Science topic

Performance Tests in Sports - Science topic

Performance tests that ae used in Sport and Exercise Science
Questions related to Performance Tests in Sports
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I have designed some tests to measure the coordinative abilities for the soccer juniores 10-12 years old, and I need to know your opinion about them
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U can send me a file in english my email: parvez.shamim@gmail.com
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I need a protocol for testing the arm speed...
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Assessing technical efficiency in motor (or sport) skills require a validation process. From past experiences (and research methods perspective), the first step is validation of an instrument for assessment of such techniques. Some further explanations with examples for such procedures are well described in: Morrow, J. R. (2011). Measurement and evaluation in human performance. Human Kinetics. Chapters 6,7, and 11 will be of a valuable contribution to conduct your project. 
1) First, an expert committee should help you to identify each criteria for a successful spike serve (content validity). Then you construct a checklist of theses criteria with scoring regarding the level of attainment for each criteria (e.g. 5 point). 
2) Proceed to assessment of spike serves with a pilot sample (10-30 participants). Raters have to assess an efficiency score on each of the specified criteria (in step 1). By involving two (or more)  raters, you will be able to calculate the Inter rater reliability. 
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I cannot find an actually questionnaire to use to administer testing for my dissertation!!
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Hi,
I found some papers that I think can help you. Look, inside these papers, there are some questionnaires, specific or no. So, you should find many possibilities to produce a questionnaire.
I hope this helps.
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This question relates to the theme of my research project. We will test three conditions (AX-CPT, motor imagery and control task), and then perform a type of exercise time trials on Wattbike.
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Thanks !
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I am looking to use a questionnaire to evaluate muscle fatigue/exhaustion in healthy human subjects immediately after exercise. I am interested in collecting subjective post-exercise data. I would appreciate any suggestions.
Thanks.
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I am unaware of any questionnaire/scale/rating that has been demonstrated to be reliable and valid for the assessment of  muscle fatigue. Muscle fatigue is formally defined as a "reduction in strength or a failure to maintain force output". To demonstrate a valid instrument, one would have compare questionnaire/scale/rating values against simultaneously-measured strength values. I am unaware that anyone has done this, probably because there are many physiological mechanisms for muscle fatigue and it is unlikely that one single psychosocial measure could encompass the effects of all these fatigue mechanisms.
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This is for a research proposal.
Can I use the standard error of measurement of the VO2MAX test itself?
Inclusion criteria for participants is VO2MAX of 40-50ml/min/kg.
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Technically, the SD should be that of the change score (i.e., post VO2max - pre VO2max) determined in a pilot study using the supplement. This pilot study should be conducted by the researcher planning the RCT and should use the same methodology as planned for the RCT. However, no one ever does this and is why sample size calculations are generally bogus (i.e., accuracy of +/- 200%).
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Long time ago it is attributed to the accumulation of lactate as the sole factor that caused the onset of fatigue, until it was found that lactate wasn't unique of the causes, but appeared factors such as falling reserves of phosphocreatine, electrolyte imbalance, metabolite accumulation... This is why I want to know if now the inorganic phosphate could be the one actually has a greater influence on the onset of fatigue, than they can have the rest of the factors indicated.
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Hello Angel,
As you obviously know, muscle contraction / force / work production, especially in situ, is a complex process and hence fatigue can be due to several factors and dependent on how measured, temperature, isometric, isotonic etc.
Thus, as a start, it would be worth giving some serious thinking. As I recall, in our paper Roots et al 2009 in J Appl Physiol we considered accumulation of Pi as a possibility.
Hope this comment is useful,
KW
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I want to measure the PA by the short IPAQ.
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Dear Farid,
I send you the "Guidelines for Data Processing and Analysis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) – Short and Long Forms" and here you can find the "Downloadable questionnaires" in different languages: https://sites.google.com/site/theipaq/questionnaire_links.
Best wishes from Germany
Martin
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I am planning to get water polo throwing velocity by capturing video from their shooting process with the camera
any article suggestion, how should be my procedure?
what type of camera do I need ?
how can I find out the speed from the video?
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For calculation of speed from video taken by standard video camera will not be helpful. The throw of ball will take less than 3 sec. Standard video camera record at 30 fps and you get a low resolution. It is best to get a high speed video camera that can capture at a speed more than 200 fps. You have to calibrate the camera lens and the field of view. Try reading Theoretical foundation at http://www.kwon3d.com/theories.html
Good luck. 
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I have looked at ACSM, however, they do not provide norms for individuals below 20 yrs old, nor do they have values for athletes. Any suggestions of where I could find recent documented norms?
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Dear Jessica : It's difficult to find standard values of VO2 maximum in every sport. The VO2 maximun depend of race, age, sex, weight, height, sport and mode. I sent you one table with values of VO2 máximum in several sports, I obtained from one book of Exercise physiology (González Gallego et al, MacGraw Hill).  Other table exit in the book titled "The Olympic book of Sport Medicine" (of International Olympic Committee), the values are similares but this book is more old.
My best regards,
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I need urgently of the publications about this subject. So, I need to find the possibles differences among the subjects during two different conditions (single vs dual-task). The first task is a precision kicking soccer task and the second task is an auditory task. The purpose of this research is to verify the muscle activation and the EMG (electromyographic signal) behavior in each condition.
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I hope these articles could help.
Reaction time is more studied than EMG in athletes population in dual-task like yours. For EMG, you can found some data in posture/walk and talk literature.
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In most cases the athletes tend to retire early than expected, hence taking a longer time to adjust to career transition after retirement.
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Dear Eric,
Bone mineral density was shown to be a good predictor of physical performance. Maybe you can use the following Information…
Bennell KL, Malcolm SA, Khan KM, Thomas SA, Reid SJ, Brukner PD, Ebeling PR, Wark JD. Bone mass and bone turnover in power athletes, endurance athletes, and controls: a 12-month longitudinal study. Bone. 1997;20(5):477-84. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/14073704_Bone_mass_and_bone_turnover_in_power_athletes_endurance_athletes_and_controls_A_12-month_longitudinal_study
Zieliński J, et al. Changes in physical activity of elite track and field athletes in selected age categories. STUDIES IN PHYSICAL CULTURE AND TOURISM 2006;6(Supplement):185-87. http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/Content/61393/Zielinski_REV.pdf
Dregelid B. The association between physical fitness, body composition and bone mineral density among female athletes. Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Master’s Thesis); Trondheim 2013. http://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/271546/640831_FULLTEXT01.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Lemez S, Baker J. Do elite athletes live longer? A systematic review of mortality and longevity in elite athletes. Sports Med Open. 2015;1(1):16. http://www.sportsmedicine-open.com/content/pdf/s40798-015-0024-x.pdf
Best wishes from Germany
Martin
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can anyone provide a source related to the full description of 12-15 bench and leg press?
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Dear Afika,
maybe you can use the following information…
Ramsay JA, Blimkie CJ, Smith K, Garner S, MacDougall JD, Sale DG. Strength training effects in prepubescent boys. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990;22(5):605-14. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/20923261_Strength_training_effects_in_prepubescent_boys
Seo DI, Kim E, Fahs CA, Rossow L, Young K, Ferguson SL, Thiebaud R, Sherk VD, Loenneke JP, Kim D, Lee MK, Choi KH, Bemben DA, Bemben MG, So WY. Reliability of the one-repetition maximum test based on muscle group and gender. J Sports Sci Med. 2012 Jun 1;11(2):221-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3737872/pdf/jssm-11-221.pdf
Aarskog R, Wisnes A, Wilhelmsen K, Skogen A, Bjordal JM. Comparison of two resistance training protocols, 6RM versus 12RM, to increase the 1RM in healthy young adults. A single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Physiother Res Int. 2012 Sep;17(3):179-86. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51858388_Comparison_of_Two_Resistance_Training_Protocols_6RM_versus_12RM_to_Increase_the_1RM_in_Healthy_Young_Adults._A_Single-Blind_Randomized_Controlled_Trial
Benton MJ, Raab S, Waggener GT. Effect of training status on reliability of one repetition maximum testing in women. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(7):1885-90. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232087145_Effect_of_Training_Status_on_Reliability_of_1RM_Testing_in_Women
Christou M, Smilios I, Sotiropoulos K, Volaklis K, Pilianidis T, Tokmakidis SP. Effects of resistance training on the physical capacities of adolescent soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(4):783-91. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ilias_Smilios/publication/6606889_Effects_of_resistance_training_on_the_physical_capacities_of_adolescent_soccer_players/links/0deec5308bc0500df2000000.pdf
Hoff J, Helgerud J. Endurance and strength training for soccer players: physiological considerations. Sports Med. 2004;34(3):165-80. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/8683409_Endurance_and_strength_training_for_soccer_players_Physiological_considerations
Silva JR, Nassis GP, Rebelo A. Strength training in soccer with a specific focus on highly trained players. Sports Med Open. 2015;1(1):1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4532720/pdf/40798_2015_Article_6.pdf
Best wishes from Germany
Martin
Any suggestions for studies in swimming in terms of using drills for improving technique and efficiency?
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- studies used what kind of drills? - parameters measured?
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I ask about the convenient test to evaluate the leg power in sports, and the relationship between horizontal, vertical jump and leg power.
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The horizontal system in terms of power sharing is equal. Two joined company are able to maximize the resources on an equal level. However, Vertical system is mostly controlled by one party on the top.
If you're interested which system works based on your organization, and learn more cases in the marketing system. You can check out Career Academy. We use them for our office managers' training Project Management (Project Management, Business Skills, IT & CyberSec Online Certification Training)
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Many studies have investigated different soccer small-sided games formats in order to find the effect of rule changes in tactical, technical, physical and physiological performances. In almost every protocol, warm-up activities are proposed, i.e. sprints, running, ball contacts and other. However, I couldn't find any reference to this choice. What is possible to speculate about the influence of the warm-up and the warm-up settings in soccer small-sided games?
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During the warm-up the players gradually works towards a peak. In last last phase they will prepare their muscles for maximum explosive football actions. Exercises to be considered here are a simple form of acc runs and sprints, whether or not in combination with a competition element. This increases the muscle tone (pre-loading), which will have a positive effect on players maximimum explosiveness. Of  course, this type of exercise must be performed in underload, so that the muscles do not become tired or dmged unnecessarily during the w-up. An intensive w-up (relatively high intensity, smaller volume and high tempo) will help players prepare their body for this peak of performance.
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Writing a paper looking at the acute differences between performing repeated sprint training on sand vs grass.
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I would like to have confirmation of this reasoning on the strength-strength: two subjects (trained and sedentary) compared performance and perceived fatigue at the same strength-endurance test. Intensity of constant work putting up 20 kg (for example). Obviously the sedentary sells first! while the athlete can continue again.
You can say that if the sedentary requires the recruitment of type II fibres (best effort), the athlete, the same load (20 kg) just the recruitment of his own type I fibers?
Thank you very much for your answers and reference searches
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Dear Andréa,
from a biomenical point of view ST and FT are not different if you consider the MVC for the same Cross Sectional Aréa (but the FT has a bigger CSA).
But if you investigate the force-velocity relation or the tension-extension relation or the Force Rate Development there are differences in the strength or the stiffness (see several article of mine specialy Halin et al. 2002 and 2003).
From an activation point of view, the low diameter fiber is generaly recruted before the larger one (in consequence the Slow fibers before the fast fibers).
At last the relation between the %MVC and the occlusion induced, is in relation with the fatigabilty.
From a climber point of view the fibers with the MHC IIa have a large CSA (so MVC). The endurance will be better, the occlusion will appear later and the anaerobiose is better.
Sincerly yours
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I'm looking for research papers on cryotherapy and CWI pre exercise in normal environmental condition in relationship with muscle soreness and DOMS
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Dear Russell;
There is some literature on the use of CWI & cryotherapy before and after exercise. These recent reviews may be of interest.
Regards,
Joe
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Most data regarding sports accidents emanate from hospitals and rescuers. In France, it is somewhat difficult to get precise information as to these accidents. I would be interested in international data in order to compare the situation in France and in other countries...
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We are doing some research on prevalence of injuries among players Chhattisgarh, India.
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Hi
Does anyone know of any studies published in sports related journals that have used the Post Hoc Test -Fisher Least Significant Difference ?
Ian 
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We have used the Fisher Test in several studies. The Fisher LSD is closest to a modified t-test within an ANOVA design, as it uses a pooled error term rather than an error term calculated from the two sets of data in the comparison.
To use the Fisher Test, you should first test the omnibus F-test (therefore the Fisher test is conditional on a significant omnibus test). The assumption then is that there is likely to be at least one significant comparison within the overall design - but also that you will run only a small number of uncontrolled a priori planned comparisons (so as such, it is not a "post hoc" test). Much emphasis is placed on Type I error rate as if this were the biggest sin in statistics, but many statisticians such as Keppel point out that in many situations, a Type II error is just as bad, or worse. Just as p = .05 is rather arbitrary, so is the idea that one must obsessively control for multiple comparisons (especially when one is making only a limited number of them).
Of course, the key is planning your analyses, rather than seeing what you have and choosing the analysis plan that gives you the results you desire. And interpreting the results according to the level of control you have placed on making potential Type I errors.
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Test parameters 
Neuro-physiological profile for the college football player
Division I II and III profiles by position
Metabolic load 
Football game demands 
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The National Strength and Conditioning Association, in their journal - Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research has published a number of papers that may be useful to you. If you enter the terms Football NCAA, there are at least 20 references over the past 21 years. Their journal, Strength and Conditioning Journal, has over 500 papers referencing football and various aspects of strength and conditioning. Given your question, it would be advisable for you to seek membership in the NSCA, because it will be the most helpful in your study of these aspects of football 
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I want to evaluate the effects of training in a specific shot.
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You could measure self-efficacy in relation to the tennis skill (self-efficacy is task-specific confidence). The below might be useful:
Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 307–337). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
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Basically, I want to calculate the normal dynamic Strength without resistance and then with resistance underwater.
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First, there is no such thing as "submaximal strength". Strength is always measured during a "maximal" effort. Second, your question is not clear. It seems like you are interested in determining the torque/force needed to move the limb through its range of motion either in or out of water. The drag due to movement of fluid (i.e., water) past the limb will depend on the velocity of the limb's movement and in particular whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. I do not think there is a simple formula to calculate this. I think it would be easier and more accurate to just measure it.
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There are some artifacts in my raw emg data when participant was performing vertical jump. I used the wireless sEMG sensors to collect data. I want to do RMS analyze. So before I do RMS analyze I need to remove these artifacts from raw emg data. There is raw emg data in the atttachment. Should I try to some filters to remove these artifacts? Could you suggest me any other solution?
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It's *possible* that a PCA component would load heavily on that segment of your signal and you could then remove that component of you signal from future analysis.
If you are not already pretty familiar with PCA, I'm not sure this should be your first option. Learning what to do and what it means can be time consuming.
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Patient is K3 and enjoys hiking and working out. His goals are that he would like to be able to squat at the gym and have greater stability on uneven ground when hiking. When he tries to squat his prosthetic foot lifts up and he would like it to stay level with the floor.
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The best one I have found for my patients with a symes amp is the flex symes prosthesis from Ossur.  Here is the info:
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I'm looking for any information about phisical activity (which type of sport or PA) and the procedure to test the physical capacity (aerobic, anaerobic, strenght, balance, flexibility, etc...) in this group.
Our team already follow different typology of cognitive disability (Down Syndrome and so on), but we never follow autistic person.
In order to start any project I'm asking for previous experience or study about PA (physical activity), sports and testing in this syndrome..
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There are quite a few studies which have explored the dimension of physical activity in autism spectrum disorders. There are studies that have explored the differences in physical activity of children with ASD and the typically developed. A few studies have explored the concept of physical activity in terms of intervention. I have attached a few links that may help.
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Hi,
Did you notice that when you test your athletes on the treadmill  (during season few times) they try to remember previous result ( time or speed of treadmill when they stopped)??
What my point is that when I want to re - test and examine if their time - to exhaustion increased - my athletes have motivation to continue running until they beat their previous results but this is strictly mental/psycho ability(not because of training effects or acute supplementation e.g. some pre - workout).
Should I cover the treadmill screen to not show them what speed and time of exercise they reached and then re - test them after training period? 
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you can perform time limit test
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I want to know the suitable recovery duration when I use the interval training method for improving the speed or special endurance abilities which depend on anaerobic system of energy?
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The recovery between sets should be longer than between repetitions. A set of repetitions are to targetted to be at a certain intensity. There will be times when that intensity can not be maintained unless the recovery between the sets in allowed.
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Helo,
I would like to buy portable, hand-held urine analyer - especially to have good values of urine osmolality, gravity (hydration status) of the sport athletes
Any recommendation or advice? Some good analyzrs which are enable to publish in peer- reviewed journals
thanks
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Dear Amit,
What do you wish to do with? Patrick.
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This equipment measures in VMU. But there are others that measure in counts. I want to know if there is a formular for transforming VMU in counts.
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look for relevant software instead of manual calculation
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I would like to acquire a wereable metabolic system to use with a MoCap system in sports studies (jumping, running in a treadmill) and in human movment analysis studies (gait in a walkway, stairs...)
What is your experience and the best option with the next equipments? What is the advantage/disadvantage of each one?
-Cosmed K4b2
-Cosmed K5
-Cortex Metamax 3B
-Other system?
Thanks,
Best,
Jose Heredia-Jimenez
University of Granada. Spain
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Cosmed system like k4b2 have some problems with connection and HR data collection. It use older version of HR belt (plastic one). You need to replace O2 sensor it's about 1000euro+ service. The same situation is in Cortex system but there You could replace the sensor by your selw. In both systems You need to replace nafion/permapure lines. I observed that it schould be done every 2-3 tests when they are done continously. Cosmed recommend to replace the sampling line every 100 tests. During the test with low external temperature (lower than 10C) I observed some problems with O2 sensor temperature so I need to cover k4 with DIY bag.
In my opinion both systems are fine, there are some technical differences like:
calibration: Cosmed use large tank, some problems with transport but you might do calibration more frequently. I rather recommend to do it before each test as the response time and pressures change after the test or when you change sampling line.
O2 sensor lifetime and cost
Now there is new Cosmd k5 but I heard that there are quite big differences when it work on breath by breath mode or micro mixing chamber. So there might be some accuracy problems. Also there is new software system Omnia 1.6, which is different than the older one Suite 10d and more friendly. I use it with the Cosmed Quark CPET stationary system. Big minus of this system is that it lost sometimes connection and then test is gone compleatly.... There is no way to reconnect. In portable devices there is internal memory so it's OK.
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Can someone help me to find 10 RM testing protocols for basketball and Netball female players?especially, back squat and bench press?
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Following
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I'm struggling to find normative data that is specific to elite cricket players, does anyone have knowledge of past papers I could utilise?
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Hi Glyn.
I think the right keywords for searching cricket is the key. I think you should also try to search with the keyword bowling. Some time ago I was searching some data and I found quite some papers on the field of cricket.
I hope this will help you (I also attached some papers that I have on this topic).
Kind regards, Jožef
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Does anyone know of an agillty test which can be use for the Irish sport of handball, a sport similiar to squash?
Irish sport of handball, squash specific agility test, badminton specific agility test
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Dear Reilly,
See the following papers maybe help you.
Wira Yudha Kusuma, D. (2015). Introducing a New Agility Test in Badminton. American Journal of Sports Science, 3(1), 18. doi: 10.11648/j.ajss.20150301.14
Köklü, Y., Alemdaroğlu, U., Özkan, A., Koz, M., & Ersöz, G. (2015). The relationship between sprint ability, agility and vertical jump performance in young soccer players. Science & Sports, 30(1), e1-e5. doi: 10.1016/j.scispo.2013.04.006
Haj-Sassi, R., Dardouri, W., Gharbi, Z., Chaouachi, A., Mansour, H., Rabhi, A., & Mahfoudhi, M. E. (2011). Reliability and validity of a new repeated agility test as a measure of anaerobic and explosive power. J Strength Cond Res, 25(2), 472-480. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182018186
Regards, 
Abdel-Rahman
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I am looking for un-published, grey (theses, conference papers) and in-press data comparing ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) to one of the following criterion measures, during resistance exercise (dynamic, eccentric and Isometric included): Workload, Heart Rate, Blood pressure, Blood lactate or EMG. 
This data is required for a meta-analysis looking at the validity of RPE as a measure of resistance exercise intensity.
You do not need to have completed statistical analysis comparing or correlated RPE to the criterion measure; If you have collected data for RPE and one of the criterion measures, I will just need sample sizes, means and SD's for each group/variable.
If you would be willing to share this data with me please let me know.
Regards
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I don't have that particular data, but in case you haven't seen it, here is an article that recently applied repetitions-in-reserve as a resistance exercise-specific RPE scale: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26049792 
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Tennis is a sport where athletes generate alot of explosive movements with the dominant side of their bodies so i would like to know a way to calculate how much difference of strenght exists between both sides of their body. 
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hi
you can also use Isokinetic  instruments  like biodex and ..... I sent for you a  article  
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Is it possible to measure the Ground contact time while jumping with the gopro cam with 240 fps ?
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I'm pretty sure it is possible.
I used the program 'meausre dynamics'. You just need to mark the first and the last frame, where the contact is visible. Then you can calculate the time that has passed in between the difference of those pictures. Have a look at the file (in german), but there are some picutres an calculations that might help.
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In the litterature can be found percentage and average values.
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Dear Nebojsa,
I hope I understood correctly the topic, otherwise please excuse my intervention and forget about it.
I'd differ ball possession from contact basing on a quality parameter of the touch. If you get in contact with the ball it's not given you're possessing it, as it could be an interception, deviation, odd control, and so on. So in my humble opinion, on a mathematical point of view, as a first approach, I'd speak about effective posession of the ball when the mean speed of the ball (in a limited amount of time, when the ball is close to the player) is almost equal to the speed (and direction) of the man carring it.
For first touch pass I would put a yes/no control based on the success of the pass (yes: direction, speed of pass, height, [...] are correct. No: the other cases; this for avoiding that reception mistakes false the count). If the answer is no, I'd stop talking about posession in the exact moment when the ball leaves the foot of the passer.
kind regards,
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Does anybody know if there are good studies existing concerning the impact of temperature in sports halls on sportsperformance?
specifically in squash courts would interest me
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Dear Patrick,
You should have a look as well on the heat shocks protein knows as HSP70.
here is an exemple between others  : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10950444
Regards
Walter
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Hi everyone, does anyone know where to find normative data according to the 'T'-Drill-Test (Agility) for tennis players? Thanks a lot!
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dear Stefanie Wilmsmann 
this research will help you
Pauole K (2000). Reliability and validity of the T-test as a
measure of agility, leg power, and leg speed in college-aged men and women. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: 14 (4), 443-450.
and visit next site
best regards hamdy
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What is the most reliable equation to estimate 1RM bench press from 3RM bench press?
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Generally, 3-RM is 91-93% of 1-RM.
Baechle, T.R., Earle, R.W. and Wathan, D. (2008) Resistance Training. In: Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. Ed: Baechle, T. R., Earle, R. W 3rd edition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
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It is well known that in rigid body, there are 2 ways to representing rotations in 3D: Euler and Quaternion. Empirically, has been noted that both methods have advantages (In Euler there's not redundancy and Quaternions there are stable interpolations of possible rotations) and disadvantages (In Euler exists the gimbal lock singularity and Quaternions there are redundancy by using 4 values to represent the DOF or degrees of freedom). Nevertheless, i've not found a technical and measurement report about when is recommended use Quaternions vs Euler representation, e.g. (recording a complex sport gesture, or recording a simple movement gesture). Even, in the ISB (international society of biomechanics) recommendations on definitions of joint coordinate system of joints for human analysis, there's no given an explanation of using an Euler representation in human motion.
Thanks
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I'm using quaternions, but it does not help in answering your question. So, please, let me intriduce you with Dr. Chris Kirtley who asked the very same question than yours 15 years ago (http://biomch-l.isbweb.org/threads/11415-Summary-Quaternions-vs-Euler-angles). He said : "I guess it's time I summarized the great quaternion debate. To remind you, I asked why quaternions (otherwise known as Euler parameters) seem to be used as the standard method for representaing motion in computer animation and video games, but are not so often used in biomechanics. It seems that, whilst quaternions have advantages in terms of lack of gymbal lock, and insensitivity to round-off errors, they suffer from problems of interpretation in terms of meaningfully clinical or anatomical angles. As Joe Sommer and Bruce MacWilliams suggest, the best compromise is perhaps to use quaternions for intermediate calculations, then convert to Euler angles at the end." I do share their advice; using quaternions for math, and convert to Euler at the end to help our 3D-limited brain.
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I have read papers (especially by Asker Jeukendrup) suggesting that FatMax occurs around 63% Vo2peak in trained athletes during cycling.
However, what is the general figure for active but not trained athletes?
Is there a protocol for identifying FatMax in active participants and are longer stages better during continuos incremental exercise tests?
Should I be using Wmax or VO2peak?
Any answers to these questions would be much appreciated.
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Hello, 
Depending on the parameter taking into account (VO2, heart rate, expressed as absolute value or as a percentage of maximal value), Crossover point and LIPOXmax are relatively related to ventilatory threshold (Michallet et al. Diabetes Metab 2008 ; Gmada et al. sic Sports 2013 ; Borel et al. MSSE 2015), .
Two of the best indices for fat oxidation rate are LIPOXmax and COP (crossover point). These two metabolic concepts can be theoretically determined based on an incremental exercise and then after, you have to perform a second test (sub maximal test this time) with four stages of 6 min at 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% of peak power output determined with the first incremental exercise, with a warm-up period at 20%. Then, based on CHO oxidation rate and lipid oxidation rate formulas which need VO2 and VCO2 during the different stages, you can then determine the time course of lipid oxidation rate and determine the maximal rate. 
You can find more information about this specific exercise protocol : Dumortier et al. Diabetes Metab 2003 and Dumortier et al. Int J Obes (London) 2005. 
This is some elements I can provide you on the questions you raise up. 
Best regards
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Some proposals but none evidence
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Return to play decissions?
Mendiguchia J, Brughelli M. A return to sport algorithm for acute hamstring injuries. Phys Ther Sport. 12(1). 2-14. 2011.
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Many authors designed protocols trying to assess the tactical aspect of a soccer player taking into account situations and play schemes in small towns. Is there any protocol or standard design developed?
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I suggest you the FUT-SAT protocol (see atached file)
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Many new tactical metrics as centroid position, stretch index or surface area not provides pratical applications to coaches in a easy and specific way...thus, how can I design new tactical metrics to provide relevant information to coaches through automatic metrics resulting from positional tracking of players?
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Dear Filipe,
There are certainly a lot of solutions, and I guess you are innovative engough to find these ideas. In my mind, what is important for you is to distinguish (1) your “metric”, that is the indicator that captures the displacement (or a part of the overall movement) of a team, from (2) the “collective variable” that measures the relation between the metrics.
According to the first point, you may be creative, and, as an example, propose a “weighting” of each player (according to their position to the ball, or to their position to the goal… and so on). According to the second point, the relative phase has been often chosen to account for this relation, but certainly others variables may be instructive.
In all these cases, it would be interesting to compare the new description you propose with the usual indicators (centroid positions, stretch index…) and/or with significant events occurring in the game. I mean.. when you do a description of the game using indicators, we need to know what is the “reality” you describe.. so the indicator in itself is often not instructive.
I also think that it could be interesting to look at some subparts of the team (only 2 or 3 players.. or more), and investigate in which way the team cannot be reduced to a superorganism…
Yours..
Jérôme
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I'm involved in a multi-venue project that is working with young (11 years +) overweight/obese children/adolescents. I'm after a quick and easy field test that requires minimal resources that can monitor changes over time. I was thinking of the Rockport walk test but in all honesty, I think a mile is going to be too long time wise and potentially too difficult for some of the participants. Any help/advice would be most appreciated. Thanks
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Hello, good morning! I worked with obese adolescents in my institution. In my study, we used treadmill protocols, but in your case I would advise the Shuttle-Run.
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We are planning to conduct a study where we are searching for effective and low cost rehabilitation intervention for patients with CLBP and long-lasting neck pain referred to physiotherapy. At the same time we wish to see if it is possible to find some good and easy ways to measure strength in the upper body strength without the need for much equipment.
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I would recommend use of a hand-held dynamometer, that is a dynamometer held by the examiner and applied against the patient. Hand-held dynamometers are portable and lightweight. More than 500 articles have been published that report their use. I have used them to measure the strength of the shoulder flexors, extensors, abductors, medial rotators and lateral rotators, elbow flexors and extensors, forearm pronators and supinators, and wrist extensors. Normative values are available for some of the aforementioned muscle actions.
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I am looking for a simple visual-motor/perceptual measure and have noted this has a moderate correlation with IQ and a low correlation with processing speed. This should give me a good contrast as I am using Ravens SPM for my intelligence measure and the Inspection Time Paradigm as my processing speed test.
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What about the Beery Visual Motor Integration Test (VMI) and there are also separate visual and motor sheets that can be used if you need.
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Long ago known that training to failure is less effective than training without muscle failure.
I wonder if anyone can recommend me literature that compare bodybuilding training methods with current training methods using bodybuilders as study sample.
Obviously this type of training (bodybuilding) is not suitable for athletic performance (improvement in strength and power is lower than other training methods that use a lower training volume ). It is also true that a bodybuilding training is not suitable for people who want to improve their health.
It is easy to compare training methods on sedentary people (all people offer improvements in strength, power and endurance ) but I have not found such research using bodybuilders study sample undergoing training methods with different training volumes .
A bodybuilder has a very high level of training and perhaps requires large training volumes and intensity to improve. Maybe that level of training required of such high training volume.
I would like to know your opinion and if you know of recent research?
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Hallo Javier,
as you have stated correctly there is the difference between methodology of training for bodybuilding and athletic performance. Mainly strength training methodology for bodybuilders is aimed directly to the muscle as a tissue (increasing the size of the muscle cells: increasing the number of the muscle cells is questionable??) whereas the strength training methodology to increase sport performance of athletes is mainly directed to the neural component of muscles i.e. intermuscular and intramuscular coordination with obviously additional increase in muscle mass (number and the size increase in the same time) but not to such extent as at bodybuilding. I would never propose bodybuilding method of training as the method to improve sport performance as well as the health status.
Best,
Bojan
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Sample training - 10x60m, submax, 3 minutes resting time (e.g. age 40-55) or/and pulse measured with Polar heart rate belt. What is the most suitable pulse range to start the next run, if the main aim to push the acidification and pain tolerance significantly higher?
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Pulse curves of 10x60m and 9x60m interval runs. The first figure shows the runs with pulse settling to 105 than start, the second figure is with 2:30min resting intervals.
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With little material, like a chronometer, pc.
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I suggest to apply the critical speed test. That is, you need two or three performances ranging between 1000m and 3000m depends on the performance level.
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I'm trying to track down sources of information that offer some values of acceptable variations in oxygen consumption, particularly the on-kinetics. Does anyone have or know of any peer reviewed material?
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Kim, look at the work by Brian Whipp, Sue Ward and more lately Harry Rossiter (UCLA) they spent a large amount of effort in refining the measurement and analysis of gas kinetics.
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Today I came across a small point that VO2max value will be higher when the person walks with longer strides and VO2max value lowers when the person walks with shorter strides... In this instance can the VO2max derived from the treadmill test be reliable?
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I believe it will boil down to breathing per strides. There are different techniques and beliefs, but I can give you example on speed rope: I train constant 200RPM for 20 minutes, if I breath: 2R inhale, 2R exhale it will be rather flat on the lungs. If I breath 5R inhale and 5R exhale, it will strongly expand my VO2. I believe one of the main reasons why rowers develop high VO2 is because rowing stroke imposes long breaths under high performance pressure.
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What are recommended hamstring rehabilitation protocols for professional sport as it relates to what exercise prescription protocols would be recommended?
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Another one for your interest
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Seeking to hear views and expert opinions.
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The tests and protocols you can easily access online should be used depending on the available equipment and facilities, and the specific characteristics of participants (e.g. age, sex, level of physical activity, sport).
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...
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If you're looking for an overall performance indicator, perhaps the win/loss record of a team would be appropriate (or number of goals, etc.). Questionnaires tend to measure constructs that are more specific such as particular beliefs, values, tendencies, or behaviors. Most questionnaires measure constructs on the individual level rather than on the team level.
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I want to calibrate accelerometer data with force platform. I try more than filter but I want to know what is the best one for keeping data true.
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Mansour,
The calculation of peak power during a jump from accelerometer data could be very sensitive to the inertial characteristics of the task. Mass will have to enter into the calculation somewhere and, in this case, the mass that the accelerometer is tracking will actually vary over time. This could potentially confound measurements of peak power, especially when comparing across different subjects. Average power over multiple jumps could be much more robust, such as described here:
I agree with Dr Richards that you will probably want to use a filter that preserves the high-frequency content of the signal. If you have access to Matlab, there are some very powerful filtering tools that can be useful for your purposes. A recursive Butterworth filter is often used, but I have also had success using wavelet filtering, which can remove very tight bandwidths of noise without affecting the signal too much.
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Glycolytic power and glycolytic capacity/anaerobic capacity and muscle power obtained duroing 10, 15 or 20 and 30 s via glycolysis
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Thanks a lot Stephen!
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I am looking for some guidance regarding when to get people back to running post ACL reconstruction, and what would be the best performance targets?
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Running does not require an intact ACL. Changing direction does. Most surgeons do tests like the single-leg hop, Biodex quad strength, quad circumference and other measures of quad and hamstring strength to determine if the athlete is ready. Each athlete and each sport is different. Some docs wait 4 months, most wait 6, some wait a whole year. I like my patients to wait 6 months and complete the PEP program or the 11plus program. I let my athletes run treadmill at 11 weeks after surgery if rehab is on track. Targets are full range of motion, good strength, no pain, and no other issues.
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There have been no practical studies investigating tactical performance in boxing. I would like to measure tactical performance using an objective test.
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You must develop a flow chart of determinant techniques in boxing. Than you register in a spreadsheet how many times each important technique was executed in a chosen interval of time. I believe that each time you perform the analysis, you will find issues to be improved. I call this phase as beta analysis.
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I have tested participants at 30 deg/sec and 200 deg/sec pre and post an intervention, and recognize that at 200 deg/sec the observed adaptation are FT orientated.
How do I calculate just the ST fibre contribution at 30 deg/sec? Is it just a case of removing FT values from ST? Does anyone have a reference for this?
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Matthew, let me make some points.
First, proper isokinetic testing assumes that the subject performing the exercise would always (i.e. for the whole range of motion) apply the maximal voluntary force. In turn, this value changes as the muscle lenght changes. Thus, your dynamometer will read a more or less long plateau where force is maximized. The lenght of this plateaux will shorten as the angular velocity will increase as well as, in accordance with the force-velocity relationship, the absolute maxim value of the force will decrease. In the case you have a number of experimental points, then you may build a force-velocity exponential curve. I suggest to take into account only force values only at plateaux (avoid the transient phases).
Seconds, if you are recording surface EMG data, at the highest angular velocities, your EMG will last a few milliseconds (the duration of the stationary force phase). This makes in most instances a frequency domain analysis of the sEMG almost meaningless. For certain, based on median/mean frequency of the sEMG power spectrum, you can not say anything about MU recruitment, especially in this particular experimental protocol. Based upon that , I have suggested to you (if applicable) to rather determine the muscle fibers CV.
My best
Francesco
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It requires an incremental test monitoring ventilatory parameters.
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Dear, Anna,
Dr. Wasserman (and his colleagues from California) coined the term "V-slope method" for the technique to determine the anaerobic threshold using noninvasive parameters, i.e. the slopes of VO2 and VCO2. A reference for this would be his text book: Karlman Wasserman. "Principles of exercise testing and interpretation", 4th Edition, Lippincortt Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2005
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We have dynamic gait stability for locomotion in gait that is quantified in some ways such as dynamical system theory and inverse pendulum. I am asking to know how we can quantify "equilibrium,balance,postural stability without locomotion"(without moving).
And then how about the above terms in some difficult balance motions like the ones are done in ballet dancing?
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Posture is complicated to assess.
The general rule of standing posture is that the person is trying to maintain their centre of mass over their base of support. Typical measures include the centre of pressure (on a force plate) and the motion of the head (using, say, Optotrak or similar).
The key is to define a task that posture is helping you perform; what you do with your posture depends on what you are trying to achieve. For instance, people work to reduce their sway if they need to fixate carefully on something so 'less sway' can be functional. However, reducing sway reduces your responsiveness to perturbations so sometimes 'less sway' is a problem. It always depends on the task and so must get taken one task at a time.
I recommend reading all and any papers by Tom Stoffregan at Minnesota; he's tackled a lot of this head on and his methods should help you.
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I have been collecting data from participants in hypoxic conditions and looking at how prior warm up bouts effect the speed of phase II kinetics, i have found a few protocols on data analysis but not sure on the best protocol to use.
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Your start point should be to look at the methods suggested by Whipp and Wasserman. Brian Whipp was a leader in the field and developed excellent algorithms. You should also consider contacting Harry Rossiter at UCLA
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We are looking for a validated test on kayak. Anyone knows any publication with some test validated in kayak?
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Can anyone recommend a injury history questionnaire they have used with distance runners?
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Re-setting and moving to a new lab.
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Mohd, the basic devices could be:
- Motorized Treadmill;
- Cycle ergometer (mechanical Monark or an eletromagnetic with accurate load adjustments);
- Cardiorespiratory acquirement system (Pulmonary Gas analyser);
- Blood lactate analyser (Yellow Spring are very accurate);
- Equipments to blood sample (tubes, capillary, solutions etc);
I think this is the basic to use both in teaching and researching. The difference between both are in quantity of ergometers and metabolic devices. For teach purpose you will need more than one.
Hope to help.
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anyone who expert in this field
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Continuous exercise for one hour could range in exercise intensity from as low as 10% to as high as 80% of maximal VO2. The intensity that you choose depends on your research question. The intensity you choose would also be affected by the training status of your subjects as well as whether they are heat acclimated or not. Rehydration, as you might expect, would be more important at higher intensities than at lower intensities. For rehydration guidelines, I refer you to the reviews below.
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I am working on my dissertation and would appreciate any input from those knowledgable within this field. 
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HIIsaac,
Here's another suggestion. A paper showing the construct of the tests, followed by a paper showing a context in which they have been applied. (I have no affiliation with the authorship team, but have been looking at some hockey things myself, recently.) These author names may be worth searching separately to find a similar body of papers which show research in this area.
Evaluation of the reliability of two field hockey specific sprint and dribble tests in young field hockey players
K Lemmink, M Elferink-Gemser, and C Visscher
Institute of Human Movement Sciences, University of Groningen, The Netherlands. Email: ln.gur.wspp@knimmel.m.p.a.k
Br J Sports Med. Apr 2004; 38(2): 138–142.
doi:  10.1136/bjsm.2002.001446
PMCID: PMC1724763
 
Abstract
Objectives: To determine the reliability of two field hockey specific tests: the shuttle sprint and dribble test (ShuttleSDT) and the slalom sprint and dribble test (SlalomSDT).
Methods: The shuttle sprint and dribble performances of 22 young male and 12 young female field hockey players were assessed on two occasions within 4 weeks. Twenty one young female field hockey players took part in the slalom sprint and dribble test twice in a 4 week period.
The ShuttleSDT required the players to perform three 30 m shuttle sprints while carrying a hockey stick alternated with short periods of rest and, after a 5 minute rest, three 30 m shuttle sprints alternated with rest while dribbling a hockey ball. The SlalomSDT required the players to run a slalom course and, after a 5 minute rest, to dribble the same slalom with a hockey ball.
Results: There were no differences in mean time scores between the two test sessions. The mean differences were small when compared with the means of both test sessions. With the exception of the slalom sprint time, zero lay within the 95% confidence interval of the mean differences indicating that no bias existed between the two measurements. With the exception of delta shuttle time (0.79), all intraclass correlation coefficient values for the ShuttleSDT, met the criterion for reliability of 0.80. Intraclass correlation coefficient values for SlalomSDT were 0.91 for slalom sprint time, 0.78 for slalom dribble time, and 0.80 for delta slalom time.
Conclusions: ShuttleSDT and the SlalomSDT are reliable measures of sprint and dribble performances of young field hockey players.
Relation between multidimensional performance characteristics and level of performance in talented youth field hockey players.
Marije Elferink-Gemser, Chris Visscher, Koen Lemmink & Theo Muldera
Journal of Sports Sciences
Volume 22, Issue 11-12, 2004 
pages 1053-1063
DOI:10.1080/02640410410001729991
Published online: 07 Feb 2011
Abstract
To determine the relationship between multidimensional performance characteristics and level of performance in talented youth field hockey players, elite youth players (n  =  38, mean age 13.2 years, s  =  1.26) were compared with sub-elite youth players (n  =  88, mean age 14.2 years, s  =  1.26) on anthropometric, physiological, technical, tactical and psychological characteristics. Multivariate analyses with performance level and gender as factors, and age as the covariate, showed that the elite youth players scored better than the sub-elite youth players on technical (dribble performance in a peak and repeated shuttle run), tactical (general tactics; tactics for possession and non-possession of the ball) and psychological variables (motivation) (P  < 0.05). The most discriminating variables were tactics for possession of the ball, motivation and performance in a slalom dribble. Age discriminated between the two groups, indicating that the elite youth players were younger than the sub-elite players. In the guidance of young talented players to the top as well as in the detection of talented players, more attention has to be paid to tactical qualities, motivation and specific technical skills.
Good luck with the dissertation.
Best reagrds,
Jeremy
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Thanks in advance for your replies.
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Dear Sindhu,
Pinitol is partly converted to D-chiro-inositol and partly excreted unchanged.
Insulin is a key hormone for the control of metabolism of glucose.
D-pinitol can exert an insulin-like effect to improve glycaemic control (synergy between pinitol and insulin). So hypoglycemia would result from the administration of pinitol. Chiro-inositol seems to be the key substance for the positive effects as type-2 diabetics have a higher excretion of this substance. 
Higher creatine retention in the muscles improves training adaption and, by higher conversion of glucose into glycogen. This achieved by simultaneous intake of creatine and glucose (more than 35 g) or glucose and protein (ca. 50 g each) as the resulting insulin secretion improves creatine absorption and retention.
Pinitol at low doses (up to 1 g / day) during creatine loading /pre-load to augment creatine absorption and retention. Higher doses are not as effective.  Therefore pinitol can play a valuable role in sports nutrition.
best
mehdi
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Hiya all, What is the minimum required facility for a sports performance and rehabilitation center, I have planned one to be launched soon and seeking exerts guidance. Have planned to incorporate 2D video analysis for all sporting and exercise movements, FMS, and Assessment protocol by ACSM, while need assistance in the facility (Equipment list). Will be more than happy to hear. Cheers.
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Hi Kumar,
You have a fantastic plan. 
Will the center be located in a public university (just for testings?) or at a hospice (for treatment) or at a sports facility like SAI (to rehabilitate athletes)?
 Both the sports science and sports medicine services are integrated. Therefore, within this huge setting, there are biomechanics,  weight training, physiotherapy divisions that work very closely in dealing with rehabilitation and enhancing sports performance. 
For instance, in biomechanics, a 3D motion analyzer with infrared markers, a force platform and software like siliconCOACH can help rehabilitate any person or athlete who has gained injuries. Within physiotherapy, an kinetic machine, treadmill, ergo meter, and monark bike will do the trick. 
Therefore it really depends who the target population is. 
All the best
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I'm looking for correlation coefficients that evaluate questionnaires for youth, more precisely regarding their validity in single domains (transport, school, leisure, sports, etc.) AND the different intensities (sedentary, light, moderate, vigorous) of physical activity.
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Hi,
hope that this paper will be interresting for you International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 12-Country Reliability and Validity
CORA L. CRAIG1, ALISON L. MARSHALL2, MICHAEL SJO¨ STRO¨M3, ADRIAN E. BAUMAN4,
MICHAEL L. BOOTH5, BARBARA E. AINSWORTH6, MICHAEL PRATT7, ULF EKELUND3, AGNETA YNGVE3,
JAMES F. SALLIS8, and PEKKA OJA9
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I am looking to provide a dietary plan for 18-25yr old footballers, who have a body percentage over 25%? What are the proper guidelines to lose fat but minimize the risk of injury. Any advice will help. Thanks.
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If you are able to work with each athlete individually, it would ultimately produce the best results. Body weight, height, calorie intake and expenditure are all important variables in creating a balanced meal plan for athletes. Providing adequate calories from the right food sources while maintaining the necessary energy level for the sport can be a challenge. However, I would first calculate the RMR for each athlete. Schedule is also an important consideration. Do these players have the flexibility to eat a small meal every 4 hours? What foods will be accessible for these players during long practice days. I would also calculate the protein and carbs needed for each player based on body weight and activity level. Some athletes require about 3.0 grams of protein per kg of body weight to provide proper muscle recovery. Increasing lean muscle will increase metabolism, utilize energy more effectively, and therefore reduce the risk of injury. Protein intake should be higher after intense activity and toward the end of the day. Carbs should be calculated as well and come from fruit, vegetables, and whole grains instead of refined sugars, flours, and processed foods. This modification alone tends to drop the %body fat considerably. Smaller meals eaten more often with portion control is of course a factor as well. Frequent dietary changes and modifications will be important in an athlete. Less calories are needed during off season, eating to prepare for a big game, and holiday or party eating (especially for that age group) may seem like small concerns, but can make a big difference in maintaining an ideal % body fat.  
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I was inspired by a few answers in a recent RG thread (see link), whether the children are carrying heavy school bags.
As people from many countries have echoed views that children indeed are carrying heavy school bags, let us discuss about how we can alleviate the problem. A major cause for the heaviness of the school bags is carrying books and notebooks. So, I was thinking - why don't we remove the books and notebooks per se? (Except perhaps the lab records, which require signatures).
How this can be done? One simple way is the use of laptops. In India, most of the school text-books are made available on-line as E-books which can be downloadable free of cost. The kids may just store all these E-books of their standards in appropriate folders. This eliminates the need of carrying all subject books in the school bags!
We may request instructors to provide notes also in soft-copy (powerpoint, PDF or word files). So, this eliminates the need of taking notes in class also. One small note book to note down important points of all subjects may be enough. (This can be done directly in laptop also as kids may be knowing typing skills).
As laptops are very portable, kids may study at all places - canteens, cafetaria or even while watching sports games. This may promote continuous learning by kids.
I welcome views on this by RG friends especially Prof. Mahfuz, Krishnan, Barry, Marcel, Kamal, Abedallah, Roland, Nageswara Rao, Debi etc! Thanks!
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Not laptops, a tablet is sufficient! To do this, books have to be in the form of an eBook.
Then all the required books would be in the tablet. Thus just one tablet. 
Furthermore eBooks, have many interesting properties as compare with printed books.  
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I need your answer to collect my data
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Specific exercises are designed to correct specific problems. No way to use them generally! But if there is a high incidence of a injury in one sport (e.g. ACL and lower limb injury in soccer), specific exercises may help to prevent the injury (11+ exercises for soccer players).
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The literature indicates that we should expect to see an increase (due to decreased plasma volume) but we have conducted some recent research in surfing to measure changes in measures of fluid loss and observed a decrease in hematocrit. We have also found a similar result in football players after games played in warm humid environments.
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I would suggest you look at any differences in posture between pre-post Hct sampling and also look into the effect of water immersion on blood volume changes as this may help explain some of the differences. I would also consider the likelihood that the surfers swallowed (accidentally) some sea water and given it was probably salt water, this may further influence your data interpretation.
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I fel there is a gap in the research base regarding the study of the role of the sport psychologist. I intend to investigate conflicts within the role - are they there for the well-being of the athlete or purely there to optimize their performance? Are athletes concerned about the stigma (if there is one) attached to visiting a sport psychologist in, what can be, an overtly masculine environment? 
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Hi Daniel,
I think it will be helpful  to read this book ( Foundation of Sport and Exercise  Psychology) Robert S. Weinberg & Daniel Gould .
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It is possible  to relate HRV with others biomarkers as CK or Testosterone/Cortisol ratio. Also with different fatigue  OR/OT diagnostics. Always, it's better to find and relate several parameters at the same time.
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How do you define "fatigue"? without a clear definition it is difficult to give you a proper answer. Most research shows that, at present, there are no physiological or biochemical measures that are better than self-reports to monitor OR/OT and recovery. So I suggest you save money and collect properly and in a systematic manner valid self-reports.
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I'm looking for a practical diagnostic tool to gather the conditional performance of surfers. Problem: I'm not living at the ocean, so tests have to take place in sports hall.
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Hi Christian,
I tend to think of surfing as having three elements that are suitable for performance testing in a lab or on dry land.
First, balance on the board. There are quite a few systems avaialbe to test standing balance on two feet. An example is the "Wobbegong" balance board. (Try searching using the terms Wobbegong and Balance). These systems give you a reading from movements of an inclinometer attached to an unstable board, as people try to keep if still. So it is similar to measuring sway on a force plate, except that the surface is unstable, so it matches surfing better. This would give you a 20-second test of balance stability on an unstable surface, which replicates that skill required to control a surf-board.
Second, arm fitness to paddle in to the breaking wave. Perhaps the Wingate crank test (a form of hand cycle, to explain it simply). This has been used a lot with swimmers. I'm not sure if surfers need arm endurance or sprint power. You would have to do a bit of motion analysis of surfers catching waves to see how long they paddle for, as well as the work they do to get back out beyond the break each time. Then you could treat them as a power swimmer or an endurance swimmer, depending on what you want to find out.
Third, jumping up onto the board. They do a powerful push-up and then spring to their feet. Perhaps you could use a force plate under their hands, and do a "clapping" push-up, to see how much sinlge-repetition force they can apply to launch themselves upwards. However, the most compatible test would also include a pwerful tucking up of the legs under them, so it is more like a "burpee" movement. Perhaps a power test for squat-tuck movement slike this would be more compatible (e.g. 10 seconds, maximum repetitions)?
I have not seen any evidence of these sorts of dry-land performance tests for surfers, so you would be doing something new. As a result you might have toestablish validity and relibility for any new versions of these tests that you create. (Still, that is what research is for...something new.)
Good luck.
Jeremy
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Force as a kinetic parameter and its relationship of muscle activity (from EMG ).
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In static isometric contractions there is, usually a linear, relationship between muscle force and smoothed rectified EMG (SRE). It should be considered, however, that most of the time several muscles are active simultaneously around a joint. During movements, the force-length-velocity relationship and the elastic properties of muscle should be taken into account. Also, EMGs during concentric movements are larger than those measured during isometric actions. A further consideration in relating force to EMG is that the force signal has a much lower frequency content than the rectified EMG. Finally, the limited speed of the activation and deactivation process results in a 50 to 200 ms delay of the muscle force relative to the EMG.
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I am looking for any devices (especially telemetric) that are capable of monitoring real time the human performance (e.g. during running, or roller skating). Any device counts which suitablly monitors pulse, speed, blood lactate, blood pressure etc. For example Team Polar or Polar RC3GPS. Preferably the devices with the more types of data would be better.
 
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A device that I have used in our lab is the Minimaxx by catapault sports. It does a great job in measuring accleration, velocity, external load, HR, and a bunch of other measures that we don't use in our lab.
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I am looking for a valid intermittent intensity/repeat sprint cycling protocol that induces similar metabolic demands and oxidative stress to team sports. Most cycling protocols that induce oxidative stress are continuous in nature (eg 70% VO2max for 60min), or else too short in duration (eg 10x15s with long recovery- only 150s work...)
 
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Maybe the wingate test. But i would also consider running tests as most group sports are based on running. Than you can use standard fieldtesting  like 10m sprint testing. If you have a mobile oxygene expenditure setup than in it should be possible.
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I am attempting to create a vision screening protocol that addresses visual acuity in low light situations for our elite level skiers and snowboarders.
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Dear Kyle, one of the tests that I have designed has been used with professional football players and referees (ClinicCSF). Anyway you should know that current commercial vision tests for CSF measurement could have a Ceiling effect in normal vision subjects.
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Can we vary that to 12 beats in the first minute after the test?
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JAMA. 2000 Sep 20;284(11):1392-8.
Heart rate recovery and treadmill exercise score as predictors of mortality in patients referred for exercise ECG.
Nishime EO1, Cole CR, Blackstone EH, Pashkow FJ, Lauer MS.
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I am looking for a broad,"If-Then" approach not necessarily computer modelling.
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Yes , refer to tutorial given at webpage of act-r.
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I am looking for literature concerning the assessment of VT or LT by using submaximal tests, particularly 6MWT.
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Try Morad, M.D. et al. Are first VT and 6MWt heart rate interchangeable?
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In my study I attested exercise tolerance of patients treated for alcohol addiction. I am looking for litterature concerning this topic.
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I'm using the 6MWT as a measure of functional capacity in people with stroke who are participating in a research study for a rehabilitation program. I think it's a very useful tool
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How to pressure, when, how many times during the start and after the first 30-40m? How to breath, how many times etc. during the mentioned section?
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You can make special video filming for researching breathing during the start.
Diaphragm pressing? ... It is difficult! :)
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Sale DG.
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And
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Descriptive characteristics of the number of players, passing, ball contacts, contact index and time duration of ball possession in modern football. Also, are there any differences or similarities between teams of the same or different level of competition and / or gender and / or age category?