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# Passivation - Science topic

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Different from the traditional passive optical sensors, hyperspectral LiDAR emits the active, full-waveform and gaussian laser pulse. After interacting with the vegetation leaf surface, the backscattered intensities for different waveforms return to the receiver and then are recorded. Previous researches on spectral reflection characteristic have o...
Article
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In this paper, a new 3-RPS/US parallel mechanism with two degrees of freedom (DOFs) is obtained by adding a US (Universal joint and Spherical joint) passive limb into the 3-RPS (the limb consisting of one revolute, one prismatic, and one spherical joint) parallel mechanism with the aim of obtaining a high load-bearing capacity. The moving platform...
Article
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In noise and vibration engineering, a structure’s passive dynamic properties are often evaluated in terms of its frequency response functions (FRFs). The typical FRF measurement campaign consists of controlled structure excitation and the capturing of its response. However, exploiting operational excitation for FRF acquisition is not feasible, with...
Conference Paper
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Integral abutment bridges(IABs) are bridges designed without the use of expansion joints. Hence, the superstructure and substructure of IABs translate or rotate in unison to accommodate alternate cycles of expansion and contraction due to temperature changes. IABs are less expensive to construct and easier to maintain, compared to traditional bridg...
Article
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This paper discusses a passive vibration control method to improve the shock tolerance of hard disk drives (HDDs) in operating condition (op-shock tolerance). Past works in improving the HDDs’ op-shock tolerance includes (i) parking the head when shock is detected, (ii) installing a lift-off limiter, (iii) structural modification of the suspension,...
Article
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SARS-CoV-2 Spike-specific binding and neutralizing antibodies, elicited either by natural infection or vaccination, have emerged as potential correlates of protection. An important question, however, is whether vaccine-elicited antibodies in humans provide direct, functional protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease. In this study, we explor...
Article
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Background In recent years, a programme of vector control, screening and treatment of gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (gHAT) infections led to a rapid decline in cases in the Mandoul focus of Chad. To represent the biology of transmission between humans and tsetse, we previously developed a mechanistic transmission model, fitted to data bet...
Article
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In the present study, a regression-based model of calculating the daytime radiative error is extended to be used easily in several commercial natural ventilated radiation shields. A low-cost homemade naturally ventilated radiation shield is also examined. Results show that the correction of the radiative error was significant for all the tested shi...
Article
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Research on optical computing has recently attracted significant attention due to the transformative advances in machine learning. Among different approaches, diffractive optical networks composed of spatially-engineered transmissive surfaces have been demonstrated for all-optical statistical inference and performing arbitrary linear transformation...
Article
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A natural coupling of a circuit with an electromagnetic device is possible if special boundary conditions, called Electric Circuit Element (ECE), are used for the electromagnetic field formulation. This contribution shows how these ECE boundary conditions can be implemented into the 3D-finite element method for solving coupled full-wave electromagn...
Article
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The quality factor (Q), describing the rate of energy loss from a resonator, is a defining performance metric for nanophotonic devices. Suppressing cavity radiative losses enables strong nonlinear optical responses or low-power operation to be achieved. Exploiting long-lived, spatially-confined bound states in the continuum (BICs) has emerged from...
Article
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Graphene/silicon Schottky junctions have been proven efficient for photodetection, but the existing high dark current seriously restricts applications such as weak signal detection. In this paper, a thin layer of gadolinium iron garnet (Gd 3 Fe 5 O 12 , GdIG) film is introduced to engineer the interface of a graphene/silicon Schottky photodetector....
Article
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Highlights High-performance Zn||I 2 batteries were established by coating zeolite protecting layers. The Zn ²⁺ -conductive layer suppresses I 3 ⁻ shuttling, Zn corrosion/dendrite growth. The Zeolite-Zn||I 2 batteries achieve long lifespan (91.92% capacity retention after 5600 cycles), high coulombic efficiencies (99.76% in average) and large capaci...
Article
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Extensive investigation of the passivating agents has been performed to suppress the perovskite defects. However, very few attentions have been paid to rationally design the passivating agents for the balance of the carrier confinement and transfer in quasi-2D perovskites, which is essential to achieve high-performance perovskite LEDs (PeLEDs). In...
Article
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Aqueous zinc-ion batteries (AZIBs) can be one of the most promising electrochemical energy storage devices for being non-flammable, low-cost, and sustainable. However, the challenges of AZIBs, including dendrite growth, hydrogen evolution, corrosion, and passivation of zinc anode during charging and discharging processes, must be overcome to achiev...
Article
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Controlling electromagnetic waves and information simultaneously by information metasurfaces is of central importance in modern society. Intelligent metasurfaces are smart platforms to manipulate the wave–information–matter interactions without manual intervention by synergizing engineered ultrathin structures with active devices and algorithms, wh...
Article
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Background In the stage of sustainable development, enterprises should not only focus on economic efficiency, but also on ecological protection, for which the governments of various countries has adopted various environmental regulation methods to promote green investment by enterprises. However, there are many types of environmental regulations, a...
Article
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Background Newborn piglets can trigger an elementary immune response, but the acquirement of specific antibodies and/or cellular immunity against pathogens before they get infected post-natally is paramount to preserve their health. This is especially important for the pathogens involved in porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) as they are wid...
Article
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Electrochemical behaviour and passive film characteristics of an ultra-thin 316L foil with a thickness of 20 μm in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were investigated using multiple techniques, focusing on the effect of microstructure, the applied potential, and the pH of the solution. The microstructure contains mainly fine grains (∼4 μm) with high-angle bou...
Article
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This paper considers the model discrimination problem among a finite number of models in safety–critical systems that are subjected to constraints that can be disjunctive and where state and input constraints can be coupled with each other. In particular, we consider both the optimal input design problem for active model discrimination that is solv...
Article
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The outbreaks of infectious diseases that spread across countries have generally existed for centuries. An example is the occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, which led to the loss of lives and economic depreciation. One of the essential ways of handling the spread of viruses is the discovery and administration of vaccines. However, the maj...
Article
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Smart cities refer to place-specific collaborative systems where multiple actors collaborate to collectively address public problems. However, smart city initiatives regularly frame citizens as the weakest link, as passive consumers rather than active creative agents. This article argues that power imbalances between citizens and other organisation...
Article
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The possibility of pounding on isolated structures with surrounding moat walls is one of the concerns in the design of isolation systems, especially in pulse-type near-field earthquakes. This paper puts forward the seismic probability assessment of structures equipped with passive and smart hybrid isolation systems by considering pounding possibili...
Article
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The Delta-like parallel robot, which contains three open-ended Pa(4S)¹ passive limbs, plays an important role in high-speed pick-and-place operations. To meet the demand in high-speed and high-precision applications, this paper presents a novel articulated-platform parallel robot TH-HR4 with Schönflies motion under the guidance of a modified type s...
Book
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In the contemporary practice of architecture, digital design and fabrication are emergent technologies in transforming how architects present a design and form a material strategy that is responsible, equitable, sustainable, resilient, and forward-looking. This book exposes dialogue between history, theory, design, construction, technology, and sen...
Poster
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Supplementary energy dissipation has extensively proven, through research studies and practical applications, to be a viable strategy for protecting new and existing structures against non-structural and structural damage for low-to-high seismic intensity levels, so avoiding devastating economic and social consequences in the aftermath of an earthq...
Article
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Enhancing the seismic performance of based-isolated structures during a major earthquake event using inerter-based dampers emerges as a prominent research direction. However, analysis and optimization of based-isolated structures incorporated with inerter-based dampers considering both system nonlinearity and excitation uncertainty have rarely been...
Article
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The tribocorrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel was studied in 0.6 M NaCl and 0.6 M Na2SO4. It was found that the presence of the aggressive chloride (Cl⁻) ion enhanced material loss of 2205 during sliding at applied anodic potentials within the passive regime for this material. Sliding wear in 0.6 M NaCl increased the amount of material...
Article
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Gillnetting is a technique commonly used in relative abundance and biomass estimates of fish. However, due to its passive nature, the direct recalculation of the catch to reservoir volume or area is not trivial. This issue is often solved by using hydroacoustics, which provides information about fish density, though without the ability to distingui...
Article
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This paper deals with optimal tuning, control and performance evaluation of an inerter-based point absorber (IPA) wave energy converter (WEC), which is a first step towards establishing an integrated offshore wind-wave energy system. An inerter-spring system is introduced into a conventional WEC, which can improve the system performance when proper...
Article
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The corrosion behavior and transpassive dissolution properties of TC4 alloy produced by additive manufacturing technology via the laser cladding deposition method were investigated in static NaCl solutions with concentrations of 3.5, 10, and 15 wt%. The corrosion resistance exhibited nonlinear characteristics with respect to the various NaCl concen...
Article
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This paper aims to minimize the generation cost of a low voltage (LV) grid-connected microgrid system using a novel hybrid whale optimization algorithm (WOA)- Sine cosine algorithm (SCA) optimization technique. Three different methods of electricity market prices are formulated in turns and the generation cost is evaluated for each method to sort o...
Article
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With an unmet clinical need for effective interventions for cognitive and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, measures of functional status (often a co-primary endpoint) remain key clinical trial outcomes. This review aims to give an overview of the different types of functional assessments commonly used in clinical trials and researc...
Article
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In this study, our goal is to construct mathematical models of some physical systems and then determine their qualitative behaviors by Lyapunov’s direct method. The constructed systems are governed by second-order vector ordinary differential equations. Our main system involves three nonlinear elements that generalize the previously studied systems...
Article
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We numerically investigate the ultrafast dynamic nonlinear mechanism of an Fabry‐Perot (FP) cavity with femtosecond (fs) pumping by the transmission change of an incident signal pulse. The nonlinear effect simulated by a two‐level system model can decrease the dielectric constant. Therefore, the temporally transmitted pulse is compressed owing to t...
Article
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In this work, a new lossless simulated floating inductor (SFI) and a new lossless floating capacitance multiplier (FCM) are proposed. Both circuits include three second-generation current conveyors. The proposed SFI and FCM circuits include a grounded capacitor. The proposed SFI employs only grounded passive elements, while the FCM with a minimum n...
Article
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The bounded real lemma (BRL) is a classical result in systems theory, which provides a linear matrix inequality criterium for dissipativity, via the Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (KYP) inequality. The BRL has many applications, among others in $$H^\infty$$ H ∞ control. Extensions to infinite dimensional systems, although already present in the work of Y...
Article
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This paper presents a three-dimensional transient fluid-thermo-structural study of an actively cooled sandwich panel under hypersonic accelerating-cruise flight conditions. The thermo-structural loads are estimated using a high-speed gas-dynamic flow model combined with Eckert's reference temperature method. The thermal safeguard capacity with endo...
Article
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Incorporating phase change material (PCM) into buildings in hot climates is an excellent strategy for better thermal comfort and energy-saving in future smart cities. Nevertheless, PCM elements suffer from adverse temperature behaviour at night due to the dissipation of stored diurnal heat. Night ventilation has been proposed as a promising solutio...
Article
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The social entrepreneurship (SE) discourse habitually casts social entrepreneurs as heroic, creating economic and social value, whereas those whom they strive to assist are portrayed as disadvantaged and in need of interventions. This implies an implicit differentiation between knowing, agentic entrepreneurs and less-knowing, more passive beneficia...
Article
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In this study, a simple and effective nonlinear stiffness mechanism (NSM) is proposed to enhance the capture efficiency and broaden the bandwidth of a raft-type wave energy converter (WEC). A prototype of a simple and compact NSM is first proposed in which a simple elastic element is arranged between hinged floating rafts. The governing equations o...
Article
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Inductance simulators and capacitor multipliers can be used to implement several electronic devices such as active filters, oscillators, cancellation of parasitic elements and phase shifting circuits. In this work, grounded inductance simulators (GISs) and grounded capacitor multipliers (GCMs) employing only one active component Current Follower Tr...
Article
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This paper presents a novel in‐home communication system employing plastic optical fibers (POFs) acting both as transmission medium and access point for wireless links to user devices, hence no separate luminaires or optical–electrical–optical conversions is required. All active devices, such as lasers/detectors, can be remotely placed from the roo...
Article
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Inattentiveness of road users on approach to passive railway crossings represents a major threat to level crossing safety. An auxiliary strobe light system installed on trains in addition to existing headlights may help address this issue by providing an ergonomic way of attracting human attention to the level crossing and to the train. The objecti...
Article
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The passive micromixer is one of the essential devices that can be integrated into the Lab on Chip (LoC) system. Micromixer is needed to increase mixing efficiency. In this paper, two Koch fractal obstacle-based micromixer models of Secondary Snowflakes Fractal Micromixer (SSFM) and Tertiary Snowflakes Fractal Micromixer (TSFM) were designed. The e...
Article
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Welding automation is one of the highly applied research that receives a lot of interest from scientists as well as application engineers in the industry. The welding task can be tedious for the workers; health affected by chemical smoke; or activity performed in a human restricted area. However, at present, manual teaching using Tech-pendant and o...
Article
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Transport of solutes through channels with rough boundaries is abundant in natural and engineered settings. However, it is not known currently what the consequences of an abruptly alternating boundary are for the solute dispersion, in particular when advected by inertial fluid flow. To investigate this, we compute numerically the time-asymptotic lo...
Article
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Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) has been used in everyday life for various needs. In its development, the use of CCTV has evolved from a simple, passive surveillance system into an integrated intelligent surveillance system. In this article we propose a facial recognition on CCTV video system which can generate timestamp based data on the presence...
Article
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Investigation of temperature resistant lightweight materials used in airplane components with higher thermal efficiency gaining importance. These materials possess challenges and replace twice dense nickel (Ni) based super alloys presently found application in aeroplane industry. In this article, anodic dissolution of commercial gamma titanium alum...
Conference Paper
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A simple configuration for reflective floating images by using the Fresnel plate is demonstrated. The virtual images can be generated by active and passive strategies. Results show that the method can generate a scenario for small meeting discussion. Mathematical formulation to eliminate distortion is addressed.
Article
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Buildings are designed to meet and improve the quality of life of the occupants. During the last decades, standards on building construction have risen sharply to integrate new, ambitious demands regarding energy efficiency and thermal comfort in the design procedure. The importance of understanding the performance of a proposed building project is...
Article
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ECM emerges out to be one of the major non conventional machining techniques based on Faraday's laws of electrolysis, highly efficient due to its zero tool wear characteristic. Occurrence of passivation is the major problem faced in ECM. In the present work, study of the flow pattern of electrolyte has been performed so that, the machining variable...
Article
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Perovskite light‐emitting didoes (PeLEDs) have shown considerable potential in solution‐processable display applications. However, the performance of blue PeLEDs in terms of efficiency and stability hinders their practicality on account of severe trap‐mediated nonradiative recombination losses and halide phase segregation. To ameliorate these issue...
Article
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The objective of the present article is to design a nonlinear passive suspension system for an automobile subjected to random road excitation which generates a performance as close to a fully active suspension system as possible. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) control is used to synthesize an active suspension system. The control forces correspon...
Article
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Simultaneous passivation of the defects at the surface and grain boundaries of perovskite films is crucial to achieve efficient and stable perovskite solar cells (PSCs). It is highly desirable to accomplish the above passivation through rational engineering of hole transport materials (HTMs) in combination with appropriate procedure optimization. H...
Experiment Findings
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Article
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Recent Italian earthquakes have shown the high seismic vulnerability of pallet racking systems. In the down-aisle direction and in the absence of bracing systems, these structures are very flexible moment-resisting frames. Instead, in the cross-aisle direction they consist of slender trusses, stiffened by various bracing systems; the latter, althou...
Article
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This paper investigates the problem of finite-time passivity for a class of nonlinear Atangana–Baleanu–Caputo (ABC) fractional-order systems (FOs). Firstly, a new definition of finite-time passivity for the FO nonlinear systems in the frame of the Atangana–Baleanu derivative of Caputo type is introduced. Then several sufficient conditions in the fo...
Article
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Aluminium alloys are gaining increasing use in the construction industry, underpinned by extensive research and the growing availability of codified structural design rules at room temperature. More recently, considering that the material properties of aluminium alloys degrade significantly at elevated temperatures, a substantial number of studies...