Science topic

Papua New Guinea - Science topic

A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.
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Publications related to Papua New Guinea (10,000)
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Article
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The data on host-mites associations between Canestriniidae and insects are summarized. Names of many hosts, incorrectly mentioned in the original works, have been corrected. 9 new genera have been described: Balearella, Cercediphotia, Ciprusenia, Ismaielienia, Javanellina, Kuramasenia, Midiphotia, Phaleratusellus and Sumatranella, 24 species are tr...
Article
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The informal Scopaeus kokodanus species group (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Paederinae: Scopaeina) is defined using diagnostic primary and secondary sexual characters. It comprises S. kokodanus Cameron, 1938 (Papua New Guinea), S. arfakmontium spec. nov. (Indonesia: West Papua), S. balkei spec. nov. (Indonesia: Papua) and S. potamides spec. nov. (Sol...
Article
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Background GLOBOCAN 2020 and Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 are the two most established global online cancer databases. It is important to examine the differences between the two platforms, to attempt to explain these differences, and to appraise the quality of the data. There are stark differences for lip and oral cancers (LOC) and we attemp...
Article
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Successful implementation research requires effective and equitable relationships between policy-makers, researchers and implementers to effect evidence-based systems change. However, mainstream research grant models between Global North and Global South institutions often (unintentionally) reinforce power imbalances between partners, which result...
Research
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Details are provided of differences in regions of the PNG LNG pipeline corridor that were subject to Social Mapping and Landowner Identification [SMLI] studies and segments of that corridor that were defined by the Department Petroleum and Energy [DPE]. The two were seldom congruent.
Article
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This paper addresses how Christianity, and in particular Catholicism, is deployed in response to gender‐based violence (GBV) in Papua New Guinea. It provides insights into the various ways the Catholic community, Church, and its clergy respond to and manage GBV. Focusing on a case study in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville in Papua New Guinea,...
Article
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Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) play a key role in reducing malaria transmission in endemic countries. In a previous study, the authors demonstrated a substantial decrease in the bioefficacy of LLINs for malaria prevention delivered to Papua New Guinea (PNG) between 2013 and 2019. This coincided with a rise in malaria cases in the...
Conference Paper
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A detailed study involving field mapping and sampling, thin and polished sections petrographic analysis, and whole-rock major element, trace and rare earth element geochemical analysis was conducted on gabbroic samples of the Sadowa Intrusive Complex (SIC) in the Astrolabe Mineral Field, Central Province, Papua New Guinea. Results show that the SIC...
Article
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The Islands of East Melanesia have a unique and highly endemic frog fauna derived entirely from overseas colonisation events. Within East Melanesia New Britain is a notable centre of frog diversity and endemism, with at least 15 endemic species, mostly in the ceratobatrachid genus Cornufer . Here we describe the first endemic pelodryadid treefrog f...
Article
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Malaria risk in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is highly heterogeneous, between and within geographical regions, which is operationally challenging for control. To enhance targeting of malaria interventions in PNG, we investigated risk factors and stratified malaria incidence at the level of health facility catchment areas. Catchment areas and populations...
Article
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Objective This study reported the prevalence and sociodemographic distribution of mortalities attributed to injuries in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Setting As part of a longitudinal study, mortality data were collected from the population who live in eight surveillance sites of the Comprehensive Health and Epidemiological Surveillance System, establish...
Article
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Objective This study reported the prevalence and sociodemographic distribution of mortalities attributed to injuries in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Setting As part of a longitudinal study, mortality data were collected from the population who live in eight surveillance sites of the Comprehensive Health and Epidemiological Surveillance System, establis...
Article
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Vaccine hesitancy is proving to be a significant impediment to COVID-19 vaccination campaigns in some developing countries. This study focuses on vaccine hesitancy and means of reducing it. Data come from a large, representative phone survey and online randomized survey experiment, both run in Papua New Guinea, a developing country with low vaccina...
Article
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The Mae Enga are friendly, hospitable, strong of character and different from the other groups of Papua New Guinea. Through a brief reflection on the traditional world-view centered life and on evaluation of their concept of life, the study forms a foundation for dialogue and inculturation. The material used in this article, beside the literature,...
Article
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Abstract Background Eotaxin-1 concentrations in plasma have been inversely associated with malaria exposure, malaria infection and pregnancy, but the effect of these conditions on the levels of the related chemokines eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3 remains unknown. Methods Eotaxin-2 and -3 concentrations were measured in 310 peripheral or placental plasma...
Article
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Eighteen xyleborine ambrosia beetles are described and illustrated: Anisandrus proscissus Smith, Beaver, Pham & Cognato sp. nov. (Vietnam), Anisandrus simplex Smith, Beaver & Cognato sp. nov. (Nepal), Arixyleborus belalongi Smith, Beaver & Cognato sp. nov. (Brunei Darussalam), Beaverium brevicaudatus Smith, Beaver & Cognato sp. nov. (Indonesia), Cn...
Article
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Background Insecticide resistance (IR) monitoring is essential for evidence-based control of mosquito-borne diseases. While widespread pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles and Aedes species has been described in many countries, data for Papua New Guinea (PNG) are limited. Available data indicate that the local Anopheles populations in PNG remain pyre...
Article
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The Melanesian Institute (MI) celebrated in 2020 it’s Golden Jubilee, fifty years of its Pastoral and Socio-cultural service for the churches and civil society in Papua New Guinea and its neighbouring countries in the Oceania. The MI is an ecumenical research institute which occupies itself with socio-cultural, economic, ecological and especially p...
Research
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Remote learning, which until now was mainly the domain of the business world, also found its way to universities and schools due to COVID-19. Supporting e-learning through interactive virtual campuses has therefore become a necessity and not just a future goal of education. Models measuring the level of acceptance, learning efficiency and academic...
Experiment Findings
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In order to cater to the changing needs of the 21 st century learners, a paradigm shift in the methodology of teaching in any discipline is required. One such innovative methodology is the use of learning management systems (LMS), which provide a blended learning experience. Google Classroom (GC) is a freely available LMS and is part of Google Apps...
Preprint
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As progress towards malaria elimination continues, the challenge posed by the parasite species Plasmodium vivax has become more evident. In many regions co-endemic for P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, as transmission has declined the proportion of cases due to P. vivax has increased. Novel tools that directly target P. vivax are thus warranted f...
Article
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With its conservative set of scalation characters, Toxicocalamus loriae is a morphologically confusing species to which a wide array of phenotypes has been assigned. Careful analysis of 224 museum specimens reveals that multiple distinct species remain hidden under the name T. loriae and that diagnostic, species-level differences are more nuanced i...
Preprint
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Background COVID-19 tremendously affected Papua New Guinea in late 2021, which accompanied by a low vaccination rate (< 4%), lead to an International Emergency Medical Team (EMT) Request for Assistance. The study's aim was to assess the knowledge, skills and attitude of health-care workers (HCWs) before and after a workshop conducted by the UK EMT...
Preprint
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Background: Teenage pregnancy is a global public health issue, and it poses a serious threat to the health and socioeconomic status of mothers and their newborn children. Although Papua New Guinea (PNG) has recorded one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates among Asia-Pacific countries, no study has been conducted on socioeconomic inequality in te...
Article
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According to the United Nations General Assembly (2013), gender based domestic violence involves men and women and usually results in physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to the victims. It also includes threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty. A study from World Health Organisation (2016) indicates that b...
Article
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Community-associated, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) lineages have emerged in many geographically distinct regions around the world during the past 30 y. Here, we apply consistent phylodynamic methods across multiple community-associated MRSA lineages to describe and contrast their patterns of emergence and dissemination. We gen...
Article
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Sustainable utilization of marine taxa is critical for maximizing social and economic goals of livelihood development within the Indo-Pacific. Yet, despite an increasing importance of shellcraft as a livelihood activity within the Indo-Pacific, information on the taxa utilized within shellcraft sectors remains scant. To address this knowledge gap,...
Article
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The history of sea level across the Quaternary is essential for assessing past and future climate. Global sea-level reconstructions are typically derived from oxygen isotope curves, but require calibration with geological constraints that are scarce prior to the last glacial cycle (>130 thousand years ago). Here we show that the coral reef terrace...
Article
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The United Nations Environment Programme defines a green economy as low-carbon, resource-efficient, and socially inclusive. The objective is to improve human well-being and social equity while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcity. The green economy is sustainable development without degrading the environment, developin...
Article
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The potato late blight (PLB) disease outbreak in the highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG) in 2003 had severely devastated the production of the commonly grown Sequoia potato variety. Kabwum district in Morobe Province was one of the potato producing regions that was affected by this epidemic. The district had limited or no access to seed sources and...
Article
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Objective: Vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) remains a significant barrier to global poliomyelitis eradication. Following 18 years of polio-free status, an epidemic of circulating VDPV type 1 (cVDPV1) occurred in Papua New Guinea (PNG) in 2018. We describe the epidemiology of the 2018 cVDPV1 epidemic in PNG, and identify risk factors which may aid...
Article
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Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) aims to maintain forest carbon stocks above benchmark reference levels through financial compensation. However, countries with high forest cover and low deforestation (HFLD) are unlikely to be compensated fairly if REDD+ initiatives fail to conserve existing forests and to incenti...
Article
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Background Papua New Guinea (PNG) has one of the highest burdens of HIV and syphilis in pregnancy in the Asia-Pacific region. Timely and effective diagnosis can alleviate the burden of HIV and syphilis and improve maternal and newborn health. Supply-side factors related to implementation and scale up remain problematic, yet few studies have conside...
Article
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Background Sexual stage surface antigens are potential targets of transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs). The gametocyte and gamete surface antigen P230, a leading TBV candidate, is critical for red blood cell binding during exflagellation and subsequent oocyst development. Here, the genetic diversity of Pvs230 was studied in Plasmodium vivax parasi...
Article
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The giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, is at high risk of extinction due to overfishing of glass eels and elvers to provide stock for eel farming. In Vietnam, information on the genetic diversity and population structure of this species, which is necessary for resource management, is limited. In order to address this paucity of information, seq...
Article
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The Asia-Pacific International Center of Excellence in Malaria Research (ICEMR) was funded in 2016 to conduct a coordinated set of field and in-depth biological studies in Cambodia and Papua New Guinea (PNG), in sites that span the range of transmission intensities currently found in the Asia-Pacific regions. The overall objective is to gain an und...
Article
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Gaining an in-depth understanding of malaria transmission requires integrated, multifaceted research approaches. The Asia-Pacific International Center of Excellence in Malaria Research (ICEMR) is applying specifically developed molecular and immunological assays, in-depth entomological assessments, and advanced statistical and mathematical modeling...
Article
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A state-owned mining business in Japan retrieved zinc from a seafloor 1,600 meters beneath the surface off the coast of Okinawa. With a concentration on deep-sea mining, Japan might transition from a resource importer to a resource producer. The Solwara 1 project in Papua New Guinea received the world's first commercial mining lease. The goal of th...
Article
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Bapra Simi, an Ambonwari spiritual healer living in the border town of Vanimo in Papua New Guinea comments that the “Earth is full of rubbish” and associates this material overflow with the possible causes and consequences of sorcery. This short explanatory paper accompanies the video entitled Bapra Simi, Glasmeri, Spiritual Healer, Papua New Guine...
Article
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We describe a new species of New Guinea Worm-Eating Snake (Elapidae: Toxicocalamus ) from a specimen in the reptile collection of the Papua New Guinea National Museum and Art Gallery. Toxicocalamus longhagen sp. nov. can be easily distinguished from other species of this genus by the presence of paired subcaudals, a preocular scale unfused from the...
Article
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Social hierarchies within groups define the distribution of resources and provide benefits that support the collective group or favor dominant members. The progression of individuals through social hierarchies is a valuable characteristic for quantifying population dynamics. On coral reefs, some clownfish maintain size-based hierarchical communitie...
Article
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Over the past decades, elevational gradients have become a powerful tool with which to understand the underlying cause(s) of biodiversity. The Mt. Wilhelm elevational transect is one such example, having been used to study the birds, insects, and plants of Papua New Guinea (PNG). However, a survey of mammals from this forest elevational transect...
Article
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The research and control of malaria has a long history in Papua New Guinea, sometimes resulting in substantial changes to the distribution of infection and transmission dynamics in the country. There have been four major periods of malaria control in PNG, with the current control programme having commenced in 2004. Each previous control programme w...
Article
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Leptospirosis is the most common bacterial zoonosis globally. The pathogen, Leptospira spp., is primarily associated with rodent reservoirs. However, a wide range of other species have been implicated as reservoirs or dead‐end hosts. We conducted a survey for Leptospira spp. in bats and rodents from Papua New Guinea. Kidney samples were collected f...
Book
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This report was written to inform the Forest Positive Coalition of the Consumers Goods Forum (CGF) and other downstream supply chain actors regarding the nature and scale of the palm oil industry’s past non-compliance with NDPE policy, and what should be done to compensate for past environmental harm Earthqualizer Foundation encourages companies i...
Article
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Collection and storage of crop wild relative (CWR) germplasm is crucial for preserving species genetic diversity and crop improvement. Nevertheless, much of the genetic variation of CWRs is absent in ex situ collections and detailed passport data are often lacking. Here, we focussed on Musa balbisiana, one of the two main progenitor species of many...
Chapter
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Sweet potato is the most important food crop in Papua New Guinea. Production and research are reviewed here. Aspects covered include timing of introduction to PNG; place in agricultural systems; cultivars grown; harvesting systems; crop yield; pest and disease issues. Agronomic and other research on the crop in PNG is noted.
Article
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Disclaimer: The article is part of a book entitled "Socio-economics of trawl fisheries in Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea"
Article
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Objective To examine distinct patterns of IPV perpetration and examined gender equitable attitudes as a correlate of these patterns among men from six countries in Asia and the Pacific. Design 2011–12 UN Multi-country Study on Men and Violence cross-sectional study. Setting Households in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Papua...
Article
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Three new species of Marphysa Quatrefages, 1866, Marphysa banana sp. nov., Marphysa papuaensis sp. nov., and Marphysa zanolae sp. nov. are described from deep-sea sunken vegetation off Papua New Guinea, using both morphology and molecular data (for two species). With the presence of compound spinigers only and the branchiae present over many chaeti...
Article
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The genus Lycianthes (Dunal) Hassl. (Solanaceae) has in the past been treated as a section of the large genus Solanum L., but is more closely related to Capsicum L. The eighteen species of Lycianthes occurring in Australia, New Guinea (defined as the island of New Guinea, comprising Papua New Guinea [incl. Bougainville] and the Indonesian provinces...
Article
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Interdisciplinary sensitivity takes into account the epistemic upheaval of the Anthropocene. However, the still fragmented academic organization between nature and society counteracts intellectual progress. The paper explores the possibilities of enhancing collaboration between biology and sociology by providing an empirical reflection of common me...
Presentation
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This presentation took place during the 54th annual conference of the Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea, held at the National Research Institute in Port Moresby, on September 21st and 22nd, 2022.The talk is concerned with the questions of documenting, archiving and eventually revitalizing moribund languages using Kibiri (isolate, Gulf Province...
Article
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Tsunamis caused by large volcanic eruptions and flanks collapsing into the sea are major hazards for nearby coastal regions. They often occur with little precursory activity and are thus challenging to detect in a timely manner. This makes the pre-emptive identification of volcanoes prone to causing tsunamis particularly important, as it allows for...
Article
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Macrofungal explorations undertaken to several Sal (Shorea robusta) dominated tropical forests of West Bengal and Jharkhand (India) yielded various wild mushrooms. Studies on these collections revealed an interesting and novel taxon of Lactifluus subg. Lactariopsis which is proposed herein as Lactifluus tropicalis. The new species is presented with...
Preprint
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The doctrine of separation of powers is a cornerstone of democracy. When Papua New Guinea (PNG) became independent it adopted a Westminster system of government as a constitutional democracy. Section 99 of the PNG constitution provides for the separation of powers doctrine. Within that context, the relationship between the PNG National Parliament a...
Article
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The international border between Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG) serves as a gateway for the delivery of primary and tertiary healthcare for PNG patients presenting to Australian health facilities with presumptive tuberculosis (TB). An audit of all PNG nationals with presumptive TB who presented to clinics in the Torres Strait between 2016 and...
Research
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Suabi is a mission-based settlement in the lowlands of north-eastern Western Province, Papua New Guinea. Here we present images that track loss of forest cover from 1974 to 2021 in an area of approximately 20,000 ha surrounding Suabi. Nearly all loss of forest cover was the result of clearing land to make gardens. Suabi was established at its prese...
Research
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In this illustrated manuscript we summarize information on major land-based patrols by government officers and other outsiders in what is now known as the Nomad District, Western Province of Papua New Guinea. Our focus is with the lands of Konai, Febi, Kubo, Samo, Gobasi, Bedamuni, Edolo (with Siali) north of the Rentoul River [Sioa], and Odoodee s...
Presentation
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The Porgera gold mine is one of the richest in the world and lies in a wide valley at an elevation of 2800m surrounded by mountains up to 4000m high in the middle of the PNG Highlands (see Essy et al this conference for details). It lies along a major lineament cutting across the orogeny that is associated with a 50 km offset of the ophiolite belt....
Article
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The fourfinger threadfin (Eleutheronema tetradactylum Shaw, 1804) is distributed throughout the Indo-West Pacific, including the coasts of India, Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, and northern Australia. It is an important marine farmed fish that has high economic value in Taiwan. Our results show that newly hatched larvae were 1.2...
Article
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Background Co-infection of the four major species of human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum ( Pf ), P . vivax ( Pv ), P . malariae ( Pm ), and P . ovale sp. ( Po ) is regularly observed, but there is limited understanding of between-species interactions. In particular, little is known about the effects of multiple Plasmodium species co-infect...
Article
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Hygienic practices during menstruation are of great importance. The lack of which increases emotional distress, anxiety, low self-esteem, feeling unclean and discrimination as well as the susceptibility of an individual to reproductive tract infections. This prospective study was an assessment of female students' perception (knowledge, attitude and...