Science topic

Pharmaceutical Care - Science topic

Pharmaceutical care is the responsible provision of drug therapy for the purpose of achieving the elimination or reduction of a patient's symptomatology; arresting or slowing of a disease process; or preventing a disease or symptomatology.
Questions related to Pharmaceutical Care
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
44 answers
Do you know of any plants or active substances which can be used for wound healing?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
3 answers
Detecting the drug related problems is an important step in the pharmaceutical care plan
Relevant answer
Answer
Despite enter percentage variation between the drug therapy problems and country, as per different research findings, the most common drug-related problems encountering developed countries are seven in number. Namely
1. Non-adherence drug therapy problems
2. dose too low drug therapy problems
3. dose too high drug therapy problems
4.ineffective drug therapy problems
5. Adverse drug reaction drug therapy problems
6. unnecessary drug therapy problems
7. Needs additional drug therapy problems
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
1 answer
Probiotics are of interest to treat preterms because research shows that they might prevent necrotising enterocolitis in preterms and also sepsis. I wonder what the current practice is in NICUs in Europe? Are they being used? If so, at what dose, what type of probiotics (preferably the commercial name), what are the specifications of the product, any safety concerncs and are they registered as a drug or as a supplement/food? 
Thanks for your help
Relevant answer
Answer
I hope, the following articles will help you in getting and understanding of probiotics vs preterm and thus take a look them
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
2 answers
An editorial in the International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy by van Mil and Fernandez-Llimos entitled: What is ‘pharmaceutical care’ in 2013? poses several relevant questions about the current definitions of PC. It shed a light on the mesh of working definitions since the original definition proposed by Hepler and Strand and the subsequent alternative terms proposed by other organizations and groups. I invite those individuals with interest in the subject to share their thoughts in this forum.
Relevant answer
Answer
Pharmaceutical Care is a patient-centered, outcomes oriented pharmacy practice that requires the pharmacist to work in concert with the patient and the patient's other healthcare providers to promote health, to prevent disease, and to assess, monitor, initiate, and modify medication use to assure that drug therapy
The principal elements of pharmaceutical care are that it is medication related; it is care that is directly provided to the patient; it is provided to produce definite outcomes; these out- comes are intended to improve the patient's quality of life; and the provider accepts personal responsibility for the outcomes.
These outcomes are (1) curing a disease, (2) elimination or reduction of a patients' symptomatology, (3) arresting or slowing down a disease process, or (4) preventing a disease or symptomatology.
Clinical pharmacy was originally defined as the area of pharmacy concerned with the science and practice of rational medication use, pharmaceutical care as the responsible provision of drug therapies to achieve definite outcomes
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
1 answer
Dear all,
Given the ever-growing need for "antifragile" organizations throughout the world, how do you feel about the SC & PDW's application in India?
Kind regards,
JC
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
9 answers
Doug Hepler, in his 1990's landmark article on Pharmaceutical Care, argued that 'pharmacists are looking for a role..and for self-actualization'. These were some of the reasons PC was launched, with its humanistic, patient-centered philosophy of practice to replace task-orientation and product contentedness.  It seems to me that pharmacists are still looking. We now have pharmacists prescribing, and in providing health promotion advice, they educate about non-pharmacological management including dietary advice, exercise, and helping patients quit smoking. All good; but is this a sign of natural professional growth, or is it a sign of professional panic accompanying threats of automation, competition, and dwindling of funding and remuneration? 
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Djenane, Mohamed Hassan Elnaem, Mohamed Al Hammad, and Gulzar Shah for your responses to my discussion question about pharmacy and pharmacists. I think we all agree that pharmacy, as a profession, is still in a state of evolution. The issue is complex, and what adds to that complexity is the diversity of practice in different geographical locations as a result of what is allowed, the respective regulations, and the status of academia, to mention a few. Several stakeholders have impact. Pharmacy practice in any given country reflects the reality of the respective country, although what we are seeing now are attempts to have a more cohesive platform; foundational issues that all professionals should agree upon. However, pharmacists seem to be in a state of ‘liminality’; as space and/or time of transformation from an earlier understanding to a new, required state. Whether they succeed in that transformation depends in part on how empowered the profession is, and how integrated it is with stakeholders.
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
7 answers
Hi everyone,
Is there a significant role of pharmacists in controlling prescribing errors? And is there a difference between their role in developed and developing countries?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Jasenko for your fruitful detailed answer.
Regards,
Dr. Rayes
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
6 answers
Guidelines like ASHP (American Society of Health-System Pharmacy) and USP (United States Pharmacopoeia) are used for counseling the patients during dispensing the medicines. How much useful these guidelines are to determine the extent of counseling fulfilled by the pharmacists? Are they still in use?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hai,you quite right. If you check the coruse contents, till 2004 even in usa it was industry focussed b,s programme in pharmacy later to that year only they started 6 yrs. Pharm D programme focussing the patient care. same is the case in many countries. this indicates the countires are mainly focussing on industrialised pharamcist outcomes and also r and d oriented courses. now with initiation of who, health insurance companies influence, the pharma d courses started. 
regards
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
3 answers
Patient is having below the knee amputation and the surgeon would like to to place a cement block with antibiotic delivery capped around the bone for infection prevention. Surgeon asked pharmacy if he should add the powered drug as during the endothermic or exothermic process of making the cement block. Not sure if anyone has done this before, but any information would be helpful. Both processes are out of the listed temperature rages for storage/stability data provided. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for your time and guidance. Our surgeon added drug during the exothermic reaction (60-80 degrees F) and it was inserted into the patient yesterday. Patient is anticipated to be discharged today or tomorrow. Thanks again for your responses! 
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
4 answers
About 50 % of elderly patients aged over 65 discontinue with their medications and majority of them discontinue with medication within first 3 months. Many patients want to get more data about their drugs, however many healt care professionals (clinicians, pharmacists, nurses) often do not feel this problem. According to the data and well-designed trials a cooperation with clinical pharmacists at the discharge can be very beneficial for the patients, however because of a lack of sense for medical errors at the discharge many hospitals do not recognize this as a real problem, although drug discontinuation immediate after discharge can lead to serious harms. What is a situation in your country at the discharges from the hospitals? 
Relevant answer
Answer
I provide discharge counseling to all patients at my 88 bed acute and residential psychiatric children's hospital. Most moderate-large sized hospitals in my region who staff clinical pharmacists also perform this service. Hospitals without adequate pharmacist coverage cannot consistently provide this important service.
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
5 answers
In Sudan we need to set a policy about generic presribing and we ask for literature and updates about the same?
Relevant answer
Answer
Finds some updates at 
[1] Kesselheim et al. Clinical equivalence of generic and brand name drugs used in cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2008;300(21)2514-2526
[2] Davit et al. Comparing generic and innovator drugs: a review of 12 years of bioequivalence data from the United States Food and Drug Administration. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43(10):1583-97.
[3] SAVINGS An Economic Analysis of Generic Drug Usage in the U.S., GPhA, September 2011, page 1.
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
3 answers
I would like to know if anybody has any experiences with diabetes prevention programs in Community Pharmacies, something like Findrisc or similar. I would be most grateful for any information you have.
Relevant answer
Answer
Look for the GLICEMIA Study in Germany from Prof. Kristina Leuner.
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
4 answers
I am doing qualitative research on the practice and perception of community pharmacists on the provision of pharmaceutical care for osteoporosis. Can I use an integrated behavior model to develop my framework? 
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Nik,
Your behavioral framework maybe has to consider latent characteristics of the decision makers (e.g. perceptual and attitutinal indicators of  behavior) - In your qualitative research, you may could include some scales of attitudes and/ or perceptions suggesting from your theoretical framework that probably affect behavior of the decision makers.
All the best,
Eleni
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
6 answers
Drug compatibility and  incompatibility  is an important consideration for nurses in drug administration, especially when multiple drugs are administered rapidly per three way connectors either through central lumen or peripheral line.
Though safety of medication administration is ensured through "10 Rights ", to remain alert for potential harm & additional information about  "gap in time " between two or multiple drugs administration  is most significant for patient safety.
Relevant answer
Answer
If  multiple drugs  are to be administered rapidly per three way connectors either through central lumen or peripheral line and you don't have specific compatability data to indicate that they're okay together (eg from Trissel or other similar reference) you should always flush with a compatible fluid between each drug
Time itself is not a factor but the drugs shouldn't come into contact with each other, hence the need for flushing the line.  This is not quite so critical with central lines as peripheral ones due to the rapid and large volume dilutional factors in the former situation.
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
8 answers
Some pharmceutical excipent manufacturer give a retest period at the moment of expiry date. If after such period it passes all the tests,the time period given to it for using it again is not specified by that manufacturer.
On which basis can we decide its usage period?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • I agrees with Michelle, but what is important here what the regulatory position if the practice of testing the material before use and it if is okay , use it, but the problem what the next retest date?
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
6 answers
  1. Methodology we must use?
  2. Is there any official duties?
  3. what about its curriculum?
Relevant answer
Answer
Pharmacists in the USA have been providing "pharmaceutical care for 100 years. We just never called it that. We have a bad habit in the USA of using terms that run their course and drop off in favor of a new term to describe the same thing.
English Philosopher Herbet Spencer said, " “How often misused words generate misleading thoughts.”
Be careful not to focus too much on the word but what the true intent of the word is.  As a practicing community pharmacist since 1977 i have always:
  1. Met patients
  2. Listened to them to understand their problem
  3. Helped them Solve their problem
  4. Added value to their lives
regardless of what you call it pharmaceutical care is simply a pharmacist adding value to the patient's life by helping them solve whatever problems are keeping them from succeeding in their quest to be healthy.
in some areas of the world the most important thing a pharmacist may need to do is get people access to clean water and appropriate vaccinations. In other places we may need to help them choose which of the drugs that treat thei condition is the best for them.
but the process is the same and the key is creating value for the patient by helping them do what needs to be done.
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
4 answers
Efavirenz is known to cause CNS effects. Symptoms resolve within 3 to 6 months but in some patients may persist until efavirenz is substituted for nevirapine.
Relevant answer
Answer
Interesting question. It goes hand in hand with the fact that Interferon alpha given treat people with hepatitis C makes around 40% of them develop a full blown major depressive episode. These are people who never had psychiatric problems in their lives. We believe it is a clinical model for inflammation-induced depressive symptoms a theory we work a lot in my lab.
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
14 answers
I am a pharmacy resident at the hospital so I need a retrospective study.
Relevant answer
Answer
"Rational Drug Use: Antibiotic drug combinations and primary diagnosis in male and female medical wards at (name of your hospital)"
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
5 answers
I am doing a system implementation bid for my thesis and will like to look at the implementation of clinical pharmacy at a local hospital.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Yaser. I will have a look.
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
4 answers
I want it to be a complete one stop solution for health for all online customers.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes that can be done....depending on various body factors i can explain the risk of various disease that u might have
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
11 answers
Clinical pharmacy (CP) is a relatively new research discipline and there are conflicting opinions as to what it comprises. In particular, the relationship between research in CP on the one hand and clinical pharmacology and pharmacy practice on the other have not been well defined. I would be interested to hear the opinions of those interested in either of these fields.
Relevant answer
Clinical Pharmacists are uniquely trained in therapeutics and provide comprehensive drug management to patients and providers (includes physicians and additional members of the care team). Pharmacist intervention outcomes include economics, health-related quality of life,patient satisfaction, medication appropriateness, adverse drug events (ADEs), and adverse drug reactions (ADRs).
  • asked a question related to Pharmaceutical Care
Question
3 answers
As the Doctor of Pharmacy is the emerging profession in branch of Pharmacy. I wish to know where exactly the Pharm.D can fit. As many people say many words of carrier... But eager to know what a Pharm.D graduate can do the best as specific to his professional skills exclusive to the Pharm.D
As in India, there are many P.G branches available as M.Pharmaeutics, M.Pharmacology, M.Pharmacy Practice, M.Clinical Pharmacy and M.Clinical Research etc. Every speciality has their own role to play in Patient care and Industry too. But what exactly the role of Pharm.D can be different from that of these speciality branches.
Relevant answer
Answer
I feel the 'Doctor of Pharmacy' is an appropriate professional degree in pharmacy which is started with a long delay in India. It can be bright career option in the field of Hospital Pharmacy, Clinical Research, Pharmaceutical and Drug Administration, Pharma-Academia, Rural Healthcare,and Pharmaceutical Care Research and Consultancy. But This could be possible only if Pharmacy Council of India dare to take some strict steps in active coordination with CDSCO and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Recently MCI announced to introduce B.Sc in Community Health programme which may cause great decline in interest to Pharm.D. programme as the said B.Sc. degree holders are suppose to practice in rural healthcare units, PHCs, and CHCs -- why not our pharmacy council take and active step to demonstrate the suitability of Pharm.D. course which hasalready been started in several Universities, to be a substitute of B.Sc - Community Health Proposed. By doing this lacks of jobs can be created exclusively for Pharm.d. and Pharm.D. (PB).