Science topic

Palladium - Science topic

A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
Questions related to Palladium
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
3 answers
Hi,
I cannot purify a peptide synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis using HPLC or Biotage. I tried both ways, and still, the trace is not pure. What can I do differently to get a pure peptide fraction?
Relevant answer
Answer
your question is opaque. But all the things depend upon the protein sequence
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
2 answers
At what temperature is palladium nitrate converted to palladium oxide?
Relevant answer
Answer
Palladium nitrate is calcined in air at 350 °C for 2 h in order to decompose the palladium salt into its corresponding palladium oxide.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
7 answers
Hello everyone, I am measuring the residual environment of an indigenously developed 2.45 GHz operated Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) system by a QRGA system (1-200 amu). The PECVD system is currently kept at a vacuum 3x10-3 mbar (using anti-suckback double stage rotary vane pump). QMS study has been carried out at both unbaked (~300K) condition and higher temperature (~700K).
It has been observed that at higher temperature, the residual environment of the PECVD system contains very high amount of hydrogen may be contributed by degassing from inner wall of the chamber and rotary pump's oil vapour.
I am thinking of removing the hydrogen content present in the PECVD system at higher temperature. Without improving the base vacuum, what are the possible ways this hydrogen content can be minimized? We know Palladium has the ability to absorb large volumetric quantities of hydrogen at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, and subsequently forms palladium hydride (PdHx). Are there any other materials that can be used at higher temperature (~700K to 800K) for this residual hydrogen absorption?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Samit Karmakar,
THat was a part of the installation/device used in my very old work
The palladium window was used for dossage of tritium to the experimental volume by heating when T2 was to add.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
3 answers
What synthesis approach would be more appropriate to obtain palladium oxide nanoparticles using potassium hexabromopalladate (IV) (K2PdBr6 ) as precursor material?
Relevant answer
Answer
Several points:
  • Palladium salts are usually easily reduced to the metal rather than to the oxide
  • Notwithstanding the above statement, all surfaces in the presence of air and water will be fully oxidized. That is, on the important surface Pd will be found as Pd2+ (oxide) and not as Pd0 (metal)
  • There are many suitable reducing agents. I used 5 or 10% hydrazine hydrate in my Ph.D as the only decomposition products are water and N2. I would avoid borohydride reduction (and clichés) like the plague as intractable B is produced in the metal and this cannot be removed by washing. It acts as a catalyst poison in some reactions. Other utilized reduction agents include citrate (Turkevitch route). I'd prefer to use flowing H2 as this will also remove HBr in the gas stream
  • IMHO, you'll need the essential characterization techniques of BET physisorption, some form of chemisorption, and ESCA/XPS. Without these essential techniques you'll not be able t get a handle on the surface (and this is where the particles interact with their environment
Some background webinar material (registration required):
Metal colloids - their preparation, application and characterization
Silver colloids and invisible ink
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
5 answers
Hi,
May I know what is the industrial process to coat copper wire with palladium in the production of PdCu wire? What is the process and what instruments are used? Please kindly advise. Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Qun Ye P.S. In addition to the article which I already suggested in my first answer, you can also search the "Publications" section of RG for the term "palladium-coated copper wire". This will provide you with a long list of potentially helpful literature references:
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
4 answers
I have to find the concentration of synthesized palladium nanocluster. If ICP MS is used it will give the concentration of palladium only. Then how can we find the concentration of nanocluster as a whole accounting for the stabilizing agent (glutathione)?
Relevant answer
Answer
ICP MS is not good for unswering your question (concentration of nanoparticles of Pd).
You may use Small angle scattering, turbidimetry and other methods that were developed for nanoparticle analyses.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
3 answers
Reaction of I with palladium acetate, 1,3-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane (DCPP), K2CO3, water and NMP under 30 psi of carbon monoxide at 120 C gives II. Please explain the mechanism for the conversion. thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
A "classic" in catalysis,
;good overview of carbonylation reactions and the use of different ligands.
Also the cat. cycle is shown.
Best regards
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
2 answers
I am searching for information about peroxide fusion as a sample preparation method for palladium analysis with ICP-OES. Does anyone know the reaction taking place between metallic palladium and an excess of molten sodium peroxide at 600 celcius degrees? Which Pd oxidation state and which Pd compound is formed?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi,
The most common palladium oxide is PdO with palladium in +2 oxidation state.
Palladium reacts directly with oxygen above 800 oC form PdO as black powder. In your case, it is probably the same. Mild oxidizing agents can also convert PdCl2 or K2PdCl4 to PdO.
Best
Balakrishna
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
1 answer
Hello everyone,
To evaluate the desorption efficiency of the adsorbent, I used acid thiourea solution (e.g. 0.01 M thiourea in 0.01 M HCl) to desorb Pd(II) from Pd(II)-loaded adsorbents. The Pd(II) concentration was measured by ICP-OES.
However, I found that thiourea can cause a positive error in the results. And the higher the concentration of thiourea, the greater the positive error.
For example, 3 mg PdCl2 dissolved in 30 mL of 0.1 M HCl solution, the concentration measured by ICP-OES is 100 pm. However, it is dissolved in 30 mL of 0.01 M acid thiourea solution, the concentration measured by ICP-OES will be 110—120 pm. And if it is dissolved in 30 mL of 0.5 M acid thiourea solution, the concentration measured by ICP-OES will be 150—200 ppm.
Can anyone give me suggestions to solve this problem?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Zhuo Wang sorry to see that your interesting technical question has not yet been answered by experts in this field. As a synthetic inorganic chemist I'm certainly not an expert in analytical chemistry. However, it might be useful to know that palladium froms the most stable complexes with thiourea in a molar ratio of 1:4. This means that reaction products of palladium dichloride with thiourea have the composition [Pd(thiourea)4]Cl2. This could be the reason why larger amounts of palladium are detected when using an excess of your acidic acid thiourea solution.
Good luck with your experiments!
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
5 answers
I would like to know some tips in the procedure to obtain palladium nanoparticles. Currently, I am placing in the same flask an acidic solution of palladium chloride and an aqueous solution of citric acid using carbon nanomaterials as substrates. Afterwards, I apply slight stirring during 10 minutes and finally I wash the substrate twice with water.
Could you tell me if I am in the correct or incorrect line or what other step I should do?
Thank you in advance for your help.
Relevant answer
Answer
You want to make carbon-supported palladium catalyst nanoparticles. Your process has two stages. In the first, you get platinum nanoparticles. In the second step, you need to "plant" the nanoparticles onto the substrate. Or you need to take nanocarbon tubes. Better oxidized. Your substrate should have a large specific area. For this, porous alumina or silicon oxide is usually used. Write the chemical reaction and calculate the amount of citric acid for reduction and take an excess so that the rest of the acid is used to bond the palladium nanoparticles to the substrate. After that, you need to separate the catalyst, rinse and determine its composition. After that, if this does not spoil your plans, it must be calcined at a temperature of 500 degrees. For an example, see our article on this topic.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
5 answers
I am doing the Optimization and frequency calculations of some porphyrin metal( zinc and palladium) complexes in Gaussian at B3LYP and GENECP level. I got some imaginary frequencies in most of the complexes. How can i fix them? 
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dr. Haamid Rasool Bhat,
In general, there are the three popular methods to fix the undesired imaginary frequencies as follows:
1) Using the keywords: opt=tight or opt=verytight
2) Changing the different function/basis set.
3) Using a method known as "Screwing": Open the output file of that molecule using GaussView software --> Results item --> Vibrations tab --> Manual Displacement tab (adjust the values of +1 or -1) --> Save a new input file.
Best regards.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
5 answers
What is so special about metallic Pd that it can absorb around 900 times its own volumes of hydrogen? I was searching articles, but I couldn't find an answer to this question. All researchers say that Pd is called a "hydrogen sponge", it forms alpha and beta-hydride depending on hydrogen pressure and concentration, that PdHx is a p-type semiconductor, alloying Ag and Pd could further increase the hydrogen absorption, etc. It is a statement of facts rather than an explanation. Other transition metals also form hydrides - Pt, Ni, Ag, etc. But what makes Pd so special? Maybe this happens due to Pd's electronic configuration, or its crystal lattice, electron affinity, or a combination of different factors?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Oleksandr,
This property of palladium is apparently explained by the electronic structure of this atom. On the outer layer of this atom, unlike Pt and other elements, there are no outer electrons, the s and p orbitals are empty, so it has many easily accessible vacancies for the introduction of hydrogen atoms. Pd absorbs hydrogen in a volume ratio of 1: 900. This property of Pd is widely used as a catalyst, for example, in the synthesis of hydrogen halides.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
10 answers
how to do coupling reaction with para-Bromo aniline as -NH2 can interact with palladium
Suggest some good reaction conditions.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Harsha, thank you for asking this very interesting technical question. Apparently it depends on the nature of the catalyst if the Heck coupling reaction works with unprotected anilines derivatives like p-bromoaniline. The substitution pattern on the aniline derivatives might also play a role. For example, in the following article the Heck coupling reaction between 4-bromo-2,6-dimethylaniline and acrylonitrile has been reported:
Ligandless Heck Coupling between a Halogenated Aniline and Acrylonitrile Catalyzed by Pd/C: Development and Optimization of an Industrial-Scale Heck Process for the Production of a Pharmaceutical Intermediate
In this study the authors use Pd/C (0.5 mol %) as catalyst. Moreover, the –NH2 fundtional group is sterically hindered by the two adjacent methyl groups.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
4 answers
I have come across a newly prospected deposit, Low Sulphur Epithermal trending Alkaline. Au and Palladium PGE hosted in Ginguro Banded quartz. The nearby volcanism (rhyolite plug approx. 20km away) is bimodal, highly alkaline Basalt and Rhyolite. My question stems from a unique characteristic of the ore. The Ginguro Bands which host (very high grade) Mineralization, are paramagnetic. Has anyone come across this before? Can anyone help explain what mineral assemblage is likely at play? Or point to any relevant articles? Any help or insight would be greatly appreciated. Approximately 80% of the precious metals contained can be concentrated with simple magnetic separation. And the grades of the ore samples are very high.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Mckenzie Dolack many thanks for your interesting technical question. Please have a look at the following potentially useful articles which might help you in your analysis:
Platinum-Group Elements in Magnetic Concentrates from the· Goodnews Bay District, Alaska
and
Magnetic Layering in the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe: Implications for Emplacement and ore Genesis
Bioth articles are freely available as ublic full texts.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
3 answers
Hello everybody,
I have a solution of Pd(NH3)4Cl2 that I got by refining spent leaching solution of gold. I did many cycles of ammonia (dissolution)/ chlorhydric acid (precipitation) and I got this pretty pure solution of Pd(NH3)4Cl2.
Now, I would like to extract metallic palladium (Pd) from the solution by electrowinning. But I don't know which cathode and anode material I should choose, which current density is the best ?
By the way, if someone could explain me the reactions occurring during the electrochemical process it will be great and really helpful.
Thank you very much in advance.
Best regards,
Pierre Schutz
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Pierre Schutz many thanks for your very interesting technical question. Of course, when you are working with expensive metal salts like those of palladium it is very important to recover the precious metal. There are a number of potentially useful articles on the recovery of palladium abailable in the chemical literature. Please have a look e.g. at the following relevant papers:
An Ecient Leaching of Palladium from Spent Catalysts through Oxidation with Fe(III)
(see attached pdf file)
and
Recovery of Palladium (II) by Biodeposition Using a Pure Culture and a Mixed Culture
Good luck with your research! 👍
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
4 answers
Solution contain nickel nitrate and nickel chloride plus copper nitrate. Actually this solution is waste of electroless plating
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Muhammad Ashraf many thanks indeed for your interesting technical question. This is certainly an important question in view of the fact that palladium is rather expensive. There are various methods reported on the literature to recover palladium metal from waste solutions. In this context I would recommend to have a look at the following articles entitled
1. Recovery of palladium and silver from process solutions by precipitation with thiocyanates and iron cyanides
2. Palladium(II) Recovery from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions by N,N′-Dimethyl-N,N′-Dibutylthiodiglycolamide
This article is Open Access and can be freely downloaded from the general internet. For your information please find attached a pdf file of this paper.
3. Recovery of Platinum and Palladium from Chloride Solutions by a Thiodiglycolamide Derivative
4. A study of palladium recovery with thiourea from nitric acid solutions
Please note that there are many more articles on this topic available from the general internet. I also suggest that you use the "Search" function of RG to find other relevant articles. Just search for "palladium recovery" and then click on "Publications".
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
3 answers
When I measured the cyclic voltammogram of palladium in the pbs solution, two reduction peaks appeared. This did not match the literature I saw. Why?
And how can I find the possible reaction mechanism of these two reduction peaks?
Relevant answer
Answer
Which experimental conditions, which palladium, and which literature are to be defined well.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
3 answers
Due to electron pair donating of nitrogen in phenantroline to palladium and back bond to nitrogen pi star, wave number of CN double bond varies.
Relevant answer
Answer
interested
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
2 answers
Hi all,
I have done a CO oxidation reaction by using Palladium impregnated activated carbon based catalysts. The catalyst was showing the 100% conversion for a duration of 3-5 hrs. How can I calculate the activity of my catalysts in terms of mol/kg/hr?
Thanks in advance
Ansari
Relevant answer
Answer
By following its kinetics, rate of conversion can be determined. Analyze the products by a gc and monitor for a time period and fit the results moles of products in the rate equations by graphical method. Refer chem kinetics by Laidler
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
1 answer
If the answer to the question is yes, is it any reactions between Glucose solution (electrolyte) and Pd that might happen?
Relevant answer
Answer
It looks like you can. Please see the following link:
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
6 answers
I am a third year student studying chemical engineering. I am completing a design project on 3-nitrostyrene hydrogenated to form 3-ethylaniline except I cannot find any sources for the selectivity of a palladium/carbon catalyst. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Michael Weatherson
Palladium is an especially selective metal for several hydrogenation reactions; used mainly for the unsaturated compound like C=C, you can use 5%Pd/C or 10%Pd/C at 50 °C temperature and 2-5 bar pressure, definitely u will get ur product.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
13 answers
Hi. I am doing Suzuki Coupling but yield of my reaction is below 30%. Even with this yield i am not getting pure compound as my my product and impurity spots are extremely close.
I have used following different reaction conditions;
Solvent: DMF+ Water, Dioxane +Water
Temp ranges 80-100 C .
Catalyst: dichlorobis(triphenylphoshine)palladium
Base: Sodium bicarbonate, K2CO3
I am purging my my reaction mixture with Nitrogen before i add catalyst. Any input would be appreciated.
Relevant answer
Answer
Suzuki-Miyaura reactions can be cheaper and easier with higher yield by using KOtBu as the base, according to report of Japanese scientists.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
2 answers
I'm wanting to analyse the palladium content in a solution of pentanol-2 and tin. Once analysed, i'm also wanting to extract the palladium and convert into a dry homegenous state.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
8 answers
Hi, I can not optimize a palladium (II) coordination complex in Gaussian 09W, the calculation ends with an error. Should I treat the wave function as an open shell or as a closed shell? Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
I think your additional information code has some mistakes.
How about change your additional information as
Pd 0
lanl2dz
****
S C N H O 0
6-311g(d,p)
****
Pd 0
lanl2dz
maybe the element name problem.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
8 answers
What are the effects of adding too much catalyst in a suzuki reaction? I seem to be getting a majority of the mono coupled product and recovering starting material enough though I add an excess of the borylated agent.
Relevant answer
Answer
The reaction selectivity may found to depend on the amount of the base used
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
13 answers
Does the ester bond in my compound breaks If I proceeded a Sonogashira coupling reaction to react my compound (R-O-CO-Ar-Br) with the alkyne derivative?
The reaction condition I'm using:
Bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II); DME; TEA; CuI; 200 C; 24h
Thanks!!
Relevant answer
Answer
You might have cleavage of the ester depending on the base you use, but most bases traditionally employed in Sonogashira couplings should be safe.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
3 answers
after completion of reaction of hydrogenation on palladium on carbon in water, there is some carbon dissolving and coming into reaction mass even after multiple filtrations. Please suggest how to remove the traces of carbon passed into reaction mass and i don't want to use any resins to do the work. Suggest me any simpler and cheaper technique.
Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Tony for your suggestion. Yes ,I want control to ppb levels. I don't understand how multiple distillations help to remove. Could you please elaborate.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
7 answers
Palladium chloride salt is very less soluble in water so I add diluted HCl solution to dissolve the salt but it also increases the acidity of the solution. I am preparing Pd NPs by reverse micelle method but no success yet. My solution stays turbid for a long time. micelles are not formed. Is it because of the high acidity?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank You, Yuri Mirgorod for the article)
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
6 answers
I am synthesizing Palladium nano particles via plant reduction. After purifying the particles, XRD is showing very small diffraction peaks. Is it because the particles are amorphous and still impure?
Relevant answer
Answer
Evidently, it is observed a very poor crystallization of your product. Try anneal procedure in order to improve it.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
6 answers
I have prepared palladium nanoparticles using plant extract. TEM shows fringes pattern depicting that my particles has crystallinity but when I got XRD done, I am not getting sharp intense peaks instead it shows broad peaks. Particle size ranges from 3-4 nm. Is it because my particle size is very small? or is it because of the impurity. How do I improve my result?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
12 answers
We have some TEM images of some Pd nanoparicles. We can see the lattice of these Pd nanopaticles. Does anyone know how to calculate the lattice spacing of these Pd nanoparticles? It should be around 0.22nm. I have tried ImageJ using some methods that I found by googling. However, all of them seemed not right.
There is one
But this method does not work for my ImageJ. I don't know why.
The answer here provided by
I followed this method but the d is not around 0.22nm.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Tao Ye ,
Here is a tutorial video link: https://youtu.be/zkMTfbRpDnI
I hope, you will get solution in this small video.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
5 answers
I am have attempted Suzuki coupling of various substituted phenyl boronic acids to 7-bromo quinoline using palladium tetrakis. Reason for using this specific palladium catalyst is because i also have -Cl on 4th position and i don't want to cross couple my boronic acid to the 4th position. I normally run this reaction in H2O and DMF, I have tried using different bases such as K2CO3, Na2CO3, Cs2CO3, my yields are all over the place but never higher then 30-40%. Does any one have any suggestion for possible reaction optimization conditions or any phosphine ligands that i can add to get better yield. I should also mention that I am unable to recover my starting material at the end.
Relevant answer
Answer
what is your catalyst loading? My first and simplest suggestion would be to double catalyst loading.
Second suggestion would be to distill your DMF to remove the dimethylamine byproduct that might be contaminating your Dmf.
Lastly, only the Buchwald ligands (Sphos, Xphos, etc.) can couple aryl chlorides to appreciable extent so you can try other phosphine ligands and they should hit bromine selectively.
Also the degassing suggested by sandeep is a good suggestion. Have you been doing that?
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
5 answers
What can be a good adhesive layer between palladium and silicon oxide? A while ago the same question was asked here: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Adhesion_layer_for_Palladium
Unfortunately the answers in this post dont help me. Would titanium as adhesion layer work?
Relevant answer
Answer
Since the question is on the adhesion of a noble metal on to an oxide surface, providing an intermediate metal layer that has a good affinity to oxygen may give a good result. Ti has a good affinity to oxygen. It will bond with SiO2 and Pd as well. Chromium may also work.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
3 answers
Im having issues with interpreting the CV graph produced by my experiment.
Here are the details:
Metrohm spe gold disposable electrodes. Chemically cleaned then electrodeposition of palladium chloride with hcl mixture (-100 mV) to form nanocrystal on the surface - done using potentiostat. Then the electrodes are plasma cleaned with oxygen at med rf for 5 min. Then CV scans are taken using a sodium chloride and sodium phosphate buffer (25/25 mM) as a blank before dna immobilization.
Having trouble replicating data and understanding the shape of CV
Have also tried CVs without electrodeposition and getting similar shapes but with lower max current peaks
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
I agree with both previous answers. As Andreas Heyn points out, move towards a reliable reference electrode, this will make it easier to analyse the CVs and should rule out a secondary reaction occurring.
Can you show a set of scans to demonstrate how the response evolves?
Jules
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
1 answer
What happens to palladium [pd (0)] at the electrode surface during electro chemical sensing. Has it change its oxidation state?
Relevant answer
Answer
This thesis on Oxidation of Palladium Surfaces might interest you:
Best regards,
Marie B.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
4 answers
I'm interested to know how long it takes for the oxide layer to reform after it has been broken. Is it on the order of nanoseconds, faster, slower?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for the references sir!
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
1 answer
I'm trying to study CO adsorption on Pd in a bimetallic Pd/Au catalysts on SiO2. I want to use FTIR to see if there is Pd on the surface of the catalyst.
Relevant answer
Answer
Please check the following reference about the peak position of CO adsorbed on the surface of a metal:
Surface Science 399 (1998) 190- 198.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
3 answers
We use Carbolite CAF D ash melting furnace. By the manual, only Gold and Palladium wires are to be used for calibration of temperature within furnace. For these metak actual melting temperatures and allowed offsets are provided - Au 1063 °C +/-5.5 °C and Pd 1554 °C +/- 5.5°C.
The wires have manufacturers catalog Nr. 20-030-000-0020 and 20-030-154-0010 and have high cost.
We are looking into finding alternative metal wires that could be used for calibration , for example
which cost 10x cheaper compared to Au and Pd.
Are there some already tested alternatives out there?
Relevant answer
Answer
Alloys will have a range of melting point because of the presence of solid+liquid phases, whereas pure metals and eutectic alloys will have a fixed melting point. Therefore, APMT may not be a suitable calibration material because the composition could vary batch to batch. We use pure metal wires of Cu and Ti with 4N purity for calibration purposes in the inert atmosphere. Au and Pd do not oxidize easily.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
9 answers
Pd(dppf)Cl2-CH2Cl2 and Pd(PPh3)4 what is differance between these palladium bases and which one where can i use any specific rule are there or not?
Relevant answer
Answer
Please, dear colleagues use the correct description for this compound, it should be:
[Pd(dppf)Cl2].CH2Cl2. Dichloromethane is co-crystallised with the complex [Pd(dppf)Cl2]. Co-crystallisates are indicated by a dot, the complex entity by [ ].
Concerning catalysis: the CH2Cl2 is not bound to Pd(II) and it basically does not play any role in catalysis using this catalyst. After dissolving the complex, the CH2Cl2 will be a solvent molecule amongst other solvent molecules.
I can only think about the reaction of CH2Cl2 with a Pd(0) species (intermediate) in an oxidative addition yielding a [Cl-Pd-CH2Cl] species.
This could e.g. happen when you try this catalyst in a Kumada coupling. The Grignard reagent might react with CH2Cl2 in a Wurtz-type of reaction.
To avoid CH2Cl2 you can dissolve the commercially available [Pd(dppf)Cl2].CH2Cl2 in acetone and then pump away any volatiles under reduced pressure. This should yield an non-crystalline material with the composition [Pd(dppf)Cl2].
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
1 answer
I'm trying to find a topic to my thesis and I would like to know where I can get equipment components to start classify them. ie: If you have a PCB you know you will have some percentage of gold, palladium, etc etc... Then, perhaps you could have a TV and you know it has other components. I want to know this because if algorithms classifies correctly perhaps, it can predict contamination or losses due to a wrong process of extraction. Hope you can understand my horrible English. Kind regards, Barboza Cecilia.
Relevant answer
Answer
I'm not sure if it helps:
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
11 answers
Is there any commercially available membrane to separate hydrogen from a mixture of gases?
Specially to separate hydrogen from oxygen or nitrogen.
Relevant answer
Answer
Have you considered a Pressure Swing Absorption (PSA) system?
"Hydrogen separation. The main application for PSA in a refinery is the recovery and purification of H2 from gas streams, such as synthesis gases from steam reforming, POX or gasification, as well as from refinery offgases. The H2 product can be obtained at high purity — up to 99.9999% — and high recovery rates of up to 90%. "
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
3 answers
In an electrolysis system, How do I obtain hydrogen gas from water in order to move the H2 into a free standing platinum plate?
For the electrolysis system, we may use palladium for the cathode, and platinum for the anode to break down water into hydrogen gas and oxygen.
The palladium electrode will of course be soldered to a wire to provide an electrical current, to achieve electrolysis, but our objective is not to produce palladium hydride. Our objective is to then find a way to move the hydrogen gas into a free standing platinum rod or plate, wherein the crystal lattice structure of same will break up the hydrogen gas into free protons and electrons. Once we have free protons to work with inside a conductive body of a particular length, we may then tune in to said protons to obtain fusion.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Yurii, a hydrogen oxygen fuel cell presents a platinum anode wherein hydrogen gas is broken up into free protons and electrons.The basis for requiring a free-standing rod or plate derives from the requirement of a calculation made with Jacobson Resonance, such that protons and or deuterons may be cajoled into fusing. The basis of this projection is a regulation of rotational and translational motion of said particles.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
3 answers
Why excess aryl halides are used in palladium catalyzed Csp3-H arylation of amino acids?
Relevant answer
Answer
Asymmetric α-arylation of amino acids
  • Daniel J. Leonard, John W. Ward & Jonathan Clayden Naturevolume 562, pages105–109 (2018)
Asymmetric α-Arylation of Amino Acid Derivatives by Clayden Rearrangement of Ester Enolates via Memory of Chirality: DOI: 10.1021/ja406653n
Asymmetric α-arylation of amino acids DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0553-9
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
7 answers
what is the solubility of PdCl2 in H2SO4,
thank
Relevant answer
Answer
OK, Thank you Sir.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
8 answers
I have a reaction mixture consisting of following reactants and product:
Reactants:
Palladium acetate
Acetic acid:water (1.2 mL:0.8 mL)
Glycine
iodobenzene
benzaldehyde
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)
Internal standard: dodecane
Product:
an unknown product which is an aromatic compound based on iodobenzene and benzaldehyde
I need to calculate the conversion rate only. Which HPLC column and condition including mobile phase and UV wave number is suitable for analysis?
Thank you very much
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi, a C18 reversed phase column is suitable, Mobile phase starts highly polar 95:5=1% CH3COOH: CH3OH and changes in gradient for 30min up to 95%CH3OH. You will be possible monitoring all compounds of the mixture using PDA detector at different wavelength - 225nm, 245nm, 280nm for example.
Best regards
Happy New Year 2019
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
4 answers
Dear all,
  1. Do you know what is the best Pd/C catalyst for CBZ-group hydrogenolysis?
  2. What is the Pd state on the charcoal surface, is it oxide, hydroxide or purely metal?
  3. What is the regeneration procedure of the catalyst, or it can be used only once?
  4. What is the deactivation mechanism if any? Hydrogen source is molecular H2.
  5. Can I expect that Pd/Al2O3 will show approx the same performance?
Thank you in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
I probably cannot answer all the questions, but will try.
I usually use wet 10% Pd/C, although other species can be utilized; the success of the reaction depends more on the substrate specificity and reaction conditions. Alcohols are typical as solvents, both for H2 or ammonium formate as hydrogen donors (I prefer catalytic transfer procedure with ammonium formate for the simplicity of the procedure).
The state of Pd is not important - it is supposed to be Pd metal, but even if it is partially oxidized, it will be reduced to Pd(0) quickly under the reaction conditions.
I never bothered recycling the catalyst, so no comments on this.
Deactivation of the catalyst usually happened when your substrate contains phosphorous, sulfur or similar impurities; if your substrate molecule itself contains S or P in it, then deprotection could be very slow or impossible at all.
Catalysts like Pd on Al2O3 of CaCO3 might work, but usually they has much less surface area comparing to similar Pd/C catalyst, and this could make the reaction to proceed slower.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
4 answers
Does anyone ever synthesize this complex (as attached in the files below) before? Any recommended procedure? How to control the product formation by getting only the trans complex?
Relevant answer
Answer
i am using aprotic solvent like dichloromethane at room temperature . Yet i still cannot get a NMR with only trans complex. By referring to the journal recommended by Jürgen Wintner , the author only have solid state NMR result. Does this means that the complex is not stable in solution state? Or anything i left out to be cautious when synthesize this complex?
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
3 answers
My project requires me to determine the amount of residual palladium (Pd) left in solution. I plan to do this using a colormetric assay, using stannous chloride (SnCl2) to detect the amount of palladium.
At the moment I am having issues preparing the SnCl2 solution, as the powder will not dissolve in the solution (2M HCl) after mixing at room temperature.
I have dissolved 29.9 g SnCl2 in 500 ml 2M HCl
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for all the answers
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
3 answers
For characterization of Pd/C catalyst often use methods TEM and HTEM and other methods for determining size of particales palladium, what are other methods?
Relevant answer
Answer
As Geoffrey explained , TEM electron microscope/AFM will be useful for particle size analysis. In addition, you can also use Dynamic Light Scattering method to analyse hydrodynamic size of nanoparticle.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
19 answers
Hello,
I've been trying to couple 2-bromopyridine with an electron-rich arylboronic pinacol ester but so far, I've had no luck. (Yield of 3 and 15%)
II tried with 3 to 6% palladium acetate, 6-18% SPhos and Na3PO4 as a base in degassed toluene:water 10:1 for 16-24h at 100°C.
The same reaction conditions worked relatively well for me before (with other substrates I got 80% yields) so I believe the precatalysts, base and degassing technique work fine (I freeze-pump-thaw the solvents for 4 cycles and run 4-5 cycles of vacuum-argon in a flask containing all the reagents before adding the solvents).
Is there anything inherently wrong with the reaction or can I improve it somehow?
Thank you for your time and help!
Relevant answer
Answer
Suzuki Coupling Reaction depend on many common factors :
1- the effect of catalyst loading on coupling reaction such as Pd(OAC)2, pd[P(Ph)3]4
2- the effect of base on coupling reaction like KOH, KF, Na2CO3
3- the effect of solvent like ethanol and propanol give high yield in short time
4- the effect of halogen type such as I > Br > Cl > F
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
8 answers
Basically palladium based materials
Relevant answer
Answer
If it's dissolve then I'd go for aqua regia as Mohammad above.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
5 answers
In our SQUID VSM (Quantum Design MPMS 3), for Pd standard sample (298 K, 1 T) we observe an error of 1% which is within the limit as by QD instructions. But for Nickel standard (Ms = 54.9 emu, 1.5 T, 300 K) we observe an error of 9%. why could it be. is it because Pd has low moment and Ni has high. Also should we calibrate using Ni standard when we do high magnetic samples? Can someone kindly help/answer this query
Relevant answer
Answer
given that you are using Squid why not use a sphere of clean Pb( Lead) ?
It's perfect dia-magnetism ensures linearity with applied field up to the critical field ( for Pb)
Beit a Squid or a room temp VSM coil system , <=1% accuracy requires that you always use exactly the same shape and size test sample as your standard ( beit Pt , Pd or Pb). The problem is that off axis sensitivity varies a fair amount with the exact sample shape, especially with gradiometer coil systems (With the caveat that the sample size is NOT << coil volume) . It is fairly easy to quantify this by calculation , by invoking the reciprocity theorem That is to say you calculate the B field that would be obtained anywhere inside the sample volume ,if the pickup coil system were to carry a current . Integration of this hypothetical "field" over the sample volume will give you a measure of the sensitivity to a particular sample volume/shape , not just an on -axis, centered point.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
6 answers
I bridged thymol and 4-aminophthalonitrile with azo coupling reaction in order to synthesize a ligand for phthalocyanines. I synthesized the ligand with %95 yield but hydroxyl group of thymol did not permit to phthalocyanine formation. So I want to exchange that hydroxyl group with thiol by Newman-Kwart Rearrangement.
Relevant answer
Answer
I suggest if you dont need -OH group, you can add some alkyl halide such as ethyl,propyl, butyl or pentyl/hexyl bromide/chloride. These alkyl halides react with phenol groups and you can obtain -OR, then you can try to synthesize phthalocyanine(s).
Additionally, the azo linkage are not stable during the heating for pc synthesis sometimes.
Another thing that, you can convert the -OH group to -SH group, also this is another problem group, generally -SH groups can bind for -S-S-, and oxidize sometimes, that can be problem for you.
İ think the best way is close the -OH group using alkyl halides.
Good luck
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
1 answer
I have 3 thin film samples of Barium Titanate MFM structure each having different top electrode of Platinum, Palladium and Titanium , while sharing similar bottom electrode ITO . I study the electrical Charactersitics with varying two factors , Top electrode and temperature.
Relevant answer
Answer
As your samples' resistance (e.g. the ZrealPart) is reducing (semi-conducting character) at high(er) temperature T region, then it can be comparable (or even lower) than the ZimagPart. This condition arouse towards inadequately small values of your samples' resistance[1] regime (e.g. ZrealPart[1] <ZrealMinimum[2]) for your C-V meter's specs[2]. So, a low (instrument resolution[2], at high T) measuring signal might enter in a multiple domain of error sources (Z-errors); some error values magnify (substantially) along with temperature.
1. Try to measure your samples' resistance even with a (common) Ohm meter, at the high(er) samples' temperature T region.
2. What is your C-V meter ?
If possible show a link for specs or manual (in pdf?).
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
4 answers
My polymer shows symmetric and asymmetric peaks at 1421 and 1605 cm-1. The polymer was able to reduce palladium nanoparticle. If carboxylate is responsible for reduction then Which direction should the band shift and why?
Relevant answer
Answer
First of all, palladium nanoparticles are something I would expect as a product of reduction rather than something undergoing reduction. Please confirm if that is correct in your case.
Secondly, if the carboxyl group was the product of the redox process (with some alcohol or aldehyde being oxidised to form the carboxyl system), then typically a signal should appear in the range of 1700-1800cm-1 (C=O). If the unoxidised system was an aldehyde, it should have a carbonyl group signal in the 1650-1750cm-1 range. As such, the carbonyl band *should* move towards higher values.
Please bear in mind, though, that these ranges (as found in any kind of IR signal tables) are for *typical* organic compounds and your compounds may not be all that typical, so their signals may be found a bit beyond those rnages (such as the 1605cm-1 signal, which may possibly be a carbonyl group signal).
Now, assuming that the carboxyllic acid formed through oxidation is not particularly strong and that the environment is not strongly alkaline, you should also have some non-dissociated acid molecules (i.e. COOH groups), which should give a broad signal in the 2500-3000cm-1 range.
Thirdly, if the carboxyllic acid is the species that is being oxidised, I would expect the carbonyl signal at (supposedly) 1605cm-1 to lose intensity or even devolve to the baseline.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
1 answer
Occluded hydrogen has proven effective to remove the CO that anchor on the metal surface. This has been done on Palladium metal. One of the problems is that the treatment with hydrogen distror and ultimately destroy the metallic matrix. Thus, the non-poisoning effect is loss. However, palladium alloys does not suffer such distortion. No wonder palladium alloys electrocatalyst has shown this non-poisoning effect [JES, 149 (2002) A1400]. What do you think?
Relevant answer
Answer
yes possible
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
4 answers
Hello,
I have tried several methods (DDQ, Palladium, Grubbs carbene) for the deprotection of amines but none of them seem to be working for me. Can anyone suggest other ways I can go about the deprotection of amines
Relevant answer
Answer
Pd or Rh catalysts are the most common. Check out the oxidative cleavage method in the link below, that should be able to work too for an alternative method.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
2 answers
Hi, does anyone knows why my CV in KOH 1M and EtOH 1M of Palladium in graphene oxide the current forward is lower than the current backward? It should be the opposit, or am i wrong?
In the article the CV for Pd-graphenemic, the Ib was higher than the If but the author didn't write about it.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Luiza,
Usually it depends on your catalyst structure and the molecule you are oxidising. Usually the first scan there is the adsorption of species that requires higher potentials to oxidise, while in the backwards the process is happens in a difference surface since it removed all the adsorbed molecules during the potential scan, and the potential would be different from the forward scan. Is it clear?
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
2 answers
I recently tried to perform a reductive deuteration of an alkyne following the same method as in a conventional hydrogenation with Pd(OH)2/C, but using deuterium gas (of very high purity).
The reduction run to completion, but to my surprise I obtained a mixture of compounds, all of them fully reduced, with a number of deuterium atoms that vary from 0 to 4, and the rest hydrogen atoms.
I dont know what is the source of the hydrogen. Could it be from the surface of the carbon in the catalyst? I have tried to find publications about this, but I could not find any single paper describing reductive deuteration of alkynes using deuterium gas and a palladium catalyst. This makes me think that it is well known that this would happen, but I could not find a reference. Could anybody point me to a paper that covers this topic?
Thank you very much
Relevant answer
Answer
You have got a lot of "active hydrogen" in your system, starting from the OH group in the substrate and ending with Pd(OH)2, which may participate in the reaction - O-H activation and forming HD or H2 at the catalyst. Given that, I am not surprised that you find other species than mere deuterium addition products. There are also reversible steps in many catalysed reactions that may lead to additional H/D scrambling.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
4 answers
Hi, I can not optimize a palladium (II) coordination complex in Gaussian 09W, the calculation ends with an error, I enclose the input file that I used. Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi, Here the input for your complex with symmetry Ci,
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
3 answers
I presently use Palladium oxide (PdO) as getter material and vacuum level as low as 5 millitor is required.When the dewar is not filled with Liquid nitrogen vacuum is lost,but is achieved as soon as it is filled with LN2
Relevant answer
Answer
Your vacuum pressure is prrobably determined by vapor pressure of water which is of the order 10 mbar at ambi temp.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
4 answers
We have synthesized one new material through Sono-Gashira coupling reaction. But, in the product, some golden colour particles are also present. We are thinking that it may be some palladium complex. Is there any method to remove this?
Relevant answer
Answer
It depends on the stability of your polymeric material and the coordination of the Pd. If I were you I'd try to place the contaminated polymer in a mildly acidic/basic solution of HCl (pH=5)/Ethyldiamine.
Alternatively try to wash the polymer with a N-donor chelator with >2 N, e.g. EDTA. Thermodynamically speaking your Pd should bind to the EDTA and allow for separation.
Last option would be to reduce the Pd but it will obviously depend on the polymer stability.
Bear in mind that all these strategies may only work if the Pd is actually coordinated with the polymer, however if the Pd is trapped in a pore/cavity of your polymer that would be another story.
Best of luck.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
12 answers
How to remove palladium catalyst from reaction mixture.
Note: crude insoluble in any solvent.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Prabhakaran,
I strongly suggest to follow Dr. M. K. Rostani's answer which may solve your problem.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
4 answers
ESI and MALDI-TOF MS, palladium (II) complexes with N^N chelating ligands
Relevant answer
Answer
In fact it is impossible to predict with 100% certainty what ions you will see from any analyte, especially inorganic ones. You must be aware that even though you may see a molecular ion under certain conditions and using a certain ion source and employing a certain ionization method on a certain instrument, you may well be able to see a completely different picture even on the same instrument just by tweaking a parameter or two. Ion sources vary even with the same manufacturer and you're never guaranteed you will achieve the same result with the same analyte. For example, if I run iodobenzene in the + mode on a Quattro Ultima (Micromass, now part of Waters), I can vary the amount of molecular cation and protonated species if I control the atmosphere around the source. In a Synapt G2 (also Waters), I could never get the protonated species, no matter what I tried. On the same Synapt, I've seen a number of Pd peaks in the negative mode from, say, PdCl2, including its molecular anion (which has nothing special about things like stability or whatever). There is simply too much going on in even the simplest mass spectrometer, to be able to predict with certainty what will happen when an analyte is injected. In that sense, the word "only" in your question is a risky one; while certainly a very interesting question, you may well be able to achieve the same results in completely different settings, or completely different results if you change your current settings, and still wonder why that happened. Our group is gradually accumulating evidence on the topic; you may want to consult some of our latest papers.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
4 answers
The unpublished results obtained recently in our research group support the perniciousness of the universal reaction mechanism of Suzuki-Miyaura coupling. Discussion about the preference of two main transmetallation pathways in Suzuki (toward the borate anion RB (OH) 3- or the neutral boronic acid RB (OH) 2) is a fierce discussion .
Do you think that the mechanisms for the reaction of Suzuki with aryl iodides, aryl bromides and arylchlorides are different? Does these transmetallation pathways depend on the nature of the aryl halide, base, temperature and palladium precatalyst? What is the preferred pathway for aryl chloride in your opinion?
The articles for this discussion:
1) Lima, C. F. R. A. C., Rodrigues, A. S. M. C., Silva, V. L. M., Silva, A. M. S., & Santos, L. M. N. B. F. (2014). Role of the Base and Control of Selectivity in the Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction. ChemCatChem, 6(5), 1291 – 1302. https://doi.org/10.1002/cctc.201301080
2) Thomas, A. A., & Denmark, S. E. (2016). Pre-transmetalation intermediates in the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction revealed: The missing link. Science, 352(6283), 329–332. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aad6981
3) Hirakawa, T., Uramoto, Y., Yanagisawa, S., Ikeda, T., Inagaki, K., & Morikawa, Y. (2017). First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Analysis of Ligand-Free Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling in Water: Transmetalation and Reductive Elimination. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 121(36), 19904–19914. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b06972
4) Ortuño, M. A., Lledós, A., Maseras, F., & Ujaque, G. (2014). The Transmetalation Process in Suzuki-Miyaura Reactions: Calculations Indicate Lower Barrier via Boronate Intermediate. ChemCatChem, 6(11), 3132–3138. https://doi.org/10.1002/cctc.201402326
5) Lennox, A. J. J., & Lloyd-Jones, G. C. (2013). Transmetalation in the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling: The fork in the trail. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 52(29), 7362–7370. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201301737
6) Amatore, C., Jutand, A., & Le Duc, G. (2011). Kinetic data for the transmetalation/reductive elimination in palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura reactions: Unexpected triple role of hydroxide ions Used as Base. Chemistry - A European Journal, 17(8), 2492–2503. https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201001911
Relevant answer
Answer
Literally, it's supposed to have different reactivity for different aryl halides. In my opinion, path A seems to be more reasonable. OH would preferred to coordinate with metal and instead of halide, consequently, the ability or rate of cleavage of halide would affect the reacitiviy of coupling. Iodide and bromide supposes to perform better reactivity than chlorides.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
5 answers
The mechanism of the reaction occurs in three steps: oxidative addition, transmetalation and reductive elimination. I need to depict the action of the catalyst dichloro-(di-[1-methyl-3(2-methylbenzyl)benzimidazole-2-ylidene])palladium(II) in the coupling between 4-bromoacetophenone and phenyl boric to produce 4-phenylacetophenone. The emphasis is on the catalyst, the localization of its electrons (if any) with particular emphasis to depict whether or not the NHC takes part in the catalytic process.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello, based on my reading the NHC (or any other ligand like phosphines) simply donates electrons to and controls the steric environment around the metal. The donation of electrons makes the Pd(0) complex more nucleophilic, speeding up oxidative insertion, and the sterics of the ligands help facilitate reductive elimination rather than beta-hydride elimination (if thats a possible pathway).
So the ligand simply is bound to the metal but based on what I have read it does not interact with the susbstrates (the boronic acid and the halide). It is believed though that the ligands do undergo cis-trans isomerization before the reductive elimination step so you should probably show that in your report.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
5 answers
Electronic products are made from valuable resources and materials, including metals, plastics, and glass, all of which require energy to mine and manufacture. Donating or recycling consumer electronics conserves our natural resources and avoids air and water pollution, as well as greenhouse gas emissions that are caused by manufacturing virgin materials.
For example:
  • Recycling one million laptops saves the energy equivalent to the electricity used by more than 3,500 US homes in a year.
  • For every million cell phones we recycle, 35 thousand pounds of copper, 772 pounds of silver, 75 pounds of gold and 33 pounds of palladium can be recovered.
Relevant answer
Answer
People are currently looking for information on recycling electronic products from programs that help them get rid of unwanted equipment while minimizing any risk of the personal information that these devices contain.
And because many consumers are still unsure about how to safely get rid of old computers, smart phones or other electronic devices. According to one report, nearly 75 percent of old electronics is still stored in households because of the lack of convenient recycling options.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
5 answers
I need to do a palladium catalyzed amination reaction and have a bottle of Pd2(dba)3-CHCl3.  However, I've never used the chloroform adduct for this type of reaction.  Does CHCl3 affect yields much in these reactions?
Relevant answer
Answer
palladium-dba complex is an amorphous solid.  When you use it, it is really hard to quantify the metal loading, especially taking into account that upon storage it notably decomposes producing nano-particles of palladium metal.  Chloroform adduct is more stable crystalline form with well defined composition (which, however, can also decompose if stored incorrectly, but much slower).  It does not matter which form to use in combination with phosphine ligands, as both of them will shed semi-labile dba ligands (and chloroform for the adduct) and form identical Pd(0)-phosphine complexes.  Chloroform produced in catalytic amounts usually does not affect the yield. 
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
2 answers
H2 has etchant effect. The etchant ability of H2 help to remove of defected site and edges in graphene structure. If we increase H2 flow rate over it's optimum amount, what would be happen????
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dr Samira, The extent of damage depends on the quality of the graphene produced. There are several factors which help you gain good quality graphene in the synthesis process. When you choose H2 as an etchant in small quantities you may get the defects removed successfully,(again here the gas flow velocity, residence time, nozzle area, Temperature and few other parameters should be also be considered and studied). But more of hydrogen also causes severe damage to the the graphene film. These papers may help you in understanding the effects: http://aip.scitation.org/doi/full/10.1063/1.4979023
Best Wishes
Vivek
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
2 answers
I want to know the is there any selectivity difference b/w Hg(II) and Hg(I) in case of nanoparticle based sensors. 
ref will also help. 
Relevant answer
Answer
 Also, here is a review of the various types of sensors used in mercury detection. Although the nanosensor in this review is selective toward Hg(II), the selectivity of the various sensor types are discussed which might aid in your research. I hope you find these useful.
Sensing Mercury for Biomedical and Environmental Monitoring
doi:10.3390/s90705446
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
4 answers
Palladium from palladium acetate in a colloidal dispersion. 
Relevant answer
Answer
here 's something that might help you. various methods are described:
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
11 answers
 I am working  with aromatic nitro compound and reduce the nitro to amine by using hydrazin with Pd/C  at 70°C. in ethanol. after refluxing for 8h , i filtered  the precipitate and washed with ethanol. the solution was cooled to room temperature and poored into water. i filtered the white precipitate. but  a little later  my white monomer turned into pink monomer. i would like to ask why? this is unexpected.
Relevant answer
Answer
After reduction, You obtained compound which have aniline core. It is well-known that aniline easily oxidized by oxygen of air to give colored mixture of compound. The color depends on structure but rose and red color are included.
Moreover, the oxidation is possible even at presence of traces of oxygen, for example if you do all procedures in argon atmosphere, but forgot to degasing of water or ethanol.
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
4 answers
Generally, due to spin-orbital coupling, the metallocages based on heavy metals should not show emissive properties. But, many Pt(II) based metallocages show emissive properties and at the same time Pd(II) based matallocages dont show the same, even though Pt is heavier than Pd.
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
5 answers
There are several nanoparticles but why people are most interested in AuNPs. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank u sir
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
3 answers
What is the mechanism of electrochemical reduction of 4- (4-x-phenyl) -2-aminothiazol?
Relevant answer
Oh Yeah, X = -Br. 
  • asked a question related to Palladium
Question
5 answers
Actually, i am working in this field and need cleaning solvent to wash out Teflon beaker by removing zeolite.
Relevant answer