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# Particle Physics - Science topic

Explore the latest publications in Particle Physics, and find Particle Physics experts.

Publications related to Particle Physics (10,000)

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Higgs Inflation via a metastable Standard Model Higgs Potential is possible if the effective Planck mass in the Jordan frame increases after inflation ends. Here we consider the predictions of this model independently of the dynamics responsible for the Planck mass transition. The classical predictions are the same as for conventional Higgs Inflati...

Precise measurements of the electromagnetic dipole moments of charged leptons are powerful probes of physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. It is essential to study avenues for optimizing the measurement strategies for the anomalous magnetic dipole moment (AMDM) and the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the $\tau$-lepton which have re...

Noble gas radiation detectors with optical readout are gaining popularity in fields like astrophysics and particle physics due to their ability to produce both ionization and scintillation signals in response to ionizing radiation interaction. In addition, the amplification of primary ionization signals can be achieved by promoting secondary scinti...

A unified description of motion that includes general relativity and the standard model of particle physics with massive neutrinos must be unique, without inequivalent alternatives, and must agree with the observed invariant Planck limits for speed, action, entropy and force. It is first shown that the Planck limits imply that space, horizons, wave...

It is an abstract summary of my research during 1970-2015 covering most of my interdisciplinary research starting from my doctoral research at Marie Curie University of Paris in 1970-72 in Particle Physics and ending with Nanotechnology research carried out at DAVIET, Jallandhar (2008-11). My current groundwater research in Punjab will be covered s...

In recent years, quantum computing has drawn significant interest within the field of high-energy physics. We explore the potential of quantum algorithms to resolve the combinatorial problems in particle physics experiments. As a concrete example, we consider top quark pair production in the fully hadronic channel at the Large Hadron Collider. We i...

A bstract
A muon collider represents a promising candidate for the next generation of particle physics experiments after the expected end of LHC operations in the early 2040s. Rare or hard-to-detect processes at the LHC, such as the production of multiple gauge bosons, become accessible at a TeV muon collider. We present here the prospects of detec...

In high-energy physics, particles produced in collision events decay in a format of a hierarchical tree structure, where only the final decay products can be observed using detectors. However, the large combinatorial space of possible tree structures makes it challenging to recover the actual decay process given a set of final particles. To better...

The Hierarchy Problem, which questions why the Higgs boson is so much lighter than other fundamental particles predicted by high-energy theories, remains a central puzzle in particle physics. Traditional approaches, such as supersymmetry (SUSY) and extra-dimensional theories, have provided partial insights but also introduce limitations. This paper...

We present the first demonstration of simultaneous phase space compression in two spatial dimensions of a positive muon beam, the first stage of the novel high-brightness muon beam under development by the muCool collaboration at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The keV-energy, sub-mm size beam would enable a factor 10$^5$ improvement in brightness for...

Through Monte Carlo modeling, it is shown that the statistics of electron–hole pair creation in semiconductors (and by extension, presumably, ion-pair creation in gas proportional counters) are substantially different for fast electrons (and by extension, presumably, alpha particles, ions, etc.) cf. x-ray/γ-ray photons. New variables are introduced...

The current article presents an extension of the classical scotogenic neutrino mass paradigm, where the three issues in particle physics: dark matter, smallness of neutrino mass, and stability of the proton are interconnected. The scenario encompasses the neutrino mass as well as the proton decay as a consequence of an existence of the dark matter....

These lectures were presented at the 2024 QCD Masterclass in Saint-Jacut-de-la-Mer, France. They introduce and review fundamental theorems and principles of machine learning within the context of collider particle physics, focused on application to jet identification and discrimination. Numerous examples of binary discrimination in jet physics are...

High-energy vortex $\gamma$ photons have significant applications in many fields, however, their generation and angular momentum manipulation are still great challenges. Here, we first investigated the generation of vortex $\gamma$ photons with controllable spin and orbital angular momenta via nonlinear Compton scattering of two-color counter-rotat...

Este artigo investiga a trajetória e as contribuições de Neusa Amato para a física brasileira em diálogo com os estudos de gênero e ciência. Neusa Amato, uma das pioneiras na pesquisa com emulsões nucleares no Brasil, teve um papel fundamental na institucionalização da física no país, especialmente no estudo de raios cósmicos e física de partículas...

In this paper, we explore an extension of the classical non-standard cosmological scenario in which the new field, ϕ, which interacts with the radiation component in the early universe, experiences dissipative processes in the form of a bulk viscosity. Assuming an interaction term given by Γ ϕ ρ ϕ , where Γ ϕ accounts for the decay rate of the fiel...

This letter introduces a novel analytical approach to calculating phase-space integrals, crucial for precision in particle physics. We develop a method to compute angular components using multifold Mellin-Barnes integrals, yielding results in terms of Goncharov polylogarithms for integrals involving three denominators. Our results include expressio...

The Matrix-Element Method (MEM) has long been a cornerstone of data analysis in high-energy physics. It leverages theoretical knowledge of parton-level processes and symmetries to evaluate the likelihood of observed events. In parallel, the advent of geometric deep learning has enabled neural network architectures that incorporate known symmetries...

A bstract
We investigate ultra-high frequency gravitational waves (GWs) from gravitons generated during inflationary reheating. Specifically, we study inflaton scattering with its decay product, where the couplings involved in this 2 → 2 scattering are the same as those in the 1 → 3 graviton Bremsstrahlung process. We compute the graviton productio...

We quantitatively analyze a basic question: what is the stationary solution of the background plasma temperature profile around a black hole (BH)? One may naively expect that the temperature profile continuously decreases from the Hawking temperature at the surface of the BH towards an outer region. We show analytically and numerically that this is...

Hamilton's equations of motion form a fundamental framework in various branches of physics, including astronomy, quantum mechanics, particle physics, and climate science. Classical numerical solvers are typically employed to compute the time evolution of these systems. However, when the system spans multiple spatial and temporal scales numerical er...

The laser of an intense electromagnetic field provides an important tool to study the strong-field particle physics. The nonlinear Compton scattering was observed in the collision of an ultra-relativistic electron beam with a laser pulse in 1990s. The precision measurement of the nonlinear Compton scattering shines the light on the studies of stron...

The minimal U(1) Lμ - Lτ gauge symmetry extended Standard Model (SM) is a well motivated framework that resolves the discrepancy between the theoretical prediction and experimental observation of muon anomalous magnetic moment. We envisage the possibility of identifying the beyond Standard Model Higgs of U(1) Lμ - Lτ sector, non-minimally coupled t...

Information's capacity to organize ideas takes many forms-the proliferation of specialized knowledge requiring unification. Since the time of Pythagoras and Plato, geometry and number theory together form the bedrock of mathematical philosophy's quest to classify pattern. In particular, prime number's invariant role in factorization remains a myste...

Building on recently constructed inflationary vector dark matter production mechanisms as well as studies of magnetogenesis, we show that an inflationary dark Schwinger mechanism can generate the observed dark matter relic abundance for `dark electron' masses as light as ∼ 0.1 eV and as heavy as 10¹² GeV. The dark matter can interact very weakly vi...

Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) axions are theoretical particles that arise from the Peccei-Quinn theory, addressing the strong CP problem in particle physics. This paper explores the duality of QCD axions as potential cosmic strings or seeds for structure formation in the universe. We present mathematical models that describe the dynamics of axion st...

Roger Caillois et la dictature de la symétrie en physique des particules : fermions de Majorana et Modèle Standard Vincent Dubost 22 octobre 2024

We investigate the phenomenon of CP violation in the weak decay of bottom hadrons (B mesons) through comprehensive theoretical analysis and mathematical derivations. We analyze the fundamental mechanisms of B meson decay, emphasizing the interplay between CP symmetry breaking and the contributions from the quark level. By examining the role of the...

The decay of the D meson into multibody final states is a complex process that provides valuable insights into the fundamental interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. This study focuses on the decay cascade \(D^{+}\rightarrow K^{*}_{J} \ell ^{+}\nu \rightarrow K^{\pm }\pi ^{\mp } \ell ^{+}\nu \) where the \(K^*_J\) resonance enc...

A bstract
Ultra-low mass primordial black holes (PBH), briefly dominating the expansion of the universe, would leave detectable imprints in the secondary stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB). Such a scenario leads to a characteristic doubly peaked spectrum of SGWB and strongly depends on the Hawking evaporation of such light PBHs. Howeve...

Despite advances in recycling technologies and practices, the world still mostly operates on a once-through materials use cycle. The once-through approach to the materials supply chain cannot work into perpetuity. The vast majority of current recycling efforts focus on mechanical or chemical separation-based techniques and are often subsequently li...

Neutrinoless double beta decay ($0 \nu \beta \beta$) provides a way to probe physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The upcoming nEXO experiment will search for $0\nu\beta\beta$ decay in $^{136}$Xe with a projected half-life sensitivity exceeding $10^{28}$ years at the 90\% confidence level using a liquid xenon (LXe) Time Projection...

A bstract
There has been an attempt to revive the visible QCD axion at the 10 MeV scale assuming that it exclusively couples to the first-generation quarks and the electron. This variant of the QCD axion is claimed to remain phenomenologically viable, partly due to a clever model construction that induces tree-level pion-phobia and exploits uncerta...

Many extensions of the Standard Model propose the existence of new particles or forces, aiming to answer mysteries such as the identity of the elusive dark matter. Atomic-based detectors are at the forefront of technologies designed to search for these particles or forces through their couplings to fermions, enabling the testing of well-motivated m...

The availability of precise and accurate simulation is a limiting factor for interpreting and forecasting data in many fields of science and engineering. Often, one or more distinct simulation software applications are developed, each with a relative advantage in accuracy or speed. The quality of insights extracted from the data stands to increase...

This paper aims to provide a basis for teachers interested in bringing modern particle detectors into their classrooms. In particular, it gives an overview of the basic principles of modern particle detectors, linking them to concepts that are already a part of the curriculum. In addition, it explains the essential detector components present in al...

Diagrammatic approaches to perturbation theory transformed the practicability of calculations in particle physics. In the case of extended theories of gravity, however, obtaining the relevant diagrammatic rules is non-trivial: we must expand in metric perturbations and around (local) minima of the scalar field potentials, make multiple field redefi...

This paper investigates the theoretical framework of field theory as it pertains to massless particles, specifically focusing on gauge theories and their implications for fundamental interactions. We explore the mathematical formulation of massless fields, the implications of gauge invariance, and the role of symmetry in particle physics. By examin...

In this chapter, we explore the fascinating world of particle physics and the Standard Model of Particle Physics. We discuss the constraints of the Schrödinger equation and the necessity of quantum field theory, introducing key concepts like antimatter, vacuum fluctuations, and Feynman diagrams. The chapter details the fundamental particles and for...

In this paper, the Quantum Brownian motion of a point particle induced by the quantum vacuum fluctuations of a real massless scalar field in Einstein universe under Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions is studied. Using the Wightman functions, general expressions for the renormalized dispersion of the physical momentum are derived. Distinct ex...

The stability of the Higgs vacuum is a critical aspect of the Standard Model of particle physics. This paper explores the conditions under which the Higgs vacuum may become unstable, leading to significant implications for the early universe and potential consequences for our understanding of fundamental physics. We discuss the mathematical framewo...

The Standard Model of particle physics does not explain the origin of the universe's baryon asymmetry or its primordial fluctuations. The Affleck-Dine mechanism is a well-motivated scenario for generating the baryon asymmetry through the post-inflationary dynamics of a complex scalar field with baryon number. The curvaton mechanism is a popular app...

This chapter explores the potential economic and employment impacts of constructing the Future Circular Collider (FCC), a next-generation particle accelerator being developed by CERN. The FCC project aims to build upon the existing accelerator complex near Geneva, extending into the Haute-Savoie region and introducing an unparalleled research facil...

The chapter highlights the need for public understanding and support of scientific research, especially basic research with no immediate practical applications. It discusses the polarization in public attitudes towards science and emphasizes the importance of valuing curiosity-driven research for societal progress. An experiment conducted in 2022 i...

If the inflaton is a heavy scalar field, it may equilibrate slower than some other degrees of freedom, e.g. non-Abelian gauge bosons. In this case, perturbations in the inflaton field and in a thermal plasma coexist from a given moment onwards. We derive a gauge-invariant set of three coupled equations governing the time evolution of such a system....

Acceleration of positive muons from thermal energy to $100~$keV has been demonstrated. Thermal muons were generated by resonant multi-photon ionization of muonium atoms emitted from a sheet of laser-ablated aerogel. The thermal muons were first electrostatically accelerated to $5.7~$keV, followed by further acceleration to 100 keV using a radio-fre...

Motivated by real-world situations found in high energy particle physics, we consider a generalisation of the likelihood-ratio estimation task to a quasiprobabilistic setting where probability densities can be negative. By extension, this framing also applies to importance sampling in a setting where the importance weights can be negative. The pres...

This paper explores how artificial intelligence (AI) can be applied in the detection of exotic particles, which are outside the Standard Model of particle physics. We present a framework that integrates AI with particle physics experiments, focusing on how machine learning (ML) models can sift through vast amounts of experimental data to identify p...

In these lectures we give an introduction and overview of the electroweak standard model (EWSM) of particle physics. We first introduce the basic concepts of quantum field theory necessary to build the EWSM: abelian and non-abelian gauge theories, spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism. We also introduce some basic concepts of renorm...

One of the fundamental goals of particle physics is to gain a microscopic understanding of the strong interaction. Electromagnetic form factors quantify the structure of hadrons in terms of charge and magnetization distributions. While the nucleon structure has been investigated extensively, data on hyperons are still scarce. It has recently been d...

The investigation of charm physics plays an important role in checking the Standard Model’s description of strong and weak interactions, validating its predictions for particle physics, and exploring new physics beyond the Standard Model. Using a large dataset from e+e− annihilation, BESIII has conducted comprehensive and extensive studies in the a...

Plastic scintillators are inexpensive to manufacture and therefore a popular alternative to inorganic crystalline scintillators. For many applications, their advantages outweigh their lower light yield. Additionally, it is easier to structure plastic scintillators with well‐developed processing techniques which is of growing relevance in modern app...

This course is aimed at master’s students in theoretical physics. It was taught at the University of Jijel between 2017 and 2023. It constitutes an accessible introduction to any student,
whether master or doctoral, wishing to discover the fascinating world of particle physics and
high energy physics.
The course focuses on the following experimenta...

Within the phenomenology of particle physics, the theoretical model of 4-zero textures is validated using a chi-square criterion that compares experimental data with the computational results of the model. Traditionally, analytical methods that often imply simplifications, combined with computational analysis, have been used to validate texture mod...

In high-energy particle collisions, the reconstruction of secondary vertices from heavy-flavour hadron decays is crucial for identifying and studying jets initiated by b - or c -quarks. Traditional methods, while effective, require extensive manual optimisation and struggle to perform consistently across wide regions of phase space. Meanwhile, rece...

In high-energy particle physics, the study of particle-particle correlations in proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions constitutes a pivotal frontier in the effort to understand the fundamental dynamics of the strong force. To the best of our knowledge, we employ for the first time the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov dynamics implemented in a Monte C...

Denoising diffusion models have gained prominence in various generative tasks, prompting their exploration for the generation of calorimeter responses. Given the computational challenges posed by detector simulations in high-energy physics experiments, the necessity to explore new machine-learning-based approaches is evident. This study introduces...

The CMS at DESY outreach Instagram account (@cmsatdesy) serves as a platform for science communication and outreach for a large experimental particle physics group. The initiative aims to promote scientific research, engage young scientists in outreach activities, and showcase their contributions. Instagram was chosen for its strong alignment with...

We present an in-depth study of two-component cold dark matter via extensive N-body simulations. We examine various cosmological observables including the temperature evolution, power spectrum, density perturbation, maximum circular velocity functions, and galactic density profiles. We find that a significant mass difference between the two compone...

The new local group LB1 introduced previously will be studied and reviewed in detail, depicting its unique nature that makes it a new group in fundamental physics. It will be made clear that even though most of its elements are Lorentz transformations, one unique discrete transformation not present in the Lorentz groups, is making this group into a...

Among the open problems in fundamental physics, few are as conceptually significant as the “measurement problem” in Quantum Mechanics. One of the proposed solutions to this problem is the Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model, which introduces a non-linear and stochastic modification of the Schrödinger equation. This model incorporates tw...

We develop a tool for the analysis of stochastic gravitational wave backgrounds from cosmological first-order phase transitions with LISA: we initiate a template databank for these signals, prototype their searches, and forecast their reconstruction. The templates encompass the gravitational wave signals sourced by bubble collisions, sound waves an...

In the metaphysics of science, it is often held that higher-level properties are grounded in micro-physical properties. According to many philosophers, however, phenomenal consciousness resists this view. Many famous arguments in Philosophy of Mind have been given to reject this notion. In this paper, we argue that there is something odd about the...

Semiconductor detectors for high-energy sensing (X/gamma-rays) play a critical role in fields such as astronomy, particle physics, spectroscopy, medical imaging, and homeland security. The increasing need for precise detector characterization highlights the importance of developing advanced digital twins, which help optimize the design and performa...

Semiconductor detectors for high-energy sensing (X/gamma-rays) play a critical role in fields such as astronomy, particle physics, spectroscopy, medical imaging, and homeland security. The increasing need for precise detector characterization highlights the importance of developing advanced digital twins, which help optimize the design and performa...

The claim that a particle is an irreducible representation of the Poincar\'e group -- what I call \emph{Wigner's identification} -- is now, decades on from Wigner's (1939) original paper, so much a part of particle physics folklore that it is often taken as, or claimed to be, a definition. My aims in this paper are to: (i) clarify, and partially de...

Dirac showed that the existence of one magnetic pole in the universe could offer an explanation of the discrete nature of the electric charge. Magnetic poles appear naturally in most grand unified theories. Their discovery would be of greatest importance for particle physics and cosmology. The intense experimental search carried thus far has not me...

Neutrino masses and quantum gravity are strong reasons to extend the standard model of particle physics. A large extra dimension can be motivated by quantum gravity and can explain the small neutrino masses with new singlet states that propagate in the bulk. In such a case, a Kaluza-Klein tower of sterile neutrinos emerges. We revisit constraints o...

We propose new classes of inflation models based on the modular symmetry, where the modulus field τ serves as the inflaton. We establish a connection between modular inflation and modular stabilization, wherein the modulus field rolls towards a fixed point along the boundary of the fundamental domain. We find the modular symmetry strongly constrain...

Recent advancements in ultra-dense hydrogen (H(0)) and meson generation technologies have set the stage for revolutionary changes in energy production and particle physics. The Nordic Nuclear Energy Corporation is at the forefront of developing muon sources based on particle annihilation, enabling e icient muon-catalyzed fusion. This sustainable nu...

We show that the X17 vector boson, introduced to explain the ^8 Be anomalous decay, could play a crucial role in the explanation of the muon's (electron's) anomalous magnetic moment and the muonic Lamb shift. We further constrain the possible kinetic mixing with the U(1)_Y boson of the Standard Model by using the latest available data on the W boso...

REINFORCE (Research Infrastructures FOR Citizens in Europe) is a Research & Innovation Project, supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 SwafS, ‘Science with and for Society’ work programme (GA872859). The project, which ran from December, 2019, to November, 2022, engaged the public in a variety of innovative ways. Four citizen-science demons...

We show that an ultralight primordial black hole (PBH) dominated phase makes blue-tilted inflationary gravitational waves (BGW) compatible with the recent detection of an nHz stochastic GW background by pulsar-timing arrays (PTAs), for high reheating temperatures. This PBH-dominated phase suppresses the BGW spectrum via entropy dilution, making it...

We confront measurable neutrino degrees of freedom N eff and summed neutrino mass in the early universe to particle physics at the energy scale beyond the standard model (BSM), in particular including the issue of neutrino mass type distinction. The Majorana-type of massive neutrino is perfectly acceptable by Planck observations, while the Dirac-ty...

We propose a hybrid inflationary scenario based on eight-flavor hidden QCD with the hidden colored fermions being in part gauged under U(1)B−L. This hidden QCD is almost scale-invariant, so-called walking, and predicts the light scalar meson (the walking dilaton) associated with the spontaneous scale breaking, which develops the Coleman-Weinberg (C...

A bstract
We study the out-of-equilibrium production of non-minimally coupled self-interacting scalar dark matter during reheating using classical lattice simulations. The outcomes of the classical simulations are in qualitative agreement with the previous results obtained using the quantum 2PI approach in the Hartree truncation. In particular, the...

A wormhole is a physical object that connects different points in spacetime and is based on a special solution to Einstein's field equations. A wormhole can be visualized as a tunnel with two ends in different points of spacetime (i.e., different locations or different points in time or both). For a long time, there has been a widely accepted under...

Resumen: En las ciencias físico-naturales, los instrumentos de detección, medición y registro desempeñan un papel fundamental en la comprensión de los fenómenos naturales. Este artículo explora la relación ontológica y epistémica entre los instrumentos y los fenómenos objeto de investigación, destacando cómo los dispositivos no solo son herramienta...

The Super Tau Charm Facility (STCF) is a state-of-the-art electron-positron collider operating in the center-of-mass energy range of 2–7GeV and achieving a peak luminosity of more than 0.5×1035cm⁻²s⁻¹, which is pivotal for advancing particle physics research. The DIRC-like time-of-flight (DTOF) detector is one of the crucial components of the STCF,...

Machine learning (ML) is a rapidly growing area of research in the field of particle physics, with a vast array of applications at the CERN LHC. ML has changed the way particle physicists conduct searches and measurements as a versatile tool used to improve existing approaches and enable fundamentally new ones. In these proceedings, we describe nov...

Building an organized Yukawa structure of quarks and leptons is an essential mission to understand fermion mass hierarchy and flavor mixing in particle physics. Inspired by the similarity of CKM and PMNS mixings, a common mass pattern for up-type and down-type quarks, charged leptons, and Dirac neutrinos is realized in terms of hierarchal masses. A...

Lorentz invariance belongs to the fundamental symmetries of nature. It is basic for the successful Standard Model of Particle Physics. Nevertheless, within the last decades, Lorentz invariance has been repeatedly questioned. In fact, there exist different research programs addressing this problem. We argue that a most adequate understanding of a po...

This paper explores the theoretical framework of supergravity within the context of dark dimensions, particularly in scenarios involving extra dimensions predicted by string theory. We aim to provide a mathematical foundation for understanding how supergravity can be reconciled with the geometrical properties of these dark dimensions and their impl...

Lorentz invariance belongs to the fundamental symmetries of nature. It is basic for the successful Standard Model of Particle Physics. Nevertheless, within the last decades, Lorentz invariance has been repeatedly questioned. In fact, there exist different research programs addressing this problem. It is argued that a most adequate understanding of...

This paper evaluates A. Garrett Lisi’s E8 theory, an attempt to unify the Standard Model and gravity, by testing it against recent empirical data. Using observations from gamma-ray bursts (GRB 221009A), direct dark matter detection experiments, and neutron star mergers (GW170817), the paper explores whether Lisi's theory can account for phenomena s...

The description of dark matter as a pressure-less fluid and of dark energy as a cosmological constant, both minimally coupled to gravity, constitutes the basis of the concordance ΛCDM model. However, the concordance model is based on using equations of motion directly for the fluids with constraints placed on their sources, and lacks an underlying...