Pedagogy and Education

Pedagogy and Education

  • Velin Kralev added an answer:
    What do you think about the visual programming languages appropriated for children?

    Many tools provide an excellent introduction to computer science for little students, some of them are Scratch, Kodu, Alice, Hackety Hack et al. These are just a few of the options for introducing someone to programming. 

    What other languages or tools have you used — in the classroom or at home?

    Do you think that they are appropriate for children age 6 and up?

    Velin Kralev

    Alice is an innovative 3D programming environment that makes it easy to create an animation for telling a story, playing an interactive game, or a video to share on the web. Alice is a freely available teaching tool designed to be a student's first exposure to object-oriented programming. It allows students to learn fundamental programming concepts in the context of creating animated movies and simple video games. In Alice, 3-D objects (e.g., people, animals, and vehicles) populate a virtual world and students create a program to animate the objects.

    In Alice's interactive interface, students drag and drop graphic tiles to create a program, where the instructions correspond to standard statements in a production oriented programming language, such as Java, C++, and C#. Alice allows students to immediately see how their animation programs run, enabling them to easily understand the relationship between the programming statements and the behavior of objects in their animation. By manipulating the objects in their virtual world, students gain experience with all the programming constructs typically taught in an introductory programming course.

  • Asmuni Asmuni added an answer:
    Who was the first time using the self-assessment and peer-assessment in education?

    Self-assessment and / or peer-assessment as an alternative model assessment have been widely applied in the world of education, but I have yet to find an expert who became the originator of the idea first. Can anyone help me? and would be happy if there is a reference.

    Thank you very much.
    Regards Asmuni

    Asmuni Asmuni

    Dear Patricia Broadfoot,
    Thank you very much, suggestion and paper you're very precious to me.
    Best Regards, Asmuni

  • Anastasia Kitiashvili added an answer:
    Are private schools' teachers younger than their public schools' peers? Any articles recommended?

    My research of Music Education in Quito-Ecuador shows that private schools' music teachers are on average 4 years younger than their public schools' peers. I'm trying to relate my findings to any existing literature.

  • dr Yusra ZAki Aboud added an answer:
    Is there any scale for assessing academic performance of children?

    i want to assess academic performance of prisoners children. so if there is a scale which will be good

    dr Yusra ZAki Aboud

    This kind of measurement considered as alternative assessment; so we can assess academic performances by Rubric, which describe performance on rating scale from 1 to 5, also observation by trained teachers. 

  • Harshvardhan Singh added an answer:
    Does process drama help to teach children about the effects of bullying?

    My thesis will be based on the use of process drama to teach empathy to schoolchildren, enabling them to be proactive in preventing bullying. I am interested to hear if anyone has experience in this field, combining both drama and anti-bullying programs. I found 'Bully Busters' (Beale 2001) very useful.

  • Silvia Serena added an answer:
    Does anyone have any questionnaire pertaining to competency for lecturers?

    Does anyone have any questionnaire pertaining to competency for lecturers?

    Silvia Serena

    thank you so muche Harshvardhan Singh!

  • Ian Kennedy added an answer:
    Can anyone point me to research on aligning the format of quizzes/hw/etc. to exams (any level/discipline)?

    Looking to discuss an intervention that more closely aligned semester long smaller assessments with exams in a college level mathematics class. Perhaps something on summative and formative assessments having same format or expectations of students being the same for multiple types of assessment.

    Ian Kennedy

    Don't astonish your students.

    Think about how to achieve the correct balance between spoon-feeding your students and challenging them.

  • Maki Habib added an answer:
    Why do the teachers prefer to stick to the regular methodology techniques while sometimes they need mixed methods or even new methods?

    Currently, Teachers are used to apply regular methods in teaching. It may be functional, But it will turn the teacher into a robot. In my opinions, It is time to bring technology into the methodology. Nowadays, teachers use technology as a mean. They do not use it as a method.

    Maki Habib

    It is the role of each individual instructor to develop her/himself and it is also the role of the academic institutions to develop their instructors and provide them with the latest techniques and technology.  Effective teacher/instructor should always seek changing for better.

    In relation to the use of the regular methods using in teaching, before making any negative/positive comments in relation to it, we should relay in proper evaluation and assessment. This means , it is difficult to give a blank approval for any new methods or to remove any old/regular/standard method.

    In developing countries,resources (human and material) and social/culture  may influence teaching and development progress.

  • Steven Barber added an answer:
    What are a few pedagogical innovations which can be used in a management class while teaching international finance?

    international finance

    management students

    pedagogical innovation

    Steven Barber

    Hi Taral, to make it more real, I had the students pick a country out of a hat whose currency they followed for the semester and gave brief weekly updates on. I also gave them real samples of that currency which they had to bring to class but could keep in the end (best to pick currencies that aren't worth much!). The students seemed to enjoy this.

    You could also arrange a video conference with officials from a foreign central bank. Most are happy to oblige if asked well in advance and aren't currently embroiled in some sort of turmoil. At the moment Iceland is a good candidate, South Africa less likely.

    Good luck,


  • Anthony Paul Breitbach added an answer:
    What activities do you use to engage teams of novice students in large classes?

    I teach with another faculty member in an "Introduction to Interprofessional Health Care" class with over 200 students from 10 different professional programs.

    Anthony Paul Breitbach

    Thank you!

  • Morakane Madiba added an answer:
    What are some effective methods of teaching literature?

    Teaching of literature in language classes has became a fashion. Commonly, teachers use literature for the development of the four skills of language as well as for providing knowledge of the world.

    These days three models are used to teach literature in EFL/ESL classroom as 1. Cultural model--by which student learn about several cultural and ideologies other than their own, 2. language model-- where students learn to use language and vocabulary, etc. 3., personal growth model--where learners learn to engage with the text to enjoy reading pleasure.

    Now, I'm in search of some effective methods of teaching literature (Literary Pedagogy)I appreciate you to participate in this discussion.


    Morakane Madiba

    Contextual and transformation teaching literature.... 

  • Jennifer StGeorge added an answer:
    Images on children's smile types and their association with play?

    Messinger, Fogel, and others have researched this. I would love some images to support my understanding of implications for father-child play.

    Jennifer StGeorge

    thank you for these. I am looking for quite specific information on the smile types, duplay, duchenne, etc how these relate to children's level of joy, what contexts they are found in, in order to be able to measure more precisely their affect etc within play.

  • Philip Mukonyi added an answer:
    How can family-school partnrships help students at different tier levels of support in a Multitiered systems of support (MTSS)?

    Think about parent involvement in school. Its benefits and challenges to both students and parents.

    Philip Mukonyi

    I wish to refer you to the work of Dr. Benard Omenge Nyatuka on this topic. Please reach him on his work is on the net. 


  • Kevin Larkin added an answer:
    What teaching techniques or behaviors are conducive to develop a positive interpersonal Teacher-Student Relationship?

    I am searching articles about Teacher-Student Relationship.

    Kevin Larkin

    My sense from teaching both primary students and then pre-service teachers who will one day be primary school teachers is that the key to developing relationships with students is a) know your discipline well (as they want to learn) and b) know them as learners well (as they want to know that they are valued). This is obviously difficult with large cohorts - but just because it is difficult does not mean that it is impossible. 

  • Gurinder Singh added an answer:
    What classroom-based studies K-12 focused on student questioning?

    Marty Nystrand noted that the best predictor for a dialogic spell was a student question. Gordon Wells reminds us that the question that most needs answering is one students want to answer. (Apologies for my poor paraphrasing). I want to look at student questioning and am interested in identifying classroom based studies that included a look at student questions/questioning patterns...  I welcome your responses...thanks

    Gurinder Singh

    We have been conducting research on student questioning in science education here at our institute. It is also the research topic of my PhD thesis which I am presently pursuing here. We are interested in student talks/discussions/arguments and investigation/explorations initiated by students’ authentic questions (questions for which they do not know the answers). We have explored different settings/contexts for engaging students in discussions and investigations with minimal teacher guidance particularly during question generation process. We have been looking at literature related to student questioning, student talk, student argumentation, classroom discourse and related topics and have compiled a list of the references in Zotero. You can go to this link or search ‘student questioning’ in groups in Here we have a list of around 185 references, many of which are on student questioning. People who have done work on student questioning include James T. Dillon, Christine Chin, Alison King, Hans Van Der Meij, Jonathan Osborne and Arthur C. Graesser.

    Do you know who are the people those are presently working on student questioning? If you know, please share the information with me. Also if you can suggest some conferences on related topics where I can present my work, it will be helpful to me. If you are interested knowing more about my work, we can interact further.

  • A. S. CohenMiller added an answer:
    How to analyze the fluency of learners' written production?

    To analyze the fluency of a learner written production, I used total number of words per t-unit (W/T) and total number of words per clause (W/C). Is there any other effective way to do so?

    A. S. CohenMiller

    There is one approach I found particularly useful - - but it is a full system and not sure it could be transferred for just one instance.

  • Margarita Chavez added an answer:
    What are the best processes of students' progress tracking?

    APP seems to be the only system used in the UK schools? what about the other curricula? how are the using students' assessment data to help them achieve to their fullest potential.

    Margarita Chavez

    Have you attempted to use the Student Involved Data Use-SIDU? I am in the process of putting up a data wall in my classroom and I am going to give my students a number rather than their name. They will have a visual of what their strengths and weaknesses are and hopefully take responsibility on focusing on what they need to work on.

  • Kevin Heller added an answer:
    Is there a scale to mesure student perception of Open Educational Ressources (OER) ?

    I want to know all variables -and items- related to student perception of OER and their impact on pedagogical issues.

    Kevin Heller

    Not that I'm aware of -- but part of the problem is that there is no one definition of OER.

  • Ranjita Santra added an answer:
    What observation tools for analytics of formative assessment in classrooms are known?

    Can you share your experience and instrument with us? We are looking for an instrument to analyze our video tapes from classes.

    Many thanks,


    Ranjita Santra

    Formative Assessment Toolkit
    Learn the strengths and weaknesses of each tool. You’ll need several to meet every classroom situation. These are my fab five tools for formative assessment.

    1. Socrative
    Socrative can be used for quick quizzes and also on the fly, as I've already shared. Here's another feature. Before class, I create quizzes that we can play as a game called Space Race. The website automatically divides the class into teams. Kids know what color team they're on and can look at the rockets racing one another on the board. I don't always record the grade, particularly when I know I have more teaching to do.

    The advantage of Socrative is that it gives me percentages that I can use as a grade if we're ready for that. You can even use it for traditional quizzes if desired.

    2. Kahoot
    Kahoot lets us build fun quizzes. Students use computers, cell phones, or other devices to join in the game. You can create flashcards for review. You can also embed videos and use Kahoot as part of the teaching process, or students can create review games to share. One disadvantage is that students can use aliases. While I can see overall how the class is doing, unlike Socrative, I can’t see the patterns of which unfamiliar nickname is struggling.

    Otherwise, I knew this one was a winner when I finished ten minutes early on the last day of school and one class asked to play SAT vocab review in Kahoot.

    3. Zaption
    I’m in-flipping my class and using videos. But just as we know that it's better to ask questions throughout the text rather than only at the end of the chapter, you should also ask questions after a topic is covered in the video and not wait until the end. Zaption lets you embed questions within the video. Students can't move forward in the video until they can correctly answer the question. Whether you’re flipping your classroom or in-flipping, this is a powerful tool.

    You'll need to upgrade your Zaption plan to embed it in your learning management system, but you can test it out on their site for free to see if it works for you.

    4. Backchannel Chat Tools
    Backchannel chat -- a live chat that accompanies class discussion -- is a great way to do exit ticket activities. While these chat tools aren't anonymous, Chatzy, Today’s Meet, or Ning can be powerful. Students can take notes as you teach together, and you can check for understanding by having them type answers to questions. Another riff on this would be group note taking in Google Docs. (If you need to have anonymous chat, you could set something up in Google Forms.)

    One tip: If I ask a question and want everyone to answer, my rule is that you cannot repeat a previous answer -- each response must be slightly different and add something to what we know. Afterward, export the chat and share it with the class as notes for the day.

    5. No BYOD? Plickers and Mobile Scanners help out
    But what if you have no computers, no cell phones, no nothing? Do you have a smartphone or tablet? If so, you've got two simple answers.

    For verbal questions: Log into Plickers and create a page for each student. This tool will code in the student's name and answers. Hand each student their plicker card and ask a question. The student will hold the card up in the direction of their answer. Looking at the class through the camera on your smartphone inside the Plicker app, you’ll see the name of each student and whether he or she got the answer right to the question you just asked! BAM! (Hat tip to Richard Byrne for teaching me about Plickers in a recent interview.)

    For quick quizzes: QuickKey is one mobile scanning app for the iPhone. There are several others, such asZipGrade and GradeCam. The disadvantage of this method is that your questions must be multiple choice. You print out the short form and students bubble it in. Use your smartphone to immediately know what students know with a snap of a picture.

  • Siavash Omidinia added an answer:
    Can you please tell me what are some proven Middle School Character Education programs that schools or afterschool programs can implement?

    We would like to add a character education component to an afterschool program and would like to see what curriculum and assessment tools we can use for middle school students.

    Siavash Omidinia

     The students can actually be engaged in cultural activities in their communities in order to learn how to accept and mix with the different ethnic groups in their communities

    Can you please tell me what are some proven Middle School Character Education programs that schools or afterschool programs can implement? - ResearchGate. Available from: [accessed Aug 16, 2016].

    Can you please tell me what are some proven Middle School Character Education programs that schools or afterschool programs can implement? - ResearchGate. Available from: [accessed Aug 16, 2016].

  • Tanja Westfall-Greiter added an answer:
    What do we know about students' experiences of inclusion and exclusion in public schools?

    We are setting up a research project at the University of Innsbruck to collect experiential data on inclusion and exclusion in Austrian schools.

    Tanja Westfall-Greiter

    Dear Hassan, thank you for your interest. We'll be doing data collection this coming year, assuming the grant comes through, so preliminary results won't be coming until 2017/18, but we'll be updating the project hear in ResearchGate.

    Best regards, Tanja

  • Michael Longinow added an answer:
    Do you think that your learners are interculturally competent?

     Well, I am writing a research article about the development of intercultural competence in EFL classroom, and I want to know whether learners could reflect, understand and interpret the differences and similarities that exist between their culture and the target one. So, to what extent do you think that your method of teaching, the content being taught and the materials used can boost your learners' intercultural competence? What are the best techniques that can be adopted in the classroom to enhance learners' intercultural competence?

    Thanks for your coopeartion!

    Michael Longinow

    The ongoing research on intercultural competence is important for our students and for scholars. But my sense is that students' competency with cultures requires physical interaction with people very different than themselves. Experiential learning (Dewey) is a vital element in this teaching/learning journey, and I've been reading recently Michael Polanyi about plausibility structures. It's crucial to help students rethink the cultural plausibility structures in their lives and experience, and in the worlds they navigate. In-class role play is a beginning, but projects outside of class are even more important. I have students interview someone who doesn't speak their language, who does not share their faith background, and who has come to the U.S. within the last few decades. The assignment is to hear, to understand, to learn. It's been a successful teaching model — stressful for some students, but overall a fine vehicle for their cross-cultural learning.

  • Azadeh Rooholamini added an answer:
    Is there any experimental study on the self- regulated learning in faculty evaluation?

    I am interested which experimental studies of the self-regulated learning in faculty or teacher evaluation exist.

    Azadeh Rooholamini

    Thanks alot.

  • Jorge Valenzuela added an answer:
    Someone knows a specific study on demotivation in university (non-EFL)?

    I search studies on demotivation process in high education context (Non- EFL)

    Jorge Valenzuela

    Thanks Nicholas !!!
    Of course I appreciate your kindness in sharing these references
    Thanks again

  • Mustafa Çevik added an answer:
    Attitude scale (Science, Technology, Maths...) for with intellectual disability students?

    Does anyone have article /articles attitude scale (Science, Technology, Maths...) for with intellectual disability students?

    Mustafa Çevik

    Thanks Dr. Malini Ganapathy,

    Best Regards

  • Tamar Apel Campo added an answer:
    Pedagogy of social studies:Elementary Education: What are the points to be noted while doing desk review and class room observation ?
    This is for MA Elementary Education course term paper assignment on pedagogy of social studies. Any chapter from social studies-standard 6,7,or 8 to be selected.
    Tamar Apel Campo

    Focus on the students actions, are they bored, for how long? are they talking with friends about the subject? are they having "a lost look" on their faces? Are they engaged in the topic? for how long? Do they talk in a friendly interested way with the teacher? Are they cooperative or subordinated?

  • Paul G.P. Herfs added an answer:
    May I please have studies conducted on implementation of guidance and counseling in pre-tertiary schools?

    Information on what implementation studies have been conducted, methodologies, and reference materials

    Paul G.P. Herfs

    Hi Eric,

    I can help you out by sending you an article I wrote about 20 years ago in the Journal for the Advancement of Counselling.

    Kind regards,

    Paul Herfs.

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The enormous increase in the number of students at Dutch universities in the sixties and seventies made it impossible for professors to deal with the many different questions students confronted them with. New professionals, student counsellors/psychologists and student advisers entered the universities. Three levels of counselling can be distinguished: 1) counselling by professors (for problems linked with the course of study); 2) counselling by student advisers in the faculty or department (for problems concerning study planning); 3) counselling by student counsellors/psychologists (for other — e.g., personal problems). This article focuses on the activities of the studentMeasures taken by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science in the past ten years to cut down expenses created a severe deterioration of the students' situation (e.g., the limitation of the right to a grant from a period of six years in 1990 to a period of four years in 1996, the lowering of the donation part of the grant, and a restriction of the duration of the studies). As a consequence students feel they are under great pressure. Students therefore need to be well informed about rules and regulations. Counsellors try to limit drop-out rate as much as possible. Maintaining a high standard of facilities at Utrecht University (such as student counselling, a broad range of student societies and adequate information service) will be the challenge for the future.
      Full-text Article · Dec 1995 · International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling
  • Michelle Lowe added an answer:
    Any experiences/thoughts/opinions/research articles, with regards to effective teaching of primary school children with EAL?

    My research is an exploration of effective teaching practice when teaching children with English as an Additional Language (EAL) in the primary classroom.  Focusing on the challenges, experiences and continued professional development of teachers, exploring provision and support for students with EAL in the primary classroom.

    Michelle Lowe

    Thank you for your answers everyone, much appreciated.

  • Kenneth Mahrer added an answer:
    How can we encourage students to use feedback to improve writing skills?

    What are your thoughts about how we can encourage students to use feedback to improve their writing skills?  Based on my research and years of teaching writing, error correction and feedback on organization and style (for both first and second language writers) seems to be useful for the student only some of the time.  I have found in teaching both undergraduate and graduate level academic writing, some of the students respond very quickly to my comments and suggestions, others don't.  Any ideas on how to make the feedback more effective?

    Kenneth Mahrer

    I have been teaching short courses in technical writing at universities, at companies, at technical conventions, and for technical organizations like The Society of Petroleum Engineers.  Bottom line, the participants have spanned from senior, professional technical writers with 20+ years of experience thru undergraduates.  I note this because of the variations in experience and motivation brought to the class by the participants.  What I have found, empirically speaking, is that students, except advance graduate students, don't bring enough experiences and thus motivation to relate and thus absorb many of the concepts within the course.  Simple, they have not been "battered" enough by editors and supervisors on documents that are critical to their work and professional progression to appreciate the many of the critical points and cornerstones of successful technical writing. Many of the undergrads that took my courses were forced to by faculty.  They just did not have necessary experiences to engage in the course.  In contrast the professionals who took the course engaged immediately and were hungry for ways to improve the success of their writing.  So, what I am saying?  I appreciate your question, but I think your fighting a losing battle.  Some students are interested in engaging in anything and everything, so you can never engage.  I suppose that's why we have a grading system.  Some earn A+'s, other barely squeak through.  I salute your attempt to find a way, but I think this battle is much bigger than simply finding a strategy or a gimmick or something similar.  Students are old enough to make choices, at least that's how we run our system.  Those who choose not to engage, do so knowing the consequences.  It is sort of like doing drugs.  No one today takes drugs not knowing the potential consequences.  It is an over choice.  I suggest you design your course to fill it with useful, beneficial, and needed information and let those "horses" who wish to drink from your "stream" do so.  They will wall away with the benefits of your course and interacting with such a concerned person.   ....  Well, that's how I see it.  -Cheers.

About Pedagogy and Education

Pedagogy is the holistic science of education. It may be implemented in practice as a personal, and holistic approach of socialising and upbringing children and young people.

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