Science topic

# Passivation - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Passivation, and find Passivation experts.
Questions related to Passivation
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
On mesa silicon diodes: how can we remove unnecessary top passivation glass obtained after baking step ? With which tool and where can we find it?
If spacers is not too thin, maybe short etching in heavy-diluted HF helps. Or little longer ion beam etch before PVD.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I have OCP, Tafel plot and EIS data for steel electrode but i have to find passivating potential from CV data which is new for me.
Hi, you also have to specify the electrolyte in which the steel is to be passivated. Then you can scan the potential range between cathodic-active-passive to dtermine the active-passiv-transition. Since passivation is very dependent on reaction kinetics, the location of the passivation potential depends on both the potential sweep rate, the iR issue, and the ability of your potentiostat (and counter electrode characteristics) to apply sufficient current. You might have to realize an active iR compensation.
Best regards, Andreas
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
We have an electrocoagulation system for industrial wastewater treatment.
Once the system is operating, contaminants such as suspended solids or organics, etc. are adsorbed to the anode electrode (passivation problem), leading to the voltage increasing.
We are looking for a spacial aluminum material to be resistant against passivation.
First of all, passivation is related to the formation of a protective oxide film. In the case of aluminium, its technical use would be impossible if passivation did not occur. In fact, aluminium is thermodynamically very prone to oxidation, with energies of oxidation in the same range as the energy of combustion of a fuel (powdered aluminium is even used as power booster in rockets). So, without a passivation film, aluminium would burn, a little is the same way as it happens with sodium.
Thus, you cannot get aluminium without a passivation oxide film. But my question would be: why are you using aluminium as anode in your process? Beyond the normal passivation layer, by using it as anode you rist anodising it, i.e., increasing the thickness of the spontaneously formed oxide film, thus also increasing the resistivity of the material. Other materials could certainly used, as titanium covered with MMO (metal mixed oxides). This material is often used in electrolytic cells, as for the production of chlorine (using ruthenium oxide, RuO2).
Good luck.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I understand that Rn is "The fluorescence emission intensity of the reporter dye divided by the fluorescence emission intensity of the passive reference dye" (Thermofisher definition), but I'm a little unsure how that relates to RFU.
Fluorescence intensity measurements are usually relative, unlike absorbance measurements, because they depend on many factors, such as the instrument settings, the geometry of the sample, the intensity of the exciting light, the sensitivity of the detector, and so forth. So fluorescence intensity measurements are reported as relative fluorescence units (RFU). The size of the numbers has no real meaning. They are arbitrary.
If you wish, you can normalize the fluorescence intensity to some comparator, such as the fluorescence of a reference dye, dividing the first by the second. This could be useful in some circumstances to make it easier to compare measurements made at different times or under different circumstances.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I am trying to understand the structures of modern passive NFC/RFID chip rectifiers. Any help would be appreciated.
Hi,
Best wishes..
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I am looking for real world examples of passively powered RFID and NFC chips that are "long range" and utilize hysteretic switches. Any help would be much appreciated.
hi,
The most common RFID applications in hospitals are inventory tracking, control access, staff and patients tracking, tracking tools, tracking disposable consumables, tracking large/expensive equipment, laundry tracking, etc.The RFID reader is a network-connected device that can be portable or permanently attached. It uses radio waves to transmit signals that activate the tag. Once activated, the tag sends a wave back to the antenna, where it is translated into data. The transponder is in the RFID tag itself.
Best wishes..
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
By shifting from passive to active learning, the metaverse can transform the present learning paradigm into entertaining, engaging, meaningful, social, iterative, and joyous. It will change many aspects and create new ways of addressing our present learning styles' issues. The following are some questions that bring our attention to discuss further.
1) Will it help deal with diversity in higher education institutes, or will it be more complicated?
2) Will it help monitor exams more effectively in a non-face-to-face environment, or will it be cumbersome?
Dear Prof. Afzal!
You raised a topic of primary importance. Please let me argue that the answers are case - and context dependent ones:
1) Xi, N., Chen, J., Gama, F. et al. The challenges of entering the metaverse: An experiment on the effect of extended reality on workload. Inf Syst Front (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10796-022-10244-x, Open access:
2) Iman A. Akour, Rana Saeed Al-Maroof, Raghad Alfaisal, Said A. Salloum,
A conceptual framework for determining metaverse adoption in higher institutions of gulf area: An empirical study using hybrid SEM-ANN approach, Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence, Volume 3, 2022, Open access:
More research, case-studies are needed
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Dear researchers,
I did two experiment to confirm the energy dependent uptake. In 4o C experiment there is no uptake (inhibition is there) but when I am doing ATP depletion experiment by using sodium azide there is no inhibition and uptake is there so I am confused here regarding the mechanism? Does it means it is a energy independent process and my compound is going through passive diffusion?
Hello Ekta,
Have you checked that you are using the correct concentration of sodium azide?
I came across your question while I was searching for a protocol, so I don't have the knowledge yet about uptake inhibition. If you have solved your problem, could you share it with me, too?
Thank you :)
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
An intelligent planning of rooms based on Passive Solar design could effectively mitigate energy consumption and also promort the comfort. Anyways, what are the different methods used in the construction industry to implement passive solar design in rooms? Any scientific theories? Any case studies?
I would like to receive feedbacks from fellow researchers.
Apart from suggestion received, you can study the SUN DIAGRAM for our location and according plan your design of rooms. Requirement of rooms need to be workout before you proceeds for planning. Architectural planning concepts need to adhere for better planning with respect to your requirement.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
The use of a combination of active and passive measures to increase energy efficiency in building applications is possible. Passive strategies look into mechanisms in building design and orientation, as well as the building envelope, to reduce overall energy demand for heating and cooling. Active strategies include the adoption of advanced technologies for improved energy supply and efficiency, whereas passive strategies look into mechanisms in building design and orientation, as well as the building envelope, to reduce overall energy demand for heating and cooling. To aid the transition to sustainable energy practices, an energy efficient building design should not only boost energy efficiency on the supply side, but also minimize energy requirements and consumption on the demand side.
Good evening,
Usually one would expect that the passive measures schould be the prime consideration when the energy efficiency is the aim. The 'building envelope first' is the common appoach in this respect with the aim to minimise the heat losses through the building envelope and maximise the (passive) solar gains during the winter months in order to reduce the heating costs for example in the cloder climates. This is normally combined with solar shading and natural ventilation in order to minimise the overheating in summer, etc. The approach will be slightly different in warmer climates where cooling in summer is probably the bigger issue. These appraoches may be combined with some traditional methods used in a particular country for micro-climate control, like ventilation towers, ground wells, courtyards with trees and water, etc. These can normally moderate the micro climate within the building and reduce the building energy related loads.
The active measures tend to be the second layer associated with energy efficiency but they tend to be more expensive and not all of them are always suitable depending on the building location, surrounding building, etc. One have to aim to avoid the so called 'eco-blink' approach where number of active energy generated technologies are incorporated on a building just to showcase how the building is 'green' or similar whilst the actual energy generating potential is quite limited by some of the systems deployed.
With Best Wishes
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Hi everyone, I am trying to calculate the effect size of a study I am aiming to replicate (to run a G power analysis and find my required sample size). The thing is the R-squared mentioned in the regression table of the said study is of 0,007... which gives me quite unreachable sample size given my resources (> 1 300), but I am precisely trying to see if I did something wrong (although in the original paper N = 1 268, but they found a significant impact of the intervention in question for smaller samples of 700 participants too)
The randomized experiment consists of 4 conditions (Passive Control, Active Control, Treatment, Importance Treatment), and tests the effects of these conditions and of "news type" (the main task in every condition consists of presenting 36 headlines to participants, which are either true or false - each participant, whatever the group, being presented an equal amount of true AND false headlines randomly selected from a constituted set) on their sharing intentions of said headlines.
So this would call for (but correct me if I am wrong this is all very new to me) a two-way ANOVA analysis with the DV "sharing intentions" and IVs "condition" (4 levels) and "news type" (2 levels : false = 0, true = 1) (the design being between-subjects for conditions, but within-subjects for news type, which I understood could be a source of problem for G power...).
In their regression table, authors of the original study specifically find an interaction between Treatment and veracity with the following values: b = 0.054; F(1,6772) = 11.98; p = 0.0005, so that they can conclude there is a significant increase in sharing discernment (defined as the difference in sharing intentions for true vs false headlines) in Treatment group compared to controls (they first collapsed Passive and Active controls, since a preliminary analysis didn't find any significant main effect of condition or interaction with veracity for Active controls compared to Passive ones).
I calculated the effect size, based on the R-squared (0,007) when choosing linear multiple regression in G power (or using the partial-eta squared formula based on the value of F(1,6772) = 11.98 with its specified df when choosing an ANOVA - fixed effects, special, main effects and interactions) and both give me a sample size of 1300 or more. Did I do something wrong?
In passing, I am also not sure about the number of predictors (or respectively groups) I should enter in G power, as we want to replicate the study but ideally add the IV "age" (comparing 2 age groups, submitted otherwise to the same experiment - all participants whatever the age, will be randomly affected to the 4 conditions mentioned).
Hello again Camille,
I'm intrigued that the guidance you've gotten thus far from others (not in this thread) has been to emulate the (apparently gigantic) sample sizes used in other studies, without pausing to consider the utility of embracing such a small target effect size.
No matter, here are a couple of methods and considerations that you might adapt for setting your own threshold, whether for a main effect, an interaction, or some degree of variance accounted for:
1. Invite a small group of persons who do or are likely to understand the domain. Ask them something like: How much of a change in this (your target) DV would you consider non-chance and meaningful, if it occurred due to some variable or treatment? (You should make the language more specific to your DV and IV(s), of course.) Work until you reach either a consensus (as in the Delphi technique), or go with something like the median of their estimates.
2. Think of Jacob Cohen's metric for differences: Standard deviations (not standard errors, which Rainer correctly points out are driven both by variation and sample size; you want a metric that is independent of N). How much of a SD difference would convince you that something's going on (and is not just random perturbation)?
3. Perspective and context matter: Small changes/differences may be useful to agencies/organizations if applied to numerous cases (such as saving a few cents per piece in manufacturing), but may be negligible to individuals.
Put another way: Consider a medical intervention that increases the odds of survival (over 5 years) by 3%, but costs $100,000. Is that ES (change in survival odds) noteworthy? Now, consider an intervention that increases the odds of survival by 3%, but costs$1. Is that noteworthy? I suspect many folks would give different answers to the two scenarios. So, context matters.
As this moment is, apparently, early doors for this line of research, you may not have the luxury of a broadly-vetted ES threshold. The best you can do, especially if you're working against an upper bound constraint on sample size, is select a target ES value that makes sense to you, and explain the rationale you used.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
write a code for Mapping Approach for True Internet Protocol Geo-location Information by using Active and Passive Methods
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
In our study, we analyse some reflections contained in the education thought of John Dewey, Paulo Freire and Peter McLaren. The three thinkers, with mutually different methods, have, in our opinion, as common point the intention to show that no education system is neutral in relation to the way in which societies are organised: all systems of education aim at the constitution of a particular kind of society through the formation of a corresponding mentality in the individuals. The ethical and political foundations of a society are mirrored in the education system: any reform of the society should, therefore, begin with the reform of the education system; furthermore, any reform of the society cannot be effective unless it is founded on the reform of education. As regards Dewey’s observations, we concentrate our attention on his criticism of any education system based on the passivity of pupils and on the massification of students: Dewey steadily pleads for a system of education aiming at the individualisation of pupils. As regards Freire’s meditation, we point out Freire’s uncovering of the oppression exercised against the subaltern classes through the traditional education systems: the constant relegation of pupils of the oppressed classes to a condition of total passivity, which is the aim of the system of education described by Freire as the banking concept of education, destroys any sense and aspiration to autonomy in the pupils themselves. Self-depreciation of pupils is the result of the traditional system of education. McLaren points out that a correct system of education should have as its own aim the self-transformation and the empowerment of the students: educators ought to uncover the relations holding between knowledge, which is always a social construct, and the interests of the dominant class. Keywords Dewey, democracy, Freire, banking concept of education, McLaren, self-transformation.
Dear Professor Neema Ghenim ,
I thank you very much for your kind appreciation.
Yours sincerely,
Gianluigi Segalerba
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I fabricate perovskite thin film solar cell and trying to passivate interfaces of absorbing layer with inorganic layer. I have already done TRPL measurements on the interfaces. It gave pretty good results. Now, I want to get more information about defect passivation at the interfaces. I tried DLTS, but didn't work. I am looking for other measurements so that the defect passivation argument can get stronger evidence.
Hello Tamanna, many thanks for sharing this very interesting technical question with other RG members. Unfortunately I'm not really an expert in this field of materials science although we are inorganic chemists. Thus all I can do for you today is suggest to you a few potentially useful literature references. Please have a look e.g. at the following articles.
Recent progress on defect passivation in perovskites for solar cell application
This article is not yet available as public full text on RG. However, four of the authors have RG profiles. Thus you can easily contact one of them directly via RG and request the full text.
I also came across an entire PhD thesis devoted to this topic:
Defect Passivation and Surface Modification for Efficient and Stable Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells and Light-Emitting Diodes
(see attached pdf file)
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
To get a soliton train pulses from a ring laser cavity host a Saturable Absorber , we need to make a balance between the dispersion of the cavity active and passive elements . What is the EDF length that have to use and SFM 28 for example ?
Regardes .
you can see the following links:
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
The alkyl or aryl based ligands/passivating agents are frequently used for the passivation of metal nanoparticles or colloidal suspension during liquid-phase synthesis. How much should be the ligand concentration to fully passivate the nanoparticles? What is the right time to add ligand, for instance, before adding reducing agent or after adding reducing agent?
you welcome Kumar Debajyoti Jena.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
It is suggested that Au can be used for passivation but Au and prevent oxidation during processing. Yet Au is not allowed in many chambers. is it possible to passivate Cr with other materials such as Al?
welcome!
I think you can passivate Cr by directly oxidizing its surface or supply its surface by a metal oxide layer such as Al2O3 rather than aluminum.
Best wishes
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Hi everybody,
I could find only very few articles on the transpassive corrosion behavior of iron. (Sato 1976, Kozlowski 1984)WITHOUT halide ions. Is it confirmed that the transpassive dissolution of iron does not lead to film breakdown but a constant, potential independent, film thickness? Is this also true for other passivated metals, or are there metals which loose theor oxide film during transpassive dissolution? As far as I know passive films of chromium oxide dissolve completely at potentials exceeding the transpassive potential.
What is the proposed mechanism for transpassive dissolution/corrosion of iron oxide? And why doesnt it lead to complete film dissolution?
Best
Ingmar
You have asked many great questions regarding the transpassivity (and anodic dissolution, in general) of iron.
Transpassivity is often referred to as the increase in current density as more anodic potential are applied (with respect to the passive region), and describes the breakdown of primary passivity. Transpassivity is a bit challenging to define (as an exact point) without much analysis and testing; however, I have found the work of Macdonald and co-workers helpful in this, as they describe it as part of their Point Defect Model (PDM) [Macdonald, D. D. "Some personal adventures in passivity—A review of the point defect model for film growth" Russ. J. Electrochem. 48 (2012) 235–258. doi:10.1134/S1023193512030068.
Additional information regarding the anodic dissolution of iron, in general, can be found in the research of Keddam and co-workers (as well as Bockris and co-workers) where they performed many EIS studies. This book Chapter provides a good starting point: [It is Chapter 3 Anodic Dissolution in Corrosion Mechanisms in Theory and in Practice (3rd ed.), edited by P. Marcus. doi:10.1201/b11020.]
You may also find this work helpful: Avillera, A, Cid, M, and Petit, M.C. Anodic reaction of iron in transpassive range. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry, Vol 105, p 149-160. doi:10.1016/S0022-0728(79)80346-0
With regards to your question on the passive film thickness: The dependence of the passive film thickness on potential has been studied by a number of researchers, typically using surface analysis techniques (e.g. XPS). In general, as more anodic potentials are applied, the oxidation of metals to higher valence species occurs. This is true for iron as it transitions from 2+ to 3+ species during anodic polarization. The work of Strehblow and co-workers provides insight as to the potential dependency of the passive film thickness of Fe, Ni and NiFe alloys (e.g. [Haupt, S., Strehblow, H.H. "Combined electrochemical and surface analytical investigations of the formation of passive layers". Corrosion Science. 29 (1989) 163–182. doi:10.1016/0010-938X(89)90027-9.]
For iron, the passive film thickness is relatively potential independent; however, for Ni, the thickness of the passive film is much more dependent on potential. In my paper, I provide a number of references for the passive film of Ni, Fe, and, in particular, NiFe alloys, as well as provide some insight as to the potential dependency of the passive film thickness for nanocrystalline NiFe alloys: Monaco, L., Sodhi, R.N.S., Palumbo, G. and Erb, U. "XPS study on the passivity of coarse-grained polycrystalline and electrodeposited nanocrystalline nickel-iron (NiFe) alloys," Corrosion Science. 176 (2020) 108902. doi:10.1016/j.corsci.2020.108902.
Lastly, it is important to point out that anodic films can exist on iron (and other metals) other than the passive film. For example, a sulfate-based film has often been reported on Ni and Fe (see references above). During anodic dissolution of Ni in sulfuric acid, for example, this film plays an important role in the dissolution mechanism.
Hopefully these references will provide additional insight for you! Best of luck!
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Which Real-Time PCR Instrument is better? Those that work with passive reference dye or those that do not work with passive reference dye.
There are instruments that use ROX like ABI, others that use fluorescein (Biorad), others that correct by centrifugation (Rotorgene) ... But I think there are diverse criteria to choose an instrument: if is it an open system for the consumable (master mix and plastic support) or not?, the spectrum (multiplexing: nbr of filters), maintenance (lamp ...), Heating block accuracy, Calibration ... and the cost of course. You can get a comparison at this link : https://www.biocompare.com/PCR-Real-Time-PCR/22353-Real-Time-PCR-Thermal-Cyclers-Thermocyclers/
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
currently i study on a project passive ankle foot orthosis. i make a simulation of ankle foot orthosis during static midstance. for midstance position how much force need to apply for the make the test is suitable for analysis the stiffness of the ankle foot orthosis?
check the following papers:-
- A Review on Designs of Various Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO) Used to Treat Drop Foot Disease
- Effect of Ankle-Foot Orthosis Stiffness on Muscle Force During Gait Through Mechanical Testing and Gait Simulation
- The effect of rotational speed on ankle-foot orthosis properties
- Understanding the effects of quantitatively prescribing passive-dynamic ankle-foot orthosis bending stiffness for individuals after stroke
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
My questions are:
How can I calculate cut-off frequency if I want to design a passive LC filter when Inductance and Capacitance were not given?
Is there any mathematical relation between cut-off frequency and resonance frequency?
1. V. Tarateeraseth, K. Y. See, F. G. Canavero, and R. W. Chang, "Systematic electromagnetic interference filter design based on information from in-circuit impedance measurements," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 588-598, Aug. 2010.
2. M. J. Nave, Power Line Filter Design for Switched-Mode Power Supplies. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991.
3. C. R. Paul, Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility. New York: Wiley, 1992.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
During a passive lengthening displacement, muscle spindle primary afferents activity increases, and if after the stretch, the muscle is passively moved back to its original position (shortening phase), the activity decreases.
But what happens when the muscle is shortened starting from a neutral position?
Would the Ia afferent remain the same or decrease?
Dear Francesco Budini,
1. Muscle spindle activity in man during shortening and lengthening contractions.
2. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Cyclic polarsation of bare steel in 3.5%NaCl
Agree with Erik. Steel will not passivate in presence of NaCL. Certain acids will passivate mild steel (Nitric acid, citric acid, etc.).
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I am unable to find it online anywhere.
From their SDS:
Chemical characterization: Mixtures
Description:
The product is made up of a mixture of non-hazardous components. The exact concentration percentages and components name may be withheld as a Promega Corp. trade secret.
Dangerous components:
56-81-5 glycerol 25-50%
75621-03-3 3-[(3-Choalamidopropryl)dimethylammonio]propanesulfonic acid 1-5%
86303-22-2 N,N-Bis(3-D-gluconamidopropyl)cholamide <1%
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Hi, all
I'm struggling with fabrication of working electrode on SU-8 layer.
here is detailed fabrication process.
1. Ni sacrificial layer deposition by Sputtering (100nm, 5mTorr, 150W, 15nm/min)
2. SU-8 bottom layer patterning
- spin coating with SU-8 2002 (microchem) at 4k rpm
- pre exposure bake: 65temp 3min --> 95temp 5min
- UV exposure with MA-6 mask aligner --> 350W, 25sec exposure
- post exposure bake: 65temp 3min --> 95temp 5min and slow cooling
- Developing in SU-8 developer 2min with puddling
- N2 gas drying
3. Cr/Au working electrode patterning & deposition
- patterning with LOR 3A/S1805 PR
- ebeam evaporation of Cr with 1 A/sec, 5nm (deposition start at ~5 E-7 torr)
- thermal evaporation of Au with 1 A/sec, 100nm
4. Passivation with SU-8
- same procedure as 2.
after fabrication, electrochemical property (impedance, Nyquist plot) is measured.
but only 1~2 devices are working well among 50 devices.
what would be a problem in this case?
i have doubt about surface roughness or micro crack of SU-8 layer and Au electrode.
Hello, great day.
First of all, Im not sure if my experience can help you since I did not fabricate any devices but instead I only produce a simple thin film Au electrode. I can see that you did not proceed with annealing process after the Au deposition. My last experience, Au thin film layer will have some crack problem during the electrochemical measurement if they were not annealed after the deposition process. And ya, it does effect the results really bad because the cracks affects the connectivity. The results get better once I tried to anneal the Au thin film after the deposition process. Material that experienced thermal deposition will contain some stress in their phase. So annealing process will help to release the stress slowly while rearrange the particle grain growth. Therefore, it will help to overcome the cracking problems during the electrochemical measurement. In my case, it was clearly Au thin film cracking is the main problem. Im not sure in your case. But seeing your results, I agree that it might be caused by the connectivity problems due to some cracks. Im not sure about the rough surface , but I do believe that if there are any micro scratch on your device, it might caused disaster too. Hope this help.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Hello everyone.
I am trying to fabricate FAMA perovskite solar cell by sequential deposition method.
The first step is spin coating PbI2 DMF/DMSO solution and annealing at 70C for 1min.
The second step is spin coating FAI/MAI/MACl IPA solution and annealing at 150C for 10min.
Unfortunately, in many articles authors don't give out the volume of solution each step used and how and when to add the FAI/MAI solution.
I tried several times but I cannot reproduce the result of papers. The PCE is only 13-15%.
Has someone tried this method before?
Reference:
1.Jiang, Q., Zhao, Y., Zhang, X. et al. Surface passivation of perovskitefilm for efficient solar cells. Nat. Photonics 13, 460–466 (2019).Jiang, Q., Zhao, Y., Zhang, X. et al. Surface passivation of perovskitefilm for efficient solar cells. Nat. Photonics 13, 460–466 (2019).
2.Wang, X., Wang, L., Shan, T. et al. Low-Temperature Aging Provides 22% Efficient Bromine-Free and Passivation Layer-Free Planar PerovskiteSolar Cells. Nano-Micro Lett. 12, 84 (2020).
Dear Zhang Bowen many thanks for your kind response and explanation. For some potentially useful references about the effect of humidity on the annealing of mixed-cation perovskite layers please have a look at the following articles entitled:
A rapid annealing technique for efficient perovskite solar cells fabricated in air condition under high humidity
and
Effects of ambient humidity on the optimum annealing time of mixed-halide Perovskite solar cells
Unfortunately these two papers have not yet been posted as public full texts on RG. Please see if you can access them through your university. Alternatively you can perhaps request the full texts directly from the authors via RG.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I want to measure a solution's IV characteristics, So I want to have a passivation layer so that the solution does not contact the electrodes directly. I have Two option
1. SU-8 negative photoresist
2. S 1813 positive photoresist.
Which one should I use, Positive one is easier but I don't know whether I can use it or not
If you hard bake the S1813 after developing, it will be more durable and should stand up to aqueous solutions as long as the pH is not too high.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Hi I want to understand the undercut we get due to the etch and passivation cycle of bosch process. However i see that we get high scallops at the starting top etching compared to the lower bottom etching.. Can anyone explain me this ?.
what parameter should i control ?. I was thinking to reduce the etch/passivation cycle time to min so to have low scallops.. You think is there any other parameters i should consider ??
Hi Karan,
For the BOSCH process DRIE mechanism, as the etch cycle continues, the polymer formation may result in the trenches getting more and more dirty. What you can try is to lower you pressure during the etch cycle or as Bagolini suggested try using a reduced etch cycle time. Also a faster switching process can help reduce the scallop size, but again this is inline with shorter etch time. There are a number of articles that show a smooth sidewall with reduced scalloping is formed if a lower process pressure is used during the etch cycle. I hope this helps.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Hi everybody
I was wondering whether I could use Passive Lysis Buffer (PLB; used for Luciferase assay) for western blot analysis. Basically, I'd lysate cells in a 6-well plate and then split the lysate for luciferase assay and western blot, in order to use the same starting material for both the analysis (since we're having some problems).
Have someone already used it? any hints or protocols to share?
Thank you so much in advance!
Hello Researcher,
Although I don't know what are you using the Luciferase assay for? and what are the problems you face? However, If I am not mistaken you might be using a dual luciferase assay system (Firefly, Renilla, or Nanoluc). I did something similar recently.
Below given are some suggestions:
1. Do the incubation of PLB (prepared fresh) at RT, once you see the cells are detached collect them in an Eppendorf and pass the detached cells through a 1ml syringe twice to properly lyse them followed by brief centrifugation for 5min at 20000g and collect the supernatant. This should ideally work both for Luminometer measurements and also for WB.
2. If the PLB is still giving you problems in WB then I would recommend, after the 1X PBS washing of the wells, scrap half of the cells per well manually using a scrapper and lyse them separately using your buffer of choice like RIPA.
I hope it works for you.
Goodluck
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
My sample was 45 participants aged 18-25. My Cronbach's Alpha is different to what the researchers who devised the PAUM found. Could anyone offer an explanation for the difference in these results please?
Original Paper
Cronbach's alphas for all three factors demonstrated adequate internal reliability (Active social α = 0.80; Active non-social α = 0.78; Passive α = 0.70).
My Cronbach's Alpha
Active Social = 0.45
Active Non-Social = 0.62
Passive = 0.61
@Britanie Brown,
Remember it is score reliability rather than the scale reliability. The low estimates of score reliability indicate much random error or noise in the data.
That said, there are likely some reasons for which you observed low score relibability estimates.
1- Lack of variability in responses which is a greater concern in small samples.
2- The presence of ceiling or floor effects which explain the lack of variability.
3- Alpha sometimes underestimates score reliability if the assumptions of tau equivalence do not hold. That is why most recent literature recommend omega.
You can compute categorical omega with confidence intervals for ordinal data using the MBESS package in R. Categorical omega is highly recommended over alpha since the assumptions of the latter are difficult to meet in real data (e.g., equal loadings of the items on the same latent dimension).
I hope this helps.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I ask a question concerning the robots which have active and passive links -the parameter dh
does not result in direct geometry
is that there is another method which results from the geometry
one apart from geometric methods (solidworks, vr ... ect)
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Has anybody information of Chinese product "Growatt 80KTL3LV" inverters and which algorithm is used for and islanding detection. ( I know all about passive method in it U<, > and f<,> ... ) Are any other active method?
Srete
You do nee to answer me that :-)
Srete
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I am looking for recent data on the passive exposure of occupants of buildings containing asbestos. So far, I have not found much information on any measurement campaigns that have been conducted to find out about the background noise indoors (outside buildings where work or remediation is taking place).
Can also message related researchers in different regions
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Recently, I need to process the brightness temperature data of SMAP (soil moisture active passive) L1C 9km resolution and carry out freeze-thaw identification. Since I have not processed similar data before, I hope someone can provide some experience. Thank you very much.
@Sadegh Ranjbar,Thank you very much. I have solved the problem of data processing of SMAP L1C. Thank you again for your reply.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Different methods have been used for sampling beetles in the study of Coleopterans. The two main methods are passive and active sampling. Passive can be less labour-intensive but cannot sample folivore insects. Active on the other hand can be rewarding for folivore but cannot be useful for wood-borers, granivorous and frugivorous insects. Therefore, I am asking if any colleagues can provide a leverage to better sampling of beetles.
It depends on wich families you want. For nocturnal species, led black light placed in opern areas near a forest is very useful for Melolonthidae ( Phyllophaga, Anomala, Plectris, Cyclocephala). The largest catch in one night were 10,000 individuals of Phyllophaga, Cyclocephala and Plectris among other orders and families. For Scolytinae, alcohol traps are useful to collect a large amount of ambrosia beetles, coffee berry borers, among other. In one week I collected 3,500.000 individuals. For Scarab beetles and dung beetles, pitfall traps baited with rotten fish or excrement are useful to collect many genera and species of dung beetles.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Phase changing materials
Phase change material for building application is selected based on newly proposed MKR index. MKR index is calculated based on time lag, decrement factor and solar heat gain by the building envelope. I am providing you the details of my article. Go through it and feel free to ask quarries related to it.
Article "Proposal of a unique index for selection of optimum phase change material for effective thermal performance of a building envelope"
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Hello,
We are working on erosion-corrosion of a high chromium cast iron (HCCI) in slurry environment. Is high working temperatures (~80°C) impacting the passivation of such metals? We are studying a 1%C, 27%Cr, 2%Mo alloy
Dear Abedouahed,
for cast iron with 27% chromium, there is no difference between 20°C and 80°C. A least noticeable increase in the thickness of the oxide film (Cr2O3 passivation coating) on this alloy starts from approx 500 degrees, and this film will reach a thickness of about 1 micron at temperatures above 600°C. At this temperature, the surface of high chromium cast iron begins to acquire interference coloration, which indicates an oxide film thickness of 0.1 to 1 microns.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I know that my target is in my sample as I extracted it from cell culture myself. These plots show some amplification. The first one seems O.K for the first 36 cycles but then collapses at the end. Do you think that suggests that the target is being picked up but it's not quite working as it should. I've being using SYBR with no ROX. I'm guessing that maybe using SYBR with ROX or a passive reference of some sort might be the way to go. Help much appreciated. Thanks.
yes, Quantstudio 3 works with low ROX reference. We have not tried it without ROX, but we never had any problems like this with low ROX PCR mixes (no "colapse" of curves observed even after 40 cycles).
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
In a fiber laser cavity, which is passively mode locked, a low loss SA is inserted. Can it help to generate high energy pulses?
Depending on the type of laser you are working on. For example, in fiber laser systems where there are plenty of gain, low-loss saturable absorber does not give much advantages, and instead a moderate loss (> 1.5dB) is better if you want to have stronger saturable absorption depth. If you are working on free space laser systems, such gain media such a Ti-Sapphire, thin-disk, etc with a low single-pass gain, a low-loss saturable absorber will be needed, so that you will not compromise your lasing condition.
The total insertion loss of an SA consists of saturable absorption, background non-saturable absorption, coupling loss. What you want is a low non-saturable absorption loss, but a large saturable absorption loss.
A few other things you have to consider include: saturable absorber's response time (e.g. SESAM ~15ps, CNT-SA ~500fs, Graphene-SA ~300fs) and dispersion/nonlinear-effect balance in you laser cavity.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I am running qPCR on eDNA samples from rivers and have found that the vast majority of my samples show a decrease in fluorescence in my passive reference dye (ROX) while my target dye (FAM) increases (see Multicomponent Plot) . Additionally, amplification of these samples begins early on at around 16-20 cycles while my standard curve begins at 22 cycles. I am using a Taqman Internal Positive Control (VIC) as well. Overall, my plots look really strange and my standard curve has poor efficiency. What could be causing these weird results with ROX? This is my first time running qPCR.
Giorgia Pertile Thanks for your input! To answer your first question, I am quite confident in the primers/probe. I am using a protocol that was developed 5 years ago and has been used successfully by numerous researchers that quantified eDNA from the same study organism I am looking at. I have not tested alternative annealing temperatures, but am using the protocol that was established (annealing = 60 degrees). Although, when I calculated the Tm of my primers they were about 53-55 degrees so I am thinking of testing a lower annealing temperature to see how that affects the results.
I believe it is possible that I have inhibitor contamination in my extracted DNA. Many of my samples are visibly tinted yellow/brown instead of clear. I have not tried BSA yet. I have also not checked the 260/280 ratio yet. These are great suggestions! Thank you Giorgia!
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Dear Dr. Şeyma Seyyah ,
very interesting question; I suggest you to have a look at the following papers:
- Corrosion of Metallic Biomaterials: A Review
Noam Eliaz
Materials (Basel), 12(3): 407 (2019)
- Corrosion and surface modification on biocompatible metals: A review
R I M Asri, W S W Harun, M Samykano, N A C Lah, S A C Ghani, F Tarlochan, M R Raza
Mater. Sci. Eng. C Mater. Biol. Appl., 77:1261-1274 (2017)
Available, as abstract and similar articles, at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28532004/
- Surface modification of magnesium and its alloys for biomedical applications: Opportunities and challenges
T.S.N. Sankara Narayanan, Il-Song Park, Min-Ho Lee
In book: Surface Modification of Magnesium and its Alloys for Biomedical Applications
Volume 1: Biological Interactions, Mechanical Properties and Testing
2015, Pages 29-87
- Biomedical Implants: Corrosion and its Prevention - A Review
Geetha Manivasagam, Durgalakshmi Dhinasekaran and Asokamani Rajamanickam
Recent Patents on Corrosion Science, 2, 40-54 (2010)
- Corrosion aspects of metallic implants — An overview
A. Balamurugan, S. Rajeswari, G. Balossier,A. H. S. Rebelo and J. M. F. Ferreira
Materials and Corrosion,59, No. 11 (2008)
Best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
The concepts to be discussed are practical learning, school and society, games and problem solving(scientific method)
Basically, I would say that there is better and worse, good and bad in the pragmatic tradition. Being American and trained in philosophy, I have obligated myself to follow its various developments. You may find the following of some interest:
H.G. Callaway
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Hi researchers,
I'm starting to work on a project about  rfid networks , i'm looking for a simulation software for passive RFID technology to establish simple network communication between readers and tags? I found a paper which talk about "RFIDsim" but I have not found the simulator and the installation method of this simulator? do you have any information regarding the installation of RFIDsim?
I use CST Microwave Studio Suite for the design of passive RFID antennas.
As an RFID transponder works through backscattering communication, you can put a discrete port in correspondance of the RFID-IC, in order to evaluate the antenna-chip impedance tuning as well as the farflied antenna performance.
Ciao,
Carolina
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Is it alright if I can use both but more of an emphasis on the passive voice in the literature section and the active voice in the results and dsicussion
Thanks
In scientific research the writing should be in passive voice.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Intelligent Refelecting Surface (or Intelligent Reconfigurable Surface), IRS, consists of a large number of passive elements that are able to reflect the incident signal passively. The size of each element may depend on the wavelength of the signal to be reflected. My question here is how much should be the size of the IRS element in order to successufly reflect a signal with a wavelength \lambda.
The typical size of the elements being used in experiments is lambda/10 to lambda/5. The reason is that you want each element to scatter the signals without a directivity, so that the combined effect of having many elements will determine the directivity of the "reflected" signal.
I also explain this at 26:00 in the following video:
You can also listen to the Episode 3 in my podcast "Wireless Future", we we discuss this. It is available on YouTube and in podcast apps.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Many theories have been proposed to describe the diastolic filling phase of the heart, which may be sorted out into two broad categories. The classical and most accepted theories assume filling to be passive: once the mitral valve is open, the pressure of the venous return is large enough to drive the blood flow from the atrium to the ventricle. The theories in the other category assume an active filling: the ventricle behaves as a suction pump.
The starting point for most of the theories refuting the passive filling is the discussion of the fact that during the diastole, atrial and ventricular pressures are nearly identical, and the small pressure difference between the two chambers is not large enough to explain the passive filling of the heart.
Despite many experimental evidence supports the active filling, the theory of passive filling still remains in the minds of most cardiologists. I don't know the reason behind it. If anyone can answer this, it will be very useful for my research.
Thank you Maria Sholkava
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Dear colleagues, i would like to passivate a highly reactive metal (reactive to Oxigen) with some functional layer I can deposit in glove box.
any suggestions?
Following
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Frequency 980.0MHz,
Active Dipole Length 0.155m,
Passive Dipol Length 0.123m
Distance between dipoles0.045m
What is the diameter of dipoles and material?
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Hello,
im trying to use the RFID tag in order to sensing something with passive mode.
so far, thought about the SL900A chip as an candidate,
since it has quite many reference paper which use SL900A as an transponder tag.
however, it seems do not in stock anymore.
is there any chip that you can suggest as an replacement for SL900A?
long to short,
1. RFID transponder tag
2. Passive mode
3. Sensing interface
that is the all the features what im looking for now.
if it is possible, 900MHz frequency range might be better to use.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Anyone can share with me electrochemical data/references on lead-free brasses electrochemistry and especially passivity and repassivation behaviour. thank you
you are right but I suggest you to have a look at the following paper:
-Corrosion Behavior of Different Brass Alloys fo rDrinking Water Distribution Systems
Jamal Choucri, Federica Zanotto, Vincenzo Grassi, Andrea Balbo, Mohamed Ebn Touhami, Ilyass Mansouri and Cecilia Monticelli
Metals,9, 649; (2019) - doi:10.3390/met9060649
Best regards, Pierluigi Traverso
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Curve fitting of passive muscle tension stress relaxation curves are based on force over time curves.
Being able to quantify a stress relaxation curve using the quadratic equation used for spring damping allows the interpretation of curves as being over damped, under damped, or critically damped. In order to do this the equations used must be based on time and not distance. I would like to confirm the mathematics that I am using for this analysis.
Included below are the math proofs that I believe are correct.
Thank you
Lawrence Casha Thanks for sharing your work. I quickly went through the word file and I found you equated the inverse of the circular frequency to "t"? I could not understand that part. 2*pi*sqrt(M/K) corresponds to the time period which would be a fixed value/values for a given system (depending upon M and K).
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
In the case of overpopulated cities, how I can select the appropriate sites to do some field measurements "Passive Seismic Surveys"? How about the design of the survey in order to study the soil properties and the subsurface conditions? What type of field equipment and software I can use? If somebody could recommend some publications for case studies in this regard, I will be thankful.
Here are below a few case studies publications over more or less the last decade, where you could find useful information (there are plenty of others, especially from Japan, Asia and latin America, other colleagues may complete the list !). As to the type of equipment, it is evolving rapidly. There was a comparative study in Guillier et al., 2008. Influence of instruments on the H/V spectral ratios of ambient vibrations, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 6-1, but it relates only to H/V techniques.
Ashayeri, I., Sadr, A., Biglari, M., & Haghshenas, E. (2020). Comprehensive ambient noise analyses for seismic microzonation of sarpol-e-zahab after the Mw 7.3 2017 Iran earthquake. Engineering Geology, 105636.
Bonnefoy-Claudet, S., Baize, S., Bonilla, L. F., Berge-Thierry, C., Pasten, C., Campos, J., ... & Verdugo, R. (2009). Site effect evaluation in the basin of Santiago de Chile using ambient noise measurements. Geophysical Journal International176(3), 925-937.
Brax, M., Bard, P. Y., Duval, A. M., Bertrand, E., Rahhal, M. E., Jomaa, R., ... & Sursock, A. (2018). Towards a microzonation of the Greater Beirut area: an instrumental approach combining earthquake and ambient vibration recordings. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering16(12), 5735-5767
Cadet, H., Macau, A., Benjumea, B., Bellmunt, F., & Figueras, S. (2011). From ambient noise recordings to site effect assessment: The case study of Barcelona microzonation. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering31(3), 271-281.
Chouinard, L., Rosset, P., Hunter, J. A., & Crow, H. L. (2012). On the use of single station ambient noise techniques for microzonation purposes: the case of Montreal. Shear wave velocity measurement guidelines for Canadian seismic site characterization in soil and rock. Edited by JA Hunter and HL Crow. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File7078, 85-93.
Di Giulio, G., Ercoli, M., Vassallo, M., & Porreca, M. (2020). Investigation of the Norcia basin (Central Italy) through ambient vibration measurements and geological surveys. Engineering Geology267, 105501.
Gallipoli, M. R., Albarello, D., Mucciarelli, M., & Bianca, M. (2011). Ambient noise measurements to support emergency seismic microzonation: the Abruzzo 2009 earthquake experience. Boll. Geof. Teor. Appl52, 539-559.
Guéguen, P., Cornou, C., Garambois, S., & Banton, J. (2007). On the limitation of the H/V spectral ratio using seismic noise as an exploration tool: application to the Grenoble valley (France), a small apex ratio basin. Pure and applied geophysics164(1), 115-134.
Havenith, H. B., Fäh, D., Polom, U., & Roullé, A. (2007). S-wave velocity measurements applied to the seismic microzonation of Basel, Upper Rhine Graben. Geophysical Journal International170(1), 346-358
Marcucci, S., Milana, G., Hailemikael, S., Carlucci, G., Cara, F., Di Giulio, G., & Vassallo, M. (2019). The deep bedrock in Rome, Italy: a new constraint based on passive seismic data analysis. Pure and Applied Geophysics176(6), 2395-2410.
Navarro, M., García-Jerez, A., Alcalá, F. J., Vidal, F., & Enomoto, T. (2014). Local site effect microzonation of Lorca town (SE Spain). Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering12(5), 1933-1959.
Panou, A. A., Theodulidis, N., Hatzidimitriou, P., Stylianidis, K., & Papazachos, C. B. (2005). Ambient noise horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio in site effects estimation and correlation with seismic damage distribution in urban environment: the case of the city of Thessaloniki (Northern Greece). Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering25(4), 261-274.
Panzera, F., Romagnoli, G., Tortorici, G., D'Amico, S., Rizza, M., & Catalano, S. (2019). Integrated use of ambient vibrations and geological methods for seismic microzonation. Journal of Applied Geophysics170, 103820.
Régnier, J., Bertrand, E., & Cadet, H. (2020). Repeatable process for seismic microzonation using 1-D site-specific response spectra assessment approaches. Application to the city of Nice, France. Engineering Geology, 105569.
Rohmer, O., Bertrand, E., Mercerat, E. D., Régnier, J., Pernoud, M., Langlaude, P., & Alvarez, M. (2020). Combining borehole log-stratigraphies and ambient vibration data to build a 3D Model of the Lower Var Valley, Nice (France). Engineering Geology, 105588.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Dear Clinical Rehabilitation colleagues, I have just finished Malcolm Gladwell's excellent book 'Outliers' (2011) for probably the 4th time and would like to recommend such a tremendous and inspiring book to any clinical therapist or anyone working in the neuroplasticity field. I have read all Malcolm's books and in fact his most recent'Talking To Strangers' was also excellent because of the important issues it raises (I can assure everyone I am not related to Malcolm or have no vested interest in promoting his work but it introduces some really interesting psychological concepts, although as far as I'm aware Malcolm never mentions how these could possibly be applied in the clinical setting). I am interesting in getting a discussion started because I believe that there needs to be a fundamental shift in our approach to rehabilitating patients (especially neurology) towards achieving greater successful outcomes. I believe that the same psychological principles mentioned in outliers can apply to clinical rehabilitation and I would be very interested to develop this over the coming years. I have already started writing focus and editorials for journals based on his work.
As a Physical Therapist (Physiotherapist in Ireland) and now researcher who is very interested in developing and improving clinical rehabilitation post stroke etc, I would like to consider outliers in this context and would be interested if you agree. I firmly believe that a new approach to rehabilitation is required and the current 'passiveness' that takes place needs to be replaced with 'psychological education' to equip patients with the confidence for success. For me all physiotherapy is 70% psychology (partly placebo effect) and 30% physical interventions.
I believe that a lot of the psychological approaches mentioned in Malcolm's book could be applied to clinical rehabilitation and would indeed improve current outcomes. Regarding 'Outliers' can I make some observations please;
Introduction: I believe that patients rehabilitating from home rather than in a rehabilitation setting can benefit from a similar 'Rosetto Effect'.
Chapter 1 & 2: We can apply the principle of the 10,000 hour rule to rehabilitation. Success in rehabilitation is also the result of 'Cumulative Advantage' (availability of home-based rehab equipment, access to professional supervision, means of receiving real-time feedback) but in order to achieve this we need to find a way to motivate patients to do the '10,000 hours of meaningful rehabilitation'. After 30 years of experience I truly believe that almost all patients can get a successful recovery if they are willing to work really really really hard.
Chapters 3 & 4: In a similar fashion to practical intelligence that is gained from rich parents, stroke patients need to take control of their therapy and if they start to steer their therapy then they will create a neuroplasticity in their brains that will result in improved success. I believe there is an element of stereotyping that exists in elderly patients who accept 'their lot' and don't have the confidence to fight hard enough to make a full recovery.
Chapters 5 & 6: Again, emphasises the concept that hard work or 'grit' will make us successful. Same principle can be applied to rehabilitation. The ability of a patient to question their therapist/consultant and to guide treatment is probably a result of their cultural background and again this type of disadvantage can lead to poor results.
Chapters 7 & 8: The concept of Power Distance Index again fits with patient potential in rehabilitation. Medicine is general is a passive process, where the patient waits to be told what to take/do. I believe that patients need to be educated to improve confidence and realise that rehab techniques will be more successful if initiated by the patient themselves. Lets give them a menu of therapies and let the patient decide which is best suited to them. We need more of a personal approach. Again, hard work and effort important for good results.
Chapters 9 & 10: Could a new form of KIPP School be created for rehabilitation excellence where the emphasis is 70% education/psychological approach and 30% physical interventions. I believe the reverse is happening unsuccessfully at present.
Its recommended to stand on the shoulders of giants and none are greater than Malcolm Gladwells. I would be very interested in your opinion to these comments (whether you agree or disagree) and this book has inspired me so much, brought great enjoyment to my life and has been inspirational to hundreds of people like me. I think a change is needed!!
Thanks Ken
I think both of them important
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
We are in the age of technology, where knowledge has become more accessible, even outside educational institutions. Students are no longer passive participants, and they can no longer be confined to limited prescribed textbooks and sources. Thanks in advance for your comments!
We always learn from them. Believe it or not, my students at the university made me what I am now. Strange. Yeah could be so. But that is really one of the most important thing in my educational life.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I observed that most people enjoy courtship because love is active during this period. But in marriage, there seems to be conflicts because here love is passive. I discovered that most marriages collapse because men are pretenders in courtship period. Most of them are no more who they used to be during courtship- a romantic period. They grow traditional and more authoritative whereas women want to be romantic forever. Men should not tolerate in courtship what they cannot tolerate in marriage- a classical period. My understanding of Romantic Period and Classical Period is that of Courtship Period and Marital Period.
But truth can also be conditional and time bound. What is true today may not be true tomorrow. Education was more important than farming before CoVid-19 outbreak. A partner can change after marriage. I have heard of a woman who married as a virgin but latter date the best friend of her husband who trusted her for modesty.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Usually, the metals are Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni; and their alloys. They do form protective films in moderate corrosive environment, and their films dissolve away in very strong corrosive environment. But why not all metal behave so? What causes their protective films to be retained?
Dear Sumit,
This is due to close electron affinity and potential value orderly arranged in electrochemical series. Very few elements are closed in their potential values. Values of Co and Ni are having -0.28 and -0.25.
Ashish
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I have difficulty figuring out what exactly is the SEI layer in the battery field. I am trying to find out how it is formed and its function and influence on battery.
I appreciate having your experience and knowledge.
Although there is tremendous amount of litrature available on SEI, here i will try to exolain in really simple words that may help in basic understanding.
SEI is a term typically associated with an in-situ developed thin protective layer/film on the anode surface resulted from the decomposition/dissociation of either the solvent(s), salt(s) or additives. The basic function of SEI is to protect the highly reactive electrode components from the electrolytic components and building a barrier that restricts further direct contact of electrodes and the elctrolyte once the SEI is generated in the earlier cycles. The same protective layer on the cathode side is typically reffered as CEI.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
There are several researches which use passive or active cooling to demonstrate the efficiency increase of the output of photovoltaic panels when they're cooled.
I was wondering if experts think that the evaporation of just a waterbasin beneath it, would be enough to cool the Photovoltaic panels and increase the efficiency. So no use of a system that lets the water flow over the front of the Photovoltaic panel. The situation would be in the summer with temperatures around 30 to 37 degrees Celcius.
Above article could be sufficient to clear your doubt i suppose
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
We have vaccinated pig with antigens and then, we would like to know whether we can use mice to perform a passive protection assay by using the pig immune sera. Do you know pig macrophages can recognize the Fc receptors from a pig?
Hello Yung-Fu Chang,
I have no idea if there is any cross reactivity between mouse and pig Fc receptors and the respective Fc parts of immunglobolins.
But just a quick thought how you could check it:
You could isolate murine monocytes or macrophages and incubate them with some µg of pig sera. Wash the cells and incubate with an fluorescence labeled anti-pig-antibody (e.g. anti-IgG).
Run a control sample where you block the Fc-Receptor of the monocytes/mac first with an blocking antibody (anti-CD16/32 maybe?). In this sample you should have no signal, proving the specific binding of pig-IgG to murine receptors.
Measure the fluorescence signal via FACS or a plate reader.
Of note:
Firstly, It's just my idea and I'm not an expert concerning cross reactivity or immune globolins etc...
And: You might (or might not) run into some issuses if your detection antibody (fluorescence labeled anti-PigIgG) recorgnizes the same binding site of your immune globoline which would be used for the binding to FcReceptors.
Maybe this helps a little bit
best regards
Robert
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I am proposing that social comparisons on social media will mediate the relationship between passive social media use and social anxiety, and that gender will moderate this association, such that 1. the effects of passive social media on social comparisons, and 2. the effects of social comparisons on social anxiety, both are stronger in females than males.
2. Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach (Methodology in the Social by Andrew F. Hayes
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Some literatures said that passive layer (passivation) lead to pitting corrosion, but is it possible to other types of corrosion occur? And is it possible that a metal corrode with more than one type of corrosion (eg. pitting and intergranular in the same time)?
The presence of the passive film on the sample surface protects the surface against corrosion attack most times. However, under aggressive environments, pitting corrosion can disintegrate the passive films with time.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
The mastermix suggested is TaqPath 1-step RT-qPCR master Mix, CG which contains ROX, but page 20 of the 3/15/2020 instructions directs the user to select none under passive reference
Does anyone know why passive reference would not be desired?
Hello,
I was told that since the CDC EUA assay was validated with different master mixes, some of which do not contain ROX, a standard approach was used and validated.
When talking with the ThermoFisher tech support they suggested we go ahead and set ROX as the passive reference when using the TaqPath 1-step RT-qPCR master Mix, CG.
Best regards,
Janet
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Kindly explain how these factors affect passive tactile sensibility of implants..
Thanks
Thanks all.
I found also these research studies so helpful, so I'd like to share them with you.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I wanna know what does it lead to and why we use that.
Hope you are well,
When a material contains crysatllograohic defects which forms electronically active recombination centers, then one has to passivate them to render them
inactive meaning they no longer act as recombination centers.
These active bond sometimes called dangling bonds. There passivation is accomplished by saturating them by the suitable passivating gas such as hydrogen and oxygen.
One of the famous material which is used in photovoltaic is the amorous Silicon which is passivated by hydrogenation. Surfaces are also oxidized to passivate them. It took long time to reduce the active defects on the interface between silicon and silicon dioxide to produce the MOSFET transistors.
Best wishes
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
-Corrosion rate vs. Grain Size of Pure Metals
-There are several studies reporting the corrosion rate of pure metals increases when grain size increases (Birblis,Corrosion, 2010), (Ralston, Corrosion, 2010) and some reported the opposite trend (D. Song, Corrosion Science, 2010).
Theoretically grain boundaries are defects zones and corrosion can initiates from these zones (like etching process where GBs appears). so corrosion rate should increases with increasing grain size. but majority of researches observed the opposite trend. They mentioned that regarding to more uniform surface layer (hydroxide layer) forming on the exposed surface of materials with finer grains, corrosion rate decreases. So what is your opinion about these two controversial trends?
- Dislocations Effect vs. GS
-some researchers believe even though corrosion rate can be reduced by grain refinement through the severe plastic deformation, but corrosion rate increases with increase in dislocations (probably inside the grains) and lattice strain (song, Corrosion Science, 2010), (HS Kim, Corrosion Science 2014) so annealing after SPD can significantly reduces the corrosion rate. However grain boundaries also are the main location of dislocations. So why dislocations inside the grains accelerate the corrosion rate while dislocations in GBs decreases the corrosion rate??
Hi Mr. Bahmani. I recently investigate the effect of grain size on the corrosion rate of low carbon steel, I hope it would be helpful!
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
My client is requesting us to carry out TOC analysis in ambient air samples. I am unable to find any published standards to be used as reference. I have decided to develop our own inhouse method based on our available methods for water & soil. Air samples need to be extracted by a sampling media. What is the sampling media to be used? Is it a passive or active sampling? Do we need to carry out any extraction before sample measurement? If we do, what is the chemical or solvent to be used?
A.G.Piyal Aravinna . Noraini Shair.
Appreciated your remark on my post.
TOC is calculated by subtraction of IC value from the TC the sample.Another variant employs acidification of the sample to evolve carbon dioxide and measuring it as inorganic carbon, then oxidising and measuring the remaining non purge able organic carbon. However measurement of TOC in air sample as described by me, by air monitoring unit is well known and widely used technology. I have published some case study in reputed journal Also.
Grzegorz Boczkaj also suggested a useful method Which may be useful.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I have passivated silicon nanowires with OH group. Anyone please suggest me how to confirm from the spectra that it is OH terminated. Is there any parameter just to compare with as synthesised sinws and terminated one? Please let me know if anyone have any suggestions.
Dear Smruti,
welcome,
You can go pragmatic with specimen after passivaing with OH. In the sense you observe observe the photo conductive decay of the specimen. You radiate the specimen with a suitable laser pulse and observe the decay of the conductivity of the specimen. If the OH really passivates the surface the the decay rate will be slower.
If you want to chemically analyse the surface yes you can use xps.
But the method i proposed measures directly effect of the OH in passivation the surface.
For the photo conductive decay please see the paper in the link:
Best wishes
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I got Increasing corrosion current at fixed corrosion potential in Tafel curve. Does it mean rapid corrosion or Passivation?
This usually means an increase in the corrosion rate. In some cases, propagation of the pitting corrosion could provoke an increase in the current. Also, the increase of the exposed surface area due to the metal dissolution could increase current
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
Hello every one
For two Titanium samples, there is a passive region in the polarization curve of the sample with a higher corrosion rate (measured by the Tafel extrapolation method). But for sample with lower corrosion current density, the passive plateau is not observed in the potentiodynamic polarization curve. Is there a scientific reason for this?
Hello, if your sample is passivated during polarization (and with the help of your potentiostat), you will get a passivation peak with a following sudden drop in current (typical for passivation). If your sample does not show this and is still at very low current, you may already have a passive layer on the surface or some other current limiting process. Is this what you meant? Sincerely yours, Andreas
(p.s. in which electrolyte did you perform your experiment? Is the titanium active in this solution or can it passivate itself)
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
I want to make a very power conservative product, and attempt to have the battery last days, or maybe even weeks. This device would consist of 2 modes, a mode which would have more functions but use bluetooth and more battery, and a mode ( this one is the one I'm asking about) which would only "complete" it's circuit, or use power, when receiving a signal from my phone, I was wondering if there's any way I could use a similar concept of RFID tags absorbing the energy from the radio waves themselves, to complete my circuit? The product will have it's own battery but the idea is to make the battery last as long as humanly possible in this mode. This whole idea is supposed to be as small as possible so let's say it's 2D dimensions would be at max the size of a penny ( So I can't have some big intricate system). Any ideas?
Dear Daniel,
Welcome again!
Best wishes
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
What are your best choice of SS303 grade for bests efficiency on turning material ? What passivation/cleaning process is the best for increased salt spray performance ? What is the benfit to add Cu inside the material?
That's really a complete answer, thank you very much. I keep you informed about our choices.
• asked a question related to Passivation
Question
What is the reason for using insulators instead of conductors to limit surface recombination? Why should the excited electrons be forced to move through the emitter layer towards the Al contacts?