Questions related to Pediatric Echocardiography
A female child, 5 years old complaining of dyspnea on exertion for about 1 year and episodes of cyanosis, Her weight was 10.5 Kg, height was 88 cm. She was not cyanotic at the time of examination. There was a harsh and loud holo systolic murmur allover the pericordium. Echocardiography is attached.
Do you use atrioventricular valve index (AVVI), modified AVVI, left ventricular inflow index (LVII), RV/LV inflow angle, any other measurements, what cutoff values do you use?
Is there an indication for pacemaker treatment in the asymptomatic child with cong. AV-block III and if so why/why not and if so what would be the proper age for an intra-venous system? Are there other parameters indicating the need for chronic pacing then age or evident CMP/arrythmias in which case the PM choice is obvious . The question is raised with the increasing concern with the constant risc of possible infection with antibiotic resistent bacterias when imploying and the concern for the unphysiolologic bi-ventrical activation that arises from only one PM electrode in the RV.
Several protocols can be found in the literature, with different medications best preferred.
I need to compare the sizes of pulmonary annular ring, main pulmonary artery, right and left pulmonary branches with any standard scale.I couldn't find it on internet. Is anybody working on echocardioraphy who can give me any suggestions regarding this? Thanks.