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Pharmacology - Science topic

Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action.
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Publications related to Pharmacology (10,000)
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Among various reasons of raised hypertension, excessive blood pressure is the major one. Hypertension affects over a billion people worldwide, especially the elder people. The International Society of Hypertension (ISH) has extensively developed the practice guidelines to reduce the extent of hypertension caused by high blood pressure (BP) with evi...
Article
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Recently, some drugs were approved to control Monkeypox (MPX), among them tecovirimat. This was recently approved by regulatory agencies around the world, the paper of Zovi et al entitled Pharmacological Agents with Antiviral Activity against Monkeypox Infection highlight it as safe and effective, although the safety data are still not very robust....
Article
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INTRODUCTION : Pneumothorax has been reported in minority of COVID-19 cases. Spontaneus Pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of COVID-19. The incidence and risk factors are still unknown. Here we will review where there are challenges with case of Pneumothorax in COVID-19 patients. CASE ILLUSTRATION : We report one case at Dr. Saiful Anwar hosp...
Article
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Parole chiave: paziente chirurgico, ansia, relazione, relazione d'aiuto, counseling. Riassunto Il paziente sottoposto a intervento chirurgico si trova ad affrontare una situazione ricca di insidie, sconosciuta, carica di ansia. Tutto questo può interferire con il dolore post-operatorio, la risposta farmacologica, l'emotività al risveglio, l'alteraz...
Article
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While new drug approvals by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had remained stable or even increased in the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 37 newly approved drugs in 2022 are considerably less than the 53 and 50 new drugs approved in 2020 and 2021, respectively, and less than the rolling 10-year average of 43. As in previous y...
Article
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Medicinal plants exhibit significant importance in today’s medicinal science and with the pandemic people’s inclination towards plant-based medicines and herbal drugs have accentuated the overall importance of medicinal plants. Apocynaceae family is a plant family with in which majority of the species have great medicinal properties and hold pha...
Article
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In this study, we present a novel and efficient approach for the oxidative esterification of sulfenamides using phenyliodonium diacetate, enabling the synthesis of sulfinimidate esters and sulfilimines under mild and metal-free conditions, with yields reaching up to 99%. The protocol is readily scalable and compatible with a diverse range of substr...
Article
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Quercetin, one of the major natural flavonoids, has demonstrated great pharmacological potential as an antioxidant and in overcoming drug resistance. However, its low aqueous solubility and poor stability limit its potential applications. Previous studies suggest that the formation of quercetin-metal complexes could increase quercetin stability and...
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Existing scholarship has demonstrated that the literary and medical writings of the author-physician Arthur Schnitzler are inextricably intertwined. Yet very little attention has been paid to problems of pharmacology, although medical substances appear frequently in his works. Based on a discovery in the corporate archives of the pharmaceutical gia...
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Purpose of Review This article discusses sedation in pregnant patients undergoing minimally invasive fetal interventions. It includes a review of the goals of sedation in this population, relevant existing guidelines, physiological considerations unique to pregnant patients undergoing sedation, and a brief discussion of perioperative management usi...
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The transcriptional coactivators Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are the main downstream effectors of the evolutionarily conserved Hippo signaling pathway. YAP/TAZ are implicated in the transcriptional regulation of target genes that are involved in a wide range of key biological processes a...
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HCN4 channels are considered to be a promising target for cardiac pathologies, epilepsy, and multiple sclerosis. However, there are no subtype-selective HCN channel blockers available, and only a few compounds are reported to display subtype preferences, one of which is EC18 (cis-1). Herein, we report the optimized synthetic route for the preparati...
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most popular and deadly disease. In order to deal with Alzheimer’s disease, thousands of researches, studies and experiments have been done to seek out the ways can prevent or even cure the disease. This paper will discuss some initiative and effective methods that deal with Alzheimer’s disease. The Paper is f...
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Multiple myeloma is a severe malignance caused by damaged B cells from bone marrow plasma cells. Multiple treatments have been introduced to release and treat such a disease, but in general, high rate and severity of adverse events and relatively unideal efficacies of those existing treatments necessitate a new therapy achieving a better curative e...
Article
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The review presents retrospective, present views and future perspectives for the treatment of status epilepticus (SE). First, presynaptic, postsynaptic and extra-synaptic mechanisms underlying sustaining ongoing seizure activity, are highlighted. Next, mechanism-based choices of antiseizure medications capable of promptly arresting SE are introduce...
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is treated with a variety of immunomodulating and immunosuppressive therapies; however, for the majority of cases, these therapies are not targeted for specific disease phenotypes. Monogenic IBD with causative genetic defect is the exception and represents a disease cohort where precision therapeutics can be applied...
Chapter
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Resumo: A ideia de uma escala de graus de calor e frio surge primeiramente na medicina helênica, nos trabalhos de Galeno que, por sua vez, foram inspirados por Hipócrates. Durante o período medieval, as ideias de Galeno sofrem transformações e surge uma busca por uma quantificação mais detalhada dos graus de calor e frio, para permitir a previsão d...
Article
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Burn injuries requiring medical treatment are very common, devastating, and painful. Pain management in burn patients has been a great challenge for many years. Unfortunately, inconsistent and outdated practices are still reported in the literature, mainly due to a lack of data supporting high-level evidence-based standards of care. Many studies ha...
Conference Paper
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The flora of Georgia is rich in medicinal plants, reports on the use of medicinal plants in medicine are given in manuscripts and folklore. Among the plants described in the manuscripts, the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) occupies a certain place. Dandelion has not been studied in Georgia, it was used and is used by the followers of tradit...
Article
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Target 2035, an international federation of biomedical scientists from the public and private sectors, is leveraging ‘open’ principles to develop a pharmacological tool for every human protein. These tools are important reagents for scientists studying human health and disease and will facilitate the development of new medicines. It is therefore no...
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Aging commonly presents itself as a period of vulnerability, multiple complications and, in many cases, partial or total dependence on third parties. In view of this, it is important to emphasize the responsibility of the health network to promote a positive and comfortable perspective for such users, who have been neglected and treated according t...
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Seizures are life-threatening complications of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) and are often associated with poor outcomes. Cyclophosphamide immunotherapy is the mainstay of NPSLE treatment. We report the unique case of a patient with NPSLE who developed seizures soon after her first and second doses of low-dose cyclophosphami...
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We report a case of a 49 year old woman who developed biopsy-proven xanthomas on her hands and arms after initiation of Mycophenolate mofetil therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and subsequently went into remission upon cessation of the medication.
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Patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer are at risk of metastatic relapse for decades after primary tumor resection and treatment, a consequence of dormant disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) reawakening at secondary sites. Here we use syngeneic ER⁺ mouse models in which DTCs display a dormant phenotype in young mice but accelerated...
Article
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Purpose: Adherence to disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon. Identifying the predictors of therapeutic adherence in MS will guide the design of interventions to improve health outcomes. Our aim was to assess the degree of adherence to pharmacological treatments, assess the relati...
Article
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Despite an improvement in pharmacological therapies and mechanical reperfusion, the outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is still suboptimal, especially in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS). The incidence of CS accounts for 3–15% of AMI cases, with mortality rates of 40% to 50%. In contrast to a large number of trials condu...
Article
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Despite extensive research efforts, the majority of trialed monotherapies to date have failed to demonstrate significant benefit. It has been suggested that this is due to the complex pathophysiology of TBI, which may possibly be addressed by a combination of therape...
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342.951:[61+615]+615.1 ФАРМАЦЕВТИЧЕСКОЕ ПРАВО В РЕГУЛЯТОРНОЙ СИСТЕМЕ ОБОРОТА ЛЕКАРСТВЕННЫХ СРЕДСТВ РАЗЛИЧНЫХ КЛАССИФИКАЦИОННО-ПРАВОВЫХ И НОМЕНКЛАТУРНО-ПРАВОВЫХ ГРУПП В УКРАИНЕ Шаповалов Валентин Валерьевич, доктор философии, кандидат фармацевтических наук, доцент Шаповалова Виктория Алексеевна, доктор фармацевтических наук, профессор Шаповалов Вале...
Article
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Chronic and inappropriate benzodiazepine intake represents an important health and social concern worldwide. The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of P. incarnata L., herba, in reducing benzodiazepine misuse in a real-world population of depressed and anxious patients in a long-term treatment with benzodiazepines. We conducted a...
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One of the most fundamental discoveries in human biology was that of the existence of essential micronutrients that the body cannot synthesize but nonetheless requires for proper functioning [...]
Preprint
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Interactions between living cells and nanoparticles have been extensively studied to enhance the delivery of therapeutics. Nanoparticles size, shape, stiffness and surface charge have been regarded as the main features able to control the fate of cell-nanoparticle interactions. However, the clinical translation of nanotherapies has so far been limi...
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Evolution endowed snakes with the ultimate weapon: venom [...]
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Dementia is a core symptom in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and other dementia related diseases (ODRDs). It accounts for one of the foremost health concerns in elderly individuals with ongoing decline in cognition, activities of daily living and behaviour. In addition, what is commonly not accounted for as a primary symptom in AD and ODRDs is pain. Unfo...
Article
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Current methods to generate cardiomyocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSc) utilize broad-spectrum pharmacological inhibitors. These methods give rise to cardiomyocytes which are typically immature. Since we have recently demonstrated that cardiomyogenesis in vitro and in vivo requires Sfrp2, we asked if Sfrp2 would drive differentiation...
Article
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Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome involving structural and/or functional abnormalities of the heart. Heart failure is often classified based on left ventricular ejection fraction, which serves as a predictor of mortality. The majority of the data supporting disease-modifying pharmacological therapies are from patients with reduced e...
Article
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La afectación de las funciones mentales superiores como consecuencia de trastornos mentales, genera alteraciones en el control del movimiento y la conciencia corporal, desde el cuerpo vivido, percibido y representado. Las funciones mentales son reconocidas como pilares esenciales para el desarrollo del sistema motor en el humano. Objetivo: Evidenci...
Article
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Cardiorenal syndrome consists in the coexistence of acute or chronic dysfunction of heart and kidneys resulting in a cascade of feedback mechanisms and causing damage to both organs associated with high morbidity and mortality. In the last few years, different biomarkers have been investigated with the aim to achieve an early and accurate diagnosis...
Article
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Copper-catalyzed selective alkynylation with N-propargyl carboxamides as nucleophiles has been successfully developed for the synthesis of C2-functionalized chromanones. Under optimized reaction conditions, 21 examples were obtained in one-pot procedure through 1,4-conjugate addition. This protocol features readily available feedstocks, easy operat...
Preprint
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In this paper, we investigate how the Energy-Impulse-Information Ten-sor (EIIT) and the quadricolor matrix formalism can be used to address the degenerative process of multiple sclerosis (MS). We show how this formalism can be applied in medical research to study the propagation of information through the central nervous system (CNS), and how it ca...
Article
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Bivalent chemical degraders, otherwise known as proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs), have proven to be an efficient strategy for targeting overexpressed or mutated proteins in cancer. PROTACs provide an alternative approach to small-molecule inhibitors, which are restricted by occupancy-driven pharmacology, often resulting in acquired inhibito...
Article
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Background: Knowledge about the process and the results of the implementation of clinical guidelines to improve palliative care is limited. A national project aimed at improving the quality of life of advanced cancer patients admitted to specialized palliative care services in Denmark by implementing clinical guidelines for the treatment of pain,...
Article
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Aegle marmelos is a plant in the Rutaceae family that is one of the most significant in the medicinal field due to its properties. Bilwa is used to treat a variety of medical problems. Since the time of the dinosaurs, this plant has existed. The plant contains a variety of pharmacological qualities, including wound healing,
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Pharmacology exam
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Introduction: The fundamental objective of contemporary oral care practice is to provide solutions not only to those entities that affect the oral apparatus, but also to prevent and treat those medical emergencies that may appear during professional practice. This purpose can be achieved only through the training of an oral physician with a high sc...
Article
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Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) is the most common pulmonary adverse event of anticancer drugs. In recent years, the incidence of anticancer DILD has gradually increased with the rapid development of novel anticancer agents. Due to the diverse clinical manifestations and the lack of specific diagnostic criteria, DILD is difficult to d...
Article
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The term "medicinal plant" refers to a plant that has active components with therapeutic properties and is used to treat disease or illness in various medical systems or conventionally. Every continent uses medicinal plants extensively and successfully. Herbal medicine is an extremely well-known and well-documented technique in Asia. Cucumis sativu...
Article
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Background Medication-overuse headache is highly prevalent in tertiary care centers. It may be a cause or consequence of the overuse of symptomatic medications for migraine attacks. Objective We aimed to compare the efficacy of anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) added to conventional pharmacological treatments in patients with chronic migraine...
Article
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The development and progression of tumors in human tissues extensively rely on its surrounding environment, that is, tumor microenvironment which includes a variety of cells, molecules, and blood vessels. These components are modified, organized, and integrated to support and facilitate the growth, invasion, and metabolism of tumor cells, suggestin...
Article
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Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of selected pediatric outpatient medicine training programs on the knowledge of interns in the pediatric quarter. Methods : The present study was a quasi-experimental study on all medical interns of the second semester of the 2017-2018 academic year season of pediatric who were selected...
Article
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Antecedentes: La Homeopatía emplea el denominado “principio de similares” como método terapéutico –el cual consiste en administrar medicamentos que provocan ciertos síntomas en individuos sanos para tratar síntomas similares en individuos enfermos (similia similibus curantur)– para inducir una reacción curativa secundaria del cuerpo en contra de su...
Article
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Plant-derived phytochemicals are emerging as novel agents for protection against chronic disorders. Dangguisu-san is a herbal prescription to invigorate the blood and relieve pain. Among the numerous active constituents of Dangguisu-san, those expected to be effective at inhibiting platelet aggregation were predicted using a network pharmacological...
Article
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Saponins represent important natural derivatives of plant triterpenoids that are secondary plant metabolites. Saponins, also named glycoconjugates, are available both as natural and synthetic products. This review is focused on saponins of the oleanane, ursane, and lupane types of triterpenoids that include several plant triterpenoids displaying va...
Article
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Efectos de las diluciones homeopáticas altas sobre las plantas: Revisión de la literatura Resumen Abstract Antecedentes: Entre los supuestos no convencionales de la homeopatía, el uso de medicamentos en diluciones altas (HD, por sus siglas en inglés) es una causa de objeciones y escepticismo entre la comunidad científica, formada dentro del paradig...
Article
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About 1 in 10 adults worldwide are estimated to have diabetes mellitus. They are at risk of developing life-threatening complications resulting in reduced quality of life, increased mortality and higher healthcare costs. The ability to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by modifying some of its risk factors has been hypothesized for d...
Article
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Methamphetamine use disorder is a chronic relapsing condition associated with substantial mental, physical, and social harms and increasing rates of mortality. Contingency management and psychotherapy interventions are the mainstays of treatment but are modestly effective with high relapse rates, while pharmacological treatments have shown little t...
Book
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Buku ini membahas tentang pengertian obat pada saluran cerna, anti ulserasi, anti refluks, antasida, anti emetika, anti spasmodik, obat diare, obat pencahar, pengikat asam empedu, pengikat asam empedu, anti hemoroid, anti hemoroid, dan obat yang mempengaruhi komposisi dan aliran empedu. Buku ini diharapkan dapat membantu pembaca memahami Farmako...
Article
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The sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) is expressed on the luminal side of proximal tubule epithelial cells in the kidney. While pharmacological inhibition of SGLT2 provides kidney protection in diabetic kidney disease (DKD), the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this issue of the JCI, Schaub et al. report on the changes in single-cell tr...
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Stress can have severe psychological and physiological consequences. Thus, inappropriate regulation of the stress response is linked to the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders. The generation and implementation of preclinical animal models represent valuable tools to explore and characterize the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of stres...
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Small pupil is a well-known risk factor for causing cataract surgery complications such as vitreous loss, anterior capsular tear, increased inflammation, and an irregular pupil shape. Because all currently available pharmacological approaches of dilating the pupil before or during cataract surgery cannot guarantee the result, the surgeon sometimes...
Article
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Kongratanapasert T, Kongsomros S, Arya N, et al. J Exp Pharmacol. 2023;15:13–26. Page 19, line two, the text “510.25 ± 329.37 and 2015.74 ± 708.53 μg/g” should read “510.25 ± 329.37 and 2015.74 ± 708.53 μg/kg”. Page 19, Table 2, column 1, the text “Lung (μg/g tissue)” should read “Lung (μg/kg tissue)” The correct Table 2 is as follows. Table 2 The...
Article
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Soursop is a popular edible fruit in the world, because of its delicious taste as well as its pharmacological values and therapeutic uses. However, this is also a perishable fruit. To increase the value of this fruit, we conducted a study to optimize the process of creating dried soursop products by the response surface method. The optimal value wa...
Article
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IntroductionTriptolide (TPL) is a promising plant-derived compound for clinical therapy of multiple human diseases; however, its application was limited considering its toxicity.Methods To explore the underlying molecular mechanism of TPL nephrotoxicity, a network pharmacology based approach was utilized to predict candidate targets related with TP...
Article
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Background: COVID-19 creates a hypercoagulable state with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Of those, venous thromboembolism (VTE) is prevalent, and numerous studies have highlighted the importance of VTE prophylaxis. Pre-pandemic VTE prophylaxis practices have already been poor, despite guidelines. We hypothesized that the gap between g...
Article
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La Homeopatía de México | Evidencias Científicas de la Homeopatía | Edición Especial de Aniversario (90 años) | 2023 || EDITORIAL: Para aquellos que demandan evidencias científicas de la Homeopatía. Marcus Zulian Teixeira. | ARTÍCULOS: Homeopatía: una breve descripción de esta especialidad médica. Marcelo Pustiglione, Eduardo Goldenstein, Y. Moisés...
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The field of radiopharmaceuticals is constantly evolving thanks to the great contribution of specialists coming from different disciplines such as inorganic chemistry, radiochemistry, organic and biochemistry, pharmacology, nuclear medicine, physics, etc [...]
Chapter
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Pancreatic insufficiency, both acute and chronic, is an important cause of maldigestion and malnutrition caused by impaired exocrine pancreatic function. Many causes are able to determine pancreatic insufficiency which, depending on the severity, can manifest itself with very diversified symptoms. The chapter will illustrate the diagnostic and moni...
Conference Paper
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The citral is a monoterpene composed of two isomers: neral and geranial. These molecules have several pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antifungal. Therefore, this work analyzed the physicochemical differences of the citral isomers and a case study of their antifungal activity.