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Peatlands - Science topic

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The attached objects (organic?) are gathered from a Neogene lacustrine succession overlying a coal seam. I couldn't determine what are these? I would be greatful if anyone could identify these objects.
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Enterobacter cloacae
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Hello everyone!
I would like to ask for your help for my master's research proposal. Currently, I have been reviewing the peatland ecosystem services in Indonesia, Therefore, I need to read articles about that. Currently, I have collected 27 articles from Scopus and Google Scholar (attached). In my opinion, there are still a lot of articles out there that haven't been detected. So, if you know that, please let me know.
Thanks in advance.
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Also look at other countries :)
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Hi, here is a palynomorph type from a peatland in central China (31 N, ~ 2000 m). I asked around but it still cannot be identified. It would be really nice if anyone can help.
1. It is a small object, around 30 micron.
2. It has a sculpture that looks like Plantago but there is no aperture.
3. It usually crumples. If we could unfold it, a Cyperaceae pollen shape would likely fit.
4. Most interestingly, in our pollen diagram, its percentage abruptly increases, in an opposite way to Cyperaceae pollen, but the terrestrial pollen taxa show no obvious changes. At the same time, the organic matter content of peat greatly increases. With this, I guess something has happened in the local vegetation. I hope this is a clue that can help identify this object (please see the figures).
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Arya Pandey Hi Arya, we observed quite some specimens and there is no fissure.
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Terrestrial soils are the primary sources for greenhouse gas such as nitrous oxide (N2O) (Tian et al., 2020). We commonly measure the soil surface fluxes of this gas, however, I wonder how can we link the ground fluxes of N2O to the net changes of atmospheric concentrations of this gas. For example, how can we build the relationships between the net changes of atmospheric concentrations of N2O to the net emissions of N2O from croplands due to fertilization or to net emissions of N2O from peatlands due to drainage.
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The flux of a given chemical substance and its deposition rate determine the lower boundary conditions of the advection-diffusion-reaction equation that governs atmospheric transport and chemical reactions. By solving this system you will get the desired relationship mentioned in your question. In the majority of realistic situations, it is difficult to obtain an analytical solution and we rely on the numerical solutions provided by atmospheric chemical transport models.
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My group is considering getting a new oxygen sensor for peatland soils and soils under thawing permafrost conditions. Our current sensor (Pyroscience) works well in water and in air, but has issues in a soil matrix (the value needs a long time to stabilise and starts drifting off soon after). Plan is to use it for measurements during the field work, no long time observation (for now) necessary. I appreciate any experience shared and/or recommendations.
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Please refer the paper mentioned below which will give you the latest information:
Levintal, Elad, Yonatan Ganot, Gail Taylor, Peter Freer-Smith, Kosana Suvocarev, and Helen E. Dahlke. "An underground, wireless, open-source, low-cost system for monitoring oxygen, temperature, and soil moisture." SOIL 8, no. 1 (2022): 85-97.
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My project is about methane cycling, I'm planning to measure the CH4 and CO2 concentrations from the Soil sample. Please suggest some protocols which works best for you
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Dear Vineel,
An interesting topic to be discussed. In this regard, I send you three papers dealing with the issue of measuring CO2 and CH4 gas fluxes. The first paper compares different gas emission quantification techniques, the second one explains the Chamber technique and in the third one
Eddy covariance system was used for measuring gas fluxes. In my opinion you may first read the method part and if it is useful for your target then follow reading references introduced and used in each paper. Good luck.
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I am working on a paper Assessing the effectivity of biotic indices in elucidating the health of freshwater habitats in peatland ecosystem. Here, I am assessing the performance of the ff indices: BMWP, BMWPThai, BMWPViet, ASPT, ASPTThai, ASPTViet & SingScore. However, I am not so sure if it would be okay to test the effectivity of these indices considering that we did not take samples on physico-chemical parameters due to budget constraint. We only collected the macroinvertebrates. In addition, the area does not have a pristine condition. We sampled only sites which are less to heavily disturbed. I would be glad if you can share your expertise on this study. Thank you.
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Thank you very much Wim Kaijser and Andrew Paul on your thoughts and ideas on this study. This is greatly appreciated.
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Now I'm studying about farmers' disaster mitigation strategies in the forest/peatland fires prone area. Is there any effective for mitigating or reducing the forest/peatland fires impact on their agriculture?
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The farmers can make fire insurance to reduce the impact of Forest fire.
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Any recommendations about georadar and Remote Sensing works about peatlands in Grenoble, France?
Thanks!
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You can kindly go through this ----
Modelling northern peatland area and carbon dynamics since ...
https://gmd.copernicus.org › gmd-12-2961-2019
PDF by C Qiu · 2019
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Hi. I am looking for advice on purchasing equipment to measure parameters in peatland waters. Some of the parameters could be total nitrogen or phosphorus. What is our experience? Thanks
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You can measure oxygenation using bright steel bars, and pH and salinity using meters
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I've been measuring the gas emission of a lab-scale peatland experiment with a electrochemical sensor. The output of the sensor measures the concentration in ppm. I want to change this data to EF. What other variables that I need to measure? So far I've also been measuring the emission flowrate and the mass loss rate of the sample. How is the step-by-step procedure to process the data afterwards?
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I hope you're doing well. I am not sure what kind of gas you're experimenting on, but the first step to calculate the emission factor of a specific type of gas is to find its proximate analysis. After you find the composition, you can use the EPA emission factor for each component and calculate the total emission factor of the gas as a summation of the emission factors of its components. In fact, if you are working with common gas types such as NG, Hydrocarbons etc., you can easily find the factors in EPA as a unit number. The attached file includes summarized emission factors of the most common gas and fuel types which might be helpful. It is also worth mentioning that the factors provided in this file, are based on volumetric or caloric units of fuels and gases and you should convert ppm (part per million) to the units of the emission factors provided for the gas of your interest in these tables. You can also find the original EPA emission factor files by searching on the internet or visiting https://www.epa.gov/.
Best of luck,
Saba
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Of course, in the long-term perspective rewetting of peatlands has the potential to fulfil the multiple restoration goals including those targeting on climate, water, and species protection. However, in particular if long-term drained and agricultural used sites are rewetted often shallow lakes are formed due to peat loss and soil shrinkage. Such inundation could be problematic if areas are affected which still have a higher conservation value due to occurrence of rare orchids or butterflies like Euphydras aurinia. Such a case seems to be an exception but indeed such remnants can be occasionally found in larger drained riparian peatlands located in depressions or other areas which were less affected by drainage measures. Is there any publications available reporting on (non-intended) negative consequences on biodiversity due to rewetting measures?
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Peatlands are strategic areas for climate change mitigation because of their matchless carbon stocks. Drained peatlands release this carbon to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2). Peatland rewetting effectively stops these CO2 emissions, but also re-establishes the emission of methane (CH4).
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Due to many wetlands or marshes in tropical areas, it is hard to detect peat depth directly using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) or ground penetrating radar (GPR) on the land surface. Are there some airbone instruments to be used for mapping peat depth? Can ERT or GPR be placed on aerocraft to measure peat depth? If one or both of them can, how do atmosphere and vegetation canopy affect the measurements?
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try to use an aerogravity survey and separate the Bouguer gravity map at very shallow depth. or apply the downward continuation at successive shallow levels
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I need some reference paper for identifying gas in peatland area using ERT method.
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This question needs a lot of questions to clear it and to detect the suitable geophysical method as
1) depth of investigation
2) Area of study
3) thicknesses of peatland
if it is shallow try microgravity it gives negative anomaly due to the low density of gaseous areas or ERT which reflects higher resistivity with respect to the surroundings
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Hello to everyone,
I have an issue concerning the climate (bio climate) variables for my Maxent model. 
I am writing my master thesis about the distribution of species in a mountainous region of the Andes. 
Firstly I was using Bioclim interpolation data and now CHELSA interp. data as my climate outputs. After some considerations and discussions with a fellow student of mine, I am highly unsure if my choice was the right one. 
THE PROBLEM: The climate station density in this region is very low. Especially because my investigation area lies > 4000 m a.s.l and the only and highest available station is at a hight of 3400 m a.s.l and does not represent the species corresponding climate. So I am somehow dependent on the interpolated data from CHELSA or BIOCLIM, I guess.
1.Question: What can I do? I was using a DEM (30 arc sec.) and the BioClim and Chelsa data (also 30 arc sec.). 
2. Question: Can I use a DEM (SRTM 1 arc sec.) and downscale the BioClim data? I read a lot of times that a downscaling of BioClim data is no reliable at all. Is there another probability for me to solve this problem? 
I hope getting some advices and answers from you.
Thank you in advance Fabian
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Hi all,
I am Trang. I have problem when used the Maxent to predict the potential distribution of some rare speices in Vietnam. I have 2 file *.ascii, including DEM and bio9. Althought all information of these file are similar (please see the attached files), I can not run two files in the Maxent. Can you all please help me?
I am looking forward to hearing from you.
Thank you.
Trang
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Hi everyone,
I'm looking for a global wetland distribution data that would allow me to get a sense of wetland density, especially peatlands, at a 0.25x0.25deg spatial resolution.
So far, the best thing I've found is this: http://bstocker.net/data-and-code/
Data from the WWF Global Water database is unfortunately not very detailed.
Thanks for your help!
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You can get the time-series data
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We are looking for a field portable CH4 and CO2 analyzer for field custom chamber fluxes in peatlands at high elevation (~3000 up to ~4500 m), lower temperatures (as low as 5oC), with lots of rain in the Andes of Colombia. These two models (Picarro G4301 GasScouter and Los Gatos Research LGR-ICOS™ M-GGA-918 Microportable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer) are both field portable and manufacturers claim they will work at these elevations (LGR would need to add a larger pump). We would be using them with custom chambers to do NEE and ER measurements. Any experience with either or both of these under field conditions? I have heard that the pump on the GasScouter can produce small amounts of methane-- anyone seen sufficient flux for that to be a problem? Other strengths or weaknesses?
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methane emissions from the GasScouter pump are generally negligible for soil flux studies. The pump off-gassing is specified on the datasheet (<0.1ppb/min CH4 and <1ppb/min CO2 in a recirculation configuration with 1L chamber, https://www.picarro.com/support/library/documents/gasscoutertm_g4301_analyzer_datasheet_data_sheet# ).
Please note that completely carbon free emission pumps are difficult to obtain and/or expensive to manufacture. However, we are continually evaluating alternatives to improve our products. Therefore, please don’t hesitate to reach out to us directly to discuss your requirements (https://www.picarro.com/company/contact_us ).
Best, Magdalena
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I am considering how best to report C:P and P:N stoichiometric ratios measured in peat substrate. The ratios can either be reported as gram:gram or mole:mole, yet will differ considerably depending on which convention is used due to the difference in atomic weights. My intended audience is Ecologists/GeoChemists. As far as I am aware (from Googling and asking colleagues) Chemists favor mole:mole, and this is also the convention for the famous Redfield ratio (C:N:P). However, Soil Scientists (as far as I can tell) favor gram:gram? I'm curious to hear some thoughts and opinions on this! Thanks for your time.
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I have reported ratios (for plants, soils, porewater nutrients) using either molar or mass ratios, with the choice depending on where I was publishing and what I was doing with the data. If you are reporting the ratios as simple descriptors of the peat and soil scientists generally use mass ratios, go ahead and do that too. If you are comparing plant and soil ratios to assess relative nutrient limitation, I’ll suggest that it doesn’t really matter as long as you use the same mass or molar units for both plants and soil (although, as John L. Stoddard pointed out, there is a compelling argument for using molar ratios here). If you are specifically interested in stoichiometry (e.g., is there enough N and P to make a specific biogeochemical reaction happen), then molar ratios probably make the most sense.
Whatever you choose, please be sure to clearly report your units. There’s nothing worse than seeing ratios and not knowing if they are mass or molar ratios; numbers are pretty useless without units.
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talking about carbon in tropical peatlands
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It is takes time to do Normal Burned Ration (NBR) of satellite image.
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I think, should you need for literature review
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I am trying to calculate the LST of three land types existing in permafrost regions of NWT, I am using Landsat-8.
Is the thermal imagery of Landsat-8 a good source for deriving LST of a local scale?
And,
I was wondering,
which time of year is the best time for this process?
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It would be a good idea to compare the interpretations based on different seasons of the year. Winter would give you an idea of where areas with limited snow cover occur, and so the ground is likely to be very cold. Areas with large amounts of snow would be possible areas of discontinuous permafrost or where if might be absent. In summer, the topography would give you a good idea of where palsas/lithalsas might be present and the vegetation tell you where peat plateaus may occur. Look up the appearance of these on aerial photography. Do not forget to carry out a thorough literature search and incorporate the results of prior field studies by others to guide your interpretations. Otherwise you my end up clashing with the results of good field and laboratory studies. Check with the appropriate Territorial government bodies who carry out these studies as well as the GSC. Also check your interpretations against the available climate data, especially mean annual freezing and thawing indices based on seasons.
Stuart.
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This can be a possible biological extraction method for iron ore extraction from the soil that would be too lean to be ore. as i know, bog iron deposits do not regularly correspond with location of iron ore deposit.
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Dear Mr. Bhowmick,
you are right that bog iron ore is no longer a feasible target for the exploitation of Fe. It was only done on the Jutland peninsula , Denmark, for a limited period of time and during wartimes in Germany. Iron ranks among the commodities where you do not face any shortage during the near future. Thus botanical extraction of Fe will certainly not be feasible in view of the large banded Fe formations. There is only one ore mineralization known to me which has been "harvested" in an economic way similar to what you are going to accomphlish with Fe. It is algal gold in rivulets and creeks. It is biological concentrated and it is replenished within men´s lifetime. The supergene organic accumulation only worked in areas where you encounter high background values of gold. You can compare the mechanism of gold concentration with your bog iron ores. Algal structures are still to be seen in the Au nuggets and prove the afore-mentioned ore-forming process.
Kind regards
H.G.Dill
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My project just bought UGGA LGR(TM), we are going to use in tropical peatlands. But it seems the distributor could not provide a procedure for GHGs measurement and also the calculation?.
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Ok Taryono. I hope I have helped.
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As we know, there are differences between mineral soils and peat soils. Therefore, the measurement and the method of soil sampling for analyzing soil carbon content will be different compared to mineral soils. How can I measure the soil carbon content in peatland?
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To me, LOI gives you the measurement of organic matter not carbon content. It is better to follow the method of carbon estimation by Walkly and Bllack in modified form. In this case, very less amount of peat sample could be taken such that large volume of standard dichromate solution may not be required.
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.
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Human activities, through land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities, affect changes in carbon stocks between the carbon pools of the terrestrial ecosystem and between the terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere. Which has to much extent contribute to GHG.
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It seems to me that the global discourse and agenda around land restoration has a strong bias toward forest ecosystems. Are other types of ecosystems (wetlands, rangelands, tundra, peatlands, etc.) under-represented in land restoration activities? Does the bias toward trees contribute to inappropriate interventions? I am wondering if anyone has done an analysis that can provide evidence to confirm or debunk my suspicion.
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Here is another by William Bond that may be relevant:
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Peat harvesting requires draining the peatland. This is done by digging large ditches and allowing the site to drain. What would be the total volume of water (in m 3 ) drained from one ditch in 1 day?
You have the following information:
· The water table (upside down triangle) is maintained at 30 cm below the surface and
follows the surface
· The ditches are 30 m apart (i.e., from centre to drainage ditch is 15 m)
· The edge of the ditches are 10 cm lower than the centre of the field
· The ditch is 100 cm deep and 250 m long
· The hydraulic conductivity of the peat is 5.0x10 -4 cm/s (0.0005 cm/s)
· There is no vertical loss (recharge or evaporation) in the ditch
· The system is underlain by impermeable clay
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Hi,
I am currently seeking information on custom sequence capture. My project is using captured metagenomics focusing upon the CH4 cycle in peatlands. I hope to use the HyperCap workflow and use Roche SeqCap-probes. I was wondering if anyone is familiar with this workflow and know if sequencing facilities offering this service?
Basically I am seeking out a facility to perform the library, probe hybridisation, and sequencing steps (extractions will be performed in our labs here).
Anyone know if facilities offering this service in Europe.
Cheers.
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Thanks Sandeep!
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Hello to everyone,
after searching for hours in several forums I decided to ask here for help. I am working on a Species distribution model (SDM) and need to calculate the 'Topographic Wetness Index' (TWI) for my water dependent plant species in the Andes.
What is the best (or lets say the easiest) way to calculate this index in ArcMap? One of my issues is that I am working with DEM in 1 km² grid size (bioclim data). Does it make any sence to calculate the index with this pixel size? Or can I calculate the index in a DEM with better resolution (e.g. 30 or 90 m) and convert it afterwards into 1 km²?
I would be thankful for any help and/or literature recommendation!
Regards
Fabian
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Helo Fabian usually use SAGA GIS and then import to ArcGIS
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Lowland peatlands are very important in the neighbouring island of Ireland, associated with large sluggish river-lake systems (e.g. the Bann / Lough Neagh). Their restoration has exercised many people, so i wonder if your work encompasses this?
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My coverage is Ireland, The Netherlands and Estonia.
Regards,
Sake van der Schaaf
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Hello, everyone!
Do you know how is better construct a dam to measure runoff from peatland?
We can not decide WHERE locate it. And WHAT a design of that.
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Could you provide a map of your study area and some description on the "soil profile"?
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I refer to both lotic and lentic waters in Europe.
I am particularly interested in bog/peatland classification.
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Comprehensive volume describes how ecosystem services-based approaches can assist in addressing major global and regional water challenges, such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and water security in the developing world, by integrating scientific knowledge from different disciplines, such as hydrological modelling and environmental economics. As well as consolidating current thinking, the book also takes a more innovative approach to these challenges, involving disciplines such as psychology and international law. Empirical assessments at the national, catchment, and regional levels are used to critically appraise this systemic approach, and the merits and potential limitations are presented. The practicalities of this approach with regard to water resources management, nature conservation, and sustainable business practices are discussed, and the role of society in underpinning the concept of ecosystem services is explored. Presenting new insights and perspectives on how to shape future strategies, this contributory volume is a valuable reference for researchers, academics, students, and policy makers, in environmental studies, hydrology, water resource management, ecology, environmental law, policy and economics, and conservation biology.
Enclosed below are some interesting PDFs for further reading...
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Dear all,
I was developing water table depth model for tropical peatland in R environment. I am currently on calibration stage and want to try the hydroPSO package. I read the package guidance and document tutorial based on MODFLOW but still have no clue about the idea. Maybe anyone had other practical resources? I was expecting something like solver in excel but don't know how to get there in R environment? 
Thanks a lot 
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The inversions of vegetation seem to allow the increase of phytocenotic biodiversity. The main factors are often ecosystem topography and evolution.
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Thank you for your remarks. When I speak of evolution I do not speak of genetic evolution. My remarks consider the evolution of the ecosystem linked to the process of self-organization of vegetation in relation to time and space: this refers to chorology and plant succession.
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Dear researcher, professor, practician, Hydrologist
my name is Ali, I am a student of Gifu university. my research is comparison two small catchment with different vegetation types in central Japan. one part of my research is water quality.
I was measure water quality from broadleaf deciduous and evergreen coniferous forest. and one of my parameters in dissolved oxygen (DO). 
based on my data, DO in coniferous evergreen is always lower than in broadleaf deciduous. who knows the reason?
I try to connect with baseflow data because baseflow in coniferous evergreen is lower than broadleaf deciduous. but some literature said groundwater have low DO. 
based on my data, DO in coniferous evergreen is always lower than in broadleaf deciduous. who knows the reason?
Thank you very much for your help
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Thank you very much, Dr. Ali Hussein and Dr.Jo-Anne Joyce. I get the point and match with the pH data.
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Something simple but solid, for a multitemporal study. Thanks.
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Dear Daniella, I'm not an expert in remote sensing, so other colleagues might help you there. Nevertheless, be aware that quite a bunch of "bofedales-like" ecoystems in the Peruvian Andes are inundated only during some months (i.e. during the rainy season, between November and April), so, you should consider this fact when searching for the best available sattelite images. Best, Jan
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Dear colleagues
I would like to cooperate on DNA variability of oribatid mites from  some habitats of Arctic tundra especially from submerged Sphagnum sp.(genera Trimalaconothrus, Malaconothrus, Tyrphonothrus, Hermannia, Limnozetes, Hydrozetes .... or unsorted oribatid species). Can somebody help me please? Many thanks Josef
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Dear Cyrille
It would be nice to determine your material of mites from Svalbard and try to see on their DNA. I have good experience with determination of Svalbard oribatids, because almost 20 years ago I have spent 5  months in Lab of  Torstein Solhoy in Bergen University working of oribatids from Scandinavia, Tibet, Bangladesh es well es more than 150 soil sample form Svalbard in his collection. Svalbard fauna of oribatid mites is interesting but comparatively poor regarding number of species in comparisom with fauna of Northern Continental Europe or Tropics a Subtropics and its determination is not difficult for me. Could you send me some oribatid mites from species determination as firt step for bacoding etc? Many thanks Josef
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I am mainly interested in saturated hydraulic conductivity studies which have been performed on freeze-thaw cycles with (milled) peat. Finally, I wish to know if freeze-thaw cylces can be considered a pedogenic process altering the pore size distributions of soils.
Cheers
Toby
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Der Sir,
thank you very much, I was not aware of the Whitfield paper as of yet.
More specifically, I am looking for papers studying the effect of freeze-thaw on pedogenesis (and related changes in soil hydraulic properties.)
Kind Regards
Tobias Weber
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We tested the use of a Russian D-auger in a near-intact and re-wetted bog in Ireland. As is stated in the literature, a box-type sampler is highly recommended for sampling peat substrate that is very fibrous and little decomposed. Now, there are different types of box-samplers, like Wardenaar, Jeglum, etc...Unfortunately we cannot produce a sampler on our own, and are therefore reaching out for any ideas and experiences you made using different samplers. Also, in case there are some hints which sampler is the most adequate for conducting a large peatland survey (i.e. not heavy and quick to use) for sampling fibrous peat, I would be very thankful!
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Thanks:) That is definitely useful and I will check how that works.
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Carbon estimation
secondary data
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Hi Dedi,
Not your fault, I should have read the question more carefully. 
There is a paper here http://www.nature.com/articles/srep26886 where the authors appear to have solved your problem. If you have not seen it, then it should be useful, and those authors will probably be better able to help you than me.
Good luck.
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I am trying to develop both numerical and physical model to investigate about the sediment transport phenomena of erodible material from peatland. Could you give me references about this topic?
Thank you
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Wow!  I think you addressed the drainage, drying and then expansion during periods of wetness making it unstable.  From appearances, the cracks remind me of road fill materials that crack due to saturation, develop a crack and perhaps drop, before the eventual landslide.  The crack becomes a place where even more water gathers and overloads the slope, resulting in slope failure.  However, I have to say that this peat failure is outside of my experience, but the mechanisms may be similar. The cracking of peat, expansion and delivery of peat, does it have any similarities to gully type delivery, or just slope failure, I did not see obvious channels that  were delivering peat, so I would guess mass failure, due to overloading with water and inability of the material to support its weight.  Does the ocean undercut the peat banks that could lead to peat slope failure?  It is not uncommon if it is a slope failure that changing vegetation from deep rooted species and perhaps a degree of disturbance or cultivation will alter the stability. 
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I'm starting a PHD on peatland restoration in Azores. I am looking at important themes such as regenerative sucession, pasture impacts on peatlands, peatland water chemistry, and rabbit impact on vegetation. Can anyone suggest an article, study, or an investigator to contact?
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I also working my PhD on peatland restoration especially on tropical peatland. Maybe you can see the article from Grace V. Blackham entitled Natural regeneration in degraded tropical peatland, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia: Implication for forest restoration.
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Can remote sensing techniques measure peatland thickness and peatland subsidence? What kind of satellites provide images for these proposes? 
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Peat thickness: not possible with remote sensing. Radar, whether it is satellite based or ground based, will not pass through the groundwater table, no matter if you choose the longest wavelength available. For measuring subsidence, SAR interferometry can be used to achieve centiometer accuracy. See for example studies  on the North coast of Java, Indonesia:
Chaussard, E.; Amelung, F.; Abidin, H.; Hong, S.H. Sinking cities in Indonesia: ALOS PALSAR detects rapid subsidence due to groundwater and gas extraction. Remote Sens. Environ. 2013, 128, 150–161.
Lubis, A.M.; Sato, T.; Tomiyama, N.; Isezaki, N.; Yamanokuchi, T. Ground subsidence in Semarang-Indonesia investigated by ALOS–PALSAR satellite SAR interferometry. J. Asian Earth Sci. 2011, 40, 1079–1088.
With the TerraSAR-X, measurements of land subsidence should be even more precise than with the ALO PALSAR, because of its shorter wavelength.
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Any tips, research notes or guidlines.
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One thing that you should consider is about acidic peat environment, because the common material for construction is not durable in this environment. hopefully, The link below could give you a guidance. Good luck
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Now , I study about peat forest fire. From literature, I got some information that Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a kind of remote sensing product is ideally suited to gathering detailed data on carbon inventories and dynamics in peat-lands, as well as monitoring moisture levels that are critical in evaluating the risk of fire. My questions are, How to get Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) data? Where?
Thank you
Sigit
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Hi Sigit,
Near Infrared spectroscopic data for a particular object can be collected either using a Spectroradiometer instrument on the ground (In situ) or it may be possible to extract through high resolution hyperspectral remote sensing data sets. Multispectral datasets may not be helpful in providing details. Another alternative is to check the JPL ASTER Spectral library for various minerals/vegetation spectra that you are interested in. They have a collection of more than 2000+ spectra of natural and human-made materials in the visible to thermal infrared wavelength region (0.4 µm to 25 µm).
Can you also share the details of the literature which you are referring to?
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 I have found two studies from North America (Craft et al 2008 and Robinson et al 2003) but none from Europe or Asia, and none from latitudes below 25 degrees.
Thanks
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May be of some interest here. Two papers come to my mind
Turetsky, M.R., A. Kotowska, J. Bubier, N. Dise, et al. 2014. A synthesis of methane emissions from 71 northern, temperate, and subtropical peatlands. Global Change Biology 20: 2183-2197
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I study the peatlands water outflows chemistry and dynamics.
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I agree with Miitta, the freezing of humic solutions causes precipitation as we have observed from marine pore water and fresh water. At 20 C, the stability of the solution depend on the concentration and the pH. If you avoid concentrated solutions at low pH, the humic solution will be stable for longer time.
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Does someone there knows the Ea of peat decomposition (some reference number, to have the idea)?
I am trying to reconcile in my mind the Q theory (Agren and Bosatta, 1996) with some measurement of Ea in long term bare fallows (Lefevre et al., 2013). And if everything is as I understood it, Ea in peatlands should be around 15-30 kJ rather than above 60 as in mineral soils (and Q is there applicable).
But I can't find a measurement now. 
I hope some of you could help me.
Bosatta, E., & Ågren, G. (1999). Soil organic matter quality interpreted thermodynamically. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 31, 1889–1891.
Lefèvre, R., Barré, P., Moyano, F. E., Christensen, B. T., Bardoux, G., Eglin, T., … Chenu, C. (2013). Higher temperature sensitivity for stable than for labile soil organic carbon- Evidence from incubations of long-term bare fallow soils. Global Change Biology, 20, 633–640. http://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12402
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P.S: Thanks!!
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What kind of worm is that? 
Were found at the salt marsh in Norfolk. Few cm long-- the field of view in the figure is about 5 cm by 3 cm .  
Mainly in suboxic sediment with high dissolved Fe2+ concentration (up to 0.5mM).
Thanks
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Dear Antler,
Those look like young ragworm (Nereidae), possibly Neresis sp., but I don't think your worm could be identified definitively from those photos since some of the characters useful for identification are not visible. There's  a good online key to polychaetes at http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/taxinfo/index2.html
Cheers, Matt
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Hi everyone.  I’m working in the first article of PhD. Basically I studied secondary succession in past pastured peatlands to evaluate its possible use as restoration strategies in Azores.. However I would like to compare my data with other similar studies but I can’t find any.
So I decided to ask for help for these questions:
-          Where exist pastured peatlands? (I know in U.K. , Scotland and Ireland must exist pastured peatland but I need articles)
-          What are the main changes in vegetation due to pasture in bogs?
-          Initial degenerative succession in pastured bogs must include predominance of herbaceous species …. Which species?
-          Is there a model of secondary succession related to regeneration of pastured bogs?
-          In pastured formations does the Sphagnum have the capacity persist?
-           How small patches of sphagnum recover after pasture activities?
thank you
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É o que fiz até ao momento... comparar com sucessão regenerativa de outras tipologias de ecossistemas. Em relação a turfeiras/pastagens os dados estão normalmente associadas a distúrbios de outra natureza.... mas gostar mesmo era ter dados de natureza semelhante e em ambientes semelhantes. Mas se não encontrar hei-de dar outra volta. Obrigada......
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Peat land development in tropical freshwater swamps
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I am working on the peatland formation in southwestern part of India
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In the Italian Po plan, towards the Po delta, there are several palaeo-branches of the Po river. Among the branches peatlands occur. Can the peatlands start burning spontaneously after a long hot and dry weather?
Many thanks for any hint.
Sincerely,
Davide
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Dear All,
thank you very much for your comments.
Sincerely,
Davide
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Cocopeat is the product processed from coconut husk by removing longer fibre. Mined peat is directly mined from earth. What is the difference between this two in terms of physical, chemical and biological characteristics? Advantages and disadvantages of this two material
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Dear Dr. Kalaivanan,
Cocopeat is a waste product of the industrial utilization of cocos fibers.
These products differ in particle size and density (precise physical and chemical are not available). The main uses are for potting mix suppliers, greenhouses, hydroponic growers, nursery and garden center professionals, horticulture and floriculture applications.
Cocopeat is offered, among others, in the form of potting soil, dark cocopeat, raw and buffered cocopeat. Cocos peat has the advantage of a renewable resource.
Mined peat is an organic sediment formed in moors, bogs.
Mined peat is a natural transformation product of herbal substances which are converted by the coalification process into various types of coal. The carbon is increasingly relatively enriched compared to the original quantities of hydrogen and oxygen. The degree of coalification is defined as follows:
degree of coalification             % C              % H             % O + N
______________________________________________________
Mined peat  (> 75 % H2O)     55 - 64           5 - 7             35 - 39
Brown coal, lignite                 60 - 75           4 - 8             17 - 34
Black coal, hard coal             78 - 90           4 - 6               4 - 19
Anthracite                              94 - 98            1 - 3               1 -  3
Graphite                                    100 
_______________________________________________________
The biological characteristic of mined peat varies considerably and depends on the respective places of origin, the climatic conditions and the original plant species.
Mined peat is of limited availability (fossil fuel) and must be processed in the immediate vicinity of the open pit.
Peat use:
Fuel, combustible, natural substrate, medical purposes such as mud bath, mud sauna, production of activated carbon.
Best regards,
Guenter Grundmann
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I am studying biodiversity of Diptera and I am looking for 5 bogs in this region
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thank you so much
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The accuracy of areas of peat fires are important component will be impact on the result of emission from peat fires. Most of the approaches used in the determination of peatfires areas based on burnt areas that derived from hotspot. The problem, burnt area just represent areas burnt scar in the above ground, we didn't know these of peat fire or no.
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Just using burnt area as measure of peat fire can be underestimation rather. Because, peat fires can be active for long time underneath. Peat fires are difficult to detect directly through remote sensing as there could be forest cover obscuring the direct detection as heat anomaly. The smoke product can be taken as surrogate to peat fire in such cases where direct detection of active fire is not possible. Burnt area can be used in cases where it suits anyway. Regards
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I am looking for information on practical applications of sustainable agricultural practices in peatlands. Thank you.
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  • yes, e.g. common reed and black alder:
"Paludiculture: peat formation and renewable resources from rewetted peatlands"
  • for further information on past and current research projects:
  • some publications (sorry, many only in German):
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I found 12 of these in my net, all with a very similar shape and quite hard.
The 2 pictures shows the two sides of the animal (?)
Thank you for your help.
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I have to disagree with being it a leech cocoon. except for only a few species, leeches lay there cocoons on stones or other hard substrates under water. Only Haemopis and Hirudo are amphibic/semi-aquatic species and have quite different, almost spongy cocoons.
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Restoration of the fern sites is much easier than the ombrotrophic bogs. I can't find is there any relationship between the type of peatlands and the peat forming plant growth after restoration. Available publications only describes the water table level or organic matter content between this two types of peatlands.
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Hello Bartłomiej,
You should have a look at http://www.gret-perg.ulaval.ca/ Their research is on peatland restauration. Several of their publications are on line.
Kind regards,
CJB
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Any (ideally somehow published) data on the costs of conversion of agricultural (or other) land to wetlands such as peatlands, alluvial or swamp forests, wet grassland or marshes would be helpful. I am especially interested in European examples. Thanks a lot!
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Thanks a lot for your great answers!
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My PhD research included geologic mapping and measurements of surface water and groundwater in the largest peatland in the Sierra Nevada, USA. The measurements show groundwater dominating the water budget in the 2nd half of the growing season. The mapping and measurements alone do not offer much insight to other areas or have much regional significance. The manuscript is similar to site specific studies published by agencies such as USGS, Forest Service, etc.  However, I cannot find a journal that publishes site specific studies like this one.  Any suggestions?
I have a second manuscript that uses indirect inversion to estimate parameters for a watershed scale numerical model.  The calibrated model is used to address the hydrologic response to changes in precipitation.  I am also working on a third manuscript that uses geostatistics to quantify changes in cover for two bryophyte species over 5 years.  These two papers will need to cite the first paper for information.  The first paper is 8,000 words long and cannot be reduced significantly without losing information, so combining it with one of the other papers is not possible.
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Hi!
For your first manuscript if you have used a lot of GIS to do it I would suggest ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information — Open Access Journal. I am suggesting it because it will give you a very fast response and because the accepted papers are immediately published online. So, if you need to publish it fast, it can be a good option and it is from ISPRS.
For your second manuscript I think you should consider the Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS).
Hope it helps!
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Over a period of 3 years I have annually collected data of vegetation in 250 plots of 1x1 m in an abandoned pasture (former a forested peatland). To compare I have also data on natural peatland and a recovered (intermediate) formation. Which are the best methods to establish tendencies on species behaviour through time? Thank you 
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If your are interested in exploring changes in composition of the plant communities - then probably an ordination technique such as non-metric multidimensional scaling, or even principal components analysis would be useful for discerning trends.
As already suggested graphs are useful to look at trends in cover and height of the total community, functional/structural groups, and common species.  Once you have identified tendencies, you can perform further analyses to evaluate trends using regression or mixed models.
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I have created a MODFLOW model in Groundwater Vistas and would like to simulate a bog that lies within the watershed. I am having difficulty deciding the best option to simulate this peatland in groundwater vistas and I believe the LAK3 package would be the best option but any input would be greatly appreciated.
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The answer to your question also depends on what aspect of the wetland/peatland you are trying to model.  Are you trying to model water movement, runnoff, water table level, or something else?
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In particular I am hoping to compile a resource in which any record of palaeo-environmental palaeoclimatic change is seen to occur that appears to be locally or regionally significant at any European or circum-Atlantic site between ca. AD400 & 400BC.
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Below is the comments of a scientist group whose lead author was James D. Ford. This paper goes along with the statements of the Harvard professor Heinrich D. Holland that said in 1978 earth was abnormally cold. Something dramatic happened in the 70s.
"Research conducted with the communities of Igloolik, Ulukhaktok, and Churchill in northern Canada documents increasing exposure to hazards associated with ice use for hunting and travel. This trend is related to changing ice conditions. Instrumental records show later ice freeze-up and earlier breakup since the late 1970s, increasing temperatures, and changes in weather in the case study communities. Elders and mature community members, drawing upon their traditional knowledge, describe similar changes in ice and other climate-related conditions in recent years."
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I used the Oakton PC Testr for a peatland study. The pH meter worked fine for about a week, then I started getting pH readings of ~12.0. I tried to recalibrate, but the sensor would not read anything remotely close to the pH value on the calibration solutions. A tech support representative told me I need to replace the sensor module for $77. I replaced it and the exact same thing happened. I ended up replacing it 3 times and ultimately decided I could not trust any of the pH measurements unless I calibrated before and after each field session, which was impractical. But at least I got Specific Conductivity!
I would appreciate it if anyone could explain why this happened. The tech support at Oakton would probably like to know too.
Good luck Junwei.
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In a peatland landscape, defining the "surface" (which is essential to physical measures such as microtopography, water table and thaw depth) can be problematic. The ground at my field site is entirely covered by different cryptogam species--Sphagnum, feather mosses and lichens (mostly Cladonia spp)--without any reference "bare ground" surface. There seems to be some consensus that the top of "dense" bryophyte cover, ie sphagnum, should be considered the "surface". For other bryophytes, some papers take the top of living and others take the bottom. For lichens, when it comes to deciding whether the tip of the Cladonia or the base of the Cladonia (the transition into "dead" portions of the plant), it becomes even less clear where to draw the line about the ground surface.
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Nice pictures, can you send it to me directly in my email.
Yes I know that it is not so easy to distinguished between dead and alive Spahgnum, so apparently you will help us to better asses this distinction and apperently it is your job to define the soil surface for Histosol ;-)
In WRB (2007) the object classified is: any material within 2 m from the Earth s surface that is in contact with the atmosphere, with the exclusion of living organisms,areas with continuous ice not covered by other material, and water bodies deeper than 2 m.
I recommend you to red this publication: A proposal for including humus forms in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB-FAO) from Jabiol et al (2013)
Histic or folic horizon are H horizons according to the guidelines for soil description of the FAO (you can "ggogle" it) define as below:
H horizons: These are layers dominated by organic material formed from accumulations of undecomposed or partially decomposed organic material at the soil surface, which may be underwater. All H horizons are saturated with water for prolonged periods, or were once saturated but are now drained artificially. An H horizon may be on top of mineral soils or at any depth beneath the surface if it is buried.
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I am interested in the unsaturated zone (above the water table depth). Some literature data is needed to validate my soil heat flux model, where the heat capacity of soil is apparently a strong function of the volumetric water content.
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Good, I understood well your problematic now. So I suggest you to have look at:
1-Benscoter et al. (2001) Interactive effects of vegetation, soil moisture and bulk
density on depth of burning of thick organic soils.
Which is freely accessbile and I think it's very useful for you, because they talk about VWC profile and heat profile at the same time in some organic soils.
and
2-Leon Etienne Parent, Piotr Ilnicki, "Organic Soils and Peat Materials for Sustainable Agriculture" page 56.
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I measure Net Ecosystem Exchange in peatlands and I'm having problems with the temperature inside the chamber. Right from the start, it increases dramatically. Such an artefact affects photosynthesis, which makes the measurement unrealistic and, thus, unexploitable. Has anyone been through such a problem already? Any idea how to resolve it? Any references about this problem?
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Here you find two papers addressing the issue:
Laine et al., 2006. Estimating net ecosystem exchange in a patterned ecosystem: example from blanket bog Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 138 (2006), pp. 231–243.
Anna Laine, Terhi Riutta, Sari Juutinen, Minna Väliranta, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila. 2006. Acknowledging the spatial heterogeneity in modelling/reconstructing carbon dioxide exchange in a northern aapa mire. Ecological Modelling 220 (20): 2646–2655.
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We know that more than a thousand hectares of peat swamp in Indonesia were used for plantation, such as oil palm. In oil palm, the production will decrease after 25 or 30 years. After that, they will replant with rubber plant, but, I don't think that rubber plant should be suitable on peat swamp. If we want to rehabilitate the peat swamp, is there any ideas to rehabilitate it?
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Thank you so much for the information :)
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I am a student of Archeology at University of Roma "La Sapienza", Italy. I am writing this letter because I am doing a study and presentation about Tollund Man. I saw your article " Lindow man, tollund man and other peat-bog bodies: The preservative and antimicrobial action of Sphagnan, a reactive glycuronoglycan with tanning and sequestering properties" but I can't see the full-text. I will be very grateful if you can help me. It's very important for my study to know the analysis of Tollund Man or other cases and aspects of this world. It's a pleasant for me to contact with you. I am looking for your answer, thanks.
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Dear Sara. What is it you want to know? Terry Painter died almost 10 years ago but I knew him and I am familiar with his work. I can find the relevant papers for you and can send you some of my own work on bog bodies (or you can download them from my ResearchGate page.
Are you principally interested in the sphagnan aspects of this or the taphonomy of bodies in bogs. If the latter I will be happy to collaborate with you.
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There is a bit of confusion as to how best to determine POC in (UK blanket bog) peat stream water (flow).
For example, which filter to use and how to determine C (C/N analyser or other) and what volumes are necessary?
It would be nice to see what other people are doing as in the literature quite often old publications are quoted using LOI methods which are relevant to mineral soil carbon determination etc.
Also nice would be to see what ranges are to be expected as there is not much published material (most is on DOC).
So far we are using about 50- 500 ml of stream water, filter through pre-ash filters (GF/F 0.7 µm glass microfibre filters) using a vacuum pump and then burn the lot in a C/N analyser.
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I have used POC dichromate methods in sulfuric acid with spectrometric determination and glucose as a standard for organic carbon, If you are interest I can send you detail protocol
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I'm interested in understanding the value (use and non-use) of peatland preservation. I am going preparing a non-market valuation study and I would like a brainstorming on possible determinants for the value of peatland (carbon storage, biodiversity, land use, floods prevention...) and possibly references to past studies.
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Dear Marco, if you need WTP/WTA values, there is nothing wrong with traing to obtain such values. Darrell's critique is a bit off as the fundamental concept of environmental valuation is exchange value, not money. Even in a barter world there is WTP and WTA - just you would express these variables not in USD or EUR but in loafs or bread or hours of labor. The important message, however, is: If economic value is always ex-CHANGE value make sure that you try to valuate **changes** to the ecosystems you investigate brought about by WFD implementation options. There is no such thing as ab abstract value of a peatland. Best regards, jan