Science topic

Paleogeography - Science topic

Palaeogeography (also spelled paleogeography) is the study of historical geography. Most often the term is used to describe the physical landscape, although it can be used to reference the human or cultural environment.
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I'm interesting in know the periods during the Miocene where the Balearic Islands could have been submerged and, the periods (before the Messinian) where the islands could have been connected to the Iberian Peninsula.
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I m very interested in Paleogene continental north Africa, manily because of the "strange position" of Laurasiatherian mammals living there that times.
But I have not found many things about paleogeography constraints.
Can you suggest me one or more articles about this topic?
Thank you
Aldo
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thank you
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Dear Dr.Adnan
Ramzan mobark
I think we can share an article about the paleozoic reservoir charcteristics from outcrop sample , which i have some them.  They are important for future exploration in kurdistan region.
with best wishes and regards
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Dear Dr Fadhil,
We have just published a paper about our findings at the Iraqi Geological Journal, which was published last week. FYI and kind regards
Adnan
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I am looking for current bibliography (books, articles...) about biogeography, specially about oceans, marine paleogeography and marine biodiversity patterns of distribution
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I am trying to import point data (e.g. Sample locations) into Gplates so that I can track their relative positions in time within a palaeographic/palaeotectonic model. There seems to be no obvious way of doing this and yet this seems to me to be an obvious potential function for Gplates to have on order to place a study area into some kind of palaeographic context.
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The way I do this is as follows but I am sure there are other ways if you don't have excel or ArcGIS. First, I make my point data into a .csv using excel, then I import the .csv into ArcGIS as XY data. You can then export the data from ArcGIS as a shapefile. Then you can bring the shapefile into GPlates and assign the plate IDs using a static plates file.
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In the study of paleogeographic restoration, most of the current mainstream achievements are formed at latitude. Does anyone study ancient geographical restoration based on longitude and latitude? If someone does this, it will be of great significance to me. In combination with my research, high-accuracy longitude and latitude will be very important.Based on the data I currently collect, almost all of them are based on latitude and not based on longitude.Maybe my question can be a topic of discussion.
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Liu:
You may find these links useful:
Best
Syed
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We plan to have several of coral limestone samples get dating through electron spin resonance (ESR). However, since this is the first we are considering conduct such an experiment, we have no idea where we can send our samples to. Is there anyone can kind recommend us some famous and reliable intutitions/labs/incs that is open for samples from other institutions? We do appreciate.
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The University of Bern has also a very good laboratory for this technique.
They have experience in coral dating as well. See list of publications: http://scholar.google.ch/scholar?q=ESR+Dating+Bern&hl=de&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart
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I made my thesis on the tectonometamorphic and magmatic evolution in the northwestern part of Burundi in 1988. In the conclusions of my research I presented a hypothesis of the geological evolution which was in disharmony with the hypotheses that were formulated And which have not yet changed. For the moment I co-supervise a thesis at the KUL which addresses the geological context of coltan mineralization in pegmatites in northern Burundi. As an active member I could share with you and co-publish the results of our research. Thanks for the feedback
The request can be analyzed with the contribution of Damien Delvaux an Max Fernandez.
I have read all the publications of Villeneuve, many observations made in the Kivu have been also made in the NW Burundi
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Louis,
I would fully endorse your suggestion that you should be involved with this project, although I am not a project member myself. The Kivu region of eastern DRC has now become a critical area to study for understanding the Mesoproterozoic evolution of the greater Congo craton (CBT craton), as, if the Kibaran oceanic suture that Kampunzu and Rumvegeri proposed does exist, it should be in this area rather than in Burundi or Rwanda. Although the Mesozoic-Cainozoic western rift valley intervenes between them, making correlations particularly difficult, I think that the area of NW Burundi and SW Rwanda that you have studied is an important transitional area towards the Kivu Belt.
Note that I believe that there are already problems with correlating stratigraphic units from the better constrained eastern Burundi (Muyinga and Ruyigi) areas to the western parts of Burundi (Cibitoke and Bubanza). This is mainly due to the greater incidence of both granite intrusion and later faulting (Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic) in the west. I also believe that the current division line between the Kagera and Akanyaru Supergroups (which currently runs along the top of the Muremera quartzite unit in most of eastern Burundi and its equivalents in NW Tanzania) is misplaced and probably should lie more to the west, coinciding more with the major N-S tectonic "accident" or shear/thrust belt associated with the Cene quartzite. This opinion is based on interpretation of regional geophysical surveys as well as mapping in eastern Burundi and NW Tanzania.
Although the bases of the regional geological mapping were completed in the 1960s to 1980s in Burundi, Rwanda and Kagera region of Tanzania, which have been supplemented by the high-quality zircon geochronology of Tack et al 2010 and Fernandez-Alonso et al 2012, there is still more that can be done in terms of relating datable metamorphic and hydrothermal events to the regional structural-stratigraphic context. This will be important to carry the correlations by accurate and reliable absolute age dating techniques from the eastern side of the belt to the western side.
Best wishes,
Dave Evans
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I want to determine the sediment rate of N and P in water volume for small reservoirs covering less than 3 ha.  The referenced documents  are old , and i can not download them. Who can give me some good suggestions? Thanks
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Dear Zhou:
looj to this link you may find some thing and good luck:
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In continuation of our search for more lithic artifacts from Ayodhya hills, Purulia, West Bengal, last month found this tool provisionally identified as Core-tool side scraper; likely to be of mid-paleolithic age. Expert opinion sought. 
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I"m inclined to be agree with Rusty and Jenses. Plus in the left and base photos we can see two straight lines, as if the core-tool had been...shattered ? Maybe it's just a bad quality material ?
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I need a confirmation of the age of alluvium sediments in which we found a macro flora fossils. The fossils have wide stratigraphic range, but 41 percent of them are from the Early Pliocene. The rest of the fossils are also presented in the Early Pliocene. That is why I need a second dating method, the strata is rich of Limonite. If we could date it we will have the age of tha strata confirmed by another source.
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Dear Harald, thank you very much for this valluable information. I am also surching a facility were this examination can be done. So far i have found one comercial laboratory in Boston, USA.
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This palynomorph image is from the Upper Paleozoic in Iraqi Kurdistan.
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Rzger:
Thanks. Shows strong affinity with an Acritarch, but more sharply focused images of specimens would be useful.
Best
Syed
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I have some samples from the Upper Cretaceous shale, North America.
I was able to obtained SEM images for what I believe some foraminifera genera; they are benthic forams. So far I identify some of them as possible as I can, but how I can be sure if my identifications are correct? Any suggestions?
Please see the attachment files as examples for some of the forams I found.
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I fully support the opinion of Miroslav Bubik: 4 gavelinellids (or perhaps Anomalinoides) and 2 buliminids (perhaps Siphogenerinoides or alike). These are not agglutintated, just very poorly preserved from recrystallisation and/or corrosion.
Contrary to what I read in some of the reactions, this does not point to reworking (only if you would find this quality in modern deposits). The forams are just very old.  The older the rocks, the more likely the forams become poorly preserved at some point  through deep burial, orogenesis, groundwater flow, outcrop weathering, etc.
Obviously poor preservation is not a necessity: forams can be excellently preserved, particularly  in old shales (little groundwater flow)  that have hardly been buried. Clearly that is not the case here. Note that open/deep marine shales may contain abundant in situ agglutinated taxa, either calcareous or non-calcareous ones. Few of these consist of terrigeneous sand or coarse silt grains though. 
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Thin section from uppermost Cretaceous mudstone (P. hariaensis zone) Haymana Basin-Central Anatolia.
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Most probably part of a fish..
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How to study Cretaceous benthic foraminifera from fragile carbonate material? You can also suggest suitable literature. 
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If I get your question correctly, i can offer method of disaggregation using Na2SO4 · 10H2O (Glauber's sault or mirabilite). I research the Upper cretaceous foramiferas of Volga refion and I work with different species of marls and chalks. Glauber's sault's method is very successufully. I can send you discription. 
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I need to contact with an specialist on calcareous sponges with chaetetid organization from the Neogene. Someone knews any people working on this? Thanks a lot. 
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Dear Enrique,
You may also think of contacting Joachim Reitner of the University of Göttingen. He is a specialist of Chaetitids (jreitne@gwdg.de). I attach a paper of him with me.
Hope that you are well and that everything goes well.
Best wishes,
Karl
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These species provide from Upper Coniacian or early Santonian
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Dear Dr. Elamri,
the photos are unclear. Please send me high resolution photos for better clarification. You can send me the photos by this email address. 
best regards,
Rawand
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The 1975 lexicon of Qatar states that the Cretaceous Mauddud Formation got its name from that locality near Dukhan.
The name was assigned by Dr. F.R.S. Henson in an unpublished 1940 report. Does anybody have that report?
A 1948 geological report on the Dukhan anticline by Dr. Max Chatton says "Ain Mauddud has a little water spring on the seashore". Does someone know where that water spring is/was?
Any help would be appreciated. This is related to my current research on the silica of the Rus Formation
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I am not expert in this field
ram
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I found the original description and the quotations of Delbos & Koechlin-Schlumberger (1867), Fallot (1894) and Rovereto (1897). Many thanks. Michele
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I'm sorry that I do not have information in this regard
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I am looking for a comparative table where various deltas are analysed on their characteristics, e.g. to name a few ..
* sizes
* characters (delta types)
* drainage area and pattern
* Paleogeography
* Provenance sources
* Shelf area (if exist)
* Sand vs clay content
* organic matter 
Any link to papers or textbooks is highly appreciated :)
Many thanks in advance,
Regards
PJ
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Here is another review on the processes of deltaic system that you may be able to draw some useful information.
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While taking traverses along hilly stream in Rajgir, Bihar, India, came across a few bed-load rock samples that looks like tools- artifacts. Expert opinion sought. 
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I supported the views of Dr. James A Green, USA. It is very difficult to say something on the bases of photographs only. It is true that the rocks samples in Sujit's photographs are not identical bifacial tools or it does not looks like an artifact. It does not show clear man-made flakes scars. These may be broken pieces of rocks of nearby source as these were found along hilly stream in Rajgir, Bihar, India.
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I ask this question concerning dating techniques using hydrology for  stone tools because it seems to me that the moisture absorption rates should be affected by the type of use. For example an obsidian blade used for scraping flesh from bones may have a higher absorption rate than the same type and shape of tool used for only leather working. Are there any studies out there that contradict this idea? 
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I don't know of anything off-hand, but I'm not sure your assumption is correct. Stone tool use would dull the tool, and sharpening necessarily removes relatively thick amounts of material. Even incidental flaking associated with use (ie, the small bits that would pop off when the tool hit something with resistance, due to the stresses applied) would be substantial when considering moisture absorption on archaeological timescales. While glass is sharp and hard it' astonishingly brittle at the edges of glass/stone tools.
I would think that before we could determine if the use affected the dating, we would have to see if this chipping and resharpening affected it. Which is not a hopeless cause--the previously-exposed surfaces need not be completely removed to sharpen a tool--but it would necessitate looking at moisture absorption across the whole tool and mapping out differences, if any.
I know there are types of stone knives that had wooden covers on the hilts, and some very impressive stone daggers that had well-defined hilts. Either would create different exposures between the hilt and the blade, and would be a good test case for an analysis of moisture absorption as it relates to use (as the same stone would be present in both areas, minimizing the natural variation in stone tools).
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A question for paleontologists"
Does anyone know if Acervulina linearis and Haddonia heissegi thrived during the miocene and or only during paleogene?
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I could not identify at species level, but Haddonia is present for sure in Middle Miocene (Badenian) deposits. Acervulinids can also be abundant in badenian macroids.
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Hi Everyone!
These microvertebrate remains are from Late Cretaceous freshwater sediment, their size varies from 1 to 4 mm. Did anyone see anything similar like these before? Any ideas are appreciated :)
Have a nice day!
Márton
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Although I'm not a specialist I would say that they look like teeth and agree with J. Mark Erickson that the specimens in the last plate seem to be jaw fragments. Probably belonging to several fish species.
Good luck with solving the "mistery".
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I need complete methodology about sampling procedure, lab analysis and measurements and the instrument required for these studies.
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Dear Ahmad,
According to my knoweledge, there are huge references of loess-paleosol published on the methology and techniques, even though I do not indergo researches in this field. 
If you have not an experience on the relevant research,  you can search articles by internet through your institution database and do works as the artclies introduced.   
However, it would be better for you to have an expert guide or to cooporate with someone, whom you can find in an article or an institution in either home or abroad by internet. 
Other more, I have some experiences to share with you.  Finding a good cross-section is one of the most important things. The second procession is to describe and to date the strata. The third one is to find the geoscientific questions and build a purpose. Then design the methodology and technology. You can ask someone to cooperate if you can not access a lab for experiment. 
Carbon isotope is a useful tool to analyze paleoclimate, and it have become a common and important proxy in interpretation of climate. There are many labs in the world which can complete the experiment. I believe you can find a cooperator if  cross-sections you found are good enough!
Hope it is helpful for you to do the work!
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I need to use log data in order to interpretation the paleo deposition environment in continental region.
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Dear Mr. Ibraheem,
there are many reports, papers and short-course manuals dealing with this topic. I suggest to consult these books first:
Darling, T. , 2005. Well Logging and Formation Evaluation. 1 st Edition, Oxford, Elsevier. 336 pp.
Etnyre, L.M. , 1989. Finding Oil and Gas from Well Logs. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 249 pp.
 Serra, O. 1985. Sedimentary environments from wireline logs. Paperback , Schlumberger Limited , London, 211 pp.
I recommend especially the last one for the beginner.
Best regards
H.G.Dill
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using core log and some cross cut
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Dear Mr. Namsrai:
I suggest you consult these papers and books and then you might find a basis for placing a bit more focus on your question:
Diessel, C.F.K., 1992. Coal-bearing depositional systems. Springer, New York, 721 pp.
Diessel, C., Boyd, R., Wadsworth, J., Leckie, D., Chalmers, G., 2000. On balanced and unbalanced accommodation/peat accumulation ratios in the Cretaceous coals from Gates Formation, Western Canada, and their sequence-stratigraphic significance. Intern. Jour. of Coal Geology  43, 143-186.
Dill, H. G., Teschner, M., Wehner, H., 1991. Geochemistry and lithofacies of Permo-Carboniferous carbonaceous rocks from the SW edge of the Bohemian Massif (Germany). A contribution to facies analysis of continental anoxic environments. Intern. Jour. of  Coal Geology 18, 251-291.
Dill, H.G, Wehner, H., 1999. The depositional environment and mineralogical and chemical compositions of high ash brown coal resting on early Tertiary saprock (Schirnding Coal Basin, SE Germany). Intern. Jour.of  Coal Geology 39, 301-328.
Dill, H.G., Pöllmann, H,. 2002.  Chemical composition and mineral matter of paralic and limnic coal types of lignite through anthracite rank. Upper Carboniferous coal in comparison with Mesozoic and Cenozoic coals (Germany). Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 19, 851-867.
Dill, H.G., Koch, J., Scheeder G., Wehner, H., Strahl, J., 2002. Lithology, palynology and organic geochemistry of  carbonaceous rocks in fluvial-lacustrine series of Tertiary to Quaternary age (Kathmandu Basin, Nepal). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 227, 1-38. 
Galloway, W.E., Hobday, D.K., 1996. Terrigenous clastic depositional systems-Applications to fossil fuel and groundwater resources. Springer, Heidelberg, 484 pp.
 
McCabe, P.J., 1984. Depositional environments of coal and coal-bearing strata. In: Rahmani, R.A., Flores, R.M. (eds.), Sedimentology of Coal and Coal-bearing Sequences. Spec. Publ. Inter. Assoc. Sedimentologists 7, 13-42
Miall, A.D., 2000. Principles of sedimentary basin analysis. 3rd. ed., Springer, Berlin, 616 pp
Stach, E., Mackowsky, M.Th., Teichmüller, M., Taylor, G.H., Chandra, D., Teichmüller, R., 1982. Stach´s Textbook of Coal Petrology. Gebr. Borntraeger, Berlin, 535 pp
 
Thomas, L., 2002., Coal Geology. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 384 pp
Best regards
H.G.Dill
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I HAVE NOW RECEIVED A PDF FROM CHRIS CLEAL.  THANKS TO EVERYONE WHO ANSWERED!
Anyone have the volumes from the Moscow ICC congress in 1975.  I do not know what volume, pagination, or even the exact year! of Richard Leary's publication, but this is the citation information I have:
Leary, 1979??. Namurian paleogeography of the western margin of the Eastern Interior (Illinois) Basin. Compte Rendu 8th International Congress on Stratigraphy and Geology of the Carboniferous, Moscow, 1975. Seems to be on around page 49 or so, and may or may not have associated plates/figures.
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I am showing my age, now, but I was actually there in Moscow in 1975!  I have made a pdf from my copy of the conference proceedings and will send you a copy. It was incidentally in Volume 5.
Chris
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Maybe the climatic models are misleading, the tectonic models wrong, and the floras not comparable.
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hi David,
Thanks for your thoughtful answer to my question, which I will give you an up vote on.  However, one has to take into  consideration tectonic framework as well as the flora and climate.
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I am preparing an exhibit of science dissemination about Real vs Teddy bears cultural aspects. The possibility of a bear cult (highly controversial as I suspect among palaeontologists) has to be treated in such an exhibit, and I would like to say only what science allows me to say...
Have actual brown bear, polar bear, grizzly bear or older cave bear "godness" status  been demonstrated in some human cultures ?
Thank you very much in advance...
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Hello Thierry,
I'm attaching to this a recent article on a possible bear-claw pottery motif among the Pueblo groups of the SW United States. The author makes a good case (at least I think so) for the identification. Bear paws also figure prominently as rock art symbols in the southwestern US and northern Mexico. There are very early colonial references to indigenous bear hunting in the mountains of northwestern Mexico; I can dig out the reference if you are interested.
I'm also attaching a study on the range of the Black Bear in Mexico; maybe that can be of interest also?
Saludos, Michael
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i want to research into accretionary terrains
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Paleomagnetists frequently discarded site mean_directions whose its alpha_95 greater than e.g 20 degrees in order to get a mean_locality direction; is it possible to do it without removing the directions ? For example, by introducing weigth to each component (e.g. proportional to 1/ (alpha_95). This is usually done in ordinary statistics. 
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The method used in palaeomagnetism was devised by Fisher (1953) (FISHER, R. 1953. Dispersion on a sphere. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 217, 295-305) In general after bedding-tilt correction, the selected directions group in two antipodal normal and reversed clusters on stereographic projections.  Fisher statistics (Fisher, 1953) are used to calculate the mean normal and reversed ChRM directions and their α95 (95% confidence angle).  The outliers and transitional directions positioned more than 45° from the normal and reversed means are then rejected. Should you use a different method to this you would need to be able to justify why, as this method is generally recognised and accepted by the palaeomag community.  Another method by Vandamme (1994) (VANDAMME, D. 1994. A new method to determine paleosecular variation. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 85, 131-142.) could also be used to statistically reduce the error. keeping outliers in will often make a palaeomagnetic correlation more difficult to justify.  Hope that helps!
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Large percent of Late Paleoindian points have asymmetrical bases and beveled blades. The site is in west Louisiana. It is located on the upland/bottomland interface overlooking a small stream with a wide floodplain abundant in hardwood and palmetto. Has been suggested that the basal edges are shaped to strengthen their hafting for the task the points/knives were used for, possibly plant processing (see photo).
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Hi James,
I see what you mean now.
My guess is that they are arrow  heads, and that the larger notch was the site for the knot attaching the head to the arrow, which improved the aerodynamics.  Sounds like an experiment is called for :-)
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Having in mind the prevalence of most agglutinated foraminifera during this event.
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Hi, have a look at dinoflagellate cyst literature. Although you will not find many cysts in the salt deposits you will find distinct assemblages for both low and high salinity environments just prior to, during and just after the crisis. Here are some references I have in my database to start with:
Santarelli, A. Brinkhuis, H. Hilgen, F. J. Lourens, L. J. Versteegh, G. J. M. and Visscher, H., 1998. Orbital signatures in a Late Miocene dinoflagellate record from Crete (Greece). Marine Micropaleontology 33, 273-297.
Popescu, S. M. Dalesme, F. Jouannic, G. Escarguel, G. Head, M. J. Melinte-Dobrinescu, M. C. Sütő-Szentai, M. Bakrac, K. Clauzon, G. and Suc, J. P., 2009. Galeacysta etrusca complex: dinoflagellate cyst marker of Paratethyan influxes to the Mediterranean sea before and after the peak of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Palynology 33, 105-134.
Londeix, L. Benzakour, M. Suc, J. P. and Turon, J. L., 2007. Messinian palaeoenvironments and hydrology in Sicily (Italy): The dinoflagellate cyst record. Geobios 40, 233-250.
Louwye, S. de Schepper, S. Laga, P. and Vandenberghe, N., 2007. The Upper Miocene of the southern North Sea Basin (northern Belgium): a palaeoenvironmental and stratigraphical reconstruction using dinoflagellate cysts. Geological Magazine 144, 33-52.
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From this formation Come the Fossils of Cryolophosaurus and Glacialisaurus
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Thanks
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Jurassic deposits of the Siberia and NE Russia are characterized by numerous glendonite occurences, especially widely distributed in Upper Pliensbachian and Bajocian-Bathonian. Did anybody know any information about the coeval glendonite occurrences in Northern America? I know only two briefly mentioned records of "stellate nodules" in the Kimmeridgian of Northern Yukon and Mid Volgian of Prince Patrick Island 
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I don't know about North America, but glendonites have recently been found in upper Pliensbachian sediments in Northern Germany from the Shandelah core. See Teichert, B.M.A., Luppold, F.W. (2013) Glendonites from an Early Jurassic methane seep – Climate or methane indicators? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 390, 81-93.
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A core in lagoonal sediment have been analyzed, S curve show a interesting variability, It could be related to anoxic phase, the macro-fauna has been identified too. I would like to know is there is a limit in the S content of the sediment or more wisely, a way to determine anoxic crisis in sediment.
Thanks in advance for your replies.
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Bonsoir,
avez-vous reçu le gros fichier via Research Gate ?
A toutes fins utiles, je joins des pdf pour voir comment les éléments traces peuvent aider à reconstruire les paléoenvironnements.
Bien à vous,
NT
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Now I'm working on manuscript dedicating to fossil fish fauna from the late Paleocene - early Eocene deposits. Fish prints are located at the surface of lake sapropelites. Plaese, let me know, which sedimentation rate is average for these sediments in lake environment (n meters per ...)? The total thickness of sapropelites is near 300-350 m.
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 The sedimentation rate in modern lake environment may be very diffrent 
Probably around 1 m per 1000 yr, but may reach 2-3-4 m 
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The trace fossil was found in lower - upper Turonian Deban Fulani member of Pindiga Formation, Gongola Basin Upper Benue Trough, Northeastern Nigeria.  
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Hello Hans-Volker,
Are you certain? Ammonoid beaks (lowr jaw-parts) (aptychae) are either divided in two parts (aptychus-type with varous subtypes used for an elaborate parataxonomy) or a single part (anaptycus-type). (good examples are here at researchgate in this publication: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/263301051_fig4_Figure-1-3-D-reconstruction-of-four-ammonoid-jaw-morphotypes-%28viewed-from-the-left
This mold looks like it consists of 4 parts. Even if the upper jaw beak is preserved in ammonites (which happens less often than jin lower jaws due to their different thickness etc.) it has a single point not divided by  a deep fold so the resulting mold would have 3 part and not 4 as in this fossil.
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I would like to get age constraints on the deposition of fluvial sediments in a river deposit in the Kenya Rift. Age estimates are Mid to Late Pleistocene. The sources are mostly basaltic, trachytic and phonolitic lava flows. Quarz content is fairly low, so I'm guessing OSL won't be the method of choice. Any ideas?
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I would suggest post-IR IRSL K-feldspar dating: worked fine for the Middle to Late Pleistocene Rhine in The Netherlands. 
More info on the technique can also be found at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jakob_Wallinga
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Internal features can not be observed in these fossil specimens.
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This turreted, robust, strongly noded gastropod is also found to co-occur along with the above bivalves.
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I appreciate any help on this vertical-oblique bioturbation (ichnofossil, trackmaker..). Info: Continental setting (alluvial-coastal plan), Cretaceous, located in lutites overlying a sandstone-microconglomerate level. Thanks in advance!!
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From the photograph it appears to be Thalassinoides. The branching pattern however is not clear. Thalassinoides and similar traces are attributed to various crustaceans and hence can occur different environmental settings. There are several publications dealing with this aspect
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Who can help me to identify a specimens of (corals or bryozoa !?) from upper Cenomanian (presented in the attached file image1)
Cordially
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Its a fossil - all the round polyp-like structures are far too regular to be inorganic. thin section is a very good idea, then target a coral and/or bryozoan specialist for a definitive answer!
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The object (more objects) was found in the examination of of calcareous nannofossils in the Lower - Middle Jurassic sediments. It can be a part of the nannoplankton body. Thank you for your help :-)
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Can you upload the image of higher size?
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I infer that there probably existed a passage between the Tibetan Plateau and the Qinling Mountains during the Late Miocene based a lot of tectonic and climatic records. Development of the passage was mainly controlled by the eastward expansion of the Tibetan Plateau, which constrained rainfall transported by the Asian summer monsoon to flow into interior China. I need a modeler help me to test this hypothesis? Please contact me for specific information 
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小马哥,这么高大上啊,我是整不了啊!
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The late Prof. Dr. Antonio de Barros Machado, Director of the Dundo Museum of Zoology and Anthropology in Angola (1947-1974) studied during more than 30 years of intense work (until 2003 in Portugal, Oeiras)  a great number of laterite and bauxite rock samples, in his opinion molded by termite activity in geologic times. He analyzed laterite and bauxite rocks  from many places on Earth. His results were only partially recognized because they put into question the "sedimentary origin" of theses formations. I have been dealing with his heritage and am ready to bridge important data for interested colleagues.   Grasset mentions in his double volumed encyclopedia part, dedicated to termites, that he never had met more convincing arguments as to the origin of these rocks then those of Barros Machado, though in his first approach, documented in the earlier Zoology encyclopedia, he was not yet convinced, but then surrendered to the smashing amount of proof, proposed by Barros Machado.
In the collection of private letters, there were more geology scientists to accept this innovating idea, but it still remains controverse. 
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I salute your dedication to the work, certainly the legacy which has been  left by late Prof. Dr. Antonio de Barros Machado should be maintained. If it losts it will be a great loss to entomologists about evolutionary significance of termites. In future certainly it will provide new directions to the experts in the field of geology and geochemistry and entomology.
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I need advice, explanations, articles, journals, textbooks etc. on the application of stable and trace element(unstable) isotopes and rare earth element studies on deciphering the genesis paleoenvironment and paleoclimate of ironstone deposits.
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Dear Mr. Hassan,
I agree with Dr. Towe, that the anomalies of Ce and Eu play a significant part, particularly Ce which responds to redox changes that are fundamental in the mobilization (organo-metallic complexes), thransort (chelat complex) and concentration of iron. You will find a lot of case studies of  these anomalies, also in papers dealing with a different set of elements or metal deposits. I would like to refer also to the classical studies covering Fe-bearing ochres of the deep sea, BIF and ironstone deposits quoted in Maynard (Geochemistry of Sedimentary Ore Deposits). He listed some of the REE elements. Investigations of the isotopes should not only focus on oxygen but also on carbon which is present in the afore-mentioned carriers of Fe and also in one of the most important Fe host minerals siderite (+ ferroan dolomite), both of which show up in  ironstones too.
Best regards
Harald G. Dill
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Hello every body.
First of all, season greetings !!!
I have been on a Christmas market and I have seen these “weird” fossils, I mean the central ones. They are circular with a central structure (helicoidal?). I am a Tertiary guy and I am not a specialist of Paleozoic fossils. The seller tells that are jellyfishes. For me it looks pretty much as a not well-preserved Ediacaran Tribrachidium. The sediment where it is preserved is sandstone. However, I know a little the area where it has been discovered. Confirmed by the seller, this is Devonian.
Is it a jellyfish ? Is there still Ediacaran fauna during the Devonian ?
Thank you very much for your answer and Happy new year.
Bastien MENNECART
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Dear Bastien,
This is an Eldonia, maybe an E. berbera (Alessandrello and Bracchi, 2003), from the Upper Ordovician of Morocco. This genus is well known from the Burgess Shale Fauna (Cambrian of Canada), the ordovician species from North Africa are the youngest members of this genus... Classification as medusae is not really clear, depending which author you will follow.
In contrast to the not very trustfull trilobite on your picture, the Eldonids and also the Scyphocrinites (Crinoid) are very well preserved specimens.
Best regards
Johannes
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For paleo-shoreline demarcation.
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Mylroie J E and Carew J I 1995 describe flank margin caves from the Bahamas formed in the saline/freshwater mixing zone--maybe helpful for what you need---paper title is: 'Karst development on carbonate islands/Speleogenesis and Evolution of Karst Aquifers 1. In Unconformities in Carbonate Strata-Their Recognition and the significance of Associated Porosity (eds. D A Budd, A H Saller and P A Harris), pp 55-76. American Association of Petroleum Geologists' Memoir no 63.
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In the bivalve classification of Bieler et al. (2010), they list Limida Moore, 1952. This is not in their reference list, but there is a Moore et al. (1952) "Invertebrate Fossils". I've had a look at the book and I don't think this is the reference they meant for Limida. I cannot find an alternative "Moore 1952", that Bieler et al. may have accidentally omitted, anywhere.
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As far as I can see Waller (1978) has just  declared a new order Limoida without mentioning Moore 1952.
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In a recent paper (>5-6 years ago), I remember seeing a paleogeographic reconstruction of South America (it looked something like the attached link, but for South America) during the period it was isolated from other land masses (either the Eocene, Oligocene, or Miocene). However, when I went to try to find the figure again, I could not locate it. All of the paleogeographic maps of South America I have seen either focus on the northwestern corner of the continent or Patagonia. I was wondering if anyone knew of any papers that had presented similar maps of South America during this time period.
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I know of s couple of sources that have such data.
PaleoMap is one.
PaleoGIS is another
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The cores that were drilled provide quartz crystals with linear features indicating shock metamorphism but still not much was found around the crater itself. It is surrounded with granitic rock that in some parts are very potassic 
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Dear Ayanda,
Martin provided the most important information available to the Tswaing crater. In some field guids, shatter cones in the target rocks of Tswaing are mentioned as additional evidence for shock metamorphism, but these "shatter cones" have never been confirmed.
However, the finding of shocked quartz in rocks of drill cores represents unequivocal evidence for an impact origin of the Tswaing carter. By the way, the formation of coesite and/or stishovite as high pressure polymorphs of quartz requires shock pressures of at least 15-20 GPa (shocked quartz 5 to 10 GPa). The relatively small impact event that formed the Tswaing crater most probably did not provide shock pressure high enough to form stishovite and/or coesite.
Best
Elmar
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any website to download or any other way to develop such maps?
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Hi Devi,
maybe these are not really "paleostrandline" maps, but they could possibly help with their Figs. and references.
Then there is Smith et al. 2004: Atlas of Mesozoic and Cenozoic Coastlines
All-time favourites are of course the paleogeographic maps by Christopher Scotese (http://www.scotese.com/earth.htm), Ron Blakey (http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/index.html), as well as the Ziegler maps, although I am not sure whether maps for South Asia are available from the latter. As far as I know, Gérard Stampfli might also have some paleoglobes in his papers.
Hope this helps, good luck with your work!
Cheers, Martin
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I want to ask if anyone knows any structures from the fossil record that could be considered as hailstone impression. We have already published some from the Neoproterozoic/Cambrian transition and simply looking for other examples. They could tell a lot about the early atmosphere it dynamics and climate zone distribution.
Thanks for any respond.
Zbyszek
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Dear Shouxian,
I think these are diagenetic structures, not of mechanical [hailstone] origin. If the pits or pans would be created before the dark mudstone, than the dark mudstone lamins should fill pits horizontally. When you look closer it is evident that the dark mudstone lamins lay parallel to the undulating surface of pits. This observation is also applicable to the next, overlying layers which also follow the undulating surface of the pits. Thus, the whole rock complex were immersed or squeezed giving different thickness of the dark mudstone. Maybe is the similar process as the genesis of the nodular limestones but less expressed.
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Gondwana
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Together with Antarctica and India, Australia is shown in almost all reconstructions to be attached to SE Gondwana.
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Environmental magnetic methods including magnetic susceptibility have been used in paleoclimate research. Researchers have also found that magnetic susceptibility is a proxy to study the paleo-rainfall conditions. Sedimentologists have recognized that flood and drought conditions are based on down core profiles of environmental magnetic properties. Unlike polar regions, tropical and sub-tropical countries have completely different depositional trends of magnetic minerals in sediments. Thus, compared to other methods, are environmental magnetic methods a reliable tool to study the paleo-monsoon conditions?
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Dear Julie,
I am happy to read your answer.Thank you for your interest. Sure. We will discuss things related to paleo-monsoon reconstruction. All the very best for your PhD.
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lithology : Mudstone
bed type : Nodular bands .
basin : Peri cratonic basin Kachchh basin, India.
formation : Naredi Formation
Age : Early Eocene
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Looks like some kind of coquina. Is it well sorted or is the size of shell fragments quite variable? Are the shells abraded? Is there some kind of preferred orientation? These features are hard to tell from this photo.
Apparently the assemblage is not monospecific - there is some kind of coiled shell and some kind of bivalve. Are the bivalves always preserved as single shells or are there sometimes two shells of an individual preserved together in attachment?
The cause of death might be hard to tell if the assemblage is allochthonous, i.e. if the shells were transported over some distance after the living animals' death and washed together.