Science topic

Parasitic Diseases - Science topic

Infections or infestations with PARASITES. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
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why usually  impossible to make a successful vaccine against helminths or protozoa and don't quite understand why.
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Parasites have complex life cycle. Like larva, pupae, adult etc at all stages they change surface proteins. Having complex life cycle p parasites have complex protective mechanism to evade host immune system.
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I am part of a group exploring a potentially novel infectious organism. We are working to identify it by microscopy images and genetic sequencing. We would greatly appreciate expert opinions on some of our images. Please see our project at: https://www.researchgate.net/project/Characterization-of-possible-novel-zoonotic-eukaryote
Thoughts, comments, questions? Greatly appreciated.
Plasmodium, zoospore, oomycete, myxamoeba, apicoplexa, infectious, parasite, disease
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Suggest you look to the recent literature for a slime mold expert. He/she would be very helpful. The use of dna technology can be used as conferring the identification by the group expert.
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What are the possible negative effects of the low-dosage drug on the people who drink the water? Have there any been studies that look at its effectiveness?
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Thanks for all the tips! This was extremely helpful
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When malaria can is transmitted, why can't hepatitis B and C be transmitted?
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Thanks for all the tips! This was extremely helpful
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Nobody had so far thought of developing a vaccine against the disease. And for good reason: unlike mammals, insects do not make antibodies. The latter, however, are central to the principle of vaccination, which involves introducing an attenuated or modified strain of a microbe so that lymphocytes learn to recognize it
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They will thus be able to trigger the production of antibodies when they come into contact again. This "memory effect" does not exist at first in the bee
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I have some 2 drugs that I want to determine their nature of interaction against a tropical disease parasite. I need to plot an isobologram to achieve this. How do I go about doing this?
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Were you able to do this? Let me know if you have any questions.
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It seems that original wild plants are more resistant to diseases and parasites that those selected and "improved" for their commercial value
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Thank you very much Ricardo for your answer. Does it means that wild plants living in the absence of challenges will gradually lose their ability to fight against diseases and pest? could it be an epigenetic phenomenon, like the methylation of CpGs of the promoters of resistance genes?
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Do factors such as temperature and pH play a role in dictating the prevalence of S. japonicum
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مرحبا اعتقد ان الظروف البيئيهلها دور كبير في نمو وتطور البلهارزيا مثل الحراره والرطوبه والظلام ودرجه الحامضيه
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Parents of a young kid come up with a complaint of passing many worms in the stool (The picture of the parasite is provided below). The parasite was eradicated with Praziquantel treatment, however,  initial treatment with Albendazole didn't work well. Could anyone help in identification of this parasite? 
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It’s not segmented, so ruling out cestodes. It is most likely to be fasciolopsis buski. From the image it appears that the worm does not have an shoulder and worm passed in stool . Moreover, the worm got eradicated with praziquantel therapy
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Since the treatment of cancer patients can reduce their immunity to diseases so it is advisable to screen them for some parasitic diseases that might be very harmful for them such as toxoplasmosis and cyptosporidiosis
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It seems that in the case of oncological patients there is a higher risk of infection with these parasites. Articles showing higher frequency of infection caused by T. gondii:
However, it should be remembered that due to the impaired functioning of the immune system, cancer patients are exposed to many other infections, including viral, fungal and bacterial (both exogenous and endogenous). In my opinion, screening for the presence of these pathogens is not possible, because the amount of different tests would be too great (a multitude of tests performed during anti-cancer therapies). Many pathogens are present in the human body, but only in opportunistic situations they become virulent (their presence does not prove the presence of infection).
Medical alertness should be increased for oncologic patients, while performing tests for all potentially pathogenic microorganisms is simply not possible.
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The COPD is freqent. Parasitic-infestatio is even more and causes blood-eosinophilia. How can be predictiv the count of eo on COPD exacerbatio-phenotyp without exclusion of the helminthiosis or other parasitic disease?
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Hi. Thanks. I think so, too. But why not? It is a essential problem by classification in COPD phenotyp and by treatment(see mepolizumab) eosinophilic severe asthma. Best regards Paula
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I submitted my manuscript more than 1 year ago. After initial processing of it where editors were asking me a documents and some editing corrections, than everything just stopped. I repetedly ask explanation and editors are barely replying to me. Once every couple of months, average, reply asking me the same papers and the same corrections.
Have you evere faced this situation? I would like to have at least my manuscript rejected in order to submit elsewhere.
What should I do ?
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Silvia,
Are you attaching the point to point explanation of their queries apart from corrected manuscript. I believe that there is some communication gap. Better reply the editors in more objective way. Also, if you feel that there is no such gap, you are free to withdraw the manuscript after dropping a mail.
Pankaj
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Hi Colleagues
Please any one can provide me a sequence of specific primer of Theileria camelensis which infect camels or any related method for molecular identification of this protozoan parasite.
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Hi
it is specific question. out of my specialization. i will follow to know .
regards
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I conducted a retrospective assessment of real-world treatment of a parasitic disease without standard tx schedule. 7 different schedules were used. Half cases (230) received one treatment. Looking for someone with experience in propensity scores to participate in the comparison of these treatments.
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I will help you as I can
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We all know that vaccines for many important viral and bacterial diseases are produced successfully . while this is not occur in case of parasitic diseases . can my collegues tell me why?
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One theoretical concept that might give us some answers in the future, is that lymphocytes evolved from protozoa. So, it's like asking them to attack their distant cousins. In the case of African trypanosomiasis lymphocytes actually help the parasite to enter the brain.
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I have problem with tick molecular identification. Can anyone send me the Papers of species specific primers sequence (Either ITS2/COX1 or 16SrDNA) used for Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma truncatum? Pls send to my email address zebjehan2012@gmail.com. I will be very thankful to you for this
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Hi, please look in
Thanks
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waterborne parasitic diseases
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Entamoeba histolytica, camel
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Any protocol for isolation and experimental infection of babesia spp in dogs
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Hi,
As we know some types of parasitic infections can be detected by testing blood through serology or blood smear. Few studies, however, suggested to detect the DNA of Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multiloculris from blood. Why not?
Thanks for helps in advance
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Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is localized in organs (liver, lungs, spleen, kidneys etc) in intermediate hosts where it forms cysts meaning that it is a tissue parasite. DNA can be extracted from hydatid cysts using DNeasy® Blood & Tissue (Qiagen). In the definitive host (carnivores) the adult worm develops in the small intestines and therefore release eggs in faeces. DNA can be extracted from faecal samples using QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit or by isolating the taeniid eggs using Zinc chloride sieving-flotation techniques and later picking individual eggs for PCR detection. I attach a research article that you can refer for to for guidance.
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What are the companies or government bodies in India who can provide international standards for Hepatitis B, C, and HIV which can be used for quantitiative measurement using Real -Time PCR .
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Dear Sir,
You can buy at ABBOTT, ROCHE or BIOMATRICA.
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many type of cyst  according to species 
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types ofcysts: Unilocular
                         multilocular
                         single cyst/polycystic
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nervous system parasite, parasitology, mammals 
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Toxoplasma gondii
Naegleria
Schistosoma spp
Taenia solium
Echinococcus granulosus 
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I need to determine infection rate of dedritic cells by Trypanosoma cruzi determining amastigotes forms insides these cells and I have thought to do that by RT-qPCR to detect some specific transcript or protein that only this life cycle can produce, since count the infected cells and the amastigotes inside the cell is not a accurate method.
Or are there another way more accurate to determine infection rate inside the cells if it is a intracellular parasite?
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Hello  dear, 
My friend  primarily  extract  the DNA of T. Cruzi, then using PCR technology try to applify with your accessed  primers. Then after you will sequence it to determine the specific T.cruzi 
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Malaria is protozoal disease 
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Yes.pls. The potentials are unfolding
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 Trichomonas vaginalis
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yes may be found i the urine 
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CE is found in Africa, Europe, Asia, the Middle East, and Central and South America. Highest prevalence is found in populations that raise sheep. In North America, Echinococcus granulosus is rarely reported in Canada and Alaska, and a few human cases have also been reported in Arizona and New Mexico.
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yes by high hyagiene and sanitation  as Wash your hands with soap and warm water after handling dogs, Don't allow your dogs to wander freely or to capture and eat raw meat from sheep, cattle, pigs, and goats.Don't home slaughter sheep and other livestock.
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Since S.japonicum lives out its mature adult stage within humans, it would be insightful to know whether the parasite thrives more in those with lowered immune systems or those who have more nutrients available to them. 
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I start a project about the prevalence of GIT nematodes in horses reared in middle province of Iraq , I need the most accurate method for identification .
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Generally the classical method including the direct and concentration (flotation and sedimentation) method to observe the eggs and you should be use the culturing of eggs to hatching to larvae that which used for difirentiation among nematods.
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A genus of coccidian parasites (family Haemogregarinidae), in which schizogony occurs in the visceral organs, gametogony in the leukocytes or erythrocytes of vertebrate animals, and sporogony in certain ticks and other blood-sucking invertebrates.
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KE Allen - 2010 - shareok.org
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I have read that control measures targeting the molluscan intermediate host Oncomelania quadrasi present in the Philippines were not as effective as predicted. In light of this, I was wondering if controlling S. japonicum itself would be preferable, and if there are any methods that have already been employed and proven effective.
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What is the best statistical analysis for the reinfection of schistosomiasis, given that the data consists of the EPG (eggs per gram) of stool samples of 3 sets of different host species?
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SA Satayathum, EM Muchiri, JH Ouma… - The American journal of …, 2006‏ - ASTMH‏
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Schistosome vaccine development
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not to my knowledge
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We have been identified the organism mostly in farmers suffering from plaque-like disease that results sometimes in hemorrhage in affected persons.
Any one interested in collaboration can contact me for more details through the addresses bellow.
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For instance, if the climate is warming, can we expect that vector-borne parasitic diseases of the tropics will invade more developed countries.
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Which medium is best to culture the albugo candida? although it is obligate parasite... how can we inoculate to produces disease on crucifers?
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How do you coat an antibody on a nitrocellulose membrane in order to develop immunology parasite antigens diagnostic strips?
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papers or methods 
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Thanks sir
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Hi please can any one help me with my study about periodontitis , molecular study ,identification of Anaerococcus  prevoti , primer 
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Can you be more specific with your question?
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Diagnosing Giardia could be challenging using conventional parasitological techniques. I looked for commercial kits for Giardia diganose, but all of them are indicated for G. lamblia. Does anyone ever tested them with wild animals?
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Rapid detection of soluble G.
duodenalis cyst antigens (BVT Co., Ltd,
Lion) is a qualitative test., which related to dog only
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Surface variation
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There are also mechanisms of evasion, and most biosynthetic patterns in Trypanosomatids and their enzymes differ from the host. However , they also display proteins or part of them similar to that of the host, generating an autoimmune like response. 
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Sarcocystosis is an uncommonly reported parasitic infection which has not been listed as an opportunistic infection as infections caused by other coccidia (Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora). Epidemiology and clinical impact of human infections by Sarcocystis are largely unknown and reports continue to be rare.
Unlike other coccidia, sarcocystosis is not considered an opportunistic infection and evidence linking sarcocystosis with AIDS is limited with only three cases published globally:
I am interested in knowing of other reports (even not officially published resources) of Sarcocystis infections in immunocompromised patients. Thanks
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This comment is about the significance of the presence of Sarcocystis in someone who is immunocompromised. The reported occurrence of Sarcocystis in the gut (a finding in one of the 3 publications referenced in previous postings related to this question) is not evidence that it was opportunistic. In another of the 3 papers, Fig. 1 looks like an Isospora belli oocyst. It is not an oocyst of Sarcocystis. Likewise, Fig. 2 (whatever it might be) is not a Sarcocystis sporocyst. As regards the 3rd article, some things (despite the molecular results) do not fit in with current understanding of aspects of the life cycle of Sarcocystis. These are the suggested replication of Sarcocystis in gallbladder epithelium (epithelial cells not being the organism’s historically known, classical site of occurrence) and the apparent absence, microscopically, of parasites in the lamina propria. I am not saying that Sarcocystis cannot be an opportunistic pathogen in HIV/AIDS (it is not an obvious one, though), but none of these 3 publications have shown that it is. Furthermore, it should be noted that isosporiasis was diagnosed in the patients who were the subjects of the 2nd and 3rd publications. This complicates the issue parasitologically. However, "intestinal" stages of Sarcocystis have, indeed, been found outside the gut in primates. This was first recognized in the 1970s (Markus 1974; 1978), which fact has been lost sight of subsequently. To understand the situation, the detailed story in Markus (1978) should be read. It appears between the bottom of p. 172 and p. 174. The last paragraph, on p. 174, of the section concerned is particularly important. REFERENCES: Markus, M.B. et al. 1974. The coccidial nature and life-cycle of Sarcocystis. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 77: 248-259; Markus, M.B. 1978. Sarcocystis and sarcocystosis in domestic animals and man. Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine 22: 159-193.
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As not all species of cuckoo are brood parasites, is this just an evolutionary adaption within some species? is it down to relative brain size? or a possible learnt behavior ? are we in a current process of evolutionary change 
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This person might have some ideas on the subject (look at her publications; and note her e-mail address):
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I want a research or idea about the larvae of Toxocara canis if can attenuated and used it as a vaccines against this parasite infection in human and dogs
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Is there any reference that shows that  a Leishmania infected sandfly when bites to a mammalian host could not lead to successful infection. This may be because at that time the vector may be carrying the pool of parasites majorly with the avirulent ones. Because different morphological forms have different virulence. 
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This link can help you
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I continue to work with mammary infections by helminths in a variety of hosts.  This has been shown extensively for some nematodes, especially strongyloids, in some hosts and in some parts of the world.  Fewer cases of such infections have been described for cestodes and trematodes, though some exist.  I am interested in further collaboration on such possibilities.
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Dear Dr David Bruce Conn.... A very important subject.  what kind of cooperation required. can communicate over email.
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Which species of Cryptosporidium causes gastric cryptosporidiosis apart frm C. muris and C. andersoni (These two I know) and which cause intestinal cryptosporidiosis? 
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I agree with Jyotshana Gautam.
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 In picture 20160915_2 the size of egg (C) is compared to an egg of roundworm (A) and of whipworm (B). Picture 20160915_3 is the oval shaped egg with operculum. 
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Yes, you wouldn't necessarily be lucky enough to be able to view both the operculum and knob in one image (at a given plane of focus). Moreover, one or both of these features often seem to be absent, so to speak. The knob is a useful diagnostic criterion for Diphyllobothrium. In other words, it is perhaps better if one sees only a knob on a particular egg than only an operculum.
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400X dimension. Found this in human stool. What could be this parasite?
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I'm pretty sure too that it is Diphyllobothrium spp. Its colour and egg-shell look quite typical for Diphyllobothrium. Too bad the operculum is not visible. You can try to put some pressure onto the coverslip (using e.g. a pencil) to try and open the operculum. It will give you a confirmation.
Better not to say D. latum, as it can also be D. cordatum, D. pacificum, ... although D. latum is more commonly found.
Kind regards,
Idzi
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I want to do in vitro antimalarial assay 
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Hi Partha,
Some labs use 2%, 3%, 4% or 5% hematocrit for continuous culture, it depends on the procedures used. But the higher is the hematocrit, the higher the number of parasites you have in culture in comparison to the volume of media so the media will be consumed faster. Usually in vitro antimalarial assay starts at 0.5% or 1% parasitemia that is put in contact with drugs for 72h so if your hematocrit is too high your parasites will consume the medium too fast and growth will be affected. I hope this can answer your question.
Good luck,
Flore.
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Leishmania exhibiting a fatter morphology than expected for their growth phase. Suspected change in osmolarity caused by differential prep of some M199 reagents. Any thoughts?
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My apologies, these things were implied. Parasites from continuous passage show a fatter morphology when cultured in M199 containing HEPES prepared from powder rather than company-bought solution. I was wondering how adjusting the HEPES' pH prior to its inclusion in M199 might alter the osmolarity of the medium compared to a media that had its pH adjusted after the addition of HEPES.
i.e. HEPES>pH adjust>add to M199
or   HEPES>add to M199> pH adjust
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Acanthamoeba trophozoites and or cyst electron microscopy.
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Certainly. The article is in my office. I'll find it when next I'm there. Am away from home at present.
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Parasites can be reduced to less parasite count  in human body and patient be clear from symptoms , However after couple months or a year of being treated the  patient is infected again due to Bio-films.
Without mechanical cleanse and blood analysis checks and following up infection comes back. 
How can we destroy those bio-films  and prevent re-occurrence of infection?
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 Great Research!!!  Although I am not so knowledgeable in that science It is impressing. so Gnomon is more accurate than the Compass ?  some often use GPS for spoting Quiblah but I think  Sun shadow indications are more useful than Compass  just as Polaris the North star  locates the North  celestial pole of Earth I guess.
Get well soon!
Thank you,
Fatima EL AISSAOUI
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I am looking for information on the mite's life cycle in order to determine if we can trial some pasture management schemes to minimize reinfection.
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Thnx :))
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Zoonotic rickettsial diseases are acute specific febrile illness caused by rickettsia, small bacteria like m.o. transmitted to humans by arthropod vectors such as tick, lice, mite and fleas. Rickettsioses of zoonotic importance can be divided into groups based on characteristics such as their intracellular locations, antigenic properties, DNA composition and the diseases they cause.
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Boutonneuse fever is Mediterranean spotted fever caused by Rickettsia conorii
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Some body transfect the T. gondii tachyzoites using complicate method/s I am looking for a simple and more applicable method for transfection of siRNA to this protozoa. Is there any experience?
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Thank you so much Kathryn, but I can not take the article would you please mail me it?
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vaginal douching increase the risk of candidiasis, but what about trichomonas vaginalis
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Douching definitely increases yeast infections because yeast is everywhere and douching may decrease the lactobacillus which keep yeast in check.
But when it comes to sexually transmitted diseases like Trichomonas, its a double edged sword.   While douching may cause imbalance with local indigenous bacteria and yeast,  it also could potentially remove the trichomonas if done immediately after sex with the offending partner...   
in this article, prostitutes use douching to decrease Trichomonas infections:  
Int J STD AIDS. 2016 May;27(6):469-75. doi: 10.1177/0956462415585449. Epub 2015 May 7.
Prevalence and correlates of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among female sex workers in a city in Yunnan Province, China.
Luo L1, Reilly KH2, Xu JJ3, Wang GX4, Ding GW5, Wang N5, Wang HB6.
Author information
 
Abstract
Sexual transmission is the fastest growing route of HIV transmission in China, andTrichomonas vaginalis(TV) can facilitate HIV transmission and acquisition. Our goal was to determine the prevalence and correlates of TV infection among female sex workers (FSWs). This cross-sectional study was conducted in a city of Yunnan Province in southern China, with confidential face-to-face interviews and laboratory tests for TV (wet mount) and other sexually transmitted infections. A total of 734 FSWs participated in the study. The prevalence of TV was 9.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.02-11.30). In multivariate analyses, adjusted odds ratios of TV infection were 3.0 (95% CI 1.47-6.01) for herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositive, 2.4 (95% CI 1.37-4.14) forChlamydia trachomatisinfection, 2.6 (95% CI 1.30-5.31) for genital ulcer, 1.9 (95% CI 1.11-3.30) for starting age in commercial sex <20 years, and 0.5 (95% CI 0.27-0.87) for vaginal douching. We found a relatively high prevalence of TV infection among FSWs in Yunnan Province. A range of control strategies that include TV screening are recommended among FSWs, which could contribute significantly to the disruption of transmission by the provision of immediate treatment.
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Whether high level of IL-10 produce during cutaneous leishmaniasis infection.
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Thank you Rafael and Javier.  
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I wish to carry out a study on pinworm infection among children. I will be thankful for your suggestions on:
1. Features suggestive of pinworm or worm infestation.
2. Features increase the risk of pinworm infection.
3. Knowledge aspects need to be assessed from parents or guardians
4. Sites from which swab should be taken for pinworm eggs in the environment
Please respond to the attached delphi survey.
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I think you can take the age of kindergarten and primary school kids,continuous itching, the use of cellophane tape
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Hello, i am researching about Plasmodium knowlesi. i have read this paper
The paper still using Pmk8 and Pmkr9 to detect P. knowlesi.
But i still wondering if P. knowlesi could have a co-infection with another malaria parasit for example P. vivax. 
Can someone provide me a study that confirm a P. knowlesi co-infection using Primer used by Imwong et al 2009? http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19812279
Thank you
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Ron P. Marchand et al (2011)Co-infections of Plasmodium knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax among Humans and Anopheles dirus Mosquitoes, Southern Vietnam
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we have came across a sample of sputum full of larvae .we are having difficulty in diagnosing whether it is larvae of strongyloided/ancylostoma or ascaris. the theory books and images in books and net are some what confusing . 
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An ELISA test (Strongyloidesantibody) for detecting the serum IgG against a crude extract of the filariform larvae of S. stercoralis is available only at specialized centers .The sensitivity and specificity of this ELISA test can be improved if the serum samples are preincubated with Onchocerca antigens before testing.
The specificity question of this ELISA test has been thoroughly reviewed recently. studies claimed that the ELISA was 88% sensitive, 99% specific, and had positive and negative predictive values of 97% and 95%, respectively.  The difficulty in calculating diagnostic efficiency parameters can be attributed to the absence of a definitive gold standard for diagnosing S. stercoralis infection .
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Thick blood smear is preferred for detection of parasites in blood. In malaria diagnosis, why thin smear is also prepared?
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Thin blood smears have the advantages to achieve a better optical differention in the morphology of intracellular parasitic forms/stages as (haemogragarines in erythrozytes). The preparation of thick blood films have advantages in detection of intercellular forms as (Trypanosoma, microfilarae).
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The companies address and the email of professors would be good.
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Take contact with Prof. Raymond Hamers, VUB, Brussels, Belgium.
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Just as Flucanazole is given weekly can itraconazole aslo be used as weekly doses for tenia and candidiasis?
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single weekly dose of 400 mg itraconazole used instead of 200 mg twice day for seven days for tinea( pityriasis) versicolor. single dose appear to be  better for improving compliance and decreased cost of treatment.. for further information please go through article..
Single dose (400 mg) versus 7 day (200 mg) daily dose itraconazole in the treatment of tinea versicolor: a randomized clinical trial.
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I would like to conduct DNA barcoding of parasites from a stool sample of a monkey. I don't know if there are protocols for extract parasitic DNA from stool sample.
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for isolation of microbial RNA from stool you can use PureLink microbiome purification kit
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plasmodium specie
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Please, See these files may be useful.
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Has there ever been documented cross reactivity between antibodies to Plasmodium vivax AMA-1 or MSP-1 antigens and other malaria parasites or other pathogens in peer reviewed literature?
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I found this paper (linked below) with the following: " The monoclonal antibody F8.12.19, raised against the recombinant ectoplasmic region of AMA1 from Plasmodium vivax, cross-reacts with homologues from Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium cynomolgi, Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum, as shown by immunofluorescence assays on mature schizonts."
J Mol Biol. 2007 Mar 9;366(5):1523-37. Epub 2006 Dec 16.
Cross-reactivity studies of an anti-Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen 1 monoclonal antibody: binding and structural characterisation.
Igonet S, Vulliez-Le Normand B, Faure G, Riottot MM, Kocken CH, Thomas AW, Bentley GA.
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A 22 year old male patient presented to ED complaining of coughing up worms!
What should be our approach to this case? 
What is the most likely diagnosis?
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Ascariasis is known to migrate when patients are unwell. There are several pictures on google images of them emerging from various orifices... Strongyloides stercoralis could potentially come out in a respiratory tract sample...
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I have isolated human neutrophils (from blood) in the inactivated condition for parasite infection study. I need to fix the cells for staining protocol. I have used 1% and 4% paraformaldehyde. I am getting more ghost cells during staining protocol. What should I use for fixing cells? Also I need it to grow on coverslip. What is the method used for adhering neutrophils on glass coverslip?
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Hi Riva,
If you want to fix PMNs for ICC then fixed cells with 4 or 3.7% PFA at 4 degree Celsius for 30 minutes. Used zero acceleration and break for centrifugation when cells are live. Give minimum jerk to cells during resuspending pellet. Avoid using pipette for resuspending cells. Whenever you fix cells for microscopy then try to use the cells within 3-4 days after fixation.
This procedure works well with me. Try same.
Best luck!
Durgesh Pitale. 
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I'm interested in teaching Parasitic diseases to students of veterinary medicine using CLIL. I'm grateful for any help, first-hand experience, notice on the topic, guide to a web site etc.
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I teach at the tertiary level. I have implemented CLIL at the School of Tourism through a team approach. I am the subject matter teacher and 2 two language teachers support this initiative.
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Toxoplasma gondii
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Layla,
There are some basic target for identification like as the B1 gene or 529pb repeat sequence. However, to genotyping, I suggest this article to start yours studies.
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bile fluid cytology from 82 year old korean male patient
what is your diagnosis for this parasite?
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Dear Dr Yosep Chong, 
These are eggs of trematodes, most likely a species of Opisthorchiidae. Maybe it is Clonorchis or Opisthorchis, species endemic in Asia. The measurements of the eggs are important for the specific identification.  Unlike Fasciola, these parasites produce small eggs that already contain a developed miracidium.
Best regards,
Hudson
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Dear researchers,
I have a question about accidental leishmaniasis !
The Last day I was working on my recent experiment on a new vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis and unfortunately I do all of my research steps lonely ,thus , when I was injecting live stationary pathogenic leishmania major to foot pad of BALB/c mice suddenly some drops of parasites suspension Sprinkled from the syringe to my eye!
I washed my eye immediately, but I want to know that I can take ocular leishmaniasis!!
It seems impossible because the eye environment condition is not suitable for this parasite, but, I want to know your opinion.
I found many article about ocular leishmaniasis as a result of visceral leishmaniasis or cutaneous leishmaniasis like as follow:
*Ocular leishmaniasis
M ModarresZadeh, K Manshai, M Shaddel…-Iranian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2007
*Simultaneous occurrence of ocular, disseminated mucocutaneous, and multivisceral involvement of leishmaniasis.
Philips CA, Kalal CR, Kumar KN, Bihari C, Sarin SK.
Case Rep Infect Dis. 2014;2014:837625. doi: 10.1155/2014/837625. Epub 2014 Feb 18.
*Leishmaniasis of the eyelid mimicking an infundibular cyst and review of the literature on ocular leishmaniasis.
Veraldi S, Bottini S, Currò N, Gianotti R.
Int J Infect Dis. 2010 Sep;14 Suppl 3:e230-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2009.07.024. Epub 2009 Dec 6. Review.
*[Ocular leishmaniasis in a cat: case report].
Verneuil M.
J Fr Ophtalmol. 2013 Apr;36(4):e67-72. doi: 10.1016/j.jfo.2012.09.006. Epub 2013 Mar 1. French.
and  many other.
Thanks for your comments.
Best
Vahid
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Dear Dr. Chaoqun Yao
Thanks for your kinds and very helpful guides.
It was an interesting article.
I had many dangerous experiments like this with other parasites like Toxoplasma and Leishmania infantum  and I think  that I can say ironman to myself!!
Thanks again.
Vahid
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I am carrying out a research project to investigate the dominant circulating variants of the pfAMA1 gene in a population. I have already extracted the plasmodium falciparum gene but need to carry out PCR and sequencing to identify frequency of the different variants. I however need to know the region which exhibits the 3 variants and the length in base pairs so as to perform nested PCR and also determine the cost of sequencing according to the number of base pairs thus preventing wastage
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Dear  Shillah
may I ask why you are only interested in these haplotypes?
For a suitable paper listing a sequencing strategegy for ama1 you could try
Polley and Conway Genetics. 2001 Aug;158(4):1505-12.
although as this paper shows it's been a while since I worked on population genetics of ama1
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Toddy (Palmyrah wine/palm wine) is said to be the culprit of hepatic amoebiasis in Northern sri lanka. But nobody has isolated amoeba from palm wine.
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If you just want to isolate DNA you could probably pellet it by centrifuge and extract from the wine.  You could even use DNA binding dyes to show that the DNA was from intact cells instead of debris.
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One of the answers is analysing.
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You can also read a little bit more on the the diagnostic accuracy of CareStart™ kit versus microscopy and PCR at this link- http://www.malariajournal.com/content/12/1/6 and 
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Hello, everyone
Now, I plan to design my experiment about hookworm parasite infection. So, I want to know what i should do in blood test for hookworm infection in golden hamster. I saw in many publications that used a measuring hemoglobin level only. Why do the CBC and HCT blood test is not use?
Thank you for your kind response
Sarit
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Better will be complete blood count or at least erythrocyte parameters...
It will be interesting if you focus on change in cell morphology with respect to severity of hook worm load. 
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in  the pacific
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Refer to TAS in WHO.  Also you could collect mosquitoes and test the presence of  parasite DNA in pools of collected mosquitoes, then analyze data using PoolScreen software. 
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these were samples taken from the large intestines