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Parasitoids - Science topic

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I am involved in a project on biological control of the Comstock mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in Switzerland. As part of this project, we are doing host specificity tests of a parasitoid and, besides P. comstocki, have tested so far the following non-target species: Pseudococcus longispinus, Planococcus citri and Phenacoccus aceris. We would like to test more species of the family Pseudococcidae and are looking for someone in Europe who could give us an identified starting colony for this purpose.
Thank you for your help!
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Dear Jinan, thanks for your answer, that is good to know! Which species are those? Just in general whatever is attacking ornamental plants? Are there some dominant species? Greetings, Lukas
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I want to know distribution, Species richness and abundance of insect pest predators and parasitoids along agro-ecology and farm types (field and backyard) which research design/methods is appropriate?
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Capturing is one thing, but the real work is in identifying the large amount of collected arthropods. If you have trained staff, there's no problem. When I started this work (in the eighties) I had to train assistants myself. This was in Burkina Faso. At least one of them was later hired by the WHO for their research on insect vectors. Many overlook this issue when starting, and end up with poor data.
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Dear community,
I am a post doc at ULiège in Belgium, and in my research group we are looking to buy a microbalance to weight the dry weight of parasitoids of drosophila larvae. These insects are super tiny (dw ~ 250 µg).
The company we started to discuss with, proposed us a Sartorius microbalance (model MCE3.6P-2S00-M). In the past I (and other colleague from the team) only worked with Metler Toledo microbalances, but MT ones are far more expensive (the price is almost twice higher). So the point is that we never used Sartorius balances, and we therefore don’t know the quality of this equipment. Does anyone have feedbacks on Sartorius microbalance to weight such small individuals? Thank you! Best regards, Thomas
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Dear Thomas: I have used both MT and Sart. balances, and MT is so accurate, however, sartoruis is so good, and you can use it for these small and minute masses. You need a well levelled plane or bench and a quite room to get excellent results. Regards.
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I have a dataset composed of aphid and parasitoid abundances captured in Moericke traps on a monthly scale for 10 years. As I do not have data on parasitism, but on the occurrence of aphids and parasitoids, I cannot use common trophic networks. In this way, I think I could explore some community-level relationships through correlation-based networks. However, I would like to know if there is any impediment to using this approach or if anyone has already used it.
Grateful!
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It is mainly studies in microbiology that have applied these methods, and I know of no study that has done this on host-parasitoid or prey-predator networks. I think the general principle is the same though.
You will probably have to think about applying a time-lag in your models, to take into account the development time of parasitoids in aphids. I enclose 4 publications that have studied these questions, with models that are relatively easy to implement in R.
Of course the main issue would be that you cannot directly link parasitoid abundances to the biological control service provided (correlation is not causation).
We can continue to discuss by mail if you want, and see what we can do together on this subject if you are interested.
Kevin
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Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is the major defoliator of eucalyptus plants in Brasil in the last 50 years. 
Since them, no parasitoid had been recorded for eggs of this pest in the field. In te lab we demonstrated that some kind of substance on the surface of these eggs protect them.    
In 2017, we a found a parasitoid in eggs of Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in the field.
I would like to know who can identify this parasitoid. The quality of the photo is very poor but I can take better ones if necessary.
Best regards,
José Cola Zanuncio
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Hi Murilo Fonseca Ribeiro, try reaching out to Erinn P. Fagan-Jeffries at Uni of South Australia - she works on Microgastrinae. Might be worth a shot.
Best, Andy
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Botanical insecticide is the natural insecticide which extracted from plant materials.
Botanical insecticide contains several secondary metabolites.
On the other hand, the volatiles released by plants (when induced/attacked by herbivores) to attract predatory insects and parasitoids are included in the group of secondary metabolites.
Based on the explained above, so that, a question arises from me to my esteemed research friends.
The question is: "Can the botanical insecticides attract predatory insects and parasitoids?"
Please answer this question based on the informations you knew, either from your research, other people's research, or the appropriate theory.
Thank you.
Regard's -
Mr. Yosua PPA Sianturi
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Pyrethrum and Nicotine are "natural" plant extracts (botanical insecticides) that can kill all insects so "Botanical Insecticides only kill target insect pests, not kill the beneficial insects" is NOT true in my experience.
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We would like to use the parasitoids in the storage house. Is someone already worked on the good way of applying them?
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Parasitoids should not be used in grains meant for human consumption, as it will only add to more contamination.
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Greetings,
I am currently carrying out an investigation related to the parasitism of Diaphorina citri (vector of the HuangLongBing virus) with the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (imported) and many people have asked me: Why are you doing it in a greenhouse and not in the field? Which is an understandable doubt given that the final purpose of the research is to release it in the field to exercise its respective control over the psyllid, however, my current answer is: It is necessary to evaluate the parasitism under controlled conditions because the data obtained will be more Accurate, which is necessary because it is an imported agent, if it were native it could be evaluated without problems directly in the field. In addition to that I will be able to determine which are the most favorable conditions (temperature, humidity and light intensity) for the massive rearing of the parasitoid. Finally, research carried out in the laboratory always has specific objectives that in the field would be very difficult to achieve because there are many influencing factors that can alter the data. In my specific case, I am interested in filming the parasitic process in time-lapse and developing a parasitism test according to the nymphal stage of the psyllid. I would like to know what your responses would be to a question like this.
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Dear Axel,
I am in agreement with your statements. In such cases of Biological Studies of insect specially the behavior of parasitoids, researchers really need manipulated controlled situation to go straight ahead in their research.
I just searched about your discussed issue in Google scholar by entering keywords like tamarixia radiata+diaphorina citrus and came across many interesting publications which I sent you two of them and you see in the methodology that all such researches have been done in a controlled condition. Good luck.
Best, Elaheh
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Testing the effect of biopesticides or insecticides on natural enemies under laboratory conditions either it may consider as biosafety or conservation?
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We are designing a Y-tube assay involving a parasitoid wasp. So far, the wasps do not seem to be too responsive to the stimulus. What are some factors that could improve the assay?
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Dear colleague,
Unfortunately I do not know.
All best wishes for your continuing successes,
Prof. Otar Shainidze
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I would like to be able to detect parasitoids in lepidopteran larvae. Mostly targeting species from Eulophidae family.
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Thank you for the information, Melodie!
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I am planing an experiment to investigate the dispersion ability of Trichogramma dendrolimi under semi-field conditions. As far as I know Trichogramma uses kairomones for host finding but are visual cues also important? I want to place bait eggs of Dendrolimus pini glued to a cardboard in different distances from the point of release of T. dendrolimi and to check if they are parasitised. I just don't know if the color of the cardboard makes a difference. Is it better to use green (as the eggs and the needles of the trees) or any other color and does the color matter after all?
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Hi Lana, recently, I have performed some experiments for Trichogramma Chilonis parasitism on Potato tuber moth (PTM) eggs. I pinned PTM eggs cards (glued by females on filter paper) at the apical portion of the plant and checked T. chilonis preference with two different treatments. I realized that the color of cards does not affect the olfactory choice of parasitoids.
Plant volatiles play a significant role in host finding for parasitoids. Under biotic or abiotic stress, plants released info-chemicals that could be attractive to natural enemies and repellent to herbivores.
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Tachinidae flies are difficult to identification , so , I need classification key to the species which parasitoid on Lepidoptera>
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Cerretti, Tschorsnig, Lopresti, Di Giovanni. (2012). MOSCHweb — a matrix-based interactive key to the genera of the Palaearctic Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera). ZooKeys 205: 5–18. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.205.3409. Interactive key to the genera of the Palaearctic Tachinidae (Insecta: Diptera).
Tschorsnig, H. -P. , Herting, B., Raper, C. M., Rayner, R. 2002. The Tachinids (Diptera: Tachinidae) of Central Europe: Identification Keys for the Species and Data on Distribution. English Translation by Chris Rapper. If you write Chris Rapper he can send you the key. There you can find the known hosts of most of the species.
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I need your kind help and guidance to identify these larval parasitoids. These parasitoids emerged from collected larvae of Pinkbollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella in a laboratory. I will be thankful if you guys also help me to provide if possible any supporting document (research article, blog) regarding their proper identification. 
Location of collection=Cotton filed of Sindh Pakistan
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I will Insha-Allah let me give some time.
I am in last stage of my ph. D. as i am done with it i will work on it.
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Maruca vitrata Fabricius, for example, is a major pest of cowpea in Africa. No effective natural enemy has been found for its control. Can your project help to improve the efficiency of some of the known parasitoids, parasites or predators of this insect pest?
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You can go through with this article, it may helps.
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what challenges are parasitoids and predators of pests of stored products faced with?
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Zero tolerance to any insect in stored grain.It is hard to change people‘s ideas
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Faço taxonomia de importante parasitoides, Braconidae, identificando a nível de gênero. Gostaria de saber das possibilidades de participar neste Projeto.
Dra. Zuleide Alves Ramiro
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Muito obrigado, Eu tendre en cuenta
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Hello, any body.
I have data on pesticides effects on Trichogramma chilonis which is a beneficial insect in agroecosystem. The experimentation was completely randomized design. I tried myself but is not succeeded to properly analyze the same as the data is not normal and need normalization before analysis. type I error is common. I have assessed both emergence of parasitoid form the host eggs treated while also evaluated parasitism by the parasitoid. please help me in the data analysis and send me your email address so that I can urgently send you the data for analysis. Your effort will be highly acknowledged. thank you
best regards
Dr Muhammad Ashraf Khan
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Let me see the data, may be I can help:
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Dear all,
The goal of my project is to develop a biological control method for Dendrolimus pini with Trichogramma spec. So far, I have tried Trichogramma brassicae but it did not work. I would like to try Trichogramma dendrolimi instead but I don't know where to get them. If you are working with them or know someone who does please let me know.
Many thanks in advance,
Lana
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Please see this article about Trichogramma dendrolimi where they mention where to get them.
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I reared larvae that came out of a caterpillar body and saw that this wasp did emerge out of the cocoon which the larvae made. The caterpillar is probably a Cnaphalocrocis sp. and it is considered as a pest in Echinochloa polystachya grass. This grass is very important for cattle. The larva of the parasitoid wasp came out when the caterpillar was fully grown and about to pupate. I have observed only one larva that had parasitized a caterpillar. Does this wasp belong to the genus Cotesia (syn. Apanteles)? And what is the species of it?
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Jai, no, this is not a Trichogramma, they are egg parasitoids and the wing venation is simple with filaments on the the wing margin. Cotesia (Braconidae) are endoparasitoids of lepidoptera larvae. I have worked with Cotesia so there is no doubt that belongs to this genus.
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I would like to know if the content of a group of lepidopteran caterpillars could be sequenced trying to identify only the parasitoids they contain (endo- and exo-). Maybe there are some specific primers for hymenopterans that avoid amplifying the lepidopteran tissue? Any suggestions?
Thanks in advance,
Alvaro
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It's been done, though only a very few times. See e.g.
I'm not an expert in the molecular side, but e.g. Helena or some of the other authors could perhaps give some ideas.
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Dear All,
All is in the title :-) I think about Braconidae especially ;-)
Best regards
Yves
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Natural enemies: Parasitoids, predators, pathogens, micro-organism and other diverse group i.e. mammals, birds, amphibians, fish, snail and nematods. 15% natural enemies so far identified.
Braconids: Large family in Super family Ichneumonoidea used in applied biological control and natural control.
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Intéressés par les recherches fondamentales ou appliquées sur les organismes entomophages (arthropodes prédateurs, insectes parasitoïdes, nématodes entomopathogènes, etc) ?
Participez au prochain de Colloque des Entomophagistes (25-29 mai – Antibes-Juan les Pins, France) !
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thanks for sharing the information !
Best,
Joe
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Hello all,
I am an undergraduate and I am starting my first experiment using a parasitoid fly and its moth host. I am currently raising the hosts but will need to run multiple cycles of host growth to get enough eggs for my experiment. Does anyone have a recommendation for tracking multiple sets of insect life cycles? I feel like I need a good system to start with or can miss key windows of either development or parasitization. Thank you for any help you can provide
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Use life tables to keep track of your life cycles. A life table is a kind of bookkeeping system that entomologists often use to keep track of stage-specific mortality in the populations they study.  It is an especially useful approach in entomology where developmental stages are discrete and mortality rates may vary widely from one life stage to another.  From a pest management standpoint, it is very useful to know when (and why) a pest population suffers high mortality -- this is usually the time when it is most vulnerable.  By managing the natural environment to maximize this vulnerability, pest populations can often be suppressed without any other control methods.
To create a life table, you need to follows the life history of many individuals in a population, keeping track of how many offspring each female produces, when each one dies, and what caused its death.  After amassing data from different populations, different months, and different environmental conditions, the ecologist summarizes this data by calculating average mortality within each developmental stage.
For example, in a hypothetical insect population, an average female will lay 200 eggs before she dies.  Start with a cohort of 200 eggs. Half of these eggs (on average) will be consumed by predators, 90% of the larvae will die from parasitization, and three-fifths of the pupae will freeze to death in the winter.  (These numbers are averages, but they are based on a large database of observations.)
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I think I can remember that I saw a presentation during my studies about the relevance of generalists in hindering insect pest mass gradations. The think explanation was that generalists are not dependent of the population dynamic of the pest insects. So there is a base abundance of the generalists compared to specialized parasitoids, which are not able to end the mass gradation, because their population dynamic is delayed in relation to the host population dynamic. Would be nice to have reference for that issue. Thanks for answering.
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More precisely:
> Are there cameras/webcams that can be used to record (continuously) for a whole day or more a small organ of a plant (e.g. stipules) and the visits it gets from small insects like parasitoids?
Thank you for all ideas/advice/suggestions, even if it was for a different insect type.
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Dear Louise,
Try the Noldus website. We have used their equipment for tracking mosquitoes.
Best,
Guy
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What are the parasitoids of ber fruit fly, Carpomya vasuviana?
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Fopius carpomyiae (Silvestri) (Braconidae: Opiinae) is primarily an egg-pupal, larvae parasitoid of Ber (Konar) fruit fly, Carpomya vesuviana
(16) (PDF) Study on parasitism of Carpomya vesuviana Costa (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Fopius carpomyiae (Silvestri) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Bushehr Province.. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325157598_Study_on_parasitism_of_Carpomya_vesuviana_Costa_Diptera_Tephritidae_by_Fopius_carpomyiae_Silvestri_Hymenoptera_Braconidae_in_Bushehr_Province [accessed Nov 30 2018].
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Bracon hebetor (Parasitoid) is a bio-pesticide for controlling leaf feeding caterpillars. But what number of Bracon hebetor is needed per hectare to control these caterpillars effectively?
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Hello Mahmud:
There is a paper by Nazarpour et. al. 2013 about the Efficacy of Augmentative Release of Habrobracon hebetor Say (Hym. Braconidae) for Biological Control of Helicoverpa armygera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in tomatoe fields in Iran.
Habrobracon hebetor is a valuable biocontrol agent of the larval stage of many important agricultural pests such as the Noctuid and Pyralid moths, including H. armigera. Efficacies of augmentative release of H. hebetor for biological control of H. armygera and the larva parasitism of the pest by H. hebetor in tomato fields were evaluated during the cropping season 2011/2012 in Masjed Soleiman, Khuzestan province, Iran. Numbers of parasite larvae were recorded 1, 4, 9 and 14 days after the release (DAR). In this study, the adult wasps were released at the rate of around 50 adults/m2 the field parasitism percentage was 34.85 and contributed 73% to total larval mortality. Results showed that maximum parasitism was occurred 4 DAR and it declines in 9 and 13 DAR. According the research, H. hebetor could parasites H. armigera till 60% under field condition. It seems that H. hebetor alone is no efficacy potency to control H. armigera and must be integrated with a suitable and bio-pesticide.
Regards,
Luis Miguel
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I am working on Molecular identification (gene COI) of parasitoids (Chalcid Wasps). After DNA isolation by using Nucleospin kit, Gel check confirmed bands for most of the samples. But, PCR bands are missing as confirmed by gel check. Universal primers have been used.
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If you ran gel with your DNA extraction samples, the bands you've seen are genomic DNA. PCR samples should show bands for the target gene only, so apparently the PCR didn't work. Even though these are universal primers, they might work at different PCR settings for different species. You may try to change annealing temperature/DNA or primer concentration.. Hope that might help!
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Hello, I'm planning to assess insecticide resistance of aphid and its parasitoid along with selection. There are many assays I've found in articles so far.
There are leaf dipping assay, feeding insecticide mixed with 10% sugar solution, bial assay(using residue after drying liquid in a bial).
These are the methods using insecticide directly to adult parasitoid.
And some suggested that using insecticide to the infected aphid(developing parasitoid larvae) is better.
I can't decide which method is more appropriate, but I think that contacting insecticide to adult female only make a selection slower.
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Typically the method involves developing multiple dose-response curves. This process is easier if the residue is applied uniformly because you have then eliminated variability due to toxicant distribution. This is great so long as all of the resistance in the field is due to biochemical mechanisms. This approach minimizes any behavioral sources of resistance.
Selection pressure is up to you, but a few individuals need to survive and be sufficiently healthy to reproduce. You can use the LD10, or LD50 dose as the selection tool.
Match exposure in the lab to exposure in the field. A systemic insecticide might be best tested mixed with diet, while a contact insecticide test might be more relevant as a thin film.
Be aware that "uniform" to you may not be uniform to the insect. The aphid interacts with its environment often at a sub-millimeter scale to distinguish one cell in a leaf from another.
Sometimes these assays are conducted by placing a droplet of pesticide on the insect cuticle using a microapplicator.
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Hello everyone.
Any idea how to expose the cocoons with pupae in the wild without being prey to ants or other animals?
Are you aware of scientific works that illustrate the method?
Thanks in advance.
Pier
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Hi Pier,
I did it this way, and works.
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Hello researchers!
I'm currently undertaking a project that seeks to asses the distribution of a minute gall midge, Arthrocnodax fraxinellus, and its associated parasitoids (Aphanogmus spp.) in Europe.
I'm asking for material of ash cauliflower galls (Aceria fraxinivora) on ash (Fraxinus spp) as the gall midge feeds on the mite in the larval stage.
Material from the following countries are of interest:
Austria
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Estonia
Finland
Greece
Iran
Kosovo
Latvia
Lithuania
Macedonia
Moldova
Montenegro
Russia
Serbia
Slovakia
Slovenia
Spain
Turkey
Ukraine
I have attached a PDF with details about the project - please have a look.
Thanks in advance!
Simon Haarder
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Hello again!
Did anyone have luck with obtaining galls of Aceria fraxinivora?
Best regards,
Simon
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i just want to know, to have a nice results.. i am also studying parasitoids on pineapple mealybugs
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I do use my phone too in the microscope lenses, or try to use a microscope with built in camera. Usually, I will edit then my photos using Affinity Photos for good results. The H-K photos are from a microscope with built in camera (I used Leica stereomicroscope).
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I need to mark some aphids in a patch, but that cannot affect their behavior or the behavior of the parasitoid that will attack them (it is a parasitoid-host assay).
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Have marked parasitoids with Rubidium via feeding but you can probably spray them too. Search "rubidium"
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Rearing Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) as future animal feed has to take in account the enemies of the flies.
My studies did not revealed such attacks from parasitoids in my region (Middle East).
Does any one knows parasitoids - in the country of origin for example?
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Dear Dr.
you can see this paper
Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae), parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa
DOI: 10.4081/entomologia.2015.284
Best regards
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Hello,
I'm a Master student looking for an interesting applied ecology problem to investigate in my thesis project.
I've been considering to deepen the possible use of parasitoids in fighting invasive macroalgae species but i couldn't find much literature about this. Does anyone know of published papers about the relationship between parasitoids and algae? Thank you very much!
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Hi Ginevra,
I know that in commercial cultivation there are some diseases causing really important problems. Check this article and see if it can be useful for you (I think that the ice-ice disease is caused by a virus, but maybe you can find something interesting).
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Now I am interesting in if any kind of light wavelength could usefully attract pests natural enemies like lady beetle, predatory bugs, hover fly, lacewing, or parasitoids. Could any one could tell me where could I find related research articles or messages. Thanks for your help!
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Different insects can be attracted to light and also ultraviolet (UV) energy, but the specific wavelength regions to which they are attracted (or repelled in some cases) will differ species-by-species. More often than not, however, short-visible and near-UV wavelengths (<500 nm) probably tend to be more attractive to more species. One possible starting place is the 8th or 9th editions (1993 or 2000) of the Illuminating Engineering Society's Lighting Handbook, in a chapter entitled "Lighting and Photobiology," which will contain a number of literature citations you can follow up. There is a more recent edition to the IES Lighting Handbook but I don't recall if the information on insect attraction light made it into the 10th edition (2011).
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I am looking for one (or more) populations of T. embryophagum egg parasitoids for carrying out some lab experiments,  and was wondering if anyone has a population that they would be willing to share with me?
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I don't have
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Whitefly parasitised nymphs/pupae cards?
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You are welcome
Houda
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This larva was the peach twig borer on almond, it was reared in a vial, and many parasiotoids were inside it.
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Thank you indeed.
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If the host/prey is only paralyzed (not dead), then their larvae should be considered ectoparasitoids (like those of dryinids, pompilids, scoliids, etc.), shouldn't they?
Contrary to this, only ampulicids, and some sphecid (e.g., Chlorion) and crabronid species (e.g., Larra) are considered parasioids (and, what is more, _secondarily_ parasitoids) among apoid wasps.
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Gabor: that makes them herbivores! I agree with Timothy that my suggestion was too simplistic. Having said that I don't think parasitoidism is involved at all. Paralysing another insect cannot be compared to laying an egg on or in the victim after which the hatched and larvae feed on the victim internally and finally killing it.
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I am trying to figure out how many Myzus persicae would infest a potato without top-down control (predator or parasitoid). In some papers, I have read that Myzus persicae is non-gregarious and therefore does not occur in a large number in a host plant. However, from my experience, a tobacco plant could hold quite a number of Myzus persicae and so could a chinese cabbage. Am I wrong to assume that there will be hundreds of aphids when there is no interference? Is Myzus persicae always gregarious or does it depend on the host plant it feeds on?
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Also from my experieince, hundrerds from Myzus persicae infested the sweet pepper, on which I reared huge number of M. persicae and these were protected from natural enemies either parasitoieds or preditors. I think it is gregariuos .
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I obtained three parasitoids from the same batch of eggs from a Reduviidae bug from Colombia possibly from the Platygastridae family. There are few published records of parasitoids in Reduviidae eggs. I would like to know if anyone knows what genus and species are? The yellow individual may be an hyperparasitoid. If you have published records  please let me know.
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Hi,
I think that you have specimens belong to Telenomus (Scelionidae, Platygastroidea), possibly T. polymorphus Costa Lima, 1943, but I  am not sure because is difficult to identify the species level using only the pictures.
Best regards,  Ovidiu 
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Full reference: Graham, M.W.R. de V. (1991), A reclassification of the European Tetrastichinae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae): revision of the remaining genera. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute No 49, 322pp
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You most welcome
Houda
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We are looking for an entomologist / taxonomist who is willing to identify this Phytomiptera species (Diptera: Tachinidae) that we encounter in the Bolivian Altiplano.
This Phytomiptera is an endemic parasitoid of Eurysacca quinoae (Gelechiidae). Eurysacca larvae cause damage in quinoa crop cultivation.
Since PROINPA is a Bolivian NGO, we are not able to pay you for this job. But of course the scientific credits if it turns out to be a new species are yours!
(Dead samples send upon request)
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HI Jenneke, do you still have the samples? There are a few Phytomyptera species reported for South America, Rasmussen et al. (2001) reports Phytomyptera sp. as parasitoid of Eurysacca in Peru. It probably is an undescribed species.
Best.
Juan Manuel
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We are looking for an entomologist / taxonomist who is willing to identify this Meteorus species (Braconidae) that we encounter in the Bolivian Altiplano.
This Meteorus is an endemic parasitoid of Eurysacca quinoae (Gelechiidae). Eurysacca larvae cause damage in quinoa crop cultivation.
Since PROINPA is a NGO, we are not able to pay you for this job. But of course the scientific credits for discovering a new species are yours!
(Dead samples send upon request)
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Confirmed by Helmuth Aguirre Fernandez! This is Meteorus eurysaccovorus.
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I am looking for anyone who work with Apanteles taragamae, natural enemy of legume pod borer Maruca vitrata. This species is solitary parasitoid. However, I am working with this parasitoid as natural enemy of Diaphania indica, and this is gregarious species. I am interest to make a further identification of these species.
If anyone have a some suggestion, I am mostly grateful for it. Thanks.
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Dear Ihsan Nurkomar
Try to contact the researchers in the article mentioned, I'm sure they will help you, good luck
Pls. find the attached files
page 216 in: Q. Ashton Acton, 2012. Issues in Ecological Research and Application Edition ScholarlyEditions,Pp.2009  ISBN1464964092, 9781464964091
Hoping this will be helpful
Regards
Prof. Houda Kawas
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Sampled in Greece, Athens, Tatoi
07.05.2016
plant: Quercus coccifera
caterpillar: Lymantria dispar
primary parasitoid: Cotesia melanoscela
Thanks a lot in advance
Vladimir
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With photos is difficult to ID at species and genus level, however  try to see if your specimen follow this characteristics of Gelis.
Characteristics of Gelis include: 1. Body size (mm) (excluding antennae and ovipositor):<10mm; 2. Position of spiracle on Tergite 1 (T1 of metasoma):clearly behind the centre; 3. Shape of aerolet in forewing:other; 4. Colour of face:only black; 5. Metasoma compressed:dorsal-ventrally; 6. Size of Ocelli:small; 7. Length of antennae:shorter than body; 8. Length of ovipositor:not longer than body; 9. Wings:present; 10. Colour of wings:mostly clear but with dark patches/spots; 11. Sternaulus (on mesopleuron):short; less than 0.5x length mesopleuron; 11. Sternaulus (on mesopleuron):long; more than 0.5x length mesopleuron; 12. Shape of face in lateral view:flat or only weakly bulging; 13. Sternite on T1(viewed laterally):sternite not extending past spiracle; 14. Shape of T1(viewed laterally):evenly curved; 15. Number of teeth in mandibles:1 or 2; 16. Patterns on metasoma:same colour throughout; 17. Length of T1 vs T2:subequal in length; 18. Sculpture on mesoscutum:finely pitted, many hairs; 19. Width of T1 (viewed dorsally):gradually widening from anterior to posterior; 20. Glymma on T1:absent; 21. Sculpture on metasoma:smooth with a semi-glossy or satin appearance at least on T2; 22. Propodeum length:Propodeum very short (not reaching beyond coxal insertion).
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The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) has a strong sexual dimorphism with males being thinner than the females. When we used the parasitoid Aphidius ervi, we observed few attack behaviour and, for now, no mummy formation on male aphids. Are you aware of publications on parasitoid attacks on different sexual / asexual morphs of aphids?
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Dear Kevin Tougeron
The parasitoids have a very specific behavior towards their hosts so it is better to examine the behavior of the parasitoid towards the different stages of pea aphids and then you can detect if it can develop or not on the male pea aphid. Best Regards.
Aly Younes
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Dear Researchers,
Kindly help me to identify these larval parasitoids of Pink boll worm collected from cotton field of Sindh, Pakistan. These parasitoids emerged from larvae in laboratory condition in large quantity and their existence realized at the end of cotton harvesting stage
Regards
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Thank you very much Dear Panis for your valuable suggestions and guidance, its really appreciated. I will definitely contact him in regard to identify these parasitioids.
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We compared the effects of a sublethal biopeseticide (after applied LC 50 value) on different biological parameters (time of development, length of life, parasitism ...) of the three different populations of parasitoids Encarsia formosa (two local and one commercialized). For each monitored parameter, we performed a separated experiment, at the same time with all three of the observed population, with and without the effects of pesticides (control courts were sprayed with distilled water only.
Is it right the results processed using two-way ANOVA or is there a more appropriate analysis of the data ???
We want to determine 1) whether the origin of the different populations, 2) whether the pesticide and 3) and 3) whether the interaction of the origin of the population and insecticide affects the obtained values of parameters ???).
Thanks in advance…
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Thank You very much for Your answers, it would be helpful for me..
Best regards :)
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All plants respond to herbivore-inflicted damage with the enhanced emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and plants in numerous taxa also respond with the secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN) . Both VOCs and EFN attract adult parasitoids and predators (hereinafter collectively termed ‘carnivores’), an effect that can significantly reduce herbivore pressure on wild plants . Nevertheless, relatively few attempts have made conscious use of VOCs or EFN for biological pest control  and, to the best of our knowledge, classical breeding has never aimed to improve anti-herbivore defense via VOCs or EFN 1 for the first attempt to genetically engineer wheat (Triticum aestivum) . How and to what degree these traits can be optimized to allow better biological control of pests and crop diseases?
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There is no hard and fast rule. However factors associated with the control programmes (invasive region, native region, plant growth form, target longevity, control agent guild, taxonomy and study duration) have varying patterns in control success. On average, biocontrol agents significantly reduced plant size (28 ± 4%), plant mass (37 ± 4%), flower and seed production (35 ± 13% and 42 ± 9%, respectively) and target plant density (56 ± 7%). Beetles in the Chrysomelidae and Curculionidae families were more effective at reducing plant size than other groups.
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Predators are mainly free-living species that directly consume a large number of prey during their whole lifetime.
Parasitoids lay their eggs on or in the body of an insect host, which is then used as a food for developing larvae. The host is ultimately killed. Most insect parasitoids are wasps or flies, and may have a very narrow host range.
Pathogenic micro-organisms include bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They kill or debilitate their host and are relatively host-specific. Various microbial insect diseases occur naturally, but may also be used as biological pesticides. When naturally occurring, these outbreaks are density-dependent in that they generally only occur as insect populations become denser.
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Evaluation of natural enemies used in acclimatization biological  control programs  (Classical biological control):
 During the last scentury:
4200 introductions of natural enemies with 600 species were conducted for the biological control of 416 pest species in 168 countries
384 natural enemies established
164 pest species were totally controlled
64 species of pests were partially controlled
Through:
82% of parasitoids
17% of predators
1% of pathogenic organisms
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It is a study on cider-apple orchards in NW Spain. I have already identify the most abundant species in our region (Ascogaster quadridentata, Trichoma enecator, Pristomerus vulnerator and Liotryphon caudatus ) but we have got a few specimens of apparently new five species. I could provide pictures.
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Thank you Masoud:
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Found laying eggs inside larvae of 'Apple leaf miner' Lyonesia clerkella from Kashmir Himalayas
Leaf miner 1= 1.5mm app.
Leaf miner 2= 2mm app.
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Thank you, dear Lateef, for your help and suggestion. As far as Dr. A.A. Buhroo is concerned, I revere him as a great entomologist of our region, but unfortunately, his field of expertise is Coleopterology in general and 'bark beetles', to be precise. Nevertheless, I already did consult him regarding the identification, but he suggested to look up the related literature and concerned experts.
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I'm working on one of parasitoid wasps of Anarsia lineatella and I want to rearing eggs on artificial food so I need more eggs for my experiment. I want to know how can encourage females to lay more eggs. I reared both male and females in plastic bags (30*20*10 cm) with peach fruit at ( 16:8 D: L, 23-25°C) but their egg's laying is low. I will very appreciate if tell me your answers
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Dear Siamak Roshandel,
For preparing strong colony of insect you must be focused upon the Egg Production by the insect also for making insects lay more no. of eggs,  you could have try with the oviposition attractant and stimulant so that insects especially female could get attracted towards the treated surface and could be enforced to lay higher no. of eggs as well-established in other class of insects, but for that you needed to explore the attractant/ stimulant for that articular insect.
Though this step is much tedious but quiet interesting.
Best of Luck
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We are looking for an entomologist / taxonomist who is willing to identify this Cotesia species (Braconidae) that we encounter in the Bolivian Altiplano.
This Cotesia is an endemic parasitoid of Eurysacca quinoae (Gelechiidae). Eurysacca larvae cause damage in quinoa crop cultivation.
Since PROINPA is a NGO, we are not able to pay you for this job. But of course the scientific credits for discovering a new species are yours!
(Dead samples send upon request)
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Hi,
This is not a species of Cotesia as Cotesia spp. does not have areolet (closed cell) in the fore wing. This could be a Venanus sp. as there is only one microgastrine parasitoid is reported so far from this host. The images of propodeum and metasoma (in dorsal view) helps to identify it into generic level.
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I am interested on the drivers of parasitoid dispersion and their impact on biological control. For example, how ecological infrastructures may affect spatial dispersion of parasitoids? Parasitoids are supposed to disperse based on short flights. Therefore, the diversity and structure of plant communities are expected to influence their dispersion pattern, and consequently their impact on insect pests, as biocontrol agents.
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As far as I know, only little is known on parasitoid dispersal and how this is influenced by plant biodiversity. I am just starting a project to investigate how the presence of different plant species influences parasitoid dispersal and host detection under field conditions. I found one interesting paper on this topic: Bezemer et. al 2010: Behaviour of male and female parasitoids in the field: influence of patch size, host density, and habitat complexity. Ecological Entomology 35.
Best, Ilka
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even the weather that can modify the sustances like pheromones, what are now the reasons for that succesful development like beig a parasitoid.
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Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of constant temperatures (7, 22, and 30°C) and corresponding fluctuating temperatures (0-14, 15-29, and 23-37°C) on the development of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), and its North American parasitoid Diadegma insulare (Hellén). Parasitized third-instar diamondback moth larvae were reared until adult mortality in individual thermal gradient cells at different temperature regimes. Larval mortality, parasitism success, pupal mortality, larval and pupal developmental time, adult longevity, and pupal and adult dry weight were recorded. Overall diamondback moth larval mortality was low. The pupal mortality of D. insulare increased with increasing temperature; however, diamondback moth did not show such a response. Greatest parasitism success (67%) was found at constant and fluctuating 22°C and fluctuating 7°C, and the lowest (30%) at fluctuating 30°C. Longer development times and greater pupal body masses occurred at lower temperatures for both insects. Significant differences occurred between constant and fluctuating temperature regimes for most parameters of both insects. Fluctuating compared with constant temperatures caused shorter development times, similar body mass, and higher adult longevity for both insects at optimal and lower temperature ranges. Both insects experienced 0°C at fluctuating 7°C (0-14°C) and survived. These results have important implications for extrapolating temperature effects on insects in laboratory studies with constant temperatures. Comparing successful parasitism capacity of the wasp and pupal survival and body mass of both host and parasitoid, we conclude that D. insulare is a more effective parasitoid at lower temperatures.
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Hello,
I have been working on gall morphology in phylloxerids and it got me thinking about their parasitoids. I know that some wasps can manage to oviposit through aphid galls, but I don't know any parasitoids that are known to attack galls of Phylloxeridae (probably because we know almost nothing about that family's ecology, Grape phylloxera aside).
Has anyone ever encountered parasitoids of phylloxerids in the field or know of a paper on the subject? I really appreciate any help you can provide!
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Dear Eric Guerra-Grenier
With this old pest, most  attempt for biological control were limited , Little information on biological control of grape phylloxera is available; environmental and root conditions are more important than natural enemies.
Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces farinosus against phylloxera was demonstrated. evaluation the potential of entomopathogenic nematodes in laboratory bioassays.
Pls. find the attached files
T. W. Fisher, Thomas S. Bellows, L. E. Caltagirone, D. L. Dahlsten, Carl B. Huffaker, G. Gordh. 1999. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications of Biological Control Academic Press,Pp.104. ISBN0080533019, 9780080533018
Dharam P Abrol. 2013. Integrated Pest Management: Current Concepts and Ecological Perspective Academic Press,Pp. 576. ISBN0124017096, 9780124017092
Noubar J. Bostanian, Charles Vincent, Rufus Isaacs. 2012. Arthropod Management in Vineyards:: Pests, Approaches, and Future Directions Springer Science & Business Media,Pp. 508. ISBN9400740328, 9789400740327
H. C. Coppel, J. W. Mertins.  2012. Biological Insect Pest Suppression  Advanced Series in Agricultural Sciences Springer Science & Business Media,Pp. 314. ISBN3642664873, 9783642664878.
Regards
Prof. Houda Kawas
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I'm working on taxonomy of European Hymenoptera at family level and I'm finding difficulties to distinguish between gall wasps (Cynipidae) and small parasitoid wasps (Mymaridae, Chalcidae, Eulophidae, Pteromalidae) with the resources I have available. I need better identification keys/guides. Thanks in advance!
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Taxonomy, biology, and efficacy of two Australian parasitoids of the eucalyptus gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae)
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Occurrence of Two Local Megastigmus Species Parasitic on the Eucalyptus Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa in Israel and Turkey
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Biological control of the eucalyptus gall wasp Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead): taxonomy and biology of the parasitoid species Closterocerus chamaeleon (Girault), with information on its establishment in Israel.
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Biology, revised taxonomy and impact on host plants of Ophelimus maskelli , an invasive gall inducer on Eucalyptus spp. in the Mediterranean Area
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Two new Australian species of Stethynium (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), larval parasitoids of Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on Eucalyptus
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These articles contain easy identification keys to discern between Gall Wasps and Parasitoid Wasps.
Best regards,
Alex
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Chrysoperla is a generalist predator of many insect pests, however the eggs are parasitized  by several species of microhymenopteran wasps like the one in the photograph. I wonder the impact of these egg parasitoids in the predatory efectiveness of Chrysoperla to controlling insect pests. Any idea about the ID of this parasitoid from Colombia ? thank you.
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Answer from subject expert- Many members of families- Eulophidae, Encyrtidae, Trichogrammatidae, Perilampidae, Pteromalidae are known to parasitize various species of chrysopids. However, we have not come across high percentage of percent parasitism in an alarming manner. Though there are here and there reports on natural parasitism.
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I want to identify the Trichogramma chilonis (Egg parasitoids of mostly lepidopterous egg) male and female on the morphological basis. Please shear the related information for the guideline of the specific insect.  
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males will have long hairs on the antennae and females wont.
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I have just started field study on it with Trichogramma application. I want to know could the wasps achieve good control effect on controling tiny eggs like small budworms of apple and pear?
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Any idea what kind of larva this is?
It comes from a willow catkin and is about 7 mm.
A family name would already be great. Can it be a parasitoid wasp larva? Does it attack Diptera larvae?
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This caterpillar is a young polypod larva, very probably of a geometrid moth (Lepidoptera Geometridae), because of the absence of the first three pairs of prolegs (false abdominal legs) present in many (almost all) other families of Lepidoptera. It is not a parasitoid wasp larva. Regards,
Rinaldo Nicoli
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Please, Can any researcher insure that is  Diaeretiella rapae parasitoid
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Dear Luis
thanks a lot about your information, additives and advise
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I want to rear Sitobion avenae, its predators (ladybird beetle and green lacewing) and parasitoid (Aphidius gifuensis) in the rearing room. But I am confused about the requirements of temperature and relative humidity in room. Kindly tell me at which temperature and RH, I reared these insects?
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The problem with Carola's answer is that using temperatures recorded from a nearby weather station is not a great way to determine those thresholds because most insects live in a narrow boundary layer that will have very different temperature/humidity conditions than ambient. The other issue is that nature is dynamic while laboratory conditions are relatively static. 102F may be lethal with 24H exposure but have little effect if it lasts for 10 minutes.
   There is also the problem that some organisms make major transitions at sublethal temperatures. An example is the winter versus summer morph of the melon/cotton aphid. At least for a parasitoid, there will be a significant effect on parasitoid size depending on whether you use a summer (small) or winter (large) adapted melon aphid colony. Wasps get bigger if more food is available, and larger wasps are able to produce more offspring.
While in principle "read nature and you get the answers" is a great idea, you need to be very careful about the application. The world is a very different place when you are the size of an ant. Using the literature is great because it provides an answer based on what other people have done within the limitations of the laboratory setting.
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I am moving single trichogramma around (for sexing, mother-son mating, experiments etc), and have experimented with just waiting for them to climb up small tubes (but then it can be hard to get them out again), using an eyelash, or an aspirator (but this is proving not optimal, the one I made anyway)... what is everyones experiences, and anyone found an effective, and time-saving, technique? 
Many thanks in advance!
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Sophy,
we have since the 1980s used the natural tendency of the wasps to look for light above them. So put a population of Trichogramma into a container with a soft plastic lid or a stopper (made of sponge material you cut) to introduce one of these manually made not graduated pipette with a long capillary end. Now wrap the pot and the beginning of the gross end of the pipette with dark tissue or aluminum paper to get it real dark in the container and point the capillary part to a lamp above. You quickly see the wasps come out into the glass tube where at the top they have to cue in the capillary. With a stopper (Knete or cork) you hinder them to get out. Now you can sex them looking at the antenna, then you let escape the ones you don't want (or smash them between your fingers) and let simply walk the others into a tube put over the pipette exit. It is easy, they do what you want (no need for an exauster). Good luck! Viel Erfolg !
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Aphis craacivora is very important pest of plants of fabaceae family. Many parasitoids have been reported by several workers
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In northwest Uttar Pradesh, India Binodoxys (=Trioxys) indcus (Subba Rao & Sharma) was evaluated in my laboratory. The results demonstrated that it has potential to maintain the aphids (also Aphis gossypii) below economic injury level.