Science topic

Performance Improvement - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Performance Improvement, and find Performance Improvement experts.
Questions related to Performance Improvement
  • asked a question related to Performance Improvement
Question
9 answers
SVM can be added as the last layer of the CNN model. How to improve the performance of CNN-based SVM?
Relevant answer
Answer
I am agree with excellent suggestion of Aparna Sathya Murthy and Clément Poiret.
  • asked a question related to Performance Improvement
Question
11 answers
The legal status or the medico-legal significance of officially approved or endorsed clinical decision support and quality improvement tools like; (i) 'Evidence-Based' Clinical Practice Guidelines, (ii) Protocols, (iii) Integrated Care Pathways, and (iv) Policies and Procedures has been a long-standing debate that often have a positive or even a negative effect on the compliance of different healthcare providers especially physicians.
I would like to open a discussion on your perspective and perception of that concept and what is the reality in your healthcare context in your country or region (insight from all clinical specialties is appreciated)?
Relevant answer
Answer
Let me approach this question from a different perspective.
Clinical Practice Guidelines, Protocols, and Policies and Procedures are generally in the category of the so-called soft laws or norms. Soft norm refers to some quasi-legal instruments, rules or guidelines of behaviour that are neither strictly binding in nature nor completely lacking legal significance such as non-binding resolutions, declarations, and guidelines created by governments and private organizations.
Those various kinds of quasi-legal instruments, within the context of the healthcare sector, may include guidelines, policy declarations, or codes of conduct that set standards of conduct couched in the normative moods. Soft norms are usually not directly binding or enforceable in accordance with formal techniques of international law but are capable of exerting a powerful influence over the behaviour of the parties to which it applies. Soft norm is not an alternative to the ‘traditional’ lawmaking, but rather, a complement to it. It is fast becoming a major ‘legalisation form’ of the norm-like activities of private and public-private crossbreed authorities where the new type of informal soft norm has come to be primarily relied on by such authorities owing to its flexible and context-dependent nature.
Soft norms are preferred for a variety of reasons. For instance, it is preferred to solve straightforward situations in which the existence of a focal point is enough to generate compliance, or loss avoidance theory, where a non-compliance with a hard law could attract higher sanctions to deter more violations. Soft-law instruments cope better with diversity and provide greater flexibility to cope with uncertainty and allow for adjustments over time. Therefore, soft-norm instruments are easier to negotiate, less costly, and allow parties to be more ambitious and engage in “deeper” cooperation than they would if they had to worry about enforcement.
Conversely, hard law refers generally to legal obligations that are legally binding on, and therefore, enforceable by the parties involved before a court. Generally, hard-law instruments allow parties to commit themselves more credibly to agreements, to avoid the increased cost of reneging due to sanctions. Hard-law instruments have direct legal effects and create mechanisms for the interpretation of the legal commitments, and for enforcement of commitments through either courts or alternative dispute-settlement bodies.
It may seem to be a good question to ask, why adopting a “soft norm” while we already have the hard law. Critics of hard law have raised a number of significant issues. For instance, hard law tends to be set of fixed rules, for universal application, presupposes a prior knowledge, and is difficult to change. While on the other hand, soft norms allow for flexibility, diversity, experimentation and adjustments, and internalization of the hard laws themselves in order to ease in enforcement and to achieve an optimal outcome.
In the contemporary situation that needs flexible compliance with, and enforcement of the laws to achieve maximum results, the application of a hybrid of soft and hard law would seem imperative. Soft norms, by their design, encourage adherence to the standards and allows for substantial flexibility in methods to reach sustainability that fit with their institutional needs and peculiarities, supplementing the hard law that includes a set of fixed rules that define what constitutes a wrongful act and provides sanctions for noncompliance with these rules serving as deterrents.
Coming back to your question as to which one of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Protocols, or Policies and Procedures is preferred, I would say that they all the same in terms of legal weight. Although under some jurisdiction they do not form a legal weight, it is still used as a base fr establishing the legal duty of care, and the standard of care before finally deciding if the health professional is liable in negligence. For instance, see Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee [1957] 1 WLR 583 under the UK jurisdiction. Under some other jurisdictions, non-compliance with Clinical Practice Guidelines, Protocols, or Policies and Procedures could carry legal liability (See Article 31 of the Saudi Law on Practicing Healthcare Professions). It is an offence to violate relevant codes of practice or acts contrary to professional conduct or ethics, which could attract disciplinary action that includes a warning, fine (up to 10,000 riyals or revocation of licence Article 33).
While I did not specifically answer your question, I thought it is an opportunity to give a different perspective o the question.
  • asked a question related to Performance Improvement
Question
2 answers
A journal paper named "All-Links-Based E-Hailing Pricing and Surcharge Mechanism for Transportation System Performance Improvement" in TRR. ( You can find in the attachment)
In the model section (page 5), the author says that "Equations 8-10 are the definitional constraints for the path-link transformation relation and link surcharge calculation mechanisms based on the marginal externality."
I have question about equation 10 (page 5), which is a iterative equation illustrating the link surcharge relationship. But i don't know how to get to this equation. Would anyone like to explain this equation to me.
Thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
The gist of that paper's Equation 10 goes back to Robbins & Monroe and Blum. It's a reliable technique to solve many fixed-point problems in which direct feedback bounces around without certainty of convergence.
The first three pages of my conference paper below give a background for "successive averages" in another common transportation modeling problem: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B0UMtdZbZqawYVdwanEwQlRyUEE/view
I hope this helps. Please reply if you have any trouble accessing and downloading that material.
  • asked a question related to Performance Improvement
Question
4 answers
Which way is best for overall impact?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Tony Yeigh , good question.
As pointed out by Chris Oliver , blended learning has many understandings and definitions, and I think the term will soon cease to be used, as it loses its meaning when both students and teachers uses these tools anyway, independent of the bein a part of a designed teaching solution or not. If we just broaden the definition of ICTs, Information and Communication Technologies in a reasonable way to include also text and books, and many ICTs in between, teaching and learning has been clearly blended at least since late medieval times.much longer if we take writing as an ICT, which there are goid resons for, and without writing we would hardly ever have come up with the idea of organised education in Sumer arnd 2500BC. The revolutionary tech of writing was the thing to teach and learn.
It makes little meaning to say that learning from a screen is e-learning or a part of blended learning, while a printed out text is some kind of old and natural learning, not e-.
What ICTs do for teaching and learning today is no big magic, it mainly decreases friction of information and makes it cheaper, faster and more accessible.. But we are entering a new phase, ICTs that processes information (which is really the thing with digital ICTs), we get learning analytics, adaptive learning and calibrated peer review, that kind of ICTs which will mean real change of teaching organisation
i have attached a couple of my texts (and co-authored texts, illustrating these perspectives If interested.
  • asked a question related to Performance Improvement
Question
15 answers
I am considering completing my dissertation on the above topic and would love any thoughts, ideas, links to articles, recommendations, etc please? 
Relevant answer
Answer
Great answer, Oliver.  If you've got to a PIP point, then there is a failure in both management and leadership. Very few employees come to work thinking about how they can perform poorly today.  In my experience leading HR, managers very often turn to HR for help when it's far too late and the manager is just looking for a documented way to get rid of someone.  
In terms of your research, Eimear, one possible focus is to highlight the series of errors/failures  that lead to the PIP point.  The Swiss cheese concept comes into play.  There's invariably a whole series of indicators of a performance problem long before performance becomes truly low.  Each indicator is like one hole in a slice of the cheese.  As long as the holes don't line up, the manager may miss the indicators, or often just ignore them in the hope they'll go away.  But when the holes in the slices line up, now there's a serious problem. Another issue is with the name.  Improvement tends to relate to deficit gaps in this context.  Shifting to the idea of performance development plans changes the conversation to one of growth and success, and is something that can be part of every employee's work.  PDPs mean the employee and manager are having continual conversations about what's needed to achieve business goals as a normal part of achieving desired results and outcomes.  When those kinds of conversations happen, performance barriers are far more likely to come to light long before they become problems.
  • asked a question related to Performance Improvement
Question
4 answers
Is the aggregate effect of managing projects well within their constraints (cost quality, time...) able to provide a boost to firm performance?
Relevant answer
Answer
The answer must be yes; but, much as one should not expect the tail to wag the dog, is the proper (or at least higher) subject of investigation not how organizational performance can leverage project performance?
  • asked a question related to Performance Improvement
Question
2 answers
Want to gather any research or stats on recovery from SSGS in football training that show minimum to maximum suggested recovery periods post training session to elicit performance improvements. Specifically are there any contraindications with running this type of session 48 hrs pre match?
Relevant answer
Answer
In general, interval training at the following heart rate levels requires the following recovery times
70-80% HR 8-21 h recovery
80-90% HR 24-36 h recovery
90-95% HR 36-48 h recovery
95-100% HR 36-48 h recovery
  • asked a question related to Performance Improvement
Question
11 answers
Hi, I have carried out statistical analysis to assess how students performance improve from the pre-test to the post-test in control and experimental groups. I used both absolute learning gain (posttest  - pretest) and relative learning gain (posttest-pretest/ pretest). My results revealed that there is a statistical significant difference in absolute learning gain between the control and experimental groups. However, no statistical significance difference was found in the relative learning gain.
Relevant answer
Answer
Mona,
The relative gain is a proportion with the original scores in the denominator. It is similar to effect size in that it is measure of the proportion of gain. You gave me the U value, but not the actual mean scores. This is what I need. Also, the total points possible.
How far did your sample deviate from normality, because if it was not large the statistical analysis is usually robust enough to handle it. The problem with lack of normality would be a Type I error so you can correct for this by using a more rigorous alpha level, for example.01. Also, if you can use ANCOVA it would be a more accurate comparison of the two groups.
  • asked a question related to Performance Improvement
Question
7 answers
I found several software for performance evaluation and improvement like SPSS, AMOS,ANOWA, SEM, T Test for single and Multivariate Etc. I want to choose my local region industries like in Madhya pradesh, India and will take various parameters for performance improvement then what should I do? please help me.
Relevant answer
Answer
It is good to know various software tools that can perform different / overlapped quantitative data analyses.  However, don't let the tools dictate how we conduct a research.  In quantitative research context, a research should be driven by the research problem, then research objective(s) or research question(s), conceptual framework / research model, hypotheses then research method.  E.g. if a research model consists of few Independent variables (IVs) that are individually & directly influencing SME's performance improvement, then SPSS multiple regressions can be used.  If your research objective is to comparing the performance improvement etc across different groups of SMEs, then SPSS ANOVA etc can be adopted.  If your research model is getting more complex e.g. consists of many IVs interconnected with arrowed-lines in different layers and point to one or more than one dependent variable (DV) then SEM like SPSS AMOS, SmartPLS etc can be used.  In summary, research problem dictate research model then dictate research method and lastly the statistical software tools that we should adopt.  Wishing you all the best.
  • asked a question related to Performance Improvement
Question
8 answers
This is regarding P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. I have noticed that open circuit voltage is a little less for the annealed devices when compared to un-annealed devices. (of course the performance improves with annealing, with significant enhancements in Jsc and fill factor). I want to know if this is a well known scenario, and if so what can be the reason for this. Is this common to other polymer blends as well?
Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
There are numerous examples in the literature for P3HT:PCBM blends, where Voc decreases due to annealing.  I don't remember reading a detailed discussion of this issue, but the most likely explanation to me is that annealing causes a reduction in the effective band gap of the blend.  I have linked a paper which may help you understand these issues in more detail.
  • asked a question related to Performance Improvement
Question
7 answers
I am working on an article relating to motivation with a focus on performance improvement for the 21st century. I am looking at highlighting knowledge spirals as a means to develop motivation at each of the levels of analysis (individual, team/group, department, and organization). If you have any references or recommendations I would be grateful. Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
I think, the problem definition as highlighting knowledge spirals as a means to develop motivation is uncertain, namely
- motivation to do what? (Steven Reiss)
- rational or emotional motivation?
          - maybe the creative space has to be used to develop emotional motivation because knowledge spirals do not include any constituent emotions (individual, team/group, department, and organization)
Wierzbicki, A. and Nakamori, Y. (2006) “Basic dimensions of creative space”, In Creative Space: Models of Creative Processes for Knowledge Civilization Age, Wierzbicki, A. and Nakamori Y. (Eds.), Springer, Heidelberg, pp 59-90.
          - maybe the Targeted Knowledge Creation theory (TKC-theory) has to be used to articulate rational motivation because knowledge spirals do not have any explicit goals (individual, team/group, department, and organization)
  • asked a question related to Performance Improvement
Question
13 answers
I have critically review paper on different tools and techniques for performance improvement. Each study having and shown its own importance. But still I couldn't search effective tools for productivity improvement in maintenance for Indian SMEs.
Relevant answer
Answer
Interesting discussion. Is the question how to improve the productivity of SMEs or the competitiveness of SMEs? In my humble opinion, productivity focus, which is measured at management level by “annual sales / employee” might have adverse consequences (see for instance Skinner, 1986 “The productivity paradox”). Secondly, I believe Six Sigma, although very powerful especially in high volume environment where measuring sigma level makes much more sense, is too technical and complex for SMEs, which have generally low volume and high variety. I have observed a couple of SMEs doing Lean (some of them are really successful) and deliberately avoiding Six Sigma for this reason. Final remark, SMEs must use their limited resources very wisely (one way is reducing waste in their processes), hence Lean philosophy might provide the right frame of thinking. The productivity can be an outcome, not a goal itself, once the processes are improved.
  • asked a question related to Performance Improvement
Question
2 answers
I am working on cloud computing performance improvement model during live virtual machine migration. Due to the newly migrated virtual machines, ongoing virtual machine at destination physical machine faces interference which leads to performance degradation.
Does anyone have an idea how to determine and predict network I/O usage if VM is in public cloud?
Relevant answer
Answer
Network Usage during migration? Or network usage after migration is completed?
I assume you mean the former and I will continue based on that assumption:
It depends on how you migrate, (in-band or out-band). In-band migration means that you are using a virtualized channel for each VM, and for each VM the requests and migration will served through a single channel. In this case, you will not see any impact on the other VMs performances regarding network,  but you will notice a performance Impact on the performance of VM that is migrated during migration time.
If you are using  the out-band migration, it means that a shared bandwidth will be used for migration among all the VMs and that is where the network contentions and interference can happen.
If you wanna calculate the network consumption during live migration it is the amount of data transfer and can be calculated by a function introduced in page 193, of this paper, "Remedy: Network-aware steady state VM management for data centers".
Network consumption for a cold migration is basically the amount of memory transfer.
  • asked a question related to Performance Improvement
Question
8 answers
I would like to know anything about mechanism of hypoxic training especially 'live low - train high' method on anaerobic performance improvement. How about pathway of this mechanism?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Pattarawut,
The potential for 'live low - train high', so called intermittent hypoxic training (IHT), to increase high-intensity, anaerobic performance has recently been highlighted in an excellent review by McLean et al. (Sports Med 2014).
There is evidence in literature to indicate that IHT enhances glycolytic enzymes, glucose transport and pH-handling (Vogt et al., JAP 2001; Zoll et al., JAP 2006, Faiss et al., PLoS ONE 2013; Puype et al., MSSE 2013). 
The major mechanisms involved are thought to be HIF-1 activation and greater glycolytic energy turnover during IHT.
Only few studies also evaluated high-intensity or anaerobic performance following IHT. Yet, there is some evidence to support that IHT induces greater improvements in anaerobic power, RSA and YO-YO Intemittent Recovery Test performance than the same training at sea-level (Hendriksen et al., EJAP 2003; Hamlin et al., SJMSS 2010; Faiss et al., PLoS ONE 2013; Galvin et al., BJSM 2013).
Cheers,
Stefan
  • asked a question related to Performance Improvement
Question
3 answers
Specifically I'm comparing the S-N/T-F functions to four behaviors: Pinpoint the behavior, Identify the antecedent, Observe the consequence, and reinforce the behavior.
How would I organize my data to do the necessary analysis?
Relevant answer
Answer
How could I measure the performance coaching behaviors: pinpoint behavior, identify antecedent, observe consequence, and reinforce behavior in comparison to the raw data scores of the S-N, T-F?
  • asked a question related to Performance Improvement
Question
3 answers
I have a sample of 19 people who I measure for some factor. In step 2, I give them all some information and test again for the same measure. Step 2 is repeated 5 additional  more times. So, in effect they are given additional information 6 times. Thus for each person I have 7 performance measures - one without information and six additional measures with information. I want to test if the performance improves with every additional piece of information. How can this be done?
Relevant answer
Answer
The most common approach is probably a repeated-measures ANOVA with post-hoc tests.  However, if you expect the change over time to be linear (or curvilinear) as a function of information provision (e.g., if the predictor is a count), you could also use a within-subjects regression approach, like hierarchical linear modeling.