Science topic

Petroleum - Science topic

Petroleum is a naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Questions related to Petroleum
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
2 answers
Two-phase Fluid low in a Petroleum Reservoir
Whether the inherent ‘hysteresis’ in a petroleum reservoir – has really made it difficult – in order to develop – appropriate models of oil-water flow system – resulting from the failure of ‘capillary pressure – saturation’ relationship – to uniquely describe the drainage and imbibition scenarios - in an oil-water system?
OR
From thermodynamic perspective, whether the introduction of the ‘oil-water interfacial area surface’ - explicitly (i.e., projecting ‘interfacial area’ as a ‘state variable’ explicitly, in addition to saturation) – would efficiently describe the ‘capillary pressure function’ – by applying the extended form of Darcy’s law using momentum balance equations?
If so, will it eliminate the hysteresis effect completely in an oil-water petroleum reservoir system?
OR
Do we really require ‘Euler characteristic’ (topological invariant) – in order to uniquely describe an oil-water system – that produces ‘closure relations’ for models based on ‘continuum mechanics’?
OR
The transient/non-equilibrium and quasi-static/quasi-equilibrium ‘capillary pressure – saturation – interfacial area surface’ – would always remain statistically different – for each petroleum reservoir oil-water system; and subsequently, a single relationship – that remains independent of oil and water flow conditions – remains nearly ruled out?
Relevant answer
Answer
Answering your title question: the only way to eliminate hysteresis in a rock is to eradicate the interfacial tension between oil and water :-). When displacing oil with water, three main effects are to consider: the reversal of flow direction, wettability change and the build-up of residual oil saturation (isolated, trapped blobs of oil). Concerning capillary pressure hysteresis, reservoir numerical simulators can only scale it automatically with the oil residual saturation. Therefore, if oil is displaced by water (aquifer or water injection), it is important to load a so-called imbibition curve beside the drainage curve. Yuri Mirgorod is correct; it is more critical in oil-wetted reservoirs. Complex reservoirs with a high body-to-throat ratio will also show a larger difference between drainage and imbibition. If you have time, check our paper SPE-192758-MS: New Model for Wettability Change with Depth in Mixed-Wet Complex Carbonates.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
1 answer
In Sadorsky (2006), state space model is specified for volatility and a one period ahead forecast constructed from the estimated model.
r^2(t) = c1 z_1(t) + z_2(t) (1)
z_2(t) = var(exp(c2)) (2)
z_1(t) = z_1(t-1) (3)
where r(t) is the petroleum futures price return. This model describes an unobserved term with an AR(1) process. The variables z1 and z2 are the two state variables.
Eq. (1) is the signal equation and Eqs. (2) and (3) are the state equations.
Could anyone suggest any software package to estimate and forecast volatility using the aforementioned specification given in Sadorsky (2006)?
Sadorsky (2006) Modeling and forecasting petroleum futures volatility. Energy Economics 28, 467-488.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
3 answers
In my recent studies, I found references, where the equations presented were incorrect. Especially in a case like Eaton's pore pressure estimation equation, these mistakes were widespread.
Relevant answer
Answer
Because it's publish or perish. To be successful a researcher needs lots of publication, only very few of which are of any significance to be checked. Even if there is some significance in the research, the researcher does not have time to dwell on it. The more papers need to be published, the lower is their quality.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
2 answers
Which generation of ethanol production is presently being used in petrol/gasoline for private and light goods vehicles? Is it primarily still 1G or is it 2G or even moving to 3G? The generations are described in
I'd appreciate being pointed towards any appropriate literature or to studies that are independent of government funding and private sector funding.
Thanks, Tony Graham
Relevant answer
Answer
Sustainable ethanol, sustainable development, sustainability. Well, how much money has flowed to various consortia in connection with these slogans.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
2 answers
As with ethanolic plant extract, we make its dilution in an ethanolic solvent, but for petroleum ether and chloroform plant extract Which solvent can be used for the dilution to make 1mg/ml for quantitative analysis.
Relevant answer
Answer
It can be dissolved in DMSO, even ethanolic plant extracts because ethanol affects results when used.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
1 answer
Chemical EOR
1. Will it remain feasible to quantify the dispersion of the injected chemicals (Alkaline / Surfactant / Polymer) – in the absence of reproducing the ‘true fluid velocity field’ in a petroleum reservoir?
2. How exactly to correlate the findings of the laboratory-scale parameters such as IFT, contact-angle and wettability – which is associated with a size - which is much smaller than an individual pore-size, given the fact that the fictitious Darcy velocity remains to be viewed as the average of the true velocity over a reservoir porous volume - that is small relative to the reservoir length, width and thickness - but should remain larger relative to the individual pores (REV)?
3. Whether the concept of REV (Representative Elementary Volume) has ever been conceptualized clearly or verified experimentally in a real field-scale heterogeneous petroleum reservoir with multi-phase flow of fluids (oil-water and oil-water-gas)?
4. Will it remain feasible to quantify the ‘random molecular diffusion’ and ‘mechanical dispersion’ (resulting from the movement of the injected chemicals – below the REV scale - moving in a complex, tortuous paths leading to the additional mixing) of the injected chemicals associated with a chemical EOR (as against specifying a single value of ‘hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient’)?
5. Can we expect ‘Fickian dispersion’ of the injected chemicals – nearer to the injection well? If not, how to estimate the travel distance - required by the injected chemicals - before Fickian conditions occur?
6. How to deduce a ‘REV Dispersivity’ – given the vertical variation of horizontal permeabilities – for a finite reservoir thickness?
7. Feasible to deduce the ‘Reservoir Macro-Dispersivity’ – given the length of the reservoir? Even otherwise, will it remain meaningful, if we happen to apply the full reservoir macro-dispersion approach – nearer to the injection well – in chemical EOR applications?
8. Whether the ‘Macro-dispersion approach’ – ‘considering the permeability variations above the REV scale’ would remain feasible in a petroleum reservoir?
9. Whether the idea of scale-dependent macro-dispersion would remain as a conceptual artifact for describing multi-dimensional fluid flow in a petroleum reservoir?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes. You might A) drill holes to sample the various areas, B) place many fiber optic probes with reflective ends that respond to the chemical(s), or C) place broadcasting monitors that report the presence of the material you can follow the dispersion of the additive. Of course this may not be economically feasible, but if works, please donate the royalties to support young technical students.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
4 answers
Im looking for an experienced supplier of delayed coking and calcining units
Relevant answer
Answer
You will need to make some experimental work in the delayed coking process.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
3 answers
Petroleum software like Petrel and t-navigator calculate the oil production recovery, I am seeking for the formulas to calculate the micro & macro sweep efficiencies to get the same value generated by the software becuase the general formula is
RF=Ev*ED
RF = recovery factor
Ev= macroscopic(volumetric) sweep efficiency.
Ed= microscopic (displacement) sweep efficiency.
Relevant answer
Answer
thank you
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
2 answers
Can we afford to ignore microscopic details associated with a petroleum reservoir?
1. Having known the complexities associated with the capturing of microscopic details – associated with a petroleum reservoir (such as capturing the details on the packing of grain particles; variations in pore-size distribution; the presence of interstitial clay coatings; the existence of non-uniform wetting surfaces; interfacial and adhesion tensions; contact angles; density and viscosity differences between immiscible fluid phases); how approximate will it be – in order to characterize a petroleum reservoir – by only using – ‘measurable’ ‘macroscopic parameters’ such as porosity, permeability and capillary pressure-saturation behavior of oil-water – in a petroleum reservoir?
2. Do we have any simplified approach – whereby – we will be able to translate the static distribution of oil and water into an equivalent dynamic motion of fluids – in the absence of capturing the microscopic details?
3. How successful are we - in downscaling (and translating) - the macroscopic capillary pressure curves – into an equivalent microscopic-heterogeneities of a reservoir?
4. How accurate the details on (a) the depths of oil-water and oil-gas interfaces; and (b) the shape of water flooding front - will be – typically, deduced from a capillary pressure curve?
5. Can the static capillary pressure (pressure difference between wetting and non-wetting phase) could be treated as a constant – in the absence of oil-water interfaces reaching equilibrium?
6. Any means to translate ‘static capillary pressure’ (which is simply related to the relative saturation of the wetting-phase) into an equivalent ‘dynamic capillary pressure’ (which includes dynamic properties such oil and water flow velocity) associated with the actual dynamic motion of oil and water?
If it depends on fluid velocity, how exactly to take into account (a) the fluid velocity nearer to the injection/production well; and (b) those fluid velocities - as that encountered in inter-well region?
7. Why does ‘Dynamic Capillary Pressure’ remain greater than ‘Static Capillary pressure’ at a given saturation?
A higher Dynamic Capillary Pressure - will always end up with an enhanced ‘water break through time’?
Relevant answer
Answer
Any work that attempts to extrapolate subsurface static or dynamic data to the scale of a petroleum reservoir (full-field or interwell scale) should began with a consideration of the sample bias that results from gathering data from such a small percentage of the area under study. The relevance of microscopic details depends on how severe this sample bias is. With the great uncertainty inherent in situations of limited data, it can be misleading to focus on microscopic data because the relation of the data to the actual natural distribution of petroleum system data (rock and fluid properties etc.) is unknown. Does the sampled data represent end members or central tendencies? In my career, numerous petroleum engineers cautioned me to not "micrometer the brick" meaning that knowing the precise dimensions of the bricks does not help one build a wall. The uncertainty is taken up by the mortar. Building a reservoir model is like building a brick wall. A model-based prediction of fluid production must be matched to actual production. The available data are the bricks and the things we will never know such as true areal extent of the reservoir and the spatial distribution of effective permeability are the mortar that must be adjusted to get the history match.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
11 answers
Considering the US negative Oil Price and Also the Global Average Oil Production Cost that Range between $30 to $40 a Barrel, Please Share your Perspective Regarding the Future of the Oil Prices, Oil Production and Oil Firms.
"US oil prices crashed into negative territory for the first time in history as the evaporation of demand caused by the coronavirus pandemic left the world awash with oil and not enough storage capacity — meaning producers are paying buyers to take it off their hands. West Texas Intermediate, the US benchmark, traded as low as -$40.32 a barrel in a day of chaos in oil markets." , reported by FINANCIAL TIMES on April 20, 2020.
Now the most common questions that might be raised in all people's mind is that " Will Oil Price Recover and Oil Industry Survive?? If Yes, When and How this will Occur?? "
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
1 answer
Flow through a Petroleum Reservoir
1. Do we have a ‘dynamical equilibrium’ existing between inertial and viscous forces and those due to external body forces and the internal distribution of fluid pressures – towards defining the velocity distribution – across the (vertical) thickness – associated with ‘Flow through a Petroleum Reservoir’?
If yes, then, why do we have uniform velocity distribution in Petroleum Reservoirs – as against the Parabolic Velocity Distribution (along the vertical section - normal to the flow direction)?
If not, then, how do we characterize the coupled effect of positive pressure (average reservoir pressure) and negative pressure (capillary pressure) responses – simultaneously - associated with a petroleum reservoir?
2. In the absence of an explicit ‘gravity’ (and density) term – in original Darcy’s equation, whether the replacement of ‘hydraulic head’ by ‘pressure head’ remains justified?
3. In the absence of a suction head or a negative head in original Darcy’s equation, can we afford to modify the fundamental physics itself – by bringing in the ‘Capillary Pressure’ – and still get Darcy’s law extended?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Suresh and all.
Only under static conditions, capillary phenomena are fully understood. As soon as the meniscus (interface between immiscible fluids in a capillary) start moving, its curvature changes, viscous dissipation occours and the surface energy associated with the interfacial tension between fluids also changes. Depending on the flow direction and the prevailing pressure gradient in the porous medium, meniscus curvature can reverse. For a given capillary, two expressions for Darcy´s law would hold simultaneously in different sections. Presently the phenomena are poorly understood. Check “dynamic capillary effect”.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
1 answer
I need information about what materials natural gas filters are made and manufactured in the industry, its cost and all its features, advantages and disadvantages, parameters. Filters that can purify liquids (petroleum products) using basalt fiber have been developed and implemented. But have such filters for gases still been developed by anyone? If you have any information about this, please let me know, I would be very grateful for that.
Relevant answer
Answer
Greetings to you, honorable sir, the question is outside my specialty. I am a researcher in entrepreneurship, business incubators and startups. I hope that you will find the answer you want in the near future, good luck
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
7 answers
In the oil and gas industry, for technical, economic, and similar reasons, well-Log running is done from special intervals. Therefore, to build comprehensive models for field development, we will need more information at different depths. Today, with advances in numerical methods, especially machine learning and deep learning methods, we can use their help to eliminate these data gaps. Of course, there are methods such as rock physics that are very practical. But according to my results, part of which is described below. It is better to combine the rock physics method with the deep learning methods, in which case the results will be amazing. I selected wells from the Poseidon Basin in Australia for testing and got good results. In this study, by combining the rock physics method and deep learning (CNN + GRU), the values ​​of density, porosity, and shear wave slowness were predicted. A comprehensive database of PEF, RHOB, LLD, GR, CGR, NPHI, DTC, DTS, and water saturation logs was prepared and used as training data for the wells. The below figure is the result of a blind well test for Torosa well in the Poseidon Basin, Australia. As you can see, the prediction results are very close to the measured values ​​of shear wave slowness in this well.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can use Machine learning algorithm to learn the data trends, where it is available and what parameters the data depend on, then use the algorithm to predict the data where they are missing the relationships learn from the training.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
1 answer
How much damage human and animals are making using. How much lump in the root, stem, leaf of plants.
Relevant answer
Answer
you can consult this site:
Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum ... - DIVA
http://www.diva-portal.org › get › FULLTEXT01
PDF by C Marchand · 2017
Also you can consult this book
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
6 answers
CO2 Emissions from a gallon of gasoline: 8,887 grams CO2/ gallon
CO2 Emissions from a gallon of diesel: 10,180 grams CO2/ gallon
1 us liquid gallon = 3.785 litres
Trees required for Petrol vehicle
CO2 emissions from a liter of gasoline = 2348 grams
For five letters = 2348*5= 11,740
Per year = 11,740*365=4,285 Kg
A typical tree can absorb around 21 kilograms of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year
Number of trees required for a vehicle consuming 5 L petrol per day
4285/21 = 204
Trees required for Diesel Vehicle
CO2 emissions from a liter of diesel = 2,690 grams
For five letters = 2,690*5= 13,450
Per year = 13,450*365 = 4,909 Kg
A typical tree can absorb around 21 kilograms of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year
Number of trees required for a vehicle consuming 5 L Diesel per day
4909/21 = 223
Relevant answer
Answer
“Net-zero emissions” sounds a lot like “zero emissions” but can actually mean something quite different. A "net-zero" climate goal essentially means that as long as a company or government says it will remove the same amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as it pollutes, it can claim to be "net" zero. That may sound good for the climate. But in reality, this poses many problems, not least because it is very difficult to remove CO2 from the atmosphere on a large scale.
Instead of planning to reduce emissions to truly zero, most “net zero” climate goals plan to continue polluting for decades, while hoping that trees or new technologies will suck the CO2 out of the air to solve the problem. Net-zero goals serve as a smokescreen to allow companies to continue business as usual while appearing more ambitious than they actually are.
Unfortunately, if you add up all the carbon offsets from the hundreds upon hundreds of “Net-Zero” targets announced by governments and corporations so far, it will take hundreds of millions of hectares of new tree plantations – wasteland that the planet does not have. Everyone mistakenly assumes that the land available to solve the problem is endless. But this is not the case.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
5 answers
There is a limitation on ehanol blending with diesel. 1) It is not missible with diesel, and separates out if kept to itself. 2) A binding agent (like bio-diesel) is needed to get a shelf stable blend with ehanol. 3) More tham 40% blending is not workable. Ehanol part being 10%. As the combustion characteristics do not allow self-ignition (which is the characteristic of disel in an IC engine) limiting combustion. Even then researchers are seen to be working with blend of lesser % of Ehanol or Bio-diesel and may be synthetic additives (adding to the cost of fuel).
Please read my paper published in Applied Energy published in 2011.
Should anyone has a better solution, let me know.
Best wishes.
Professor Satishchandra V Joshi
Relevant answer
Answer
Respected Prof. Sathishchandra Joshi, ethanol blends with diesel fuel will be a consequence of less viscous fuel. Such fuel blend can significantly decreases the cetane rating and thereby it could reduce the overall the heating value of fuel. Also, coz of the low flashpoint of the ethanol-diesel blend, certain alteration to handling and storage infrastructure, along with vehicle fuel systems, are probably required.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
12 answers
I intend to seek supervising professors and a university in Petroleum Engineering to do a PhD either in Canada, US, or the UK. But my undergrad studies was in geology with a minor in Petroleum technology, and my Masters thesis was basically geophysics and petroleum geology oriented. I want to know if I stand a chance of getting into a Petroleum engineering program for a PhD.
Relevant answer
Answer
Oil and Gas are a set of mixed applied Sciences, Dear Ali ELIHU AFANYU Ambe
When I entered the Venezuela oil industry in 1995, the first training course I had was in Petroleum Engineering, I worked in the exploration seismic division.
You will have to improve your skill in fluids, but your Applied Geology expertise will be a key point in your application since it is a difficult subject.
As more fields of the Oil and Gas industry you dominate, best for your career.
Best Regards.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
4 answers
I want to quantify the amount of oil in the oil-water mixture using laboratory analysis.
Can you please suggest some suitable techniques for that?
Thank You.
Relevant answer
Answer
Do you need to define oil in water or water in oil, and in which range.
I see that the three answers focused on determining the amount of water on oil but I understand from your question that you are looking for technics for measuring oil in water. For that you can use oil&grease, TOC, COD or similar methods.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
1 answer
I am trying the soxhlet method to determine the lipid content from food waste samples. I am using petroleum ether (100-120 degrees) as the solvent. However, I noticed that lots of protocols using lower boiling point petroleum ether. What is the difference and impact of the boiling point of petroleum ether on the lipid extraction? Can I reuse the petroleum ether from rotary evaporation?
Relevant answer
Answer
Pet Ether is a fraction from oil distillation. Given that crude oil is a natural product, Pet Ether is therefore variable in make up - it is essentially impure Hexane - which accounts for the variability in BP. Start low - see if it boils, and crank up the heat until it does.
So long as - you have a good chain of custody over the pet ether in your rotovap, I guess you could, however, if the evaporator "bumps" cleaning it is difficult. Also, there is probably mositure condensed in the mix too, from the air. If you ran a blank of the solvent in the GC prior to re-use you could then baseline anything out, but - to be honest, the vast majorty of people do not reuse solvent due to risks of cross contamination. For most, it is a false economy.
Kind regards,
Rob
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
7 answers
Is there any document comparing the efficiency of hydrogen as fuel compared to other fuels like biofuel, solar energy, wind energy, and fossil fuels like petrol and diesel?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Perminder Jit Kaur , here's a recent review of the efficiency of e-fuels generated from electricity, ; there's also a presentation that summarizes it: https://www.pik-potsdam.de/members/Ueckerdt/E-Fuel%20paper%20-%20presentation_slides_May2021_shared.pdf
Regarding performance comparisons, I'm not sure I understand the question. Heating values of Hydrogen are well known and do not depend on the H2 source (provided we neglect the impurities; a "selling point" of the H2 engine is that unlike the fuel cell it is quite tolerant to impurities).
Hydrogen from biomass is discussed in this paper (the journal might also be a very good source for you), ; I wasn't really aware of this path and thought that biomass would rather lead to methane as a fuel. Either way, the CO2 emissions should ideally be sequestered, whether they occur when the CH4 is burnt or during biomass gasification. CH4 leaks could also be a major issue.
I hope this helps!
Best regards,
Philippe
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
7 answers
Hazardous wastes are becoming potential threats for environment. In the other hand, construction is an industry that develops along with time. Therefore, suitable alternative mechanisms to use hazardous wastes in construction industry would extensively mitigate the environmental pollution through globe. I have referred the paper and got some ideas on using petroleum wastes as sustainable construction resources. However I have observed that the research study of (Asim et al, 2021) constraints under limited scope. I would like to know how the following hazardous materials could be effectively used as construction resource materials:
1. Pesticides
2. Batteries
3. Electronic wastes
4. Florescent tubes
5. Thermometers
6. Plastic shopping bags
I would like to get informed regarding my question mentioned above.
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
6 answers
I have been convinced by the concept of direct desulfurization of crudes. The commercial development in this technology will help ridding off the require the of mutilpe reactors with different ranges of Catalytic beds in the modern petroleum refinery.
Relevant answer
Answer
Ahh Bugs replacing refinery process again. A 50+ year old dream that will probably come true some day - but probably not in my lifetime.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
2 answers
What's the best definition you've seen? I would like to use an existing government policy or national lab/academies report. Or, how could I improve these two draft definitions below?
To start, the US Energy Policy Act of 1992 still seems to be the authority on "alternative fuel." (Thank you EERE for making this list easy to find.)
Methanol, ethanol, and other alcohols
Blends of 85% or more of alcohol with gasoline
Natural gas and liquid fuels domestically produced from natural gas
Liquefied petroleum gas (propane)
Coal-derived liquid fuels
Hydrogen
Electricity
Fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (including pure biodiesel (B100))
P-Series
My first stabs at "drop-in" and "non-drop-in." (Thank you CAAFI for getting me started.)
Drop-in Alternative Fuel:
An alternative fuel that is completely interchangeable and compatible with a particular conventional (typically petroleum-derived) fuel. A perfect drop-in fuel does not require adaptation of the fuel distribution network or the vehicle or equipment engine fuel systems, and can be used “as is” in vehicles and engines that currently operate on that particular fuel. Some alternative fuels may become “drop-in” only after blending with conventional fuel to a certain prescribed proportion.
Non-drop-in Alternative Fuel:
An alternative fuel that is not completely interchangeable and compatible with a particular conventional (typically petroleum-derived) fuel. A non-drop-in fuel requires adaptation of (or special treatment within) one or more components of the existing fuel distribution network or the current fleet of vehicle and equipment engine fuel systems. Some alternative fuels must be carefully segregated from conventional fuels, while others may be safely blended with conventional fuels. Some alternative fuels may remain “non-drop-in” even after blending with conventional fuel.
Relevant answer
Answer
Drop-in fuel: replaceable with existing fuels, no need modification of engine or distribution system.
Non-drop-in: need some modification to adapt the new fuels
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
2 answers
  • ratio for the solvent is 16:60:10:10:4 respectively
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Isaac,
thanks for posting this interesting technical question. However, I think thatv the question would receive more qualified answers if it was a bit more specific. Most importantly, please note that pigments are generally insoluble in water and organic solvents (see e..g. the respective Wikipedia entry at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pigment). Thus you cannot analyze pigments by thin layer or column chromatography. Presumable you are talking about dyes, right? in contrast to pigments, dyes are soluble either in water or various organic solvents. In order to give you a more specific answer it would be very helpful if you could specify the individual dyes you want to analyze.
Good luck with wour work!
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
1 answer
There are 2 petroleum ether extracts on soxhlet apparatus from the same kind of sample why one is liquid oil and the other is a solid extract like in the picture attached?
Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Rambu,
that's an interesting question! As an inorganic chemist I'm not a specialist in this field, but at this stage I think there is no reason to worry. Plant extracts always consist of mixtures of various compounds. Thus it needs only a small amount of oil to make the entire extract oily. You should try to analyze both extracts e.g. by GC-MS and see if there are any differences in composition. In this context. please see e.g. the following useful literature reference (there are many more):
GC-MS Analysis of Petroleum Ether Extract and Volatiles of Cycas revoluta Thunb Growing in Egypt
The article is freely available as public full text and can be downloaded as pdf file.
Good luck with your work and best wishes!
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
6 answers
I am working on Sonogashira Cross-Coupling Reaction of Aryl Iodides with Ferrocenylethyne..i got a product from this reaction but it gets totally dissolve in petroleum ether....can anyone suggest to me that how can I purify it by column chromatography.
Relevant answer
Answer
Chen Jingwen Okay..thank you for your valuable suggestion.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
2 answers
This material is a petroleum' s source rock , and the BET Correlation coefficient is : 0.9999310 and the T= 77K (-196.501°C) and the sample was well degassing over 21h. or I need to repeat the analysis?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you so much, very handy.
I have repeat the analysis under the same condition but a long time of Degassing, so I get a perfect isotherm result, because the sample holder was contain some moisture.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
7 answers
As there is many bacteria's are already reported that are able to degrade petroleum oils. it is well-known fact that bacteria evolve with time and this change mainly depends on the environment in which they are growing for a long time. So I was wondering if we keep petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria away from petroleum hydrocarbons for a long time. then how will they respond ? is they will have still the capacity to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons.
Relevant answer
Answer
are major constituents of crude oil and petroleum. They can be biodegraded by naturally-occurring microorganisms in freshwater and marine environments under a variety of aerobic and anaerobic conditions. ... Oxygen, nitrate, or sulfates are sometimes added as electron acceptors to enhance biodegradation rates
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
10 answers
In our different studies for petroleum fluid analysis, we always assume that petroleum reservoirs are isothermal. Do you agree with this assumption? And if not, what is the impact of this assumption on the different calculations related to fluid analysis and consequently reserves calculations?
Relevant answer
Answer
Reservoir temperature in accumulations depends on their occurrence depth and geothermal specifics of the giver Earth crust area. Observed temperatures vary from near 0°С in gas-hydrate accumulations to hundreds °С in deep-lying formations
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
12 answers
I ask for your recommendations to quickly learn C#? And where can I find sources for the application of C# in petroleum engineering?
Relevant answer
Answer
Having in mind the links and suggestions provide by other RG friends, day to day practices on some exercises (problems) is important.
Thanks!
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
5 answers
I have extracted plant material first through petroleum ether then Chloroform then Ethyle acetate finaly with methanol in the methanolic extract crystal are form what it indicate what could we the compounds?
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
3 answers
Hello researchers, May you help me with different published sources or otherwise on energy consumption data e.g. Oil/petroleum, electricity, and natural gas in sub-Saharan Africa from 1990 t0 2020.
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Nanzia Mmbaga Have you browsed the reports and database of the International Energy Agency, I think you have all the data you need
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
12 answers
Humans are the largest pest ever seen on Earth. How do we think (we must do something) after terrible mass extinctions, trilobites, dinosaurs(are we the next dinosaurs?) we are almost "to blame" when knowing the Earth's permanent recycling but still continue to use up resources (like buring the dead) or petrol or coal, it will one day end, it has been speeded up by humans, we think there has been life on Mars, we still say it is us, we use resources, (we may not replace them), the Earth life will end... But a meteorite could end with the dinosaurs life (or the trilobites)?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Dr Mª Angeles Zorrilla Lopez-Perea . Surely some day the life will end on the earth .When ? no one knows. This is not because consuming of resources but because anything has a start should have an end.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
2 answers
I am keen on working on the Ecological Capacity of Petroleum areas, therefore, I need to be familiar with environmental codes about this subject. I really appreciate your help.
Relevant answer
Answer
yeah exactly
@Kinshasa Pharoe
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
4 answers
I have coupled the proline methyl ester hydrochloride and hippuric acid and I want to recrystallize this product
I tried with ethyl acetate and petroleum ether but recrystallization does not work
if we know the other solvent or technique for this dipeptide recrystallization?
Relevant answer
Answer
DEAR @Egidio Silvestro and Vijaya kumar Polem thank you so much for the information i will try again with this solvants
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
15 answers
With coal mines still being planned and opened with 30-40 year lives, is coal seam gas (CSG) a real clean option or is it just as dirty as coal for our global power stations? Most CSG wells have lives of up to 15-25 years. When are we going to take other energy sources, such as solar and wind seriously? Can they be taken seriously as the petroleum industry buys shares into renewable energy sources and places them on the back burner until expensive lead in costs for coal and gas mines and wells can be recouped?
Relevant answer
Answer
Many thanks for your answers. My best regards, Joseph
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
4 answers
Dear Colleagues,
I am glad to find you well and healthy. I hope to provide me any references, notes, lectures, or links that can help me making a complete and perfect course about the "Basin and Petroleum System Analysis" and "PetroMod Software" to be used in undergraduate learning syllabus.
Best wishes,
Rami.
Assist. Prof. Rami M. Idan
Petroleum Geologist Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
Al-Karkh University of Sciences College of Remote Sensing and Geophysics 
Department of Geophysics E-mails: ramisc3@kus.edu.iq ramisc3@gmail.com
Phone: 009647703939509
Relevant answer
Answer
This seems to be a useful thread for me as I will be working with the PetroMod software during my MSc thesis.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
13 answers
Hi, I am currently trying to extract the pesticides fluroxypyr and prothioconazole from the soil by spiking using Dutch Mini Luke extraction method; however, I am failing. The instrument used for analysis is HPLC-UV.
Here are the details of my extraction (document attached):
1. Extraction method: Dutch Mini Luke
2. Extraction solvent: Combination of four different solvents; 15 mL deionised water, 20 mL of acetone, 20 mL of petroleum ether, and 10 mL of dichloromethane
3. The extracts were dried down and reconstituted using mobile phase.
Instrumentation:
1. Instrument: HPLC-UV
2. Column: C18
3. Mobile phase: A: 5 mM ammonium formate in 0.05 formic acid (aq), B: 0.05% formic acid in acetonitrile
When ran standards alone, fluroxypyr and prothioconazole is detected. However, I am failing to detect both these analytes after extraction, even with multiple ranges of spiking concentration. I am afraid that these analytes are not extracted at all.
Please advise how I can improve or modify my extraction where I can successfully extract these analytes.
Relevant answer
Answer
I agree with Prof Dr Shyam
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
5 answers
Is it possible to switch major from petroleum engineering to civil engineering? Specially related to basic concrete technology, concrete releted products and materials?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes it's possible, bet definitely, it's going to cost you time, a whole new experience from process to traditional Engineering. It's worthwhile as new technologies are bound to be developed from analysis of materials.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
1 answer
Restructuring of complex pore-network and the evolution of reservoir porosity as a function of space and time (to be used in mass conservation equation): Requires the history of reservoir compaction?
If the degree of compaction is neither related to porosity loss nor to the increase in density, then, can’t we apply Athy’s compaction model (which demonstrates the exponential porosity reduction from 50 to 5% over a depth of 2 – 2.5 km from the surface) to characterize the porosity associated with a carbonate reservoir (with dominant cementation, dissolution, pressure-solution, recrystallization & grain-replacement than the siliciclastic deposits)?
Can the linear relation between porosity reduction (with its respective increase in density) and the increased over-burden and tectonic stresses (using Athy’s Model) be applied confidently to characterize a typical oil/gas reservoir?
Whether the compaction associated with a typical petroleum reservoir could result solely from ‘chemical readjustment’ (under any circumstances); or will it always include the reservoir porosity that has resulted from recrystallization of solid grains as well?
If yes, will it be feasible to explicitly measure the enhancement in the rigidity of the solid-grain structure (resulting from the alteration of mechanically deformed clays into shales) to characterize the reservoir porosity?
Note: Approximation is always possible for a normally consolidated sediments of uniform lithology.
Relevant answer
Answer
I think this chapter of book could help you;
Compaction of Sediments and Different Compaction Models
In book: Emilie Du Châtelet und die deutsche Aufklärung (January 2020).Troyee Das, Soumyajit Mukherjee.
That's available on the ResearchGate Server for download.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
4 answers
I need to know the best type of rubber to preparing petrol resistant rubber compound for lining the pipes of petrol.
Relevant answer
Answer
Nitrile (also known as NBR rubber and Buna-N) is the seal industry's most widely used and economical elastomer. This is partly because it displays excellent resistance to petroleum-based oils, fuels, water, alcohols, silicone greases, and hydraulic fluids.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
1 answer
In hot mix recycling, "organic rejuvenators" require lower dosages than "petroleum rejuvenators" to decrease the Performance Grade temperature (PG Temp.) of the hot recycled blend.
Relevant answer
Answer
It's a very good question. I do not have the answer. But what I have seen is that anyway the structural response would be greater with the oil-based rejuvenators. This article shows some results that we arrived at in a study:
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
5 answers
I'm working with chloroform and petroleum ether but the crystallisation not worked
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi. I agree with Frank.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
1 answer
Darcy’s-Law; Macroscopic-scale; Experimental parameters measured at a scale that is lesser than macroscopic-scale:
When we characterize a petroleum reservoir with the Darcian approach,
it essentially implies that we are going to replace
the actual ensemble of sand-grains/clay, shale, silt-particles/rock-fragments
that make up the petroleum reservoir by a representative continuum,
for which,
we can define macroscopic parameters, such as the reservoir-permeability, and
utilize macroscopic-laws, such as Darcy’s law
in order to provide
the macroscopically averaged descriptions of the microscopic behavior.
If so, can we consider any (laboratory based) parameter
that is measured
at a scale lesser than the macroscopic-scale,
when the reservoir is characterized
using Darcian approach?
Relevant answer
Answer
Suresh,
can you please clarify your question. Do you mean ‘can we use permeability values as measured in the laboratory directly in a 3-D reservoir model’ or do you mean something different? If the latter, what do you really ask?
Regards,
W J Evert van de Graaff
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
3 answers
MEAN (Ave) – SD (Sigma) – Reservoir Heterogeneity:
Given the fact that the probability density function for permeability remains log-normal, leaving aside arithmetic-mean, can a simple geometric-mean or harmonic-mean be used - in order to deduce - the mean value of permeability, while characterizing a heterogeneous petroleum reservoir?
If yes, what will be the value of permeability "at the interface" between two different beds/layers with significantly differing permeability?
If no, should we need to consider the ranges of standard-deviation as well, apart from considering the mean-value of reservoir-permeability, while characterizing the degree of reservoir heterogeneity?
Relevant answer
Answer
Geometric mean is sensitive to the lower values. Therefore, any outliners in your data will yield the results far more pessimist. It is ideal for the estimation of horizontal permeability but some errors are there for horizontal permeability as well.
Simple arithmetic mean is ideal for additive properties like porosity, saturation and Net-to-gross thickness ratio but not for permeability as you indicated. While harmonic mean is for the layered systems.
Generally, the situation for the estimation variation from optimist to pessimist is as follows
Arithmetic Mean > Geometric Mean > Harmonic Mean
However, when a heterogeneous system is considered the best estimates can be made using the combination of Arithmetic and Harmonic Mean. Directional Permeabilities can be estimated as follows
Minimum Permeability: Arithmetic Mean of the Harmonic Mean of Rows which is usually zero
Maximum Permeability: Harmonic Mean of the Arithmetic Mean of Columns which yields the maximum averaged permeability (while upscaling).
Then arithmetic mean of maximum permeability and minimum permeability can be used to estimate the upscaled value of permeability for that particular strata.
Regarding the agreement between the derived averaged value and other values of permeability, one can use Pearson Coefficient of Covariance.
These are all my learning from class of geostatistics. Hope it may be useful to you. If there is some confusion regarding the estimation of maximum and minimum permeabilities, I can share an example with you
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
1 answer
Does a Fund (e.g., a social security Fund, Petroleum Fund etcetera.) include its investments; e.g., property or securities if money from such Fund was used to make such investments? In other words, can such property be attached/subject to execution or is it considered as part of the Fund?
Lessons from all jurisdictions are welcome.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Sekibembe,
I think it depends on the initial purpose and the goals of the fund.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
1 answer
Mean Value of Reservoir Permeability:
How exactly to deduce the average-permeability of a petroleum reservoir with
(a) layered heterogeneity (a vertical cross section having multiple individual beds making up the reservoir formation, each having a homogeneous permeability value of k1, k2, k3, k4, etc.)
and
(b) discontinuous heterogeneity (caused by the presence of faults and/or large-scale stratigraphic features)?
Relevant answer
Dear @Suresh,
welcome!
I would propose that you measure the electric capacitance C of this reservoir.
Then we have C= epsilon A/d
A is the electrode area, which is the area of the reservoir.
d is the thickness of the petroleum
and epsilon is the average dielectric consatnt.
Best wishes
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
2 answers
Mobility of Pore Fluids with Reservoir Deformation:
Does the restructuring of complex reservoir pore-geometry take place during/following the transportation of water, oil & gas towards the production well OR the transportation of these pore-fluids results from the restructuring of the pore-geometry – upon hydrocarbon production? In short, among ‘reservoir-deformation’ and ‘mobility of pore-fluids’, which induces the other?
On a general note, how long will it take for a significant restructuring of the pore-geometry (deformation) to occur in a typical petroleum reservoir?
Will ‘the time period associated with the deformation of reservoir pore geometry’ be comparable with that of ‘the time period required for the migration of water, oil & gas’?
Relevant answer
Answer
If you don’t define ‘significant deformation’ and ‘typical reservoir’ your question cannot be answered meaningfully.
In principle it depends on the degree of consolidation (= mechanical strength) and the amount of pressure depletion. In poorly consolidated water- bearing sands pore deformation / compaction starts immediately once water is pumped from the reservoir. In more consolidated rocks such as the Groningen gas field (Rotliegendes sandstones at ~3000 m TVDSS ) induced seismicity ( read reservoir compaction) became a serious issue after some 60% of GIIP had been produced
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
3 answers
Petroleum Waste
Relevant answer
Answer
Saeed Shahsavari Thanks a lot for your contributions.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
2 answers
Leaky Petroleum Reservoirs:
Are the confining beds (top & bottom) of a petroleum reservoir are completely impermeable with extremely low-permeability?
Are the vertical flow components remain ‘always’ negligible?
If the confining beds ‘leak’ the fluids ‘either from’ or ‘to the’ reservoir, how exactly the transient radial fluid flow equation would get influenced?
Will it be feasible – in a real field scenario – to distinguish between (a) capture/loss of brine into/from the reservoir; and (b) capture/loss of hydrocarbon fluids into/from the reservoir – resulting from ‘leak’?
Whether the additional data on (a) ‘vertical permeability’ of the reservoir; (b) permeabilities of top & bottom confining units – would suffice – to address the leakance of the confined petroleum reservoir? Or Do we still require more data?
How exactly to distinguish the ‘leakage of fluids into a petroleum reservoir’ from that of ‘production of pore-fluids from a petroleum reservoir resulting from storage effect’?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Suresh Kumar Govindarajan,
You have made an interesting question... With 8 years of petroleum exploration experience, discovering a totally new concept of petroleum capturation (but last 26 years did not work in the profession!) ... First, you have to make difference between the lithological nature of confining beds the main importance for you is the top strata, but exists situation when the bottom strata same play important role in your subject... Because a theoretical reservoirs bottom part is the reservoir water, the next is the petroleum and on the top is the natural gas... In the case of clay, sandstone totally saturated with clay, ' flexible lime marl' you will have trap with completely impermeable bottom and top. in the case of metamorphic, volcanic, limestone, dolomite stone exist condition when they have vertical microfisure (macrofisure) when you have to count with them... In rest I do not have experienced thought, only idea for you: you have to imagine this 'fisure' like a macro artificial opening and experience got from to use in case of the natural environment only one thing... do not forget that in case of natural condition the main role has the difference of layer pressures which is an important factor in such a case...
Regards,
Laszlo
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
1 answer
Pseudo-Steady fluid flow through an oil reservoir: Feasible under special circumstances?
When multi-phase fluid (water, oil and gas) is flowing out of an under-saturated oil reservoir – towards the production well - by primary recovery; and if assume that the same amount of outgoing fluid flux is replaced by an incoming single-phase water-influx from surrounding aquifers that enters the reservoir, in the same time, whether the fluid flow through this petroleum reservoir can be assumed to be flowing under steady-state conditions 'hypothetically'?
Along the spatial length of reservoir between the production-well and the drainage radius, if we hit a point randomly in space, whether the fluid flow can remain as a constant with time – under any given special circumstances (so that the problem can be assumed to be under “simplified” steady-state conditions)?
Will it be feasible - to trace - the path of water, oil and gas particles - as it moves through the reservoir – towards the production well (at the pore-scale)?
During this process, will the instantaneous velocity of the respective water, oil and gas particle’s velocity will remain tangent to the streamline?
Also, will it be feasible to capture the number of streamlines passing through the cross sectional area of the reservoir (per unit area) in a direction – normal to the direction of fluid flow, so that the rate of flow of water, oil and gas can be deduced separately?
Relevant answer
Answer
What you describe is more or less the conditions in which streamline approaches are applicable to reservoir flow. Streamline approaches refer to streamline simulation and derivative methods applicable to reservoir characterization, inversion (aka history matching) and optimization. Quite a lot has been done in particular by Texas A&M and Stanford on the matter, lookup 3DSL and Destiny as software.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
4 answers
I am currently pursuing an MSc in Petroleum Production Engineering. I am required to come up with a Project title and subsequently submit a proposal. As such I would like to make use of this forum by inquiring from experts on a suitable project title based on challenges in the Industry in the area of Production Engineering.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can study how more or less relevant to crude oil-derived fuels ... solvents, such as petroleum ether and rubber solvent, are mixtures.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
4 answers
I have the daily biogas generation data for one year. From this data how to convert the GHG mitigation potentials of Biogas compared to other sources of energy like petrol, diesel, electricity etc. in terms of their particular energy conversion values for CO2 emission.
Relevant answer
Answer
https://www.eesi.org/papers/view/fact-sheet-biogasconverting-waste-to-energy this should answer or give you an idea Shrinivas Deshpande and there are many companies who do calculations based on baseline scenarios u can approach them too
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
2 answers
Quantification of NH3 or H2S alone is easy But when both present in petroleum product such as naphtha, gasoline is very difficult
Relevant answer
Answer
You can extract it to water and determine as ion.
Generally expected concentrations will be low.
Regards
GB
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
3 answers
Where would you put the boundary between low and high permeability in a petroleum reservoir?
Relevant answer
Answer
Javad Sharifi Thank you very much for your answer, best wishes
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
3 answers
I have prepared plant extract of 0.1 mg in 1ml of petroleum ether..(stock solution)
Now I want to do antibiotic susceptibility test in different concentrations around ( 25-100 microlitre)..if I take 25 microlitre from stock what will be the concentration ? Or shall I prepare different concentrations like 25;50;75;100 ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Ok. thank u sir...I am willing to do disc diffusion technique..but I have more research papers with well diffusion...so I will try both..whichever results are better that I will keep for further work
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
4 answers
I am a Petroleum Production Engg MSc student at Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen and I am in the process of selecting a topic for my MSc Engineering Investigation proposal.
I would very much appreciate suggestions of good topics and areas of research relevant to my field.
Thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Mohiuddin Abdullah, during my MSc thesis I worked on the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) via polymer flooding. Due to the increasing demand on fossil energy sources, these EOR techniques such as CO2 injection for pressure restoration and others are still attracting research and field applications. So my suggestion targets on this area of research. My Regards
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
2 answers
The resultant solid was partitioned three times with 250 ml of petroleum ether (40-60/c) to remove any fatty material and evaporated to dryness.
Relevant answer
Answer
I agree with the opinion of Dr. Mahmoud. Using petroleum ether is the right Choice as it is used a laboratory solvent and glue removal
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
4 answers
Hello, im doing my thesis in my petroleum engineering program and i want to do my thesis on carbon capture, i have a lot of research on the process done but not sure the argument direction to go in. i need help with the topic for example "should carbon capture be mandatory by government to reduce pollution"
Relevant answer
Answer
@Dariusz Prokopowicz can you explain what you mean by specific products made of energy fossil fuels and the processes of energy production from fossil fuels.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
1 answer
What is the disadvantages of high sulfur content to the ceramic burning process? and what is the effect of outranged viscosity?
Relevant answer
Answer
They are classified and named according to their viscosity, IFO 180 and IFO 380, with viscosities of 180 mm²/s and 380 mm²/s, respectively. In the MARPOL Marine Convention of 1973, heavy fuel oil is defined either by a density of greater than 900 kg/m³ at 15°C or a kinematic viscosity of more than 180 mm²/s at 50°C.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
29 answers
Several air cycles like Otto, Diesel Brayton etc. have been developed earlier. Otto cycle has application to petrol/ gas engines, Diesel cycle has application to diesel engine. Brayton cycle has application to gas turbine etc. Like wise where Ericsson cycle is used?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, it can be designed as an isothermal compression-expansion Brayton. The most relevant inconvinient consists of achiving an aceptable isothermal expansion- based turbine.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
2 answers
Especially the specific heat (Cp) at both liquid and solid phases. Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Have you found any information Rami Ammar ?
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
3 answers
EV are becoming superior day by day, but most of the vehicles are not sustainable enough to meet the needs and performance.
Hydrogen vehicles on the other hand are on the much costlier side.
What could be the possible replacements for them?
Relevant answer
1-Hydrogen- Europe has currently decided to invest on it more than Li Ion batteriy tech and to have fuel cell commercial vehicles by 2040-2050.
2- Natural Gas, Methanol, Biodiesel- Always good contenders to gasoline and diesel
3- Supercapacitors, flywheels for short term high power applications
4- Battery with contactless charging or battery charging by pantograph on highways. For charging while travelling.
5- Hybrids: battery + supercapacitor
6- nuclear power: already used for large ships or submarines
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
3 answers
I'm currently setting up GCxGC and developing methods for quantitative petroleum analysis using a Thermo Trace 1310 GC with an FID detector. Does anyone have suggestions regarding methods (column type, temperature settings, etc), or equipment?
Should I get a thermal or flow modulator (and from which company)? I'd like to avoid liquid nitrogen (for safety reasons) if possible.
Is a secondary/auxillary oven needed?
Helium is quite expensive, so have you found nitrogen to be a successful carrier gas?
What software have you found to be most useful?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Jody,
The choice of the method/columns/modulators depend on the boiling point range of your petroleum streams. What is working pretty well for naphtha won't work for vacuum residuum.
Regarding software: ChromaTOF and GCImage are good.
Take care
Rafal
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
1 answer
Hi
I wanted suggestions for already published research articles that can illustrate a complete Petroleum Production System which shows in detail a single diagram or list out multiple diagrams that can show the individual subsurface, well head, Christmas tree, pipeline and separators.
I am submitting an example illustration of a petroleum production and was hoping to find some more detailed ones.
Urgently waiting for suggestions.
Relevant answer
Answer
Depends on what you want to focus on, you may want to check the production text books, reservoir handbooks, and/or drilling books.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
3 answers
What sulphur compounds are present in diesel fuel
Relevant answer
Answer
Diesel fuel contains sulfur since it is derived from original crude oil source and can still be present after refining as it is tedious remove sulfur from diesel after fractional distillation process
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
3 answers
What is diversification and how do petroleum companies use it as a means to reduce commercial risk? What pitfalls are associated with this practice?
Relevant answer
Answer
Diversification, is, in fact, a best practice of well managed oil companies in bad and good times. As our grandma said, "Do not put all your eggs in one basket".
I understand diversification as the construction of a diverse portfolio of investments regarding: 1. the stage of the development of assets 2. the environment of assets 3. the risk class of assets and; more recently 4. the energy source of assets.
Regarding 1, a diverse portfolio will have exploratory assets, assets under development and producing assets, which will provide cashflow. Regarding 2, a diverse portfolio will present oil assets, gas assets and the location of the assets should not be concentrated. Regarding 3, a good portfolio will combine low exploratory risk with high polytical or regulatory risk; to invest in high/high risk assets is too dangerous and finally, an oil company with the yes in the future will have part of its assets in clean energy enterprises.
Please see this answer as a conjecture to be discussed instead of a definitive answer. Please contest to improve our knowledge of the matter.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
5 answers
"Synthetic resins of low molecular weight produced by polymerization of mixtures of unsaturated compounds (primarily indene and coumarone), which have been extracted from the by-products of coal coking (crude benzene) and from the aromatic high-boiling products of petroleum pyrolysis. Fractions containing about 30 percent indene, 15 percent coumarone, and 5 percent styrene are used in the manufacture of coumarone-indene resins. The monomer mixture is polymerized in the presence of boron fluoride, aluminum chloride, or sulfuric acid. Various types of coumaroneindene resins are produced, ranging in color from bright yellow to dark brown and with a melting point between 60° and 140°C.
š Most coumarone–indene, petroleum, and polyterpene resins are produced by carbocationic polymerization using Lewis acid catalysis."
I need the reaction steps of indene and coumarone through cationic polymerization but I can not find it.
Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Hedieh - Perhaps the attached article entitled "Indene Polymerization under the Action of Titanium Tetrachloride" gives you some more insight into the reaction mechanism of cationic polymerization involving indene. Unfortunately the relevant references 1 and 2 cited in this article on the co-polymerization of indene and coumarone are both written in Russian.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
7 answers
It's known a large amount of wastewater is generated as a by-product during petroleum production. Also, wastewater can be obtained during drilling. All of these may contain trace elements and harmful elements that are harmful to the environment as well as human health. I want to treat them very cheaply but effectively. For that, which measures should I need?
Relevant answer
Answer
I think trace elements will be a matter of concern for my study. So, for that, which will be better? Please share, if you have a good idea...
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
3 answers
I am using a gas chromatograph to determine the composition of the petroleum fraction, is there a possibility to do an analysis of water contaminated with alkane rich hydrocarbons?
Relevant answer
Answer
yes, you are just .
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
16 answers
I am looking for other methods except for the common ones
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Prof. Danyar A. Salih,
Microseismic for reservoir imaging, characterization and fluid monitoring:
Some extensions of the magnetic methods:
Some new uses of electrical methods in the Siberian platform:
For differentiating major rock types in exploration risk, some satellite companies:
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
5 answers
Hi, I am looking to test the effectiveness of pesticide residues extraction from the soil sample using the Dutch mini luke extraction method. The extraction method would involve the mixing of three different solvents; 20 mL of acetone, 20 mL of petroleum ether, and 10 mL of dichloromethane.
As I am currently carrying out the method validation of this method, I would need to calculate the spiking concentrations to get exactly the concentration that I am aiming for. For me to do it correctly, I presume I would need to know which solvent (acetone/petroleum ether/dichloromethane) would be the top layer, hence the layer that has all the extracted pesticides.
My question is, with the mixing of three solvents, which solvent would be the top layer? Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you, everyone, for your answer. Really appreciate them.
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
7 answers
As we all know that new trend towards the use of electric cars are encouraged by many government policies, banning on the use of petrol or diesel cars are on the way of planning for some countries. The question is how the electric cars would impact on our environments? For example, how could we dispose the used batteries?
Although there is another advanced type of cars-hydrogen fuel cars on its frontier for R&D at moment, it claims to be environment friendly. It seems that it is still long way to go.
However, It would be interesting to know how the electric cars could play in our future lives, especially environmental impact? Thanks in advance for answering the question!
Relevant answer
Answer
Research has shown that electric cars are better for the environment. They emit less greenhouse gases and air pollutants over their life than a petrol or diesel car. This is even after the production of the vehicle and the generation of the electricity required to fuel them is considered.
Best regards
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
2 answers
Hi everyone, I would like to find some documents that summarize the methods of removing impurities (sulfur, nitrogen, metals, ...) in petroleum products (products of fractional distillation of crude oil) such as HDS, HDN, caustic scrubber, sulfuric acid scrubber... for my essay. But the documents I found did not present the above methods as a common item, so it was difficult for me to find the document because of the breadth of the methods. Can you recommend to me some related documents?
Thanks for your help!
Relevant answer
Answer
Nam Nhat you can find it in books (a lot of ebooks are available). Secondly check the patents they are available free of charge (for example google patents).
regards,
GB
  • asked a question related to Petroleum
Question
3 answers
Rock Quality Designation (RQD) index has been used for over 20 years as an index of rock quality. It measures the percentage of good” rock within a borehole. How can petroleum Engineer use this concept in petroleum exploration and development in reservoirs study.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Ahmad, Well log integrations, special core tests are essential input for modeling rock quality. In petrophysical level, there are different methodologies that define rock quality based mainly on porosity and permeability parameters with other secondary factors such as tortousity at poral level. Some methodologies have been developed which could classify rock types:
2. METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZING HYDRAULIC UNITS
2.1 Classic Ratio of Porosity and Perm