Questions related to Petroleum
Two-phase Fluid low in a Petroleum Reservoir
Whether the inherent ‘hysteresis’ in a petroleum reservoir – has really made it difficult – in order to develop – appropriate models of oil-water flow system – resulting from the failure of ‘capillary pressure – saturation’ relationship – to uniquely describe the drainage and imbibition scenarios - in an oil-water system?
From thermodynamic perspective, whether the introduction of the ‘oil-water interfacial area surface’ - explicitly (i.e., projecting ‘interfacial area’ as a ‘state variable’ explicitly, in addition to saturation) – would efficiently describe the ‘capillary pressure function’ – by applying the extended form of Darcy’s law using momentum balance equations?
If so, will it eliminate the hysteresis effect completely in an oil-water petroleum reservoir system?
Do we really require ‘Euler characteristic’ (topological invariant) – in order to uniquely describe an oil-water system – that produces ‘closure relations’ for models based on ‘continuum mechanics’?
The transient/non-equilibrium and quasi-static/quasi-equilibrium ‘capillary pressure – saturation – interfacial area surface’ – would always remain statistically different – for each petroleum reservoir oil-water system; and subsequently, a single relationship – that remains independent of oil and water flow conditions – remains nearly ruled out?
In Sadorsky (2006), state space model is specified for volatility and a one period ahead forecast constructed from the estimated model.
r^2(t) = c1 z_1(t) + z_2(t) (1)
z_2(t) = var(exp(c2)) (2)
z_1(t) = z_1(t-1) (3)
where r(t) is the petroleum futures price return. This model describes an unobserved term with an AR(1) process. The variables z1 and z2 are the two state variables.
Eq. (1) is the signal equation and Eqs. (2) and (3) are the state equations.
Could anyone suggest any software package to estimate and forecast volatility using the aforementioned specification given in Sadorsky (2006)?
Sadorsky (2006) Modeling and forecasting petroleum futures volatility. Energy Economics 28, 467-488.
In my recent studies, I found references, where the equations presented were incorrect. Especially in a case like Eaton's pore pressure estimation equation, these mistakes were widespread.
Which generation of ethanol production is presently being used in petrol/gasoline for private and light goods vehicles? Is it primarily still 1G or is it 2G or even moving to 3G? The generations are described in
I'd appreciate being pointed towards any appropriate literature or to studies that are independent of government funding and private sector funding.
Thanks, Tony Graham
As with ethanolic plant extract, we make its dilution in an ethanolic solvent, but for petroleum ether and chloroform plant extract Which solvent can be used for the dilution to make 1mg/ml for quantitative analysis.
1. Will it remain feasible to quantify the dispersion of the injected chemicals (Alkaline / Surfactant / Polymer) – in the absence of reproducing the ‘true fluid velocity field’ in a petroleum reservoir?
2. How exactly to correlate the findings of the laboratory-scale parameters such as IFT, contact-angle and wettability – which is associated with a size - which is much smaller than an individual pore-size, given the fact that the fictitious Darcy velocity remains to be viewed as the average of the true velocity over a reservoir porous volume - that is small relative to the reservoir length, width and thickness - but should remain larger relative to the individual pores (REV)?
3. Whether the concept of REV (Representative Elementary Volume) has ever been conceptualized clearly or verified experimentally in a real field-scale heterogeneous petroleum reservoir with multi-phase flow of fluids (oil-water and oil-water-gas)?
4. Will it remain feasible to quantify the ‘random molecular diffusion’ and ‘mechanical dispersion’ (resulting from the movement of the injected chemicals – below the REV scale - moving in a complex, tortuous paths leading to the additional mixing) of the injected chemicals associated with a chemical EOR (as against specifying a single value of ‘hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient’)?
5. Can we expect ‘Fickian dispersion’ of the injected chemicals – nearer to the injection well? If not, how to estimate the travel distance - required by the injected chemicals - before Fickian conditions occur?
6. How to deduce a ‘REV Dispersivity’ – given the vertical variation of horizontal permeabilities – for a finite reservoir thickness?
7. Feasible to deduce the ‘Reservoir Macro-Dispersivity’ – given the length of the reservoir? Even otherwise, will it remain meaningful, if we happen to apply the full reservoir macro-dispersion approach – nearer to the injection well – in chemical EOR applications?
8. Whether the ‘Macro-dispersion approach’ – ‘considering the permeability variations above the REV scale’ would remain feasible in a petroleum reservoir?
9. Whether the idea of scale-dependent macro-dispersion would remain as a conceptual artifact for describing multi-dimensional fluid flow in a petroleum reservoir?
Petroleum software like Petrel and t-navigator calculate the oil production recovery, I am seeking for the formulas to calculate the micro & macro sweep efficiencies to get the same value generated by the software becuase the general formula is
RF = recovery factor
Ev= macroscopic(volumetric) sweep efficiency.
Ed= microscopic (displacement) sweep efficiency.
Can we afford to ignore microscopic details associated with a petroleum reservoir?
1. Having known the complexities associated with the capturing of microscopic details – associated with a petroleum reservoir (such as capturing the details on the packing of grain particles; variations in pore-size distribution; the presence of interstitial clay coatings; the existence of non-uniform wetting surfaces; interfacial and adhesion tensions; contact angles; density and viscosity differences between immiscible fluid phases); how approximate will it be – in order to characterize a petroleum reservoir – by only using – ‘measurable’ ‘macroscopic parameters’ such as porosity, permeability and capillary pressure-saturation behavior of oil-water – in a petroleum reservoir?
2. Do we have any simplified approach – whereby – we will be able to translate the static distribution of oil and water into an equivalent dynamic motion of fluids – in the absence of capturing the microscopic details?
3. How successful are we - in downscaling (and translating) - the macroscopic capillary pressure curves – into an equivalent microscopic-heterogeneities of a reservoir?
4. How accurate the details on (a) the depths of oil-water and oil-gas interfaces; and (b) the shape of water flooding front - will be – typically, deduced from a capillary pressure curve?
5. Can the static capillary pressure (pressure difference between wetting and non-wetting phase) could be treated as a constant – in the absence of oil-water interfaces reaching equilibrium?
6. Any means to translate ‘static capillary pressure’ (which is simply related to the relative saturation of the wetting-phase) into an equivalent ‘dynamic capillary pressure’ (which includes dynamic properties such oil and water flow velocity) associated with the actual dynamic motion of oil and water?
If it depends on fluid velocity, how exactly to take into account (a) the fluid velocity nearer to the injection/production well; and (b) those fluid velocities - as that encountered in inter-well region?
7. Why does ‘Dynamic Capillary Pressure’ remain greater than ‘Static Capillary pressure’ at a given saturation?
A higher Dynamic Capillary Pressure - will always end up with an enhanced ‘water break through time’?
Considering the US negative Oil Price and Also the Global Average Oil Production Cost that Range between $30 to $40 a Barrel, Please Share your Perspective Regarding the Future of the Oil Prices, Oil Production and Oil Firms.
"US oil prices crashed into negative territory for the first time in history as the evaporation of demand caused by the coronavirus pandemic left the world awash with oil and not enough storage capacity — meaning producers are paying buyers to take it off their hands. West Texas Intermediate, the US benchmark, traded as low as -$40.32 a barrel in a day of chaos in oil markets." , reported by FINANCIAL TIMES on April 20, 2020.
Now the most common questions that might be raised in all people's mind is that " Will Oil Price Recover and Oil Industry Survive?? If Yes, When and How this will Occur?? "
Flow through a Petroleum Reservoir
1. Do we have a ‘dynamical equilibrium’ existing between inertial and viscous forces and those due to external body forces and the internal distribution of fluid pressures – towards defining the velocity distribution – across the (vertical) thickness – associated with ‘Flow through a Petroleum Reservoir’?
If yes, then, why do we have uniform velocity distribution in Petroleum Reservoirs – as against the Parabolic Velocity Distribution (along the vertical section - normal to the flow direction)?
If not, then, how do we characterize the coupled effect of positive pressure (average reservoir pressure) and negative pressure (capillary pressure) responses – simultaneously - associated with a petroleum reservoir?
2. In the absence of an explicit ‘gravity’ (and density) term – in original Darcy’s equation, whether the replacement of ‘hydraulic head’ by ‘pressure head’ remains justified?
3. In the absence of a suction head or a negative head in original Darcy’s equation, can we afford to modify the fundamental physics itself – by bringing in the ‘Capillary Pressure’ – and still get Darcy’s law extended?
I need information about what materials natural gas filters are made and manufactured in the industry, its cost and all its features, advantages and disadvantages, parameters. Filters that can purify liquids (petroleum products) using basalt fiber have been developed and implemented. But have such filters for gases still been developed by anyone? If you have any information about this, please let me know, I would be very grateful for that.
In the oil and gas industry, for technical, economic, and similar reasons, well-Log running is done from special intervals. Therefore, to build comprehensive models for field development, we will need more information at different depths. Today, with advances in numerical methods, especially machine learning and deep learning methods, we can use their help to eliminate these data gaps. Of course, there are methods such as rock physics that are very practical. But according to my results, part of which is described below. It is better to combine the rock physics method with the deep learning methods, in which case the results will be amazing. I selected wells from the Poseidon Basin in Australia for testing and got good results. In this study, by combining the rock physics method and deep learning (CNN + GRU), the values of density, porosity, and shear wave slowness were predicted. A comprehensive database of PEF, RHOB, LLD, GR, CGR, NPHI, DTC, DTS, and water saturation logs was prepared and used as training data for the wells. The below figure is the result of a blind well test for Torosa well in the Poseidon Basin, Australia. As you can see, the prediction results are very close to the measured values of shear wave slowness in this well.
How much damage human and animals are making using. How much lump in the root, stem, leaf of plants.
CO2 Emissions from a gallon of gasoline: 8,887 grams CO2/ gallon
CO2 Emissions from a gallon of diesel: 10,180 grams CO2/ gallon
1 us liquid gallon = 3.785 litres
Trees required for Petrol vehicle
CO2 emissions from a liter of gasoline = 2348 grams
For five letters = 2348*5= 11,740
Per year = 11,740*365=4,285 Kg
A typical tree can absorb around 21 kilograms of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year
Number of trees required for a vehicle consuming 5 L petrol per day
4285/21 = 204
Trees required for Diesel Vehicle
CO2 emissions from a liter of diesel = 2,690 grams
For five letters = 2,690*5= 13,450
Per year = 13,450*365 = 4,909 Kg
A typical tree can absorb around 21 kilograms of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year
Number of trees required for a vehicle consuming 5 L Diesel per day
4909/21 = 223
There is a limitation on ehanol blending with diesel. 1) It is not missible with diesel, and separates out if kept to itself. 2) A binding agent (like bio-diesel) is needed to get a shelf stable blend with ehanol. 3) More tham 40% blending is not workable. Ehanol part being 10%. As the combustion characteristics do not allow self-ignition (which is the characteristic of disel in an IC engine) limiting combustion. Even then researchers are seen to be working with blend of lesser % of Ehanol or Bio-diesel and may be synthetic additives (adding to the cost of fuel).
Please read my paper published in Applied Energy published in 2011.
Should anyone has a better solution, let me know.
Professor Satishchandra V Joshi
I intend to seek supervising professors and a university in Petroleum Engineering to do a PhD either in Canada, US, or the UK. But my undergrad studies was in geology with a minor in Petroleum technology, and my Masters thesis was basically geophysics and petroleum geology oriented. I want to know if I stand a chance of getting into a Petroleum engineering program for a PhD.
I want to quantify the amount of oil in the oil-water mixture using laboratory analysis.
Can you please suggest some suitable techniques for that?
I am trying the soxhlet method to determine the lipid content from food waste samples. I am using petroleum ether (100-120 degrees) as the solvent. However, I noticed that lots of protocols using lower boiling point petroleum ether. What is the difference and impact of the boiling point of petroleum ether on the lipid extraction? Can I reuse the petroleum ether from rotary evaporation?
Hazardous wastes are becoming potential threats for environment. In the other hand, construction is an industry that develops along with time. Therefore, suitable alternative mechanisms to use hazardous wastes in construction industry would extensively mitigate the environmental pollution through globe. I have referred the paper
3. Electronic wastes
4. Florescent tubes
6. Plastic shopping bags
I would like to get informed regarding my question mentioned above.
I have been convinced by the concept of direct desulfurization of crudes. The commercial development in this technology will help ridding off the require the of mutilpe reactors with different ranges of Catalytic beds in the modern petroleum refinery.
What's the best definition you've seen? I would like to use an existing government policy or national lab/academies report. Or, how could I improve these two draft definitions below?
To start, the US Energy Policy Act of 1992 still seems to be the authority on "alternative fuel." (Thank you EERE for making this list easy to find.)
Methanol, ethanol, and other alcohols
Blends of 85% or more of alcohol with gasoline
Natural gas and liquid fuels domestically produced from natural gas
Liquefied petroleum gas (propane)
Coal-derived liquid fuels
Fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (including pure biodiesel (B100))
My first stabs at "drop-in" and "non-drop-in." (Thank you CAAFI for getting me started.)
Drop-in Alternative Fuel:
An alternative fuel that is completely interchangeable and compatible with a particular conventional (typically petroleum-derived) fuel. A perfect drop-in fuel does not require adaptation of the fuel distribution network or the vehicle or equipment engine fuel systems, and can be used “as is” in vehicles and engines that currently operate on that particular fuel. Some alternative fuels may become “drop-in” only after blending with conventional fuel to a certain prescribed proportion.
Non-drop-in Alternative Fuel:
An alternative fuel that is not completely interchangeable and compatible with a particular conventional (typically petroleum-derived) fuel. A non-drop-in fuel requires adaptation of (or special treatment within) one or more components of the existing fuel distribution network or the current fleet of vehicle and equipment engine fuel systems. Some alternative fuels must be carefully segregated from conventional fuels, while others may be safely blended with conventional fuels. Some alternative fuels may remain “non-drop-in” even after blending with conventional fuel.
I am working on Sonogashira Cross-Coupling Reaction of Aryl Iodides with Ferrocenylethyne..i got a product from this reaction but it gets totally dissolve in petroleum ether....can anyone suggest to me that how can I purify it by column chromatography.
This material is a petroleum' s source rock , and the BET Correlation coefficient is : 0.9999310 and the T= 77K (-196.501°C) and the sample was well degassing over 21h. or I need to repeat the analysis?
As there is many bacteria's are already reported that are able to degrade petroleum oils. it is well-known fact that bacteria evolve with time and this change mainly depends on the environment in which they are growing for a long time. So I was wondering if we keep petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria away from petroleum hydrocarbons for a long time. then how will they respond ? is they will have still the capacity to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons.
In our different studies for petroleum fluid analysis, we always assume that petroleum reservoirs are isothermal. Do you agree with this assumption? And if not, what is the impact of this assumption on the different calculations related to fluid analysis and consequently reserves calculations?
I have extracted plant material first through petroleum ether then Chloroform then Ethyle acetate finaly with methanol in the methanolic extract crystal are form what it indicate what could we the compounds?
Hello researchers, May you help me with different published sources or otherwise on energy consumption data e.g. Oil/petroleum, electricity, and natural gas in sub-Saharan Africa from 1990 t0 2020.
Humans are the largest pest ever seen on Earth. How do we think (we must do something) after terrible mass extinctions, trilobites, dinosaurs(are we the next dinosaurs?) we are almost "to blame" when knowing the Earth's permanent recycling but still continue to use up resources (like buring the dead) or petrol or coal, it will one day end, it has been speeded up by humans, we think there has been life on Mars, we still say it is us, we use resources, (we may not replace them), the Earth life will end... But a meteorite could end with the dinosaurs life (or the trilobites)?
I am keen on working on the Ecological Capacity of Petroleum areas, therefore, I need to be familiar with environmental codes about this subject. I really appreciate your help.
I have coupled the proline methyl ester hydrochloride and hippuric acid and I want to recrystallize this product
I tried with ethyl acetate and petroleum ether but recrystallization does not work
if we know the other solvent or technique for this dipeptide recrystallization?
With coal mines still being planned and opened with 30-40 year lives, is coal seam gas (CSG) a real clean option or is it just as dirty as coal for our global power stations? Most CSG wells have lives of up to 15-25 years. When are we going to take other energy sources, such as solar and wind seriously? Can they be taken seriously as the petroleum industry buys shares into renewable energy sources and places them on the back burner until expensive lead in costs for coal and gas mines and wells can be recouped?
I am glad to find you well and healthy. I hope to provide me any references, notes, lectures, or links that can help me making a complete and perfect course about the "Basin and Petroleum System Analysis" and "PetroMod Software" to be used in undergraduate learning syllabus.
Assist. Prof. Rami M. Idan
Petroleum Geologist Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
Al-Karkh University of Sciences College of Remote Sensing and Geophysics
Hi, I am currently trying to extract the pesticides fluroxypyr and prothioconazole from the soil by spiking using Dutch Mini Luke extraction method; however, I am failing. The instrument used for analysis is HPLC-UV.
Here are the details of my extraction (document attached):
1. Extraction method: Dutch Mini Luke
2. Extraction solvent: Combination of four different solvents; 15 mL deionised water, 20 mL of acetone, 20 mL of petroleum ether, and 10 mL of dichloromethane
3. The extracts were dried down and reconstituted using mobile phase.
1. Instrument: HPLC-UV
2. Column: C18
3. Mobile phase: A: 5 mM ammonium formate in 0.05 formic acid (aq), B: 0.05% formic acid in acetonitrile
When ran standards alone, fluroxypyr and prothioconazole is detected. However, I am failing to detect both these analytes after extraction, even with multiple ranges of spiking concentration. I am afraid that these analytes are not extracted at all.
Please advise how I can improve or modify my extraction where I can successfully extract these analytes.
Is it possible to switch major from petroleum engineering to civil engineering? Specially related to basic concrete technology, concrete releted products and materials?
Restructuring of complex pore-network and the evolution of reservoir porosity as a function of space and time (to be used in mass conservation equation): Requires the history of reservoir compaction?
If the degree of compaction is neither related to porosity loss nor to the increase in density, then, can’t we apply Athy’s compaction model (which demonstrates the exponential porosity reduction from 50 to 5% over a depth of 2 – 2.5 km from the surface) to characterize the porosity associated with a carbonate reservoir (with dominant cementation, dissolution, pressure-solution, recrystallization & grain-replacement than the siliciclastic deposits)?
Can the linear relation between porosity reduction (with its respective increase in density) and the increased over-burden and tectonic stresses (using Athy’s Model) be applied confidently to characterize a typical oil/gas reservoir?
Whether the compaction associated with a typical petroleum reservoir could result solely from ‘chemical readjustment’ (under any circumstances); or will it always include the reservoir porosity that has resulted from recrystallization of solid grains as well?
If yes, will it be feasible to explicitly measure the enhancement in the rigidity of the solid-grain structure (resulting from the alteration of mechanically deformed clays into shales) to characterize the reservoir porosity?
Note: Approximation is always possible for a normally consolidated sediments of uniform lithology.
In hot mix recycling, "organic rejuvenators" require lower dosages than "petroleum rejuvenators" to decrease the Performance Grade temperature (PG Temp.) of the hot recycled blend.
Darcy’s-Law; Macroscopic-scale; Experimental parameters measured at a scale that is lesser than macroscopic-scale:
When we characterize a petroleum reservoir with the Darcian approach,
it essentially implies that we are going to replace
the actual ensemble of sand-grains/clay, shale, silt-particles/rock-fragments
that make up the petroleum reservoir by a representative continuum,
we can define macroscopic parameters, such as the reservoir-permeability, and
utilize macroscopic-laws, such as Darcy’s law
in order to provide
the macroscopically averaged descriptions of the microscopic behavior.
If so, can we consider any (laboratory based) parameter
that is measured
at a scale lesser than the macroscopic-scale,
when the reservoir is characterized
using Darcian approach?
MEAN (Ave) – SD (Sigma) – Reservoir Heterogeneity:
Given the fact that the probability density function for permeability remains log-normal, leaving aside arithmetic-mean, can a simple geometric-mean or harmonic-mean be used - in order to deduce - the mean value of permeability, while characterizing a heterogeneous petroleum reservoir?
If yes, what will be the value of permeability "at the interface" between two different beds/layers with significantly differing permeability?
If no, should we need to consider the ranges of standard-deviation as well, apart from considering the mean-value of reservoir-permeability, while characterizing the degree of reservoir heterogeneity?
Does a Fund (e.g., a social security Fund, Petroleum Fund etcetera.) include its investments; e.g., property or securities if money from such Fund was used to make such investments? In other words, can such property be attached/subject to execution or is it considered as part of the Fund?
Lessons from all jurisdictions are welcome.
Mean Value of Reservoir Permeability:
How exactly to deduce the average-permeability of a petroleum reservoir with
(a) layered heterogeneity (a vertical cross section having multiple individual beds making up the reservoir formation, each having a homogeneous permeability value of k1, k2, k3, k4, etc.)
(b) discontinuous heterogeneity (caused by the presence of faults and/or large-scale stratigraphic features)?
Mobility of Pore Fluids with Reservoir Deformation:
Does the restructuring of complex reservoir pore-geometry take place during/following the transportation of water, oil & gas towards the production well OR the transportation of these pore-fluids results from the restructuring of the pore-geometry – upon hydrocarbon production? In short, among ‘reservoir-deformation’ and ‘mobility of pore-fluids’, which induces the other?
On a general note, how long will it take for a significant restructuring of the pore-geometry (deformation) to occur in a typical petroleum reservoir?
Will ‘the time period associated with the deformation of reservoir pore geometry’ be comparable with that of ‘the time period required for the migration of water, oil & gas’?
Leaky Petroleum Reservoirs:
Are the confining beds (top & bottom) of a petroleum reservoir are completely impermeable with extremely low-permeability?
Are the vertical flow components remain ‘always’ negligible?
If the confining beds ‘leak’ the fluids ‘either from’ or ‘to the’ reservoir, how exactly the transient radial fluid flow equation would get influenced?
Will it be feasible – in a real field scenario – to distinguish between (a) capture/loss of brine into/from the reservoir; and (b) capture/loss of hydrocarbon fluids into/from the reservoir – resulting from ‘leak’?
Whether the additional data on (a) ‘vertical permeability’ of the reservoir; (b) permeabilities of top & bottom confining units – would suffice – to address the leakance of the confined petroleum reservoir? Or Do we still require more data?
How exactly to distinguish the ‘leakage of fluids into a petroleum reservoir’ from that of ‘production of pore-fluids from a petroleum reservoir resulting from storage effect’?
Pseudo-Steady fluid flow through an oil reservoir: Feasible under special circumstances?
When multi-phase fluid (water, oil and gas) is flowing out of an under-saturated oil reservoir – towards the production well - by primary recovery; and if assume that the same amount of outgoing fluid flux is replaced by an incoming single-phase water-influx from surrounding aquifers that enters the reservoir, in the same time, whether the fluid flow through this petroleum reservoir can be assumed to be flowing under steady-state conditions 'hypothetically'?
Along the spatial length of reservoir between the production-well and the drainage radius, if we hit a point randomly in space, whether the fluid flow can remain as a constant with time – under any given special circumstances (so that the problem can be assumed to be under “simplified” steady-state conditions)?
Will it be feasible - to trace - the path of water, oil and gas particles - as it moves through the reservoir – towards the production well (at the pore-scale)?
During this process, will the instantaneous velocity of the respective water, oil and gas particle’s velocity will remain tangent to the streamline?
Also, will it be feasible to capture the number of streamlines passing through the cross sectional area of the reservoir (per unit area) in a direction – normal to the direction of fluid flow, so that the rate of flow of water, oil and gas can be deduced separately?
I am currently pursuing an MSc in Petroleum Production Engineering. I am required to come up with a Project title and subsequently submit a proposal. As such I would like to make use of this forum by inquiring from experts on a suitable project title based on challenges in the Industry in the area of Production Engineering.
I have the daily biogas generation data for one year. From this data how to convert the GHG mitigation potentials of Biogas compared to other sources of energy like petrol, diesel, electricity etc. in terms of their particular energy conversion values for CO2 emission.
I have prepared plant extract of 0.1 mg in 1ml of petroleum ether..(stock solution)
Now I want to do antibiotic susceptibility test in different concentrations around ( 25-100 microlitre)..if I take 25 microlitre from stock what will be the concentration ? Or shall I prepare different concentrations like 25;50;75;100 ?
I am a Petroleum Production Engg MSc student at Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen and I am in the process of selecting a topic for my MSc Engineering Investigation proposal.
I would very much appreciate suggestions of good topics and areas of research relevant to my field.
Hello, im doing my thesis in my petroleum engineering program and i want to do my thesis on carbon capture, i have a lot of research on the process done but not sure the argument direction to go in. i need help with the topic for example "should carbon capture be mandatory by government to reduce pollution"
What is the disadvantages of high sulfur content to the ceramic burning process? and what is the effect of outranged viscosity?
Several air cycles like Otto, Diesel Brayton etc. have been developed earlier. Otto cycle has application to petrol/ gas engines, Diesel cycle has application to diesel engine. Brayton cycle has application to gas turbine etc. Like wise where Ericsson cycle is used?
EV are becoming superior day by day, but most of the vehicles are not sustainable enough to meet the needs and performance.
Hydrogen vehicles on the other hand are on the much costlier side.
What could be the possible replacements for them?
I'm currently setting up GCxGC and developing methods for quantitative petroleum analysis using a Thermo Trace 1310 GC with an FID detector. Does anyone have suggestions regarding methods (column type, temperature settings, etc), or equipment?
Should I get a thermal or flow modulator (and from which company)? I'd like to avoid liquid nitrogen (for safety reasons) if possible.
Is a secondary/auxillary oven needed?
Helium is quite expensive, so have you found nitrogen to be a successful carrier gas?
What software have you found to be most useful?
I wanted suggestions for already published research articles that can illustrate a complete Petroleum Production System which shows in detail a single diagram or list out multiple diagrams that can show the individual subsurface, well head, Christmas tree, pipeline and separators.
I am submitting an example illustration of a petroleum production and was hoping to find some more detailed ones.
Urgently waiting for suggestions.
What is diversification and how do petroleum companies use it as a means to reduce commercial risk? What pitfalls are associated with this practice?
"Synthetic resins of low molecular weight produced by polymerization of mixtures of unsaturated compounds (primarily indene and coumarone), which have been extracted from the by-products of coal coking (crude benzene) and from the aromatic high-boiling products of petroleum pyrolysis. Fractions containing about 30 percent indene, 15 percent coumarone, and 5 percent styrene are used in the manufacture of coumarone-indene resins. The monomer mixture is polymerized in the presence of boron fluoride, aluminum chloride, or sulfuric acid. Various types of coumaroneindene resins are produced, ranging in color from bright yellow to dark brown and with a melting point between 60° and 140°C.
Most coumarone–indene, petroleum, and polyterpene resins are produced by carbocationic polymerization using Lewis acid catalysis."
I need the reaction steps of indene and coumarone through cationic polymerization but I can not find it.
It's known a large amount of wastewater is generated as a by-product during petroleum production. Also, wastewater can be obtained during drilling. All of these may contain trace elements and harmful elements that are harmful to the environment as well as human health. I want to treat them very cheaply but effectively. For that, which measures should I need?
I am using a gas chromatograph to determine the composition of the petroleum fraction, is there a possibility to do an analysis of water contaminated with alkane rich hydrocarbons?
Hi, I am looking to test the effectiveness of pesticide residues extraction from the soil sample using the Dutch mini luke extraction method. The extraction method would involve the mixing of three different solvents; 20 mL of acetone, 20 mL of petroleum ether, and 10 mL of dichloromethane.
As I am currently carrying out the method validation of this method, I would need to calculate the spiking concentrations to get exactly the concentration that I am aiming for. For me to do it correctly, I presume I would need to know which solvent (acetone/petroleum ether/dichloromethane) would be the top layer, hence the layer that has all the extracted pesticides.
My question is, with the mixing of three solvents, which solvent would be the top layer? Thank you.
As we all know that new trend towards the use of electric cars are encouraged by many government policies, banning on the use of petrol or diesel cars are on the way of planning for some countries. The question is how the electric cars would impact on our environments? For example, how could we dispose the used batteries?
Although there is another advanced type of cars-hydrogen fuel cars on its frontier for R&D at moment, it claims to be environment friendly. It seems that it is still long way to go.
However, It would be interesting to know how the electric cars could play in our future lives, especially environmental impact? Thanks in advance for answering the question!
Hi everyone, I would like to find some documents that summarize the methods of removing impurities (sulfur, nitrogen, metals, ...) in petroleum products (products of fractional distillation of crude oil) such as HDS, HDN, caustic scrubber, sulfuric acid scrubber... for my essay. But the documents I found did not present the above methods as a common item, so it was difficult for me to find the document because of the breadth of the methods. Can you recommend to me some related documents?
Thanks for your help!
Rock Quality Designation (RQD) index has been used for over 20 years as an index of rock quality. It measures the percentage of good” rock within a borehole. How can petroleum Engineer use this concept in petroleum exploration and development in reservoirs study.