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Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology - Science topic

Dry Powder Inhalers, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Particle engineeing techniques, Formulation processing and development, Pharmaceutics and pharmaceutical technology, physicochemical characterization, controlled drug release, Crystal growth and design, Powder Technology & material sience, Oral drug delivery, Spray drying & freeze drying, Solid State, Nanoparticle particle engineeing, Targeted delivery systems, Particular interactions in pharmaceutical dosage forms, Drug Delivery
Questions related to Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology
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By counting people; quantifying them; creating norms (stating what is a normal perception, normal memory, normal daily function); correlating data about them; and by medicalizing, biologizing, genericizing, and bureaucratizing individuals, are we creating new kinds of patients?
Afterall, when “autistics,” “hoarders,” “obese,” or “paranoid schizophrenics” emerge as new subjects, so do new types of experts identifying, assessing, and treating them.”
“Hacking argues that the human sciences are not necessarily revealing new illnesses that are then given names; instead, they are driven by “engines of discovery” and involve a process of “making up people.”
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Thank you very much, my dear Christian Jost
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I want to do liposomes release profile, I was wondering if I can use dialysis bags as I already have them cut of 12 kda instead of using dialysis tubes as I have seen everyone is using that.
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Yes, you can use dialysis bags for in vitro release study of Liposomes. Just make sure you tie both ends of the bag tightly with a knot or clip.
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I am here for specific answers or a list of investigation tools to determine the newly developed drugs/inhibitors/medicines.
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I am looking for a plain/empty gel system, which we can directly buy and load the drug for the purpose of transdermal delivery. Your kind help will be appreciated.
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generally, based on the nature of the drug we have to select the polymers to prepare any formulation .
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I have tried to dissolve the 0.286 gm indomethacin in 8 ml of Dmso [(100mM)] but it did not dissolve completely. I had put in a shaker overnight. then I incubated it at 75 C for 10 minutes and then sonicate for around 10 minutes but still, it did not dissolve.
and then i had disolve 71.56mg in 10 ml of ethyl alcohol [(20mM)] and still it did not disolve.
please suggest any idea????
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I would try diluting it down to 6.5 mg/mL absolute ethanol, in keeping with Malcolm's suggestion.
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I have herbal extracts obtained by maceration in 80% ethanol that are desired to be evaluated for their wound healing activity using excision and incision wound model on albino rats.
Although the extracts are prepared using the same solvent they have different solubility profile in water (some form clear solution while others results in a homogeneous suspension).
We intend to formulate the extracts into a semisolid dermal preparation using either aqueous cream base or simple ointment base as they are the most frequently used bases with the least intrinsic efficacy.
Is there a suitable method to measure and compare the release of the extracts from the aqueous cream base and the simple ointment base in order to evaluate their suitability.
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Dear Jun,
yes, there are methods.Just read the attached article.
regards
Horst Liebl
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We know, that we can use only validated methods for comparative studies. In our lab we have performed the validation of the dissolution method for the specific medicine. In the comparative study we used several different media, these media did not participate in our validation, exept the one for quality control. Does it mean that we have to perform full validation procedures in each media additionally?
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Interesting question. I agree with Andrei Blasko and Saeed Ayaz Khan . However, you did not mean a regular analytical method validation. You are dealing with dissolution kinetics. The dissolution itself will depend on the physicochemical parameters you used, so the kinetics.
You find in the literature different behavior of the same AFI, for instance losartan, in several mediums, pH, ionic strength, and solvation conditions. Therefore several other surface and chemical interactions may influence the kinetics, not the determination method itself.
For your safety, check the validation with the already used media. The kinetics of significant different media will change. Therefore, the dissolution kinetics may have different parameters that may affect or not the determination method.
Best regards,
WNM
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In recent years, advancement of AI technologies brought a wide spectrum of applications in Biomedical and Pharmaceutical industry. From Computer Vision enabled by Deep Learning algorithms to AI aided Drug Discovery and Drug Repurposing. What's your opinion on the impacts of AI on Healthcare industry in the future?
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It puts consumers in control of health and well-being. Additionally, AI increases the ability for healthcare professionals to better understand the day-to-day patterns and needs of the people they care for, and with that understanding they are able to provide better feedback, guidance and support for staying healthy.
Regards,
Shafagat
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In the structure of many drugs, there is a carboxylic group
What is the significance of this group? Why should it exist in the structure of a drug?
Do you know any article or book or reference about this subject?
Thanks a lot
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Nalidixic acid - A NSAID grs of drugs or pain killer .REF : en.wikipedia.org ( Image Source ) .
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Probiotics can be used as dietary supplements or drugs to treat diseases. The genetically modified probiotics will offer much more beneficial features than the wild type probiotics. Does FDA approve genetically modified probiotics? When do you think they will approve? What scientific questions do we need to resolve before FDA can approve? Can we use genetically modified probiotics as dietary supplements without FDA approval?
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The GM probiotics, like other GMO, have both their pros and cons depending on the method (s) used to make them.
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Hi Everyone
I have calculated the effect of a drug on the inactivation of a protein at different temperatures using unpaired experiments. The drug has a significant effect (p<0.00001) on the function of the protein at all tested temperatures (12C, 25C and 37C). The temperature itself has an effect on the function of the protein. This data and many related experiments indicate the effect of the drug is strongest at 25C. However, I want to find a good statistical model to confirm that the effect of drug on the protein is temperature dependant and peaks at 25C. I was thinking about ANCOVA and Two way ANOVA but both do not seem to be intended to test a hypothesis like this.
Please note that none of the data sets are paired. These are all independent samples. And finding the optimum temperature for the drug effect is not my main aim. I want to confirm whether the temperature has an effect on the drug response
Has anyone encountered a problem like this before? What procedures did you take to properly test the hypothesis? Any recommendation/advice is most welcome
Thank you :)
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With the data you have, probably you want to keep the 2-way anova design with interaction, and then use the lsmeans or emmeans procedure appropriate for that model that your software provides to determine if groups (e.g. levels of the Temperature x Treatment interaction) are significantly different.
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Recent research suggests that beta blockers are useful in fighting the corona virus. what is the acual mechanism of action?
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Hello, can anyone please named few potential drug delivery technologies that you think are novel and unique. Our comapny is looking to buy few drug delivery technologies that can serve us to compete for now and few next years. Suggestions are highly appreciated. Thanks in advance.
Regards
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Current trend is Nanotechnology based drug delivery systems like nanogels, Hydrogels for wound healing, surgical sprays, Monoclonal antibodies are in high demand in this covid state and many companies are even having patents.
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Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase is an enzyme in some bacteria that is responsible for the resistance to penicillin antibiotics. Due to the rise in antibiotic resistance, the enzyme has caught my attention in research. However, the cost of the test kits for the enzyme is a factor I am yet to know before undergoing the research. It is for this reason that this question was asked. I am a young scholar pursuing a B.Sc in microbiology. I will highly appreciate any effort made for research simplicity and continuity.
Your contributions will mean a lot to me.
Thank you in anticipation
Daniel Agurokpon
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You can perform the double disc method, by using cefotaxime and cefotaxime+ clavulonic acid (A himedia disc). This is one of the phenotypic methods. For genotypic characterization you can use primers like blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M
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The API (i.e. loteprednol etabonate )has poor solubility in water but has excellent solubility in Transcutol P which serves as cosurfactant in my microemulsion formulation. But when I added water in finished formulation, the drug substance precipitated. I was preplexed. Could you help me understand the problem? I also gave a glance at google scholar search results, and could not find any research on loteprednol etabonate microemulsion or nanoemulsion. Would you be so kind as to help me get some? Thank you very much.
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Aloke Purkait 1:1 API:alcohol?
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Hi,
I am to go for ligand based pharmacophore design, before going to start I need some basic knowledge about pharmacophore design like ligand based vs structure based, preliminary requirements or requisition to develop ligand based pharmacophore, data set preparation, features selection, validation of developed pharmacophore and software which can use for pharmacophore design. 
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Basic requirements to go for ligand based pharmacophore design is that the ligand must contain the reactive group/s essential for bonding.
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Does Big Pharma play too big a role in directing and funding Global reasearch?
Should academics be banned from ANY interaction with Big Pharma?
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I think we've seen this problem in this pandemic, big pharma are funding and controlling journals today, and academics are turning to them because the salaries are much higher and the funding is always available.
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It is often required to use solid reagent for analytical analysis within their shelf-life period, however, some suppliers can't provide a specified expiry date (they provide sometimes only the release test date)?
my question then, is about how to process (set appropriate release test) in order to be conform to the quality of solid reagent?
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A bacteria grew on macconkey, they were white and round colonies, oxidase negative, catalase positive, nonlactose fermenter but when I did gram staining it appeared as gram negative cocci sometimes in chains and others as a diplococci. It was isolated from xanthan gum powder used to manufacture drugs. Any idea what ir could be or what I can do to identify it?
Oh it also grew on Oxoids Brillance Salmonella agar forming pink colonies which also rules out salmonella the thing is that that agar has novobiocine and cefsulodine as antibiotics so that bacteria must be resistant to both at least at the concentrations in the agar, and the and gram staining gave the same result as the macconkey. Also before plating in both agars 10g of the xanthan gum were enriched on triptic soy broth for 24h at 37C
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PCR identification of microorganisms
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How can we find the patent number of NDA and ANDA?
https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/ provide application number but there is no patent number. Can anyone please help?
Thank you
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Hi
I think the story is a little bit more complicated because for one product dozens of patents have to be checked (different for the active substance, for dosage, formulation etc etc). This is a very complicated process that is usually carried out by an experienced patent attorney. Information on patents is not included in the submission.
Best regards
Tomasz
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Different methods were used to prepare enteric-coated granules. For example, you manufacture granules first and then coated them with Eudragit polymer by fludized bed .
But I want to know how to prepare enteric-coated granules directly by wet granualtion if you do not have access to other granulation equipment or your excepients/drugs are expensive.
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You can also run an in situ coating at the end of the particle preparation!
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In connection with the development of technology, the current technological revolution, which Industry 4.0 information processing technologies find application in the development of medicine?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Dear P. K. Farayibi,
Yes, it is correct ICT information technologies turned out to be very helpful in the development of both specific techniques and medical instruments, e.g. in improving surgery, creating implants (3D printing) and also in improving organizational issues, digitization of databases containing patient data and remote systems patient registration via the Internet. Especially the latter issue proved to be very helpful during the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic.
Thank you, Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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I have decided to examine the effect of potassium nitrate on certain disease symptom. Unfortunately, there are a few companies which produce potassium nitrate capsules and their capsules are not pure potassium nitrate and some sort of vitamins are added to them which can interfere with my results.
Potassium nitrate is readily available in form of powder. I wanted to know that is that possible that I simply put a desired amount of potassium nitrate powder in empty capsules and give them to patients to use them? I have this questions since capsules usually have excipients such as silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, etc.
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If you are thinking to prepare capsules in very small number, lets say someting around 100. Then physicaly it is possible, but it will be tedious operation. First, you have to decide dose quantity as per available standard reference books. Select approriate size of capsule which can accommodate the dose qty. Make sure that the empty capsule and the active ingredient are of pharmacopoeal grade only, do not use AR grade material. Use electronic balance which have sensitivity to differentiate weight at least of 1mg, if you can get balance of 0.1mg sensitivity then it will be best. You will have to measure dose qty for each capsule, open the capsule, transfer weighed qty into it and close, immeditely put into air tight container. Entire process must be carried out under controlled humidity and temperature conditions. I must make one thing very clear that preparing capsules in such manner even for the purpose of reaserch require permission or license from food and drugs adminisration of the country and you will have to get permission for clinical trial/use also. However, if you are a registered allopathy medical practioner then you may prepare it for the purpose of dispensing to your patients only. In this case also you have to maintain records of purchase of drug matetial and empty capsules.
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Hello everyone,
How can performed DOP test for return/exhaust HEPA filters in the clean room? Because it can not be done by scan method for the leak test.
What will you suggest?
Are there standards or guidelines in this regard?
thanks.
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Depending on the HEPA position there are multiple options, which also depend on the Different hepa filter housing designs. There is a standard ISO16170, which describes criteria for representative challenge and sampling, which is very useful.
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Hello all 
I am working on drug molecule cilnidipine
trying to develop dissolution medium for in vitro release of my formulation
can anyone help me with the idea how to do it?
 i have tried following disso mediums but none of them show peak of my drug
0.1 N HCl
Phosphate buffer pH 6.8
Acetate buffer pH 4.8
Phosphate buffer pH 6.8 with 0.1 % tween 80
0.4 % SLS in deionized water
also can anyone tell me about authenticity of using methanolic buffer / solution as dissolution medium?
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Can anyone help me regarding how I can make a formula of Cilnidipine Tablets meeting dissolution as per JP monograph.
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With the appearance of COVID-19 vaccines on the market, many available choices are there.
Which one is good?
Which one is safest?
Which one is most expensive?
Which one is easiest to store?
How many doses are required?
Other than intramuscular injection, any other forms?
How to check immune response after?
Do we need post-injection blood test?
Do we need annual booster dose?
Do we need new vaccines every year by prediction as if flu vaccines?
Any contraindications?
Any allergy from vaccination?
Do we need to mask after injection?
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Agreed with dear Arvind Singh
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Dear all,
I would like to develop a method (UPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of sildenafil (viagra) and its metabolite N-desmethyl sildenafil in plasma using protein precipitation as extraction method. I have read that Incurred Samples Reanalysis for N-desmethyl sildenafil has shown 20 to 50% increase in the concentration compared to initial concentration (The concentration of sildenafil was found to be matching). In addition, I have read that you can solve this issue working on ice. I was wondering if somebody with experience in this ananysis could give me and explanation.
Thanks for yuor time!!
Best wishes,
Kika
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This is not at all related to extraction method.....
Recently, I also faced the same issue. My method is LLE. Almost all the values for N-Desmethyl Sildenafil fails to meet the ISR criteria whereas 100% values are within acceptance for Sildenafil. After investigation, it was discovered that metabolite is not stable at ambient temperature in incurred sample. In ice cold water bath (below 10°C) there is no conversion.
No stability related issue was identified during method validation. The reason could be other fragile metabolite in incurred samples which is getting converted to N-desmethyl sildenafil at ambient temperature resulting in enhancement in metabolite concentration. The reaction/conversion stop when we use controlled temperature.
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Sometimes the actual size of the ampoule or vial is too small, so the labeling of the high concentration electrolyte (high alert) becomes difficult and covers the vital information including the expiry date.
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If the vials/ampoules are too small to label something simple like putting them into an alternative container that you can label easily may help. That way important information on the vial/ampoule will not be obscured. 
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Greetings
Which of the following majors is more suitable for studying at international universities for the master's degree in chemistry? Please apply the following items in your final answer: 1- Average income after graduation in the United States or Europe and 2- Ease of admission to international universities 3- Number of jobs available after graduation 4- working in the field of medicine and pharmacology etc.
  • Medicinal chemistry
  • Organic chemistry
  • Pharmacology
  • Nano Chemistry
  • Analytical chemistry
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Hi
As for your Expectation, Analytical Chemistry will be the best option.
Chemistry, Biochemistry and Biotechnology all need Analytical Chemistry - tough than other subjects.
Next Organic Chemistry
Study Analytical Chemistry and contact me for better position in US
Best Regards
- Saranya Bharathi
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I am trying to prepare a collagen scaffold. If you have the experience or a straightforward method that doesn't employ freeze-drying, please share it.
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Is it possible to prepare it without freeze-drying? Per Arvid Löthman
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Microplastics are environmental nuisance due to their ability to adsorb pollutants on the surface and carry contaminants to a long distance conveyed by air, water and soil. Therefore, contaminants are often found at a place which is not a source of such pollutants. Particle shape and size contribute to the transport pattern of microplastics borne contaminants in the environment. The concern is is mainly for the combined toxicity with the transport of hydrophobic organic compounds, heavy metals and pharmaceutically produced compounds. The absence of regulatory limits of microplastics in a watershed has made the problem acute in waterbodies. I am wondering if microplastics can be controlled in a watershed, if so, how.
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I think maybe by using a technic to isolate this particul from water .
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Hello everyone,
By searching the half-life of vasopressin, it appears that there are huge fluctuations between studies... Some demonstrate that, in blood, the half-life is about 2-3 min whereas other found more than 20min...
Does anyone know the "accepted" time of vasopressin half-life in blood?
Also, does anyone know the half-life within the brain?
Thank you for your help,
Sincerely,
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Thank you Gürhan for the references
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I'm analysing co-crystal using FTIR. Between the pure drug with no change in wave numbers of samples. Do I still continue to test the other?
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  • What is the time taken for steady state to be established in adults for ( Mycophenolate mofetil ) ?
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Please bear in mind that there is a large interindividual variability in the bioavailability and therefore the plasma concentration of parent mycophenolate and active metabolite. The variation can b as large as 30%. You may consider checking the plasma concentration in critical cases.
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I want to know the equation that I should use when I calculated the surface area using a plot like this one in the attachment. What are the parameters required for the calculation?
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Dear all, the attached files give more details. My Regards
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Based on the data reported in many publications mentioning the drug loading of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) since the drug precipitate as a crystalline form and requires separation. That was so confusing, and I want to discuss if this test is an actual test or a myth.
We have here a three mentioned scenarios
1- Measuring drug loading without washing MSNs after solvent evaporation or deposition or incipient witness method. So, why we measure drug loading, actually the drug loading efficiency should be 100%, and if there is a decrease in the drug content, that means only one thing "the preparation method was messy or inadequate preparation."
2- Measuring drug loading after washing with ethanol is inaccurate because ethanol will dissolve depending on drug solubility. Also, ethanol can dissolve amorphous and crystalline drugs, so there is no preferential separation.
3- Measuring drug loading after washing with water or water containing a minimum amount of ethanol. In this method, the drug is dissolved to the limit of drug solubility in water or the water-ethanol mixture.
..........................................
-What is useful to do with crystalline form is to measure the degree of crystallinity in loaded mesoporous silica.
-If there is a washing method you can suggest to separate crystalline form efficiently out of the loaded carrier, please discuss it.
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Raman Micro-analysis is one, ()probably only one in your case(), of the best techniques to identify drug substance, as pesented in any of the input crystalline or amorphous form, or converted different polymorphic, hydrate or solvate forms, or salts and co-crystals, from local excipient carriers.
In your case, Raman response of silica is very weak, close to almost indetectable. This makes separating drug substance from its carrier easier-no cross comtanmination. However, mesoporous structure of silica would make measuring those drug substance a bit more difficult with good S/N ratio-DS inside pores, subject to the Raman response of drug substance. In summry, it is feasible to measure drug load in carriers.
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Patient diagnosed with intractable major depression. Olanzapine treatment caused severe drug-induced Parkinsonian symptoms. Olanzapine discontinued 18 months ago and patient recovered from DIP. What alternative medication would you recommend?
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one could take advantage from tricyclic antidepressant: used cautiously, these old but still valuable drugs might be especially useful in case of Parkinson(ism)
regards, MC
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Hi everyone,
I am a Ph D student of pharmaceutical technology and I have used 3 polymers i.e. Ethylcellulose grade 4, PLGA resomer502H, PCL Mn 45000 in my research experiments. Now I have to calculate their log P values. I have calculated the log P values of the monomers through molinspiration.com website. Now I want to convert those log P value into polymer values. Please could anyone suggest me the way to convert these calculated values
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Hi muhammad,
I hope your research is going well!
Actually, I don't have an answer, but I have a question.
From your experience, have you come cross a database for polymers that includes Tg, Melting T, logp, solubility ext.
Regards,
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There are some viruses that we still do not have vaccines against. We can't make an absolute assumption that a vaccine will appear at all, or if it does appear, whether it will pass all the tests of efficacy and safety," Dr David Nabarro, World Health Organization's Covid-19 special envoy, was quoted as saying in a CNN report.
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We can expect a vaccine to fight CoViD-19 soon. Research on VACCINE of CoViD-19 is going on in different universities all over the world. The Human Trail is going on somewhere. Maybe in the near future, we will be able to get rid of CoViD-19.
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The nanotechnology is an increasing field of science with novel applications to many sectors, what are the current applications of the nanotechnology in the drug delivery and pharmaceutical technology?
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Please find the attached article which may satisfy your question.
Regards
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The same route of administration, dosage form, and the strength of the biological product ?
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If developed to the standards of the FDA, and EMA, the answer is 100% "yes." Products with the same structure and function will have the same effect. Head-to--head comparisons of reference and biosimilars are required at multiple levels to confirm the match in clinically important parameters. That having been said, there are products available in less developed countries that claim to be biosimilars but are not developed to the same standards and may not match the structure of the reference. Some of these products are still OK in terms of safety and efficacy (although I would not call them "biosimilars"), but others less so.
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Morbidity and mortality from invasive fungal infections remain unacceptably high, I really want to know why vaccines are not developed for fungal diseases, lack of scientific proficiency or ignorance?
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Michael Dare Asemoloye Factors which greatly limits the generation of fungal vaccines are,
1. Human commensal nature of fungi,
2. Capacity of fungi to establish clinical latency (Candida, Cryptococcus etc.),
3. Potential high costs in preparing the vaccines,
4. Mostly immunocompromised individuals are susceptible to fungal infections,
5. Vaccine against commensal organisms ( Candida, etc.) becomes a challenge as autoimmunity against the organism develops.
Despite these factors, many fungal vaccines are in development stages.
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With acceptable hardness and friability.
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Dear sir,
for paracetamol tablet you need 2.5-3.5% moisture in granules and optimized granules fine ratio. if higher % of fines present in blend, tablet will fail in friability test.
in paracetamol tablets optimal LOD is 2.5-3.5%, when we take batch with starch and pvp k-30 paste. if you take gelatin and starch as a binder then optimal LOD will change from 2-3%.
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I am trying to make a tablet formula for an active ingredient with a very light and airy structure, similar to fumed silicon dioxide. My constraints are that the tablet needs to be small with as high a percentage of active ingredient as possible.
I have tried several formulations using microcrystalline cellulose and dicalcium phosphate, but the issue is that the tablet comes out too soft. Using any reasonable amount of active ingredient (reasonable meaning greater than 20%) I can crack the tablet in half with my fingernail. The mixture is ultimately too light, and I physically can not put enough powder into the well of my tablet press in order to get a good, solid compression.
Is there any excipient I can add or any technique I can use that will create a good tablet in this instance?
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why dont you try dry-granulation technique??
beside that you have to check the % of the binder being used
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COVID-19 is severely affecting the whole world economy, and different countries suffered from different financial recession. Many human activities are affected, and the modern way of living is completely uprooted.
Will Governmental research grants be expected to drop sharply after COVID-19?
How about those financial support by pharmaceutical companies?
Is charity organization donations grants also experience a significant drop after COVID-19?
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This reminds me of the research field development after the World War.
Good view point!
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In my country, general practitioners also provide (sell) the medicine. What do you think of this practice? Please share your views concerning the advantages or disadvantages of this practice.
Do you know of places where it started like this; and then changed so that only pharmacists can dispense medicine? Thanks.
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In the first place they are most trusted by locals. The medicine is usually effective but d problem is often with the posology. Every practitioner gives as per their knowledge which limits sustainability.
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Dear colleagues,
I've been working on some lipid extraction analysis with QDa HPLC.
I start with some biological samples that are spiked with a different final concentrations of a lipid mix (consisted of few known lipids), thus to see what is the minimal concentration (and the recovery %) of the lipids that can be detected. In parallel, I use a freshly prepared calibration curve (0;0.5;1;2;4;6;8;10;20).
The problem is that I am not sure of the way I analyze my data, because in some samples I see clear peaks (of up to the ^6-7 intensity), yet, in my excel calculations I get very low or non-existing concentrations, like the extraction was not successful at all. For ex., I have clear peaks and higher calculated concentrations for samples with 50ug/ml final conc; but for samples with 100ug/ml I only have clear peaks with higher intensity, yet the calculations and recovery % show very low/non-existent values.
The way I analyze my data is the following:
1) Use calibration curve (slope&intercept) to calculate the concentration of my samples;
2) I tried to normalize for the blanks (for ex. if I have some very low signal in some of the blank samples)
3) I tried to normalize for the dilution factor (if diluted 10 times, multiple the concentration calculation by 10).
I believe there is a problem with the calibration curve cause a) R= 0.95-8 (approximately)
b) because of the slope or intercept, I get a lot of negative values in my sample conc. calculations.
I already checked the calculations multiple times and I am using a precise automatic pipette, so I really don't understand what the problem might be. Knowing how simple Cal.curve preparation and calculation is, I feel very frustrated that I cannot get proper values every time I do the analysis.
Do you maybe have any suggestions/comment/advice on a proper calculation, on how the slope&intercept affect my concentration and the calibration curve problem?
Thanks in advance,
Margarita
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When you are analyse your linear range and calibration range you have to check your column. I guess your column is not correspond for your data!!!
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I am actually working on pharmaceutical formulations with thermoplastic polymers such as "copovidone or Kollidon VA64 and active ingredients like "Paracetamol". When i was running DSC with pure polymers, i used to do heat-cool-heat cycle (25-250 at 10°C/ min) in order to obtain the glass transition temperature (103 °C). Now, I am producing extrudates of KVA64 with Paracetamol and I am trying to determine solid state change of the Paracetamol (which is crystalline and have melting peak at 170°C) and check if I obtained a solid amorphous dispersion. However, by applying the heat-cool-heat cycle method to the physical mixture or the extrudates, i only fitnd in the 2nd heat a glass transition temperature without the melting peak characteristic of the Paracetamol even though on XRD there a some cristalline peaks. I think during the 1st heating, I amorphized the Paracetamol within the copovidone and the 2nd heating displays the thermal profile of this in-situ solid amorphous dispersion and not my original product. Could you suggest me some solutions to this issue? Thanks in advance
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Looking at these DSC records I would say that there is practically no crystalline paracetamol in extrudate or physical mixsture, it seems that paracetamol is soluble in KVA. Maybe there are some traces of crystalline phase which can be detected by XRPD.
If KVA64 and paracetamol form solution (they clearly do) and crystalline paracetamol is present, then the melting point of paracetamol in mixture should be shifted to lower temperatures (Van't Hoff equation).
Since I don't see any melting, I would say that paracetamol is in glassy state. It forms a solution with KVA64 during the first heating of the physical mixture. When cooled down, the mixture does not crystallize and amorphous paracetamol is obtained.
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We have produced a systematic review protocol according to COCHRANE guidelines for the investigation of the cost-effectiveness of a pharmaceutical technology in the clinical practice.
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It is more advantageous to submit to the Cochrane Library
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Hi,
May I know what is an acceptable R-square value for modelling of drug release kinetics? 
I have fitted my experimental data for drug release to first order (gastric simulation) and Korsmeyer-Peppas (buccal cavity). The R-square values obtained are in the range of 0.85 - 0.99.
Thank you!
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It is better to use AIC than R squared for curve fitting in that case you have two models with high correlation R2 more than 0.99
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Many of the colors used to chromosome staining are alkaline colors (for example carmine). Are colors that have acidic properties also capable of chromosome staining?
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Acidic stains can be used to stain the protein exactly.
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We always hear that herbal medicines don't have side effects beacuse they are natural. However, the synthetic drugs are associated with a lot of side effects. How true is this statement?
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Herbal medicines may produce negative effects such as allergic reactions, rashes, asthma, headaches, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea that can range from mild to severe.
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The global average surface temperature rose 0.6 to 0.9 degrees Celsius (1.1 to 1.6° F) between 1906 and 2005, and the rate of temperature increase has nearly been doubled in the last 50 years. Temperatures are certain to go up further and may lead to fast genetic mutations in some pathogenic microbes to become accustomed to the new climate and proliferate resistant gene distribution over geographies. In addition, the overuses of antibiotics is also triggering the issues at a great step. Near about 10 most deadly bacterial pathogens have already been registered as antibiotic-resistant. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of them, that has already been created a huge challenge to overcome in their own right and will only become harder to control as their resistance to antibiotics grows. The development of new antibiotics is slow and difficult work but bacterial resistance is decreasing our arsenal of existing drugs posing a catastrophic threat as ordinary infections become untreatable.
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Addressing the global shortage of, and access to, medicines and vaccines
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I'm looking at the effect of cannabidiol on a certain process in cells. In my first trial, cannabidiol had a small effect. In my second trial, the same concentration had a much larger effect.
One explanation that can account for this difference is that the concentration in the first trial might have been done incorrectly and was actually lower than the second trial. I still have samples of the dilutions I made (in DMSO). Is there a way to check what the concentration is in my solutions to be sure they are the same?
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Dear Chloe, I faced with a phenomenon - a drug with a single concentration induced different cellular responses. The error was in a slightly different concentration of the cells themselves. It is always worthwhile to calculate the specific concentration, mol / cell. successful experiments!
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Dear Sir/Madam, I invited as a guest editor from high quality journals to handle special issues. If anyone can prepare a review similar to my review papers, particularly about a natural product in cancer prevention with focus on the structure activity relationship and mechanism of action, please kindly let me know to send an official letter. At this stage you should just send the title, authors and affiliation and abstract. Please kindly let me know as soon as you can. The suggested deadline for sending review is about 3 month. Best wishes, Suggeted topic: Genotoxicity of different agents and possble protection. Reducing side effects of radiotherapy and chomotherapy. Next generation of cancer therapy; Natural products. Natural products as novel therapeutic compounds. Radiation protection.
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What is names of the journals
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Dear researchers,
What are the detection methods for Estrogen hormone in the aqueous solution?
Can we use the UV-visible spectroscopy for Estrogen hormone (E1, E2 or EE2) detection? What is the suitable wavelength?
Best regards
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Please look at the following below attached files which may help you in your analysis.
Thanks
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Is it possible for a person to crush a sustained release tablet for fast action?
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What a lot of parrots in here. Not one person has given a detailed explanation of what happens to the dose on crushing for the purpose of rapid release.
What would be the effective dose then, and why would it necessarily be dangerous?
Mostly the responses on here could have just as easily have been read off the packet.
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I am interested to have some cases/examples where scientists come out with an efficient drug against a disease marker (successful clinical trials), although at the end they realized that the cost of developing and marketing that drug was too high to be afforded and covered by most of health insurance systems therefore they decided to quit the project without providing this drug to patients who needed it. Or cases when the project was stopped because at certain point the scientists realized that the cost of production of the drug was very high and the number of patients to whom this drug was targeted wasn't big enough to cover the research/development costs (orphan drug). I know that this is not common because usually no one would do a research without predicting the financial aspect that's why I am asking for your help, if you ever encountered such a case.
I need this information to moderate a debate about biotechnology and society, so if you have another interesting topic, I would really appreciate your suggestions.
Thanks in advance!
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A big issue in antibiotic drug research and development these days has to do with the economics of introducing a novel antibiotic into the market when cheap generics are already available. The new drug may be better in some sense (e.g. fewer bacterial strains are resistant to it, or it is less toxic than the older drugs), but the hospitals won't use it very much because it is more expensive, and they won't be able to get sufficiently reimbursed by the insurance companies. Or antibiotic stewardship dictates that the new drug should be "saved" for use only when the cheaper drugs fail. As a result, companies that have completed the clinical trials and manufactured the drug can't sell enough to cover their costs. For some small companies recently, this has caused severe, even terminal, financial hardship. There is legislation pending in the US Congress to try to address this issue, because it is stifling the discovery, development, and use of new antibiotics to address the issue of drug resistant bacteria.
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I want to do GPT, how can i get the microbial culture with not more than 100 CFU/ml without Kit?
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Question is unclear?
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I am synthesizing the compound 1 by using chan-lam reaction as the figure showing. However, the conversion yield of ortho fluoroboronic acid (less than 20% on LC/MS) is much lower than the para fluoroboronic, which is very strange since the boronic acid is a nucleophile reagent and the F is ortho/para activated substituent and smaller than H in size.
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Hi;
Steric hindrance (the reaction site is blocked by F and B(OH)2 groups forming part of the molecule).
Best regards
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It is safe to use PHB for oral dosage form and what about its drug release behavior or mechanism?
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so it may be used for drug delivery applications too.
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Hi All,
Thank you for all your support.
Thank you chandra mohan , Christian Janiesch and Ramin Sedaghat.
Looking for more published projects where students can get benefited by referring these documents.
Please share the docs directly into genotech.in@gmail.com or reply me here.
Regards,
Ranjan
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Hello, there were many aspects in microbiology which need more detail study till now we have information only about 5% of total biodiversity of microorganisms. So 95% is future work!
Good luck!
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XRD peaks of drug in drug-loaded nano-particles are not shown. Do you know why?
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Dear then must occur structural changes in your loaded drug, or may their amount will very less and their peak will not appeared.
You can also check it from the TEM & HR-TEM also
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Our research project is the production of probiotic pills from native strains. What is the best method?...
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Hello, the best method for production of probiotic pills from native strains is lyophilization and than encapsulation.
Good luck!
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We are isolating probiotic strains from local food samples. What do you suggest to make probiotic pills?
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Hi,
In Institute of Food Science in Mashhad, I showed the tool which
transformation the probiotic bacteria to capsule.
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I'm interested in hearing from the experts in pharmacology/drug delivery: in transdermal drug delivery, which drug parameters are most important in determining the rate of removal from the skin via uptake by cutaneous vasculature? For example: lipophilic, small MW and unchanged compounds enter the stratum corneum with greatest ease. In the same vein, what is the relationship between an individual drug's physicochemical properties and its absorption/removal to local skin circulation.
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Hi.
This is a difficult question, as you can see form the lack of definitive (or not so definitive) literature. In fact it is still an important area of research in this and other topic areas. Still, I can talk in some generalities, but it is likely that each drug will be its own case or possibly exception.
The problem arises, at least in part, because there are competing physicochemical factors involved, which affect the interaction of a drug with both the skin/physiology and the dosage form. For instance, a lipophilic molecule will more easily partition into the stratum corneum (which dominates the surface area of the skin) while a more hydrophilic molecule will enter more easily through pores (which represent only a fraction of a percent typically of the skin area). Based on that, lipophilic molecules would appear to have an advantage for delivery. However, the molecular mobilities through pores are likely to be far higher than through the stratum corneum, which favors hydrophilic drugs (at least on a per area basis).
Another consideration is that lipophilic drugs are more likely to depot in the stratum corneum and the skin on the whole. On the other hand, those drugs may have sufficiently low solubility to hinder partitioning into the aqueous media below the stratum corenum, which is needed to enter the blood and be carried away to the general circulation. (This may be a consideration when thinking about transdermal delivery vs. topical delivery, for instance.)
Even before that, there is the question of the interaction between a drug and the dosage form. If creams or ointments are applied, the distribution of the drug in the dosage form before application is important. For instance, distribution into the aqueous vs. oil for creams and emulsions, or in the oily phase for ointments, etc. will affect how the dosage form gives up or delivers the drug to the skin. Equally important is how the topical dosage form interacts with the skin, which will affect the delivery and partitioning of the drug as a function of both the dosage form and the skin.
All of this is still poorly understood. The FDA is interested in this problem, as evidenced by funded studies on bioequivalence for topical dosage forms based on physical characterization of the dosage form and not primarily from in vitro transdermal studies. (For instance, RFA-FD-18-010 - Bioequivalence of Topical Products: Elucidating the Thermodynamic and Functional Characteristics of Compositionally Different Topical Formulations form 2018).
I apologize for going on and on, but I think you can see this is a difficult area. It seems surprising that we don't have a much better understanding given that we understand the basic principles that may apply. On the other hand, it is not surprising at all given the many complex interactions, all with different effects in kind and magnitudes.
My own view is that some experimental techniques plus individualized models may be the answer... the problem is that each drug and dosage form becomes its own study, and we don't seem to have a standardized suite of studies yet to apply to the problem on a drug-by-drug and formulation-by-formulation basis.
Hopefully, this is of interest and sheds some light on the challenges ahead.
Thanks!
Bob
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Dear fellow researchers,
My institution has recently requested our research team to perform a meta-analysis on a random topic related to finances/economy and drug market. Having our previous work done in a dramatically discrepant field, we are unfortunately unaware of the modern trends/common themes of research on the given topics. We would highly appreciate any possible input on a potential topic to direct our research: what are the recent trends of studies in the field of drug economy/marketing?
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Milena Miljkovic (miljkovic.milena57@yahoo.com)
The new ISPOR Report: “Trends in Health Economics & Outcomes Research” that describes 2019’s top 10 trends in the applications of Health Economics and Outcomes Research (HEOR), is availablend at:
The below specified publication sets forth a research agenda for better measurement of certain elements of value not normally captured in costeffectiveness analysis and related approaches.
Garrison LP Jr, Neumann PJ, Willke RJ, Basu A, Danzon PM, Doshi JA, Drummond MF, Lakdawalla DN, Pauly MV, Phelps CE, Ramsey SD1, Towse A, Weinstein MC. A Health Economics Approach to US Value Assessment Frameworks-Summary and Recommendations of the ISPOR Special Task Force Report [7]. Value Health. 2018 Feb;21(2):161-165. doi: 10.1016/j.jval.2017.12.009.
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It is called "the wobble base pair". This is a publication that may help you
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In August 2018, Harvard Health publishing (Harvard Medical School) have been updated old news about the efficiency of drugs activities after their expiry dates.
The question of our discussion is: Does the expiry date of the medicinal drugs is a myth?!
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We carry out many stability studies. Indeed, there are always formation of degradation products which are not part of the original molecule. They might be toxic or not, but it is always better do not risk your health with expired drugs.
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Hello Researchers,
Does anyone have a method on how to prepare a Methyl Cellulose solution which doesn't produce foam on shaking?
I have to use 1% methyl cellulose solution as a suspending agent in the preparation of oral suspension. The vehicle is made of water + 1% Methyl Cellulose.
I have tried to prepare the MC solution by: 1) Heating water to 70°C and then adding the Methyl Cellulose until it disperse. 2) Cooling it down under Vortex to room temperature.
I am getting the clear transparent MC solution with no clumps and foam, but the problem is that there was a lot of foam when I added this solution to the suspension bulk even after using anti foaming agent (simethicone).
Please let me know, if anybody have idea on how to get rid of the methyl cellulose foam.
Regards,
Chetan
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Thanks Raditya Iswandana for suggestion. I am using Simethicone as antifoaming agent in the formulation but still my final product is foaming upon shaking in bottle.
Michael Fox,
Really appreciate your feedback on this!!
I am able to control the foam during manufacturing by mixing at low speed and applying vacuum during process. But my main concern is foam that is generated on shaking the final product bottle. Please let me know if you have any suggestion on MC phase which doesn't foam on shaking.
Regards
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I am looking for research topic in Pharmaceutical Technology.
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Microemulsions, microfiber , SLNP etc
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Many people buy small sonicators (jewelry cleaners), lecithin and vitamin C. Blend the mixture, sonicate and expect they have liposomes. In fact many people do "scientific" videos explaining how to do it.
I'd like some expert opinions on whether this is possible or not and why.
Also think it's worth discussing why the application of heat and transition phase is important.
And anything else you can think of which is overlooked or misunderstood in homemade liposomes.
Finally what are the simplest and natural methods for homemade liposome creation which involves the least technical preparation if one were to actually create liposomes (LUVs) from PC.
Thanks in advance for for your stimulating answers.
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Hi,
Few points to be seriously considered here:
1. Sonication can damage the molecular structure of liposomal ingredients as well as that of the vitamin;
2. Lecithin is a very heterogeneous source of phospholipids (may contain other ingredients / preservatives/ ...) as a result if used in later manufacturing from other suppliers we cannot expect reproducibility;
3. Shelf-life of the product is also a very important criteria. This highly depends on correct selection of ingredients;
4. Why using sonication when there are mild ways of making liposomes? (see attached manual)
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does anyone have any suggestions as to how we can minimize pinholes on bioreactor tubing. Currently size 16 tubing is used. Most pinholes seem to occur close to the head plate where the tubing is attached to connectors. Has anyone experience this problem and did you manage to find a solution.
Thank you!
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Yes, it's better to use silicone tubing instead which has greater elasticity and strength.
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Hi,
I have a product being lyophilized, and would like to know what aspects of formulation (Not the cycle parameters) decide how much water content will be left out post freeze drying. Any leads would help me a lot.
Thanks,
Bharadwaj.
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The cycle parameters are crucial to a correct lyophilization, so they cannot be avoided. Residual water can be determined via Karl Fisher titration. The excipient has little influence on the residual water (it should be more able to bound water than the lyophilized API), since in most of the cases acts only as a support to grant adequate flowability of the powder and the faster dissolution once water is added.
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Hi
The most researchers used 50µM of ex-527 for treatment of cells. How can they get to this concentration, whereas IC50 of this drug is 89nM ?
I want to use this drug for Jurkat cells and molt 4. . How can I find the best concentration of ex-527 that inhibit SIRT1?!
MTS assay is good?!
No article exist setup this drug for Jurkat and molt4.
Thanks in advance
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IC50 for a compound/inhibitor for a cell line depends on several factors, including the cell line in question, solvent for the inhibitor, culture conditions, and proposed endpoint for the treatment. Therefore, it needs to be determined empirically under the desired conditions for the proposed endpoint (when known). If a study has used much higher concentration of the inhibitor for a similar endpoint, it could be due to due to other variables (cell line and culture conditions etc). It is always better to find out an optimum IC50 before performing an experiment.
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I'll have a drug release test, that is the most important part of my research. My mentor choose some pH value for me to having a drug release in vitro, which is 2; 4.5; 7.4 and 10.
In those pH value, I just know the pH 2 is the value of pH in stomach and pH 7.4 is the value of pH in blood. But the pH 4.5 and pH 10 is available in which parts of human body?
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Hi.
Thanks for the update. For BSA, I'm not sure why pH 10 would be of relevance. (Very well could be that I am missing something here.) The others could be useful because of physiological considerations. Assuming you are using BSA as a carrier, then the pH ranges might be of interest for release.
If you want to consider oral release, for instance, those ranges would be relevant. (I'm not familiar with using BSA oral release, that doesn't mean it can't be done... just that I am not aware of it.) Of course, as you know, for injection the pH of 7.4 is of interest.
On the other hand, the pH range might be important for drug loading and formulation. If BSA is a carrier, the drug loading efficiency (via drug-protein binding) will depend on its solubility as well as the binding capacity. For a weak acid or base, the pH ranges become relevant in terms of dissolved concentration, and possibly differences due to charged vs. neutral drug forms.
Good luck!
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Please share your own experience. For me, all the articles were accepted after a revision if the journal was with an impact factor and non paid.
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