Questions related to Passivation
On mesa silicon diodes: how can we remove unnecessary top passivation glass obtained after baking step ? With which tool and where can we find it?
I have OCP, Tafel plot and EIS data for steel electrode but i have to find passivating potential from CV data which is new for me.
We have an electrocoagulation system for industrial wastewater treatment.
Once the system is operating, contaminants such as suspended solids or organics, etc. are adsorbed to the anode electrode (passivation problem), leading to the voltage increasing.
We are looking for a spacial aluminum material to be resistant against passivation.
I understand that Rn is "The fluorescence emission intensity of the reporter dye divided by the fluorescence emission intensity of the passive reference dye" (Thermofisher definition), but I'm a little unsure how that relates to RFU.
I am looking for real world examples of passively powered RFID and NFC chips that are "long range" and utilize hysteretic switches. Any help would be much appreciated.
By shifting from passive to active learning, the metaverse can transform the present learning paradigm into entertaining, engaging, meaningful, social, iterative, and joyous. It will change many aspects and create new ways of addressing our present learning styles' issues. The following are some questions that bring our attention to discuss further.
1) Will it help deal with diversity in higher education institutes, or will it be more complicated?
2) Will it help monitor exams more effectively in a non-face-to-face environment, or will it be cumbersome?
I did two experiment to confirm the energy dependent uptake. In 4o C experiment there is no uptake (inhibition is there) but when I am doing ATP depletion experiment by using sodium azide there is no inhibition and uptake is there so I am confused here regarding the mechanism? Does it means it is a energy independent process and my compound is going through passive diffusion?
An intelligent planning of rooms based on Passive Solar design could effectively mitigate energy consumption and also promort the comfort. Anyways, what are the different methods used in the construction industry to implement passive solar design in rooms? Any scientific theories? Any case studies?
I would like to receive feedbacks from fellow researchers.
The use of a combination of active and passive measures to increase energy efficiency in building applications is possible. Passive strategies look into mechanisms in building design and orientation, as well as the building envelope, to reduce overall energy demand for heating and cooling. Active strategies include the adoption of advanced technologies for improved energy supply and efficiency, whereas passive strategies look into mechanisms in building design and orientation, as well as the building envelope, to reduce overall energy demand for heating and cooling. To aid the transition to sustainable energy practices, an energy efficient building design should not only boost energy efficiency on the supply side, but also minimize energy requirements and consumption on the demand side.
Hi everyone, I am trying to calculate the effect size of a study I am aiming to replicate (to run a G power analysis and find my required sample size). The thing is the R-squared mentioned in the regression table of the said study is of 0,007... which gives me quite unreachable sample size given my resources (> 1 300), but I am precisely trying to see if I did something wrong (although in the original paper N = 1 268, but they found a significant impact of the intervention in question for smaller samples of 700 participants too)
The randomized experiment consists of 4 conditions (Passive Control, Active Control, Treatment, Importance Treatment), and tests the effects of these conditions and of "news type" (the main task in every condition consists of presenting 36 headlines to participants, which are either true or false - each participant, whatever the group, being presented an equal amount of true AND false headlines randomly selected from a constituted set) on their sharing intentions of said headlines.
So this would call for (but correct me if I am wrong this is all very new to me) a two-way ANOVA analysis with the DV "sharing intentions" and IVs "condition" (4 levels) and "news type" (2 levels : false = 0, true = 1) (the design being between-subjects for conditions, but within-subjects for news type, which I understood could be a source of problem for G power...).
In their regression table, authors of the original study specifically find an interaction between Treatment and veracity with the following values: b = 0.054; F(1,6772) = 11.98; p = 0.0005, so that they can conclude there is a significant increase in sharing discernment (defined as the difference in sharing intentions for true vs false headlines) in Treatment group compared to controls (they first collapsed Passive and Active controls, since a preliminary analysis didn't find any significant main effect of condition or interaction with veracity for Active controls compared to Passive ones).
I calculated the effect size, based on the R-squared (0,007) when choosing linear multiple regression in G power (or using the partial-eta squared formula based on the value of F(1,6772) = 11.98 with its specified df when choosing an ANOVA - fixed effects, special, main effects and interactions) and both give me a sample size of 1300 or more. Did I do something wrong?
In passing, I am also not sure about the number of predictors (or respectively groups) I should enter in G power, as we want to replicate the study but ideally add the IV "age" (comparing 2 age groups, submitted otherwise to the same experiment - all participants whatever the age, will be randomly affected to the 4 conditions mentioned).
Thanks in advance!
In our study, we analyse some reflections contained in the education thought of John Dewey, Paulo Freire and Peter McLaren. The three thinkers, with mutually different methods, have, in our opinion, as common point the intention to show that no education system is neutral in relation to the way in which societies are organised: all systems of education aim at the constitution of a particular kind of society through the formation of a corresponding mentality in the individuals. The ethical and political foundations of a society are mirrored in the education system: any reform of the society should, therefore, begin with the reform of the education system; furthermore, any reform of the society cannot be effective unless it is founded on the reform of education. As regards Dewey’s observations, we concentrate our attention on his criticism of any education system based on the passivity of pupils and on the massification of students: Dewey steadily pleads for a system of education aiming at the individualisation of pupils. As regards Freire’s meditation, we point out Freire’s uncovering of the oppression exercised against the subaltern classes through the traditional education systems: the constant relegation of pupils of the oppressed classes to a condition of total passivity, which is the aim of the system of education described by Freire as the banking concept of education, destroys any sense and aspiration to autonomy in the pupils themselves. Self-depreciation of pupils is the result of the traditional system of education. McLaren points out that a correct system of education should have as its own aim the self-transformation and the empowerment of the students: educators ought to uncover the relations holding between knowledge, which is always a social construct, and the interests of the dominant class. Keywords Dewey, democracy, Freire, banking concept of education, McLaren, self-transformation.
I fabricate perovskite thin film solar cell and trying to passivate interfaces of absorbing layer with inorganic layer. I have already done TRPL measurements on the interfaces. It gave pretty good results. Now, I want to get more information about defect passivation at the interfaces. I tried DLTS, but didn't work. I am looking for other measurements so that the defect passivation argument can get stronger evidence.
To get a soliton train pulses from a ring laser cavity host a Saturable Absorber , we need to make a balance between the dispersion of the cavity active and passive elements . What is the EDF length that have to use and SFM 28 for example ?
Thank you for your advises !
The alkyl or aryl based ligands/passivating agents are frequently used for the passivation of metal nanoparticles or colloidal suspension during liquid-phase synthesis. How much should be the ligand concentration to fully passivate the nanoparticles? What is the right time to add ligand, for instance, before adding reducing agent or after adding reducing agent?
I could find only very few articles on the transpassive corrosion behavior of iron. (Sato 1976, Kozlowski 1984)WITHOUT halide ions. Is it confirmed that the transpassive dissolution of iron does not lead to film breakdown but a constant, potential independent, film thickness? Is this also true for other passivated metals, or are there metals which loose theor oxide film during transpassive dissolution? As far as I know passive films of chromium oxide dissolve completely at potentials exceeding the transpassive potential.
What is the proposed mechanism for transpassive dissolution/corrosion of iron oxide? And why doesnt it lead to complete film dissolution?
Thanks for your answers and discussion.
Which Real-Time PCR Instrument is better? Those that work with passive reference dye or those that do not work with passive reference dye.
currently i study on a project passive ankle foot orthosis. i make a simulation of ankle foot orthosis during static midstance. for midstance position how much force need to apply for the make the test is suitable for analysis the stiffness of the ankle foot orthosis?
During a passive lengthening displacement, muscle spindle primary afferents activity increases, and if after the stretch, the muscle is passively moved back to its original position (shortening phase), the activity decreases.
But what happens when the muscle is shortened starting from a neutral position?
Would the Ia afferent remain the same or decrease?
I'm struggling with fabrication of working electrode on SU-8 layer.
here is detailed fabrication process.
1. Ni sacrificial layer deposition by Sputtering (100nm, 5mTorr, 150W, 15nm/min)
2. SU-8 bottom layer patterning
- spin coating with SU-8 2002 (microchem) at 4k rpm
- pre exposure bake: 65temp 3min --> 95temp 5min
- UV exposure with MA-6 mask aligner --> 350W, 25sec exposure
- post exposure bake: 65temp 3min --> 95temp 5min and slow cooling
- Developing in SU-8 developer 2min with puddling
- N2 gas drying
3. Cr/Au working electrode patterning & deposition
- patterning with LOR 3A/S1805 PR
- ebeam evaporation of Cr with 1 A/sec, 5nm (deposition start at ~5 E-7 torr)
- thermal evaporation of Au with 1 A/sec, 100nm
4. Passivation with SU-8
- same procedure as 2.
after fabrication, electrochemical property (impedance, Nyquist plot) is measured.
but only 1~2 devices are working well among 50 devices.
what would be a problem in this case?
i have doubt about surface roughness or micro crack of SU-8 layer and Au electrode.
please let me know your opinion.
Thank you in advance.
I am trying to fabricate FAMA perovskite solar cell by sequential deposition method.
The first step is spin coating PbI2 DMF/DMSO solution and annealing at 70C for 1min.
The second step is spin coating FAI/MAI/MACl IPA solution and annealing at 150C for 10min.
Unfortunately, in many articles authors don't give out the volume of solution each step used and how and when to add the FAI/MAI solution.
I tried several times but I cannot reproduce the result of papers. The PCE is only 13-15%.
Has someone tried this method before?
1.Jiang, Q., Zhao, Y., Zhang, X. et al. Surface passivation of perovskitefilm for efficient solar cells. Nat. Photonics 13, 460–466 (2019).Jiang, Q., Zhao, Y., Zhang, X. et al. Surface passivation of perovskitefilm for efficient solar cells. Nat. Photonics 13, 460–466 (2019).
2.Wang, X., Wang, L., Shan, T. et al. Low-Temperature Aging Provides 22% Efficient Bromine-Free and Passivation Layer-Free Planar PerovskiteSolar Cells. Nano-Micro Lett. 12, 84 (2020).
I want to measure a solution's IV characteristics, So I want to have a passivation layer so that the solution does not contact the electrodes directly. I have Two option
1. SU-8 negative photoresist
2. S 1813 positive photoresist.
Which one should I use, Positive one is easier but I don't know whether I can use it or not
Hi I want to understand the undercut we get due to the etch and passivation cycle of bosch process. However i see that we get high scallops at the starting top etching compared to the lower bottom etching.. Can anyone explain me this ?.
what parameter should i control ?. I was thinking to reduce the etch/passivation cycle time to min so to have low scallops.. You think is there any other parameters i should consider ??
I was wondering whether I could use Passive Lysis Buffer (PLB; used for Luciferase assay) for western blot analysis. Basically, I'd lysate cells in a 6-well plate and then split the lysate for luciferase assay and western blot, in order to use the same starting material for both the analysis (since we're having some problems).
Have someone already used it? any hints or protocols to share?
Thank you so much in advance!
My sample was 45 participants aged 18-25. My Cronbach's Alpha is different to what the researchers who devised the PAUM found. Could anyone offer an explanation for the difference in these results please?
Cronbach's alphas for all three factors demonstrated adequate internal reliability (Active social α = 0.80; Active non-social α = 0.78; Passive α = 0.70).
My Cronbach's Alpha
Active Social = 0.45
Active Non-Social = 0.62
Passive = 0.61
I ask a question concerning the robots which have active and passive links -the parameter dh
does not result in direct geometry
is that there is another method which results from the geometry
one apart from geometric methods (solidworks, vr ... ect)
Has anybody information of Chinese product "Growatt 80KTL3LV" inverters and which algorithm is used for and islanding detection. ( I know all about passive method in it U<, > and f<,> ... ) Are any other active method?
I am looking for recent data on the passive exposure of occupants of buildings containing asbestos. So far, I have not found much information on any measurement campaigns that have been conducted to find out about the background noise indoors (outside buildings where work or remediation is taking place).
Recently, I need to process the brightness temperature data of SMAP (soil moisture active passive) L1C 9km resolution and carry out freeze-thaw identification. Since I have not processed similar data before, I hope someone can provide some experience. Thank you very much.
Different methods have been used for sampling beetles in the study of Coleopterans. The two main methods are passive and active sampling. Passive can be less labour-intensive but cannot sample folivore insects. Active on the other hand can be rewarding for folivore but cannot be useful for wood-borers, granivorous and frugivorous insects. Therefore, I am asking if any colleagues can provide a leverage to better sampling of beetles.
We are working on erosion-corrosion of a high chromium cast iron (HCCI) in slurry environment. Is high working temperatures (~80°C) impacting the passivation of such metals? We are studying a 1%C, 27%Cr, 2%Mo alloy
Thank you for your help
I know that my target is in my sample as I extracted it from cell culture myself. These plots show some amplification. The first one seems O.K for the first 36 cycles but then collapses at the end. Do you think that suggests that the target is being picked up but it's not quite working as it should. I've being using SYBR with no ROX. I'm guessing that maybe using SYBR with ROX or a passive reference of some sort might be the way to go. Help much appreciated. Thanks.
I am running qPCR on eDNA samples from rivers and have found that the vast majority of my samples show a decrease in fluorescence in my passive reference dye (ROX) while my target dye (FAM) increases (see Multicomponent Plot) . Additionally, amplification of these samples begins early on at around 16-20 cycles while my standard curve begins at 22 cycles. I am using a Taqman Internal Positive Control (VIC) as well. Overall, my plots look really strange and my standard curve has poor efficiency. What could be causing these weird results with ROX? This is my first time running qPCR.
The concepts to be discussed are practical learning, school and society, games and problem solving(scientific method)
I'm starting to work on a project about rfid networks , i'm looking for a simulation software for passive RFID technology to establish simple network communication between readers and tags? I found a paper which talk about "RFIDsim" but I have not found the simulator and the installation method of this simulator? do you have any information regarding the installation of RFIDsim?
Is it alright if I can use both but more of an emphasis on the passive voice in the literature section and the active voice in the results and dsicussion
Intelligent Refelecting Surface (or Intelligent Reconfigurable Surface), IRS, consists of a large number of passive elements that are able to reflect the incident signal passively. The size of each element may depend on the wavelength of the signal to be reflected. My question here is how much should be the size of the IRS element in order to successufly reflect a signal with a wavelength \lambda.
Many theories have been proposed to describe the diastolic filling phase of the heart, which may be sorted out into two broad categories. The classical and most accepted theories assume filling to be passive: once the mitral valve is open, the pressure of the venous return is large enough to drive the blood flow from the atrium to the ventricle. The theories in the other category assume an active filling: the ventricle behaves as a suction pump.
The starting point for most of the theories refuting the passive filling is the discussion of the fact that during the diastole, atrial and ventricular pressures are nearly identical, and the small pressure difference between the two chambers is not large enough to explain the passive filling of the heart.
Despite many experimental evidence supports the active filling, the theory of passive filling still remains in the minds of most cardiologists. I don't know the reason behind it. If anyone can answer this, it will be very useful for my research.
Active Dipole Length 0.155m,
Passive Dipol Length 0.123m
Distance between dipoles0.045m
im trying to use the RFID tag in order to sensing something with passive mode.
so far, thought about the SL900A chip as an candidate,
since it has quite many reference paper which use SL900A as an transponder tag.
however, it seems do not in stock anymore.
is there any chip that you can suggest as an replacement for SL900A?
long to short,
1. RFID transponder tag
2. Passive mode
3. Sensing interface
that is the all the features what im looking for now.
if it is possible, 900MHz frequency range might be better to use.
Anyone can share with me electrochemical data/references on lead-free brasses electrochemistry and especially passivity and repassivation behaviour. thank you
Curve fitting of passive muscle tension stress relaxation curves are based on force over time curves.
Being able to quantify a stress relaxation curve using the quadratic equation used for spring damping allows the interpretation of curves as being over damped, under damped, or critically damped. In order to do this the equations used must be based on time and not distance. I would like to confirm the mathematics that I am using for this analysis.
Included below are the math proofs that I believe are correct.
In the case of overpopulated cities, how I can select the appropriate sites to do some field measurements "Passive Seismic Surveys"? How about the design of the survey in order to study the soil properties and the subsurface conditions? What type of field equipment and software I can use? If somebody could recommend some publications for case studies in this regard, I will be thankful.
Dear Clinical Rehabilitation colleagues, I have just finished Malcolm Gladwell's excellent book 'Outliers' (2011) for probably the 4th time and would like to recommend such a tremendous and inspiring book to any clinical therapist or anyone working in the neuroplasticity field. I have read all Malcolm's books and in fact his most recent'Talking To Strangers' was also excellent because of the important issues it raises (I can assure everyone I am not related to Malcolm or have no vested interest in promoting his work but it introduces some really interesting psychological concepts, although as far as I'm aware Malcolm never mentions how these could possibly be applied in the clinical setting). I am interesting in getting a discussion started because I believe that there needs to be a fundamental shift in our approach to rehabilitating patients (especially neurology) towards achieving greater successful outcomes. I believe that the same psychological principles mentioned in outliers can apply to clinical rehabilitation and I would be very interested to develop this over the coming years. I have already started writing focus and editorials for journals based on his work.
As a Physical Therapist (Physiotherapist in Ireland) and now researcher who is very interested in developing and improving clinical rehabilitation post stroke etc, I would like to consider outliers in this context and would be interested if you agree. I firmly believe that a new approach to rehabilitation is required and the current 'passiveness' that takes place needs to be replaced with 'psychological education' to equip patients with the confidence for success. For me all physiotherapy is 70% psychology (partly placebo effect) and 30% physical interventions.
I believe that a lot of the psychological approaches mentioned in Malcolm's book could be applied to clinical rehabilitation and would indeed improve current outcomes. Regarding 'Outliers' can I make some observations please;
Introduction: I believe that patients rehabilitating from home rather than in a rehabilitation setting can benefit from a similar 'Rosetto Effect'.
Chapter 1 & 2: We can apply the principle of the 10,000 hour rule to rehabilitation. Success in rehabilitation is also the result of 'Cumulative Advantage' (availability of home-based rehab equipment, access to professional supervision, means of receiving real-time feedback) but in order to achieve this we need to find a way to motivate patients to do the '10,000 hours of meaningful rehabilitation'. After 30 years of experience I truly believe that almost all patients can get a successful recovery if they are willing to work really really really hard.
Chapters 3 & 4: In a similar fashion to practical intelligence that is gained from rich parents, stroke patients need to take control of their therapy and if they start to steer their therapy then they will create a neuroplasticity in their brains that will result in improved success. I believe there is an element of stereotyping that exists in elderly patients who accept 'their lot' and don't have the confidence to fight hard enough to make a full recovery.
Chapters 5 & 6: Again, emphasises the concept that hard work or 'grit' will make us successful. Same principle can be applied to rehabilitation. The ability of a patient to question their therapist/consultant and to guide treatment is probably a result of their cultural background and again this type of disadvantage can lead to poor results.
Chapters 7 & 8: The concept of Power Distance Index again fits with patient potential in rehabilitation. Medicine is general is a passive process, where the patient waits to be told what to take/do. I believe that patients need to be educated to improve confidence and realise that rehab techniques will be more successful if initiated by the patient themselves. Lets give them a menu of therapies and let the patient decide which is best suited to them. We need more of a personal approach. Again, hard work and effort important for good results.
Chapters 9 & 10: Could a new form of KIPP School be created for rehabilitation excellence where the emphasis is 70% education/psychological approach and 30% physical interventions. I believe the reverse is happening unsuccessfully at present.
Its recommended to stand on the shoulders of giants and none are greater than Malcolm Gladwells. I would be very interested in your opinion to these comments (whether you agree or disagree) and this book has inspired me so much, brought great enjoyment to my life and has been inspirational to hundreds of people like me. I think a change is needed!!
We are in the age of technology, where knowledge has become more accessible, even outside educational institutions. Students are no longer passive participants, and they can no longer be confined to limited prescribed textbooks and sources. Thanks in advance for your comments!
I observed that most people enjoy courtship because love is active during this period. But in marriage, there seems to be conflicts because here love is passive. I discovered that most marriages collapse because men are pretenders in courtship period. Most of them are no more who they used to be during courtship- a romantic period. They grow traditional and more authoritative whereas women want to be romantic forever. Men should not tolerate in courtship what they cannot tolerate in marriage- a classical period. My understanding of Romantic Period and Classical Period is that of Courtship Period and Marital Period.
Usually, the metals are Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni; and their alloys. They do form protective films in moderate corrosive environment, and their films dissolve away in very strong corrosive environment. But why not all metal behave so? What causes their protective films to be retained?
There are several researches which use passive or active cooling to demonstrate the efficiency increase of the output of photovoltaic panels when they're cooled.
I was wondering if experts think that the evaporation of just a waterbasin beneath it, would be enough to cool the Photovoltaic panels and increase the efficiency. So no use of a system that lets the water flow over the front of the Photovoltaic panel. The situation would be in the summer with temperatures around 30 to 37 degrees Celcius.
We have vaccinated pig with antigens and then, we would like to know whether we can use mice to perform a passive protection assay by using the pig immune sera. Do you know pig macrophages can recognize the Fc receptors from a pig?
I am proposing that social comparisons on social media will mediate the relationship between passive social media use and social anxiety, and that gender will moderate this association, such that 1. the effects of passive social media on social comparisons, and 2. the effects of social comparisons on social anxiety, both are stronger in females than males.
Some literatures said that passive layer (passivation) lead to pitting corrosion, but is it possible to other types of corrosion occur? And is it possible that a metal corrode with more than one type of corrosion (eg. pitting and intergranular in the same time)?
The mastermix suggested is TaqPath 1-step RT-qPCR master Mix, CG which contains ROX, but page 20 of the 3/15/2020 instructions directs the user to select none under passive reference
Does anyone know why passive reference would not be desired?
Kindly explain how these factors affect passive tactile sensibility of implants..
-Corrosion rate vs. Grain Size of Pure Metals
-There are several studies reporting the corrosion rate of pure metals increases when grain size increases (Birblis,Corrosion, 2010), (Ralston, Corrosion, 2010) and some reported the opposite trend (D. Song, Corrosion Science, 2010).
Theoretically grain boundaries are defects zones and corrosion can initiates from these zones (like etching process where GBs appears). so corrosion rate should increases with increasing grain size. but majority of researches observed the opposite trend. They mentioned that regarding to more uniform surface layer (hydroxide layer) forming on the exposed surface of materials with finer grains, corrosion rate decreases. So what is your opinion about these two controversial trends?
- Dislocations Effect vs. GS
-some researchers believe even though corrosion rate can be reduced by grain refinement through the severe plastic deformation, but corrosion rate increases with increase in dislocations (probably inside the grains) and lattice strain (song, Corrosion Science, 2010), (HS Kim, Corrosion Science 2014) so annealing after SPD can significantly reduces the corrosion rate. However grain boundaries also are the main location of dislocations. So why dislocations inside the grains accelerate the corrosion rate while dislocations in GBs decreases the corrosion rate??
My client is requesting us to carry out TOC analysis in ambient air samples. I am unable to find any published standards to be used as reference. I have decided to develop our own inhouse method based on our available methods for water & soil. Air samples need to be extracted by a sampling media. What is the sampling media to be used? Is it a passive or active sampling? Do we need to carry out any extraction before sample measurement? If we do, what is the chemical or solvent to be used?
I have passivated silicon nanowires with OH group. Anyone please suggest me how to confirm from the spectra that it is OH terminated. Is there any parameter just to compare with as synthesised sinws and terminated one? Please let me know if anyone have any suggestions.
I got Increasing corrosion current at fixed corrosion potential in Tafel curve. Does it mean rapid corrosion or Passivation?
Hello every one
For two Titanium samples, there is a passive region in the polarization curve of the sample with a higher corrosion rate (measured by the Tafel extrapolation method). But for sample with lower corrosion current density, the passive plateau is not observed in the potentiodynamic polarization curve. Is there a scientific reason for this?
I want to make a very power conservative product, and attempt to have the battery last days, or maybe even weeks. This device would consist of 2 modes, a mode which would have more functions but use bluetooth and more battery, and a mode ( this one is the one I'm asking about) which would only "complete" it's circuit, or use power, when receiving a signal from my phone, I was wondering if there's any way I could use a similar concept of RFID tags absorbing the energy from the radio waves themselves, to complete my circuit? The product will have it's own battery but the idea is to make the battery last as long as humanly possible in this mode. This whole idea is supposed to be as small as possible so let's say it's 2D dimensions would be at max the size of a penny ( So I can't have some big intricate system). Any ideas?
What are your best choice of SS303 grade for bests efficiency on turning material ? What passivation/cleaning process is the best for increased salt spray performance ? What is the benfit to add Cu inside the material?
What is the reason for using insulators instead of conductors to limit surface recombination? Why should the excited electrons be forced to move through the emitter layer towards the Al contacts?