of places where it started like this; and then changed so that only pharmacists can dispense medicine? Thanks.
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In the first place they are most trusted by locals. The medicine is usually effective but d problem is often with the posology. Every practitioner gives as per their knowledge which limits sustainability.
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The virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person.
  • Between people who are in close contact with one another (within about 6 feet).
  • Through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.
Can someone spread the virus without being sick
  • People are thought to be most contagious when they are most symptomatic (the sickest).
  • Some spread might be possible before people show symptoms; there have been reports of this occurring with this new coronavirus, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.
Spread from contact with contaminated surfaces or objects
It may be possible that a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.
How easily the virus spreads
How easily a virus spreads from person-to-person can vary. Some viruses are highly contagious (spread easily), like measles, while other viruses do not spread as easily. Another factor is whether the spread is sustained, spreading continually without stopping.
The virus that causes COVID-19 seems to be spreading easily and sustainably in the community (“community spread”) in some affected geographic areas.
Community spread means people have been infected with the virus in an area, including some who are not sure how or where they became infected.
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'Yoga', 'meditation' and 'social interaction' can be helpful in managing coronavirus (COVID-19) related anxiety and stress. Contamination and transmission of coronavirus on the other hand side can be managed by intake of immunity boosting foods, and maintaining good personal hygiene.
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New Zealand Pharmacy Council
Work Place Pressures and the stress management strategies adopted for the same.
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Yes
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I am trying to write a framework for admission into College of Pharmacy and need references.
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Dear Kwame
This paper (https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp120415) may be helpful.
Wishes
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It is asked from a societal perspective. I know some examples like generic substitution, introducing vaccination through pharmacies decrease national health expenses. I am interested to know more about different strategies that are useful.
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This resource is useful, I will add more in future;
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A model organism is one which is studied to further our understanding of biological processes. Typical characteristics of model organisms include developing to maturity rapidly, the ability to be easily manipulated, having a short life span, producing a large number of offspring and to having a sequenced genome, in addition to being well understood. Model organisms, if possible, need to have cheap sources and be easy to store in a laboratory as well as being non-pathogenic.
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Hi Mohammed,
Drosophila melanogaster remains one of the most intensively studied model organism.
Some books about Model organisms :
- The Biological Resources of Model Organisms : Collection, Characterization and Applications - by Robert L. Jarret and Kevin McCluskey
- The Cricket as a Model Organism: Development, Regeneration, and Behavior - by Hadley Wilson Horch, Taro Mito, et al.
- X is for Xenopus: A Model Organism ABC Book - by Marisa Claire Yadon | Jun 19, 2019
- Mouse as a Model Organism: From Animals to Cells - by Cord Brakebusch and Taina Pihlajaniemi
Joseph Schapira
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Training of undergraduate pharmacy student represents a challenge even in developed countries. A recent report from the General Pharmaceutical Council (GhC) in Great Britain demonstrated that more than a quarter of pharmacy graduates who took the summer 2019 preregistration assessment did not pass and that pass rate was the lowest it has been since 2011. Several options are available for pharmacy student training either under the supervision of their universities while they are studying or post-graduation and before registration under the control of the national regulatory bodies, what do you think?
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Clinical training should be implemented with course work otherwise undergraduates have no idea what they are studying and purpose of studying
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What do you think which next step of pharmacy in world expirense ?
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Syed Salman Hashmi I mean just biotechnology can work with nanotechnology in drug production ?
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Hi everyone! I need your advice.
I have been working with Truven MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters Database and the Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits (COB) Database in the past, and most recently with the SEER-Medicare data.
The oncology medicines I am working with are either injectable ( antibodies or targeted treatment) or chemo ( I guess it can be both orally taken or given infusion in an out-patient setting). I want to pull out all the claim information about the medicines. Should I just use J-code to pull them out from the in-patient (part A in Medicare) and out-patient (part B in Medicare) database? These medicines also show up as NDC# in the pharmacy database ( Medicare part D). Should I include the pharmacy claims in my analysis? All the medicines are reimbursed by Part B in Medicare. I don't understand why they show up in the pharmacy claims (part D). The patients wouldn't go to a pharmacy to pick up an oncology drug right?
Thank you so much for your advice!
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Thank you so much for your answer, James. Apologies for my late reply. I agree with you. The actual cost has little relation to ASP. I am only looking for medication costs, so it could be more straightforward. Overall, I found that understanding the real-world medical practice and reimbursement rules, as well as the data structure, are important to figure out the cost source and where they will show up in the data files. For example, infused oncology medicines are in part B while oral medications are in part D. There are also some specific rules in exception for particular medicines. The commercial databases can be different from the CMS ones because the reimbursement rules are different. Interesting and complicated.
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Is it possible for a person to crush a sustained release tablet for fast action?
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What a lot of parrots in here. Not one person has given a detailed explanation of what happens to the dose on crushing for the purpose of rapid release.
What would be the effective dose then, and why would it necessarily be dangerous?
Mostly the responses on here could have just as easily have been read off the packet.
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As an undergraduate student and for the study requirement we are doing a project in the anticancer study and want to compare the result with the standard drug so would like to know if there are any substitute that can be used?
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Please see the following RG link.
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4.5 half life are required in order for the medication to be eliminated from the body right? Thus in order for the cefipime to be eliminated from the body 2 days (t1/2= 12 hour)? I'm asking because if someone stopped taking the medication for one day, can he continue the medication afterward?
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basically their is no any clinical evidence of accumulation of the drug when injected tid mean while the total elimination of cefepime in the body is 2hrs independent of the dose administered to the patient or the volunteers during the clinical trials of the drug
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If someone was taking Cefipime IM 1 gm/ 12 hours for 10 days (The course is supposed to be 14 days) for complicated urinary tract infection (Cystitis) then he suddenly stopped taking the medication for one day. Can he continue the medication afterwards or he needs to adjust the dose?
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Patient should containue dose as prescribed
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I'm working a research to assess the prevalence the contamination of non-sterile pharmaceuticals (NSPs) with antibiotic resistance bacteria and alternative microorganisms. Different samples of oral and topical NSP products were collected randomly from different drug houses and private pharmacies in Iraq. 
 My question is: Can I mention the names of the manufacturer companies (more than 50) in my research without taking permission? Or I have to investigate to the products without mentioning the manufacturer sources?
Thank you in advance.
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Thanks for all the tips! This was extremely helpful
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Once I found out that nitrogen gas removed my anthocyanin more than its solvent (ethanol)
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Vacuum drying and freeze drying would work well. However, freeze drying is an expensive and time consuming method.
Vacuum drying is one of the the ideal methods for drying materials sensitive to heat or oxygen due to the advantage of drying at low temperature and minimizing the possibility of oxidation reactions. Since you are working with bioactives you will have to be careful with the temperature you select.
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The specificity of this question is mainly focused towards medicine, pharmacy, biology, Nursing and other allied health sciences.
Meyer and Land described threshold concepts as ‘portals’ that open up ‘new and previously inaccessible’ ways of thinking about something and ‘a transformed way of understanding or interpreting or viewing something without which the learner cannot progress’ (Meyer & Land, 2003).
A threshold concept is thus seen as something distinct within what university teachers would typically describe as ‘core concepts’. A core concept is a conceptual ‘building block’ that progresses understanding of the subject; it has to be understood but it does not necessarily lead to a qualitatively different view of subject matter.
So, for example, the concept of gravity — the idea that any two bodies attract one another with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the distance between them — represents a threshold concept, whereas the concept of a centre of gravity does not, although the latter is a core concept in many of the applied sciences (Meyer & Land, 2003).
References:
Meyer, J., & Land, R. (2003). Threshold concepts and troublesome knowledge. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.
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A threshold concept is not the same as a core concept or foundational idea. Let me give you an example. A foundational concept in writing might be that of rhetoric – the persuasive, informative and artful forms that speech and writing can take. However, knowing the principles and rules of rhetoric doesn’t help a writer to understand what they are doing. It is the understanding that writing is both social and rhetorical that makes a difference to the ways in which we approach writing. Once we understand that our writing communicates with people across time and space, and that we want them to respond in particular ways to our texts, once we connect purpose with audience, we can make authoring decisions about what rhetoric we use. And how.
About Pat Thomson
Pat Thomson is Professor of Education in the School of Education, The University of Nottingham, UK
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Is there any reference/resource that can explain the reason behind the contraindications? I'd like to know so I can be sure that if the patient can take the medication (no alternatives available) safely despite the presence of one of the contraindications.
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Mostafa: Within the contraindications there are different types . Depending on what you look for you can find information in one way or another: Contraindications for side effects: that refer to an unintended consequence that is part of the pharmacological action of a medication; for example, dry mouth in the course of a treatment with anticholinergics. Think of, a patient with s. Sjogren, who sees his symptoms worsened by taking anticholinergics. It could also be a non-selective beta-blocker and an asthmatic patient. The physiological mechanism of bronchial relaxation is through beta2 agonism, if you block it you can trigger asthma attacks. You can usually find the cause by looking at the physiology of the mechanism of action and physiology of the side effect.Also books of clinical pharmacolgy usually explain this.
Secondary effect, on the other hand, is an unintended manifestation that arises as a consequence of the fundamental action of a medicine, but that is not an inherent part of it. By way of example, hypokalemia may occur that occurs in the course of treatment with thiazide diuretics. You can also evaluate it depending on the mechanism of action of the drug. Adverse reaction or undesirable effect, finally, refer to the unwanted effects that, in addition, are harmful. In these the cause of the adverse reaction is not usually known . You know the frequency of appearance, the characteristics of the population that it affects ... in these cases the information can be found in pivotal trials, or in safety drug monitoring agencies, and drug technical data sheets. Physiologically justify why they appear is difficult, if a patient taking ibuprofen suffers a syndrome of Steve Johnson, you may say that it is a very rare adverse reaction, but not why this patient, its idiosyncrasic.
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SECRETS OF AN ACTIVE LIFE OF MANY YEARS FROM SAMBUCUS NIGRA’S FRUITS
Gayova I.M.
IFNMU, cafedra of propedeutics of internal medicine, the chairman - doctor of medicine, professor Neyko V.Y., town: Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, e-mail: proped@ukr.net
Abstract. Plant and drugs made from it that is believed as the promoter an active life of many years, must provide neuroprotection, hepatoprotection, optimize cardiac function, broncial-pulmonary and renal systems. Fruits of Elderberries (Sambucus nigra) were named in Europe “the fruits for the elderly people”. Why the black fruits are able to improve activity of vitally important organs of an old person – the author of article has tried to find the answer for the question.
The key words: fruits of the Elderberry (Sambucus nigra), neuroprotection, mucolytic action, cardioprotection, hepatoprotection, nephroprotection.
Sambucus Nigra’s fruits are believed as the promoter of an active long life. Sambucus Nigra’s fruits in England were named “elderberries.” In Poland, Lithuania, German, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Albany and Bulgaria the local names of the plant are translated as “prescribed to an elderly man”. In Latvia Sambucus is called ”ellas bumba“ that means “hellish bomb,” the Estonian name “vanem on must” is translated as a “black father”. People would like not only to live longer. People dream to prolong their youth. The aim of this article was an attempt to recognize the secrets of an active life of many years from the “black fruit.”
The elderberries contain tyrosine, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, rutin, carotin, vitamins В-1and В-2, organic acids, choline, triterpenes, polysaccharides, saccharides (6-7%), tannins, tracks of ethereal oils.[2, 4, 7, 10,12]
Tyrosine is the partially replaceable amino acid that enters the organism with food and is also synthesized in the liver from essential amino acid phenylalanine. In case of decreased level of tyrosine in the organism there is a possibility of hypothyroidism’s development with a low blood pressure and hypothermia, sensation of cold hands and feet, heaviness in the calves and chronic fatigue.
Tyrosine promotes the melanin’s synthesis, reduces an appetite and fatty tissue; it improves function of thyroid glands (connected with iodine for synthesis of thyroxin and triiodthyronine) [3, 5]; tyrosine provides with a good mood due to being precursor of neurotransmitters regulating spirits, DOPA (dihydroxyphenylalanine, catecholamines’ precursor is synthesizing from tyrosine). [3] Tyrosine diminishes fatigue, strengthens ability for concentration of attention; intensifying synthesis of dopamine and norepinephrine [5], demonstrates features of antidepressant. Disintegration of tyrosine is possible at presence of ascorbic acid, the coenzymes of this reaction. Homogentyzate (the product of tyrosine’s catabolism) is the precursor of tocopherols. [5]
Tyrosine has been used at adiposity, depression, psycho-emotional stress, migraine; Parkinson’s disease; children’s hyperactivity; rehabilitation at narcotic and alcohol dependence; allergy. [3]
Anthocyanins (flavonoids) due to their considerable аntioxidant features are known nowadays as radioprotectors. In Sambucus’ fruits are present such anthocyanins as chrysentamin and a red pigment sambucin. Ability of anthocyanins to neutralizing оxides prevents the unreversible оxidation of vitamin C, stabilizes membranes reducing their permeability. Storage of endogen ascorbic acid in the liver facilitates glycogen’s release, favouring to hepatocellular membranes’ strengthening so that demonstrates antiinflammaing effect. [6]
Stability of the collagen structure of vascular wall due to flavonoids effect can diminish development of atherosclerosis. [6,10] Flavonoids inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme demonstrating hypotensive effect. Flavonoids can increase intracellular level of ascorbic acid, the most active are anthocyanins. [6]
At heavy metals’ poisoning the strong decoction of the - flavonoids containing plants combines chelates, complexes with divalent and trivalent heavy metals that are excreted with feces completely. Flavonoids form complexes with any factors that get two free connections so that with free radicals and peroxides, that is why they are the most powerful detoxicator of human’s organism. Flavonoids stimulate detoxification and secretory liver’s function,they all are the true choleretics, they normalize motility of hepatobiliary ducts and intestine. [6]
Vitamin C in fruits of Sambucus is protected by the presence of vitamin P so that both substances become protected from overoxidation demonstrating synergism in their functions. The most important feature of ascorbic acid is the antioxidant, it is the most active water soluble antioxidant that is working in both solutions, watery and lipid. [7] Ascorbic acid as an antioxidant is able to pass two іоns of hydrogen transferring into dihydroascorbic, liposoluble acid. [8] Probably, in the natural products phenol hydroxyls of flavonoids created complex with ascorbic acid pass their hydrogen’s ions turning it into initial status. This complex is destroyed rather slowly and there is enough time to manifest it’s medicinal features before destruction. Theoretically, the same molecule is able to work as antioxidant countless times. [8]
The ascorbic acid is taking part in glutathione’s synthesis favouring formation of connective tissue. The oral kinds of glutathione can not be absorbed in the human’s body. The only real way to increase level of glutathione in the organism is to consume vitamin C. Lack of glutathione was detected at alcohol liver disease, cancer, AIDS. [7]
The ascorbic acid has influenced cellular and humoral sections of immunity increasing nonspecific immunity. Preventing formation of nitrosamines in gastro-intestinal tract vitamin C demonstrates the oncoprotective effect. The ascorbic acid takes part in creation of neurotransmitters, hormones, carnitine, promotes absorption and utilization of iron and vitamin A. [7, 11]
The activity of ascorbic acid depends on not only quantity of vitamin C but much more on escort – the presence and structure of flavonoids in natural complexes. In fruits of Sambucus nigra the role of such escort plays flavonol glycoside rutin.
The ascorbic acid being part of the natural complex is physiological because as a part of the plant it gets certain isomeric structure and it is surrounded by specific organic and mineral substances. If the organism is in need of vitamin C – the natural complex is used. If the need is small – the complex is stable, utilization of vitamin does not take place. That is why it is impossible to overdose the kind of ascorbic acid that is a component of natural product. [6,8]
Rutin, the flavonol glycoside, the glycoside of quercetine, stimulates a lot, by 62% the prostaglandins’ synthesis, at the same time it is able to neutralize oxidants that are created accessory, it blocks 5-lypooxygenase demonstrating anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. The ascorbic acid works as the prostaglandin-synthetase’s inhibitor. [8, 9]
The collagen-stabilizing effect of rutin is provided with inhibition by rutin the synthetased by leucocytes enzymes that destroy collagen. This effect was investigated rather well for anthocyanins glycoside, ascorbic acid and for combination of flavonoids and ascorbic acid. [9,13] Normalization of the collagen structure of capillaries and other vessels decreases permeability of the blood-brain barrier minimizing the dangerous of medicinal, autoimmune and other toxic affections of brain.
At long-term use rutin increases the amplitude of heart’s contractions, the cardiac output normalizing the cardiac rhythm and myocardial blood supply. Rutin gets a considerable spasmolytic effect close to the papaverin’s effect. [7,12]
Vitamin А a human’s organism is able to synthesize from carotinoids, the vegetable provitamins. Antioxidant characterisitics of carotin provide an increased density of membranes, nonspecific immune resistance, reproductive function. Vitamin A and vitamin C are synergists in plenty of processes. Lack of vitamin A results into deficiency of vitamin C. Hypovitaminosis A leads to the change of adhesive features of mucous membranes in gallbladder, hepatic vessels, kidneys. These processes cause formation of concrements and possibly atheromatous plaques. The reason of the wide-spread nowadays pathology as a ”wax” in the gallbladder is hypovitaminosis A.[7,8]
Being dissolved in lipids into duodenum, at the influence of enzyme carotinase synthesized by liver, from the molecule of carotinoids the molecule of vitamin A is created. For utilization of vitamin A the bile acids are used. Congestion and other pathological changes in hepatobiliary zone destroy as synthesis as absorption of retinol. In case of absence of fats the retinol’s synthesis and absorption is at 10% decreased [8].
The retinols’ absorption after their formation is increased at the presence of the animal fats. The ascorbic acid and the vitamins of group B that are present in Sambucus Nigra’s fruits promote the retinols’ absorption. [7]
Carotin has been used commonly as a part of complex medical treatment of pulmonary emphysema, hyperthyroidism, ophthalmologic diseases, diseases of skin and mucous membranes. [7]
Vitamin B-1, thiamine is known as the coenzyme of enzymes that regulate carbohydrates’ and proteins’ metabolism. Thiamine is important for normal function of nervous system (positive effect for the nervous impulses’ conductivity in synapses, a moderate ganglioblocking effect), gastro-intestinal tract, cardio-vascular system and endocrine glands. [3]
Vitamin B-2, riboflavin, is a part of flavin’s enzymes that take part in tissue respiration (they are transporting hydrogen) and forms adenosine triphosphoric acid in mitochondrions. [3, 8]
The most important macroelements for vitamins of group B absorption are magnesium and copper. In natural products magnesium and copper are the obligatory satellites of vitamins of group B, they are essential for the plant as coenzymes of their synthesis, they both are the part of vitamin’s complexes as the chelates. The best synergists for vitamins B are the ascorbic acid, another kinds of vitamins B, retinol and tocopherols that are present in Sambucus’ fruits. Thiamine and riboflavin being in the natural accompaniment are absorbing and functioning more effectively. [7]
Organic acids (valerianic, malic, acetic and tartaric) are the components of Sambucus Nigra’s fruits. The valerianic acid gets a sedative effect, the
malic, acetic and tartaric acids demonstrate antiinflammating and laxative effects. Organic acids being in low concentrations stimulate secretion of digestive glands and synthetic liver’s function. The oriental medicine used to ask the question about “love to the sour meal and drink” as the specific express-test about unsatisfactory state of liver. [7,12]
The plant is rich of choline (vitamin В4 or Вр), the source of acetylcholine, the main neuromediator of the brain and parasympathetic vegetative nervous system that takes part in the synthesis of myelin membrane, improves the short – termed memory, contains the nootropic, antidepressant and calming effects, stimulating cognitive functions. Analgetic action of Sambucus is used at neuralgia, lumbosacral radiculitis, the toothache, pain in the face, at the same time the narcotic effect is absent.
The cerebral activity is optimized due to the systemic effects of the aminoacids betain and ademethionine (SAMe) which are synthesizing from choline and get antioxidant, vasodilator and capillarostabilizing characteristics. [14]
Considerable effect of hepatoprotection (increased detoxification due to activated system of glutation and stabilization of hepatocellular membranes, ability to decrease intrahepatic cholestasis combined with antioxidant, lypotropic, systemic antiinflammating effects of SAMe) are provided by the presence of choline in Sambucus Nigra’s fruits. [1,16, 17]
Terpenoids and terpen-like substances in the etheric oils dilate the cerebral vessels and depends on the dose cause the stimulating, tranquilizing or analgetic effects. Fresh berries are used as analgetic at rheumatism, gout and neuralgia. Triterpenes, the etheric oils and potassium provide the diuretic effect. [4, 7] The laxative effect is possible due to complex influence of polysaccharides and flavonoids. [4, 7]
Polysaccharides get mucolytic effect resulting in smoothing suputum’s expectoration, reducing cough (due to the mucous substances that were created from transformed cellular membranes, the cellular content and starch). [4, 7] The sudorific effect is achieved due to presence of the etheric oils in Sambucus’ fruits. [4,17]
The local antiinflammating and bactericidal effects is possible due to the presence in the fruits of Sambucus nigra the complexes of anthocyanins, organic acids and polysaccharides. [4, 7] A positive effect took place at treatment of psoriasis and other diseases of skin. [7] In the kind of gargles (fomentation) fruits of Sambucus nigra are used successfully at tonsillitis, inflammation in oral cavity, chronic inflammation of ears, eyes, hemorroidal nodes.[4]
Conclusion. Medicines made of Sambucus nigra’s fruits (juice, syrup, decoction, tincture) deserve well of people to be named as the medicines of an Active Long Life due to their wide pharmacological spectrum of optimizing effect to the vitals of elderly person.
Influence on the brain.
Neuroprotection (rutin, choline, amino acids betain and ademethionin, terpenoides, riboflavin, tyrosine, thiamine, riboflavin).
Antidepressive effect (tyrosine, choline, carnitin, ascorbic acid, riboflavin).
Antiastenic features (choline, betain, ademethionin, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, riboflavin).
Stimulation of cognitive functions (choline, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, rutin).
Stabilization of vegetative functions (choline, betain, ademethionin, flavonoids, riboflavin).
Sedative effect (choline, valerianic acid).
Influence on the liver.
Hepatoprotection (flavonoids, anthocyanins, choline, betain and ademethionin).
Increased desintoxycation (flavonoids, anthocyanins, polysaccharides).
Choleretic effect (ademethionin, flavonoids, anthocyanins).
Antiinflammating influence (flavonoids, organic acids, rutin, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, ademethionin ).
Prophylaxis of gallstone disease (сarotin).
Stimulation of synthesizing liver’s function (the malic, acetic and tartaric organic acids).
Influence on the cardio-vascular system.
Hypotensive effect (flavonoids, rutin, anthocyanins, choline, betain and ademethionin ).
Cardioprotection (rutin, choline, betain and ademethionin, anthocyanins).
Spasmolytic effect (rutin).
Influence on the respiratory system.
Antiinflammating and antihystamin effects (rutin).
Respiratory center’s stimulation (the ethereal oils).
Mucolytic action (polysaccharides).
Sudorific effect (the ethereal oils).
Influence on the immune system.
Stimulation of unspecific immune resistance (ascorbic acid, carotin).
Influence on the gastro-intestinal tract.
Decreased appetite and the body mass (tyrosine).
Oncoprotective effect (ascorbic acid, carotin).
Antiinflammating action (the malic, acetic and tartaric organic acids; flavonoids, anthocyanins, rutin, ascorbic acid, polysaccharides).
Stimulation of digesting glands’ secretion (the malic, acetic and tartaric organic acids).
Laxative effect (mucus and polysaccharides in complex with flavonoids, anthocyanins, organic acids).
Influence on the kidneys.
Diuretic effect (triterpens, etheric oils, flavonoids and potassium).
Influence on the endocrine system.
Promotion of thyroid gland’s function (tyrosine).
Promotion of steroids’ synthesis (ascorbic acid).
Normalization of metabolism of proteins and lipids (vitamin B-1).
Decreased appetite and the body mass (tyrosine).
Influence on the skin.
Local antiinflammating effect (flavonoids, anthocyans, ascorbic acid, organic acids, polysaccharides).
Antyallergic treatment (rutin, ascorbic acid).
Treatment of dry skin, diseases of skin and mucous membranes (carotin).
Influence on the reproductive organs.
Protection of pregnancy (carotin).
Sambucus nigra’s fruits are used traditionally as diuretic, laxative, polyvitamin remedy at diseases of liver, bile ducts, at chronic constipation. They also are useful at atherosclerosis, diabetes and psoriasis. But, actually, the possibilities of the plant are much more. That is why the most of European peoples had named the fruit of Sambucus nigra “elderberry”, or berry for “an active long life”.
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Will you initiate Daflon with this list of medications or not?
Medical History:
Atrial Fibrillation (Managed with 2.5 mg bisoprolol once daily)
Allergic Rhinitis (Managed with 10 mg cetirizine once daily)
Vaginal Hysterectomy (Post-operation medications to prevent surgical site infection include : Clindamycin 300 mg 3 times per day, Cefixime 400 mg once daily along with topical treatment Clindamycin vaginal cream along with Betadine® (Povidone-iodine))
The operation (Vaginal Hysterectomy) was done on 14/3/2019 and she was precribed Enoxaprin 40 (once daily) two days consequently prior to the operation and she did take Enoxaprin on the day after the surgery also.
My Q is: Can she take Daflon one tablet daily for managing chronic venous insufficiency as she used to prior to the operation or taking Daflon can increase the risk of bleeding? Should she wait till she finish the post-op medications?
Medications administered during her stay in Hospital:
meropenem, Levofloxacin 500 mg , Acetaminophen.
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Hesperidin has moderate drug interactions with:
  • Bisoprolol: leading to increased blood pressure lowering effect and this interaction may lead to hypotension.
  • Enoxaparin: hesperidin in combination with diosmin may increase fibrinogen levels and clotting time and increased risk of bleeding.
Diosmine has moderate drug interactions with:
  • Clindamycin: diosmine inhibits the metabolism of clindamycin and might increase the risk of infection with C. diff.
  • Enoxaparin: taking diosmin with other anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs might increase the risk of bleeding
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53 Y F is taking bisoprolol 2.5 mg once daily (Before sleep), Cetirizine 10 mg once daily , Cefixime 400 mg once daily along with Clindamycin 300 mg 3 times per day. Tamsulosin 0.4 mg is going to be added to this drug regimen. Which time you prefer to administrate Tamsulosin since Tamsulosin may interact with bisoprolol and lower blood pressure even more? I suggested to take both medications at different times during the day, Bisoprolol before sleep and Tamsulosin in the morning because I don't want to lower blood pressure too much during sleep (with no monitoring available during sleep time). What do you think? Agree?
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Beta blockers are preferred during day time and avoided during night mostly as during sleep there is increased parasympathetic drive which reduces the resting heart rate.
Better to give bisoprolol in morning.
Tamsulosin is a selective alpha blocker and has minimal effect on the alpha 1 receptors present in the blood vessels which reduces it's chances of causing hypotension as expected from a non selective alpha blocker like prazocin.
So continue Tamsulosin at night and consider bisoprolol at morning
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Which is the better for the researcher, studying various topics and making a research for each one, or studying one particular topic and making a series of researches related to it?
Please reply, and share us your opinions about the discussion
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I would like to thank all researchers for their sincerely opinions, it is very useful to me.
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Chronic pain is difficult to treat
Acetaminophen is usually inadequate
Non-steroidal agents have long term toxicities- renal and cardiac and annual bleeding risks
Opioids are available in all countries [Oxycontin, Vicodin, Tramadol, Tramacet, etc] and prescribing at low doses invariably lead to higher doses/more powerful opioids and then addiction.
So the BIG question is: how to treat chronic pain conditions effectively, without causing addiction?
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So the BIG question is: how to treat chronic pain conditions effectively, without causing addiction?
Dear Fazleh,
Chronic pain is a very broad term where it could be malignant chronic pain(related to cancer and AIDS) and non-malignant chronic pain(which can be neuropathic, inflammatory, nociceptive..etc). Hence, pain management plan varies widely based on the pain type; e.g: neuropathic pain is more likely to benefit from gabapentin or pregabalin but not opioids.
Concerns about addiction could be minimized through different strategies as recommended by the guidelines (for example: opioid rotation, relying more on sustained release formulation rather than the immediate release, as well as continuous follow up). Fear of addiction should not lead to improper pain control in this population. Moreover, there are some tools that can assist the physician to predict those patients who have higher risks.
you may have a look at:
Opioid Treatment Guidelines
Clinical Guidelines for the Use of Chronic Opioid Therapy
in Chronic Noncancer Pain
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In my country, the benefit from a specific paper is proportional according to the sequence of the researcher’s name in the paper, where (100%, 80% and 70%) for the first, the second and the third researcher respectively, and if there are additional researchers, then they will not get any benefit from the research.
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With you, son of my country, in the same case. I am looking with you, to dear colleagues contributions .
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This specificity of this question is directed towards medicine, pharmacy and nursing.
Understanding differences in the pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapeutic skills of pharmacists and physicians plays a vital role in optimizing inter-professional collaboration and education. These skills include prescription writing, patient communication about medication (Keijsers et al., 2015) and patient education.
What are the additional sets of skills that a graduate should possess that can later transform into competencies.
I am looking forward to Specific, Relevant & To the point answers.
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Thanks Nanloh (@Nanloh Samuel Jiman) for providing me an insightful piece of information about student awareness and a watchful approach discerning the economical impacts linked to inappropriate pharmacotherapeutics practices.
I am extremely grateful to you Hassan (@Mohamed Hassan Elnaem), I completely agree with you that student's understanding of the rationale behind the guidelines and recommendations in the context of evidence based practice is an integral pharmacotherapeutics skill or aptitude that can play a significant role not only for drug prescription but also for effective dissemination or sharing of information among other health care professionals including the patients.
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There are wide differences in the template from one journal to another, why this differences, do you agree that the template of the journals should be unified or not? Why
Please share us your opinions
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