Science method

PLC - Science method

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Is the photo resistance sensor output signal Digital OR Analog?
The purpose is to connect with PLC.
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Photo resistance sensor output can be digital or analog. If you are using photoelectric proximity sensor then its output is digital. It is analog in other cases.
Can you plz tell me purpose ?
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The PLC is real and the Plant is simulated. Thx in advance.
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As far as I know, there must be some HMI interfaces between actual PLCs and software like Python, MATLAB, Solidworks, WorkingModel 4D, and other software.
Good Luck!
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Dear All,
I pray you are well.
Am humbly looking out for expert panelists that can review my research instruments in relation to a study on customer experience in relation to usage of chatbots. My defense in due soon, so appreciate an urgent response. Please reach-out so that I may share the instruments. They are composed of a questionnaire, interview guide and focus group discussion guide. Details; HOW DOES THE USE OF A CHATBOT IN SAFARICOM PLC INFLUENCE CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE? Doctoral Study Project (DSP) Presented to the Glenn R. Jones College of Business of Trident University International in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Business Administration
Thank you,
Sincerely,
Athar
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Dear all,
I pray you are well.
Still looking. All I need is two individuals that hold Doctorate or PhD qualifications and are able to review my qualitative research instruments. Please help as it’s a University requirement for my thesis.
Thank you,
Sincerely,
Athar
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How to collect data from assets, production lines, remote devices under the industry 4.0 context? May be it's about automation, SCADA, PLC, OPC UA, and even IoT, Edge, 5G. Where could I find something useful to have a overall view?
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Although most current research works in Industry 4.0 focus on improving adaptability, resiliency, scalability, and security of physical facilities through feedback loops with embedded sensors, processors, and actuators that are controlled and monitored by computers, there is an increasing interests and works on how to make factories more efficient and productive based on collected data, where data analytics play a very important role (Hunter et al., 2013; Kabugo et al., 2020; Tang et al., 2010). For example, with the tremendous monitoring data during the manufacturing process in Industry 4.0, it can be utilized to diagnose potential machine failures and optimize maintenance operations (Bagheri et al., 2011). Besides improving manufacturing processes, data analytics can also be used to improve the entire business cycle, including gathering natural resources, producing components, assembling products, delivering products to customers, and managing customer relationships (Xu, 2007). For example, whenever unexpected events occur, such as a shipment delay due to the Suez Canal blockage, connected supply chain systems in Industry 4.0 can proactively adjust manufacturing and delivery plans. Ultimately, the network of these collaborating facilities through cyber-physical systems together with dynamic smart decisions through data analytics will unleash the full power of Industry 4.0.
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We are working on a project that requires the use of voice command to stop a screw conveyor in an emergency situation.
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Need to develop by plc manufacturer to adopt voice interface from Alexa or Google like devices so that voice tags can be decoded and fed in to logic for required out put genration
Or simply use IOT SPDT Switch which has voice command option connect in parellel /series with emmergency switch depends on existing logic
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Hi anyone please tell me the PLC model name and number which is suitable to configure 4pwm output Pulse and one HSE counter. Because PLC S7 1200 plc 1214 ac/dc/rly not give pwm output.
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"The S7-1200 PLC range of PLCs (firmware 3 and higher) can handle up to 4 high speed output generators.. PTO or PWM."
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Anyone please tell me how to interface L298N stepper motor module to PLC S7-1200.
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First of all, I do not know why you are using PLC S7-1200 for controlling the stepper motor via the L298N module. Generally, one can use a micro-controller for that purpose. However, you can use PLC to realize your system by using a signal conditioning module to convert signals from PLC to a suitable form that can be used to control the L298N module.
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As IEC 61131-3 standard for PLC programming languages defines a few of them, it will be useful to learn what our colleagues apply for PLC programming.
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The ladder
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Hi,
For my research purpose, I want to show how much energy and memory of a device (Like - PLC/ RTU ) is consumed by a Neural Network. Is there any simulation tools available for this task?
Thanks in advance.
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Usually big packages include this. For instance refer to the "Profiler" of tensorflow
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I want to implement Fuzzy Control in an actual production process based on S7-1200 PLC , I have simulated the fuzzy control system in Matlab .But ,When i want to programe the PLC code using Siemens TIA Portral software, I found the fuzzy inference and defuzzication is difficult to programme. I have read many articles and papers disscusing fuzzy control based on PLC, they all omited the key step ,that is how to programme the fuzzy inference and defuzzication, so i still confused about that. I am very long for someone to be able to give me some help or share me some fragments of the PLC code related to this question.
Thanks for all reading my question!
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Dear Zhang laifa,
I suggest you to develop an external fuzzy controller using an existing process controller or on an embedded controller according to your application. then you can share required parameters through an available communication link (MODBUS, SERIAL) with a PLC.
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I am looking for a simulation code used for the paper Opportunistic Random access scheme design for ofdma based indoor PLC network
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It is the best solution I know :D
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I am interested in the advantages and disadvantages of the use of Programmable Logical Controllers in industrial automation. Does the industrial automation depend on them and are any other solutions possible?
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Ashish Thakur , do always bring the source which were used. (copy/paste) Otherwise, it is pure plagiarism. It is very bad academic practice. You have combined at least 4 sources. I will show one copy/paste example! Links follow:
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Hello, i am working on a project with LS PLCs that using IEC language. i need to calculate integral for any curves. like SIN,COS, X2 or ...
do you have an idea what should i do?
thanks
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Mehdi Mohammadi In the following video tutorial, I have discussed how to calculate area under the curve using Origin. Area under the curve signifies many physical and geometrical interpretations in Science. It’s a product of the quantities (functions) on the x and y axes. The video explains all the steps to be performed to calculate area under a specific curve. In the case you want to further ask about it, please do comment on the specific video, I'll respond to it shortly. I have provided the practice file here. Thanks
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Besides the Schneider Electric PLCs that are programmed with EcoStruxure Control Expert or Unity Pro, Do you know of any other PLC(s) that include fuzzy control functions?
It would be interesting to know which manufacturers have been following the IEC 61131-7 standard, to know the state of the art of the application of fuzzy systems in industrial processes.
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Hello, I recently start learning to program plc's and now i find myself trying to link the CX-Simulator with a software called Factory I/O wich is a simulator of a line of production, the problem is the factory I/O software it's design to connect fisicly with a PLC, no need of anything else, but i don't have a physic PLC in home there's anyone with experience in this kind of issue?
I want to know if it's a way to connect the two softwares in modbus.
like simulating an ethernet connection maybe?
Thanks for the Help.
Cordial Regards.
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Good morning
I recommend Factory IO and there is possibility to work on Factory IO without physical PLC, you just need to have in Tia Portal option Simulations PLCSIM and then you can link everything together with library from Factory IO
Good luck
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PLC is Programmable Logic Controller and the Hard-Wired Control is a classical control..
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I am trying to simulate a PLC within smart grid network in OPNET software. I have tried to find some resources to learn how that could be done in the OPNET modeler. There is a lack of resources for this tool. I am wondering if you know any resources to do implement this simulation?
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Consider using spreadhseets and specifications from manufacturers like:
Mitsubishi [1] or Panasonic [2] for the energy providers and professional users, and for the consumer domain (home network) in addition see [3]
Does it help you?
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I know in the field of fluid mechanics, we mostly deal with PDEs such as Navier-Stokes equation.
But what I want to do is to design a controller for flow control of a system consisting of a centrifugal pump and a pneumatic valve. So in this case I need the dynamical model of the system and by dynamical I mean the ODE equation of the system.
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Hello!
I am Md Al Amin from Bangladesh.
I am not expert but I am trying to be a one of the best engineer and researcher. Now I am working on “PLC” Project. I have a dream,“I want to make the world more closer by technology.” People thinks it’s magic but we called it engineering.
Please feel free to give me suggestions.
Keep me in your prayers.
Thanks
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Thanks for your advice sir Omar Ali Al-Khashman
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Sir,
It is unfortunate that an Organization of repute as Science Alert should short change in this 21st century somebody from third world.
Is it because am from third world nation or is it because am a Nigerian or Africa. Have not slavery stopped?
A warning to all third world nations who will fall victim in future, Science Alert short change scholars from third world.
Cyril Ogbuanu, PhD
This is payment I made to Science Alert in 2012 through First Bank of Nigerian PLC for an article that I was told after payment that it was rejected. Am I not supposed to be refunded the $625.
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It is very sad that this happened. There are currently many scientific journals that differ in many respects, including in terms of payments. In addition to scientific journals whose editors require payment for accepting the text for review and / or publication, there are more and more scientific journals publishing on the Internet free of charge.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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I am doing my Masters thesis in Addis Ababa university Ethiopia in the title of " The Effect of Psychosocial Work Environment on workers' Motivation: In the case of MIE PLC. As the result of I need a standardized scales that helps to measure the perceived organizational support and peer support in the work place setting. If you know please inform me via email address. kinfe.tareke@aau.edu.et
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Thank you......Mr. Mohamed -Mourad Lafifi
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I want to switch the diesel generator from the relay output interfaced between PLC and diesel generator starter for automatic switching. How this can be achieved. Is there any circuit design. Is 8 leg relay of 30A is suitable for this? If your answer is yes. Kindly explain the circuit design and interfacing mechanism to switch the generator for its automatic action.
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kindly send me the Engine starting mechanism of the DG set. I will surely send the circuit for the same. Give me the specifications of DG set.
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My field research was to study the interactions of teacher leaders in a teacher leader PLC in a primary school. I am curious as to any findings you'd be willing to share and any current scholarly literature that could influence my analysis.
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Thank you for these references, Sultan Sabr
I will definitely check them out.
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I want to design a big machine with 60 sensors and around 30 motors, i want them to interact with each other . Which Controller is the best to use for this machine ?
I want a fast controller and i dont want to use PLC for this task .
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The controllers that i am familiar with for are the PLC and the FPGA ,offcourse i want a very fast controller of above 100 khz.
The idea is the machine has 60 sensors for packaging and sorting and the tasks are dòne by industrial motors such as stepper , so i need a controller that would have many inputs and outputs suitable for this job.
I want to do a prototype of the machine as a final year project.
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For an integrated PLC-VLC system, the overall frequency response is obtained by multiplying frequency response of PLC and VLC system. Most of the research paper consider SISO VLC system. what if MIMO VLC is considered? To get overall frequency response, can multiplication of both system be done?
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I think so. There should not be any difference in terms of freqeuncy response for SISO and MIMO VLC systems, assuming identical LEDs and PDs are used.
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ROckwell PLC LOGIX module is going to Program mode even when the key selector is in Remote mode. Can any anyone find a reason?
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Thank you very much for sharing your knowledge.
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I have synthesized few heterocyclic compounds which show good cytotoxicity against MCF7 cell line in the in-vitro assay (i.e., MTT assay). Now for in-silico molecular docking study, I am not sure which receptor should I choose? In some literature, the receptor protein selection is made by using the binding affinity database (e.g., Thomson Reuters MetaDrug). My question here is that to link the in-vitro study to in-silico study how to choose the receptor protein for molecular docking study?
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MCF-7 is a breast cancer cell line which was obtained from a patient. It was not engineered to overexpress a particular protein or pathway. So, you can't relate MCF-7 activity to one particular target. However, since your compounds are active on MCF7 cell line, you can present it as inhibitors of MCF7 cells proliferation.
Now for target identification, you have to biotinylate your compound and do protein pull down studies. This is a definitive method for target identification. If you don't have the infrastructure for protein pull down or a collaborator who can do that, you could 'suggest' the 'probable' targets based on computational approaches. Do a literature search on which compounds are similar to the ones you have, and see their biological activity profile. Then dock your compounds to that target.
Hope this helps.
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Wanted to know, how can I calculate current consumption of a sensor or a motor or a drive?And based on this how do we select I/O card for the PLC?
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you can see their datasheet. As for I/O card, I don't really understand your question
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hi all dear!
What is the difference between SCADA or PLC or NCS or DCS or IoT systems?
What do you think is the best answer to this question?
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PLC = Programmable Logic Controller, it can be a small standalone microprocessor based controller or a complex networked architecture of controller. Used for process control or automation in a small to medium setup.
DCS = Distributed Control System, A bigger system to do what a PLC can do, for more complex and mission critical operations. With an architecture that is 'distributed' in its resources and processing capabilities. This term was initially used to refer to the systems that were designed to continue to function controlling other areas of the process, when one part of the system fails. However, the demarcation of PLC and DCS is becoming less distinct with modern PLC generations in use.
IoT = A relatively small- single function device that can operate in a networked system, exchanging data/commands with a bigger system (ideally without using cables) and delivering information that in turn is used for digital applications such as Big Data, Artificial Intelligence, or Machine Learning.
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I was able to construct a plc ladder with simple components for automatic open-close door but I want PLC ladder with many components like emergency stop, IR sensor, pressure sensor, 24 volt dc servomotor, timer, up/down counter with data blocks, open limit switch, close limit switch, open door indicator, close door indicator.
Please help me to build a ladder construction.
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Put condition on paper with pencil and erasor
Example:
If START is TRUE and Object is Present Then Turn ON Motor
Slowly add rungs.
You will get answer
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I am working on a sensorless control scheme of PMSM based on Adaptive Luenberger (state) Obsever. It is relatively easy to set the observer gain to reach stable and successful observer tracking in simulation. When it comes to real-time implementation (I use a DSP hardware with program cycle time of 150 micro sec. which is more than sufficient for a high quality sensor-based control which is also easily achievable in my case).
I could only obtain an intermittent or unstable tracking in real time when I use the same gain I used for simulation (although off-line simulation is made very close to reflect real time dynamics by making current and speed controllers discrete ones at the same sampling time used in real time where speed control loop is executing once each 30 executions of current control loop)
I know that there are still many differences between off-line simulation and real time system (specially those attributed to noise and parameter uncertainty) that can result in different response but I wonder if somebody can help advising a systematic tuning approach like for example those procedures we usually use for tuning PID controllers.
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hello sir,
can you post some of the mathematical dynamic equation that u implemented in this model especially for dq current estimation and svpwm?
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Andreas (and colleagues) - this sounds very interesting. I'd love to learn more if you have a papers out already. We work almost exclusively in very high poverty schools that are not serving students well. We administer a school transformation rubric annually to track majors systems (distributed leadership, professional learning, and core instruction) as well as a process monitor that tracks the occurrence of PLC, grade level, and other collaboration structures and the production of products from those sessions (unit and lesson plans, professional learning plans, etc.). We still find process measures pretty rare in the wild (at least in the schools we serve). I'm wondering if we would be likely to encounter such things in higher performing schools (I'm thinking of the impact of improved preparation programs, whole school/district reform models, etc.).
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Hi Christopher,
Thanks for your interest. The project just launched in December, so we haven't started the fieldwork yet. We're certainly happy to keep you updated as the proejct progresses. For now, the team have some papers out on datafication in education, here: https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/cjem20/current?nav=tocList
Full access to editorial (Juliane Jarke and Andreas Breiter) here:
and a preprint of my article on edtechs, data and equity here: https://osf.io/drbhn/
All best,
Felicitas
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For a PLC application, I try to inject a low frequency signal (some KHz), in the sector (220VAC, 50Hz), without using transformers especially for the recupreration of the signal.
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Could you capacitivly load the power line to add your low frequency signal?
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Hi everybody,
i would like to ask how to add the cyclostationary noise with three regions to the ofdm signal for narrowband PLC (IEEE 1901.2 Standard).
Isearch how to make this in matlab because when i do y=h*s+n where n is the output of cyclostationary noise i get error .
I need help please.
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Recently, for NB-PLC, there are two ways to generate cyclostationary noise:
1- Region based, described in the following paper,
Cyclostationary noise modeling in narrowband powerline communication for Smart Grid applications
2- FRESH filtering based, described in the following two papers for SISO and MIMO NB-PLC, respectively,
SISO: "Cyclostationary Noise Modeling Based on Frequency-Shift Filtering in NB-PLC"
MIMO: "A frequency-shift-filtering approach to cyclostationary noise modeling in MIMO NB-PLC"
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Hi,
I installed a Qcadoo under Ubuntu and I want to know if some one know how to do to capture network traffic between QCADOO and a PLC or between QCADOO and a SCADA please ?
Thanks in advance for your suggestions.
Best regards,
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Dear Alem Selwa,
I suggest you to see links in subject.
-Compare Free Open Source Software - SourceForge
-proxy web browser free download - SourceForge
-Diapositiva 1 - Dipartimento di Ingegneria informatica, automatica e ...
-Công Việc Qcadoo mes, Thuê | Freelancer
-User:Tim/AutomationElaboration - The Crowdsourced Resource ...
Best regards
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For controlling the field equipment, I need to circulate 24vDC from my RTU to the field equipment, and 110VAC from the other direction - For input and output.
In this case, can I use a single 2pair cable with one pair carrying AC signal and 1pair carrying DC signal. Note that the current is going to be in a very few mA (typically contributing to the resistance in the circuit) and the cable distances are not going to be more than 100meters
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If the pairs were not twisted, the AC voltage would be capacitively coupled to the DC pair, and the AC current would induce in the DC pair an AC voltage as well, caused by the changing magnetic flux. The idea of twisted pairs is to change the direction of the effect, depending on the orientation of the pair, resulting in a mean effect of nearly zero.
I never tried your setup, but I can imagine one bad case: If the two pairs have nearly identical geometry it might be that the "twisting" of the AC field and the twisting of the other pair result in a stronger coupling than in the general case. So, I feel that a cable containing one twisted and one not twisted pair would be better.
However, if you use the DC voltage exclusively for power supply it should be easy to block a possible AC component at the receiver end.
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In our fertilizer Factory, Integrated Turbine and compressor (ITCC) controlled by Tricon 1131 software which is very high priced. Is it possible to reduce the cost using highly featured PLC ? Here BN3500 also used to monitor Vibration.
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Yes, you can. Just consider that in general DCS has high availability and PLC without redundancy could not reach the same availability values.
Regards.
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Dear all,
During recovery, if the leaf water potential of a tree species recovered to control value, does that mean the degree of xylem embolism (PLC) is also reduced to control level? In other words, if leaf water potential recovered, but there remains substantial xylem embolism, is this reasonable?
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Coordination of leaf and stem water transport properties in tropical forest trees ( Oecologia May 2008, Volume 156, Issue 1, pp 31–41)
Abstract :Stomatal regulation of transpiration constrains leaf water potential (ΨL) within species-specific ranges that presumably avoid excessive tension and embolism in the stem xylem upstream. However, the hydraulic resistance of leaves can be highly variable over short time scales, uncoupling tension in the xylem of leaves from that in the stems to which they are attached. We evaluated a suite of leaf and stem functional traits governing water relations in individuals of 11 lowland tropical forest tree species to determine the manner in which the traits were coordinated with stem xylem vulnerability to embolism. Stomatal regulation of ΨLwas associated with minimum values of water potential in branches (Ψbr) whose functional significance was similar across species. Minimum values of Ψbr coincided with the bulk sapwood tissue osmotic potential at zero turgor derived from pressure–volume curves and with the transition from a linear to exponential increase in xylem embolism with increasing sapwood water deficits. Branch xylem pressure corresponding to 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity (P 50) declined linearly with daily minimum Ψbr in a manner that caused the difference between Ψbr and P 50 to increase from 0.4 MPa in the species with the least negative Ψbr to 1.2 MPa in the species with the most negative Ψbr. Both branch P 50 and minimum Ψbr increased linearly with sapwood capacitance (C) such that the difference between Ψbr and P 50, an estimate of the safety margin for avoiding runaway embolism, decreased with increasing sapwood C. The results implied a trade-off between maximizing water transport and minimizing the risk of xylem embolism, suggesting a prominent role for the buffering effect of C in preserving the integrity of xylem water transport. At the whole-tree level, discharge and recharge of internal C appeared to generate variations in apparent leaf-specific conductance to which stomata respond dynamically.
Leaf Shrinkage with Dehydration: Coordination with Hydraulic Vulnerability and Drought Tolerance ( Plant physiology 164(4),DOI10.1104/pp.113.221424)
Abstract: Leaf shrinkage with dehydration has attracted attention for over 100 years, especially as it becomes visibly extreme during drought. However, little has been known of its correlation with physiology. Computer simulations of the leaf hydraulic system showed that a reduction of hydraulic conductance of the mesophyll pathways outside the xylem would cause a strong decline of leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf). For 14 diverse species, we tested the hypothesis that shrinkage during dehydration (i.e., in whole leaf, cell and airspace thickness, and in leaf area) is associated with reduction in Kleaf at declining leaf water potentials (Ψleaf). We tested hypotheses for the linkage of leaf shrinkage with structural and physiological water relations parameters including modulus of elasticity (ε) and osmotic pressures at full turgor (πo) and turgor loss point (TLP) and cuticular conductance. Species originating from moist habitats showed substantial shrinkage during dehydration before reaching TLP in contrast with species originating from dry habitats. Across species, the decline of Kleaf with mild dehydration (i.e., the initial slope of the Kleaf versus Ψleaf curve) correlated with the decline of leaf thickness (the slope of the leaf thickness versus Ψleaf curve), as expected based on predictions from computer simulations. Leaf thickness shrinkage before TLP correlated negatively with ε and positively with πo, as did leaf area shrinkage between full turgor and oven-desiccation. These findings point to a role for leaf shrinkage in hydraulic decline during mild dehydration, with potential impacts on drought adaptation for cells and leaves, influencing plant ecological distributions.
PDF enclosed...
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I am working on a project where i might want to need to communicate between SEL devices and PLC.I am working with SEL 2020 and 351S devices.So by which protocol I can able to make communication between PLC and SEL devices?
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Is not to be neglected the possibility to use a protocol converter (soft or hard) between different protocols (Modbus RTu, ModBus TCP/IP, Profibus, etc.) such that you don't write code just configure some registers. (more easy but more expensive)
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I am focusing on system level resource allocation and then trying to optimize it by using any optimization technique.If any one have some useful data and matlab code kindly share it with me.
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Dear Tufail Ahmed,
If i well indestand your questtion i suggest you to see links and attached publications in topics.
]Ph.D. Abstract Book 2015-16 - GH Raisoni College Of Engineering ...
ofdm based distributed: Topics by Science.gov
Technical Program - IEEE Xplore
Best regards
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Channel matlab code required for PLC
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Dear All,
Thanks  Gianluca Argentini, Yeray Santana-Falcón and  Saif Aldeen Saad Alkadhim  for your prompt response I appreciate it, basically I am try to maximize the data rate for(OFDM Based) PLC channel by doing resource allocation.
I am looking for PLC channel matlab coding script not Simulink.
If in this regards you can help me I will be thankful to you.
Regards,
Tufail Ahmed  
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I want some info about current problems in industry working with PLC and SCADA. What problems do you face during working with them?
I want to start research in this field of industrial automation. Hence, right now I am in phase of information gathering.
Any suggestions are warmly welcomed.
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Dear Jeet Sanjay,
Indeed, there are practically problems which occur during the operation of the installations equipped with PLC and SCADA equipment. They are of nature: Security of operation, security of the process, fidelity and compatibility in the communications ...
For more detals please see links in subject.
- Practical Troubleshooting and Problem Solving of PLCs and SCADA ...
- Industrial Automation, PLC Programming, scada & Pid Control System
- CR4 - Thread: Wonderware SCADA and PLC Problems
- reducing industrial automation commissioning issues - HAL Software
Best regards
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What will happen if we use same logic to programme two different types of PLC?
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Basically, Logic is Logic.
 If it is straight bit logic (N.O contacts, N.C contacts and outputs) most of the time it will transfer between any PLC. However, there are exceptions. Modicon logic doesn't scan the same way Allen Bradley does, so there are instances where the same logic will not work. One shots are very different between manufacture as well. Most of the instructions past bit logic e.g. timers, counters, shift registers, etc. are handled different by different manufactures. The concepts will remain the same but for instance, how a timer/ counter resets may be very different.
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I am working on I&C system for ITER cryostat. I have to monitor temperature, displacement, acceleration,strain as well as heater controls for pedestal ring through PLC. I want to do some prototyping activity that can help in realizing the actual I&C system. I want basically to test our sensors.
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Hi Dileep,
Use some basic MODBUS PLC, and Beckhoff TwinCAT 3 software. In that software you can program youre measurement project under "Measurement" modul. Supported are: real time, recorder of selected values. If not find what you are looking for than its good place to start. TwinCAT 3 is FREE! There is also PLC simulator if you want to model youre project first
GL
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Dears,
I am curious if in practice non-repudiation is an important property in SCADA networks.
For example is it a need in case of a system failure to be able to find which employee did a wrong action (thus a message that goes from the SCADA to the PLC)?
I am also interested in the other direction where an employee canot deny he obtained an information from a PLC (thus a message that goes from the PLC to the SCADA).
Is such mechanisms really used in practice and if yes by which mean (it seems to me that industrial protocols such as MODBUS or DNP3 do not allow non-repudiation)?
Thanks in advance,
Maxime
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I know the operator identity is logged for every action in nuclear power applications, and I have seen examples in other industries.
It is all internal to the HMI (which also manages access control) in the systems I have seen. No need to bother the rest of the system with which operator does what, if the HMI is logging each user action with ID and time stamp.
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Hello,
I am looking for a method in Simulink to select between two matrices of different sizes (in this case a 2x3 and 3x3 matrix) which can pass the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) requirement of fixed size output.
In the example attached, I tried using multiport switch, but it will only work when I enable variable size, which makes the approach incompatible with PLC. I cannot add zeros to make the matrices of the same size, because this will affect a part of my Simulink block downstream. Is there any possible solution/workaround for this method?
PS: I cannot use m-code for this purpose as it is not compatible with the PLC hardware target I plan to use.
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Try using the "Concatenate" block to form one matrix of dimension [5x3]. Then you could use the "Selector" block with input dimension 2. Select index options "Starting and Ending indices (port)" for the first dimension and "Select all" for the second dimension. Now you can wire an [1x2] array to the index port to select the matrix you want (i.e. [1,3] for Matrix 1 or [4,5] for Matrix 2). Since this array of starting and ending indices has a constant size it could be routed through a multi port switch with fixed output size.
Hope this solution with the selector block is compatible with PLC hardware target you plan to use.
Regards,
Rouven 
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I need to design a bus for 6 Maxon motor controllers via CanBUS: what's the best cost-effective PLC or software-PLC solution to be used? Can I use a realtime software that eliminates the need for a physical PLC?
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Dear Andrea,
I suggest you a links and attached files in topics.
-Open real-time robotics control-PC hardware, Windows/VxWorks ...
-How to choose a CANbus industrial controller | Control Engineering
-Approaches to Automation II: Rapra Technology ...
-Reis ROBOT StarV - Reis Robotics
Best regards
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I am will to test PLC activity in HUVEC using "Thermo #E10215" which is a kits measuring fluorescence generated from PLC-cleaved substrates. However, there is no instructions of lysis buffer.
Can ones have experiences on PLC and fluorescence kits suggest a lysis buffer which can preserve PLC activity and will no interfere fluorescence.
I googled one recipe:
20 mM Tris,
100 mM NaCl,
50 mM β-glycerophosphate,
10% glycerol,
0.5 mM dithiothreitol,
1 mM Na3VO4,
1% Triton X-100,
10 mg of leupeptin per ml,
10 mg of aprotinin per ml,
5 mg of pepstatin per ml.
Any comments on this one? Thank you!
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dearest qing yun
hopefully this diagram could help
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i am looking for a software tools set that let me setup a multi-point to multi-point VPN which is called VPLS over IP (not MPLS) . does any one have any suggestion how can  I get in to this?
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The answer is yes, you can do this, BUT the techniques are still sort of vendor-specific. For instance, Juniper and Cisco have their solutions, which can build the VPLS using BGP or MPLS (respectively RFC 4761 and RFC 4762).
This will give you a single, virtual layer 2 network, like a (potentially) giant single Ethernet. So the same considerations should apply as they would with a non-virtual large single LAN. Meaning, it's not necessarily a great idea!
Although the VPLS is built on an IP infrastructure, traffic within the VPLS does not need to be IP at all. Same as in any other layer 2 network.
Looks like Nokia offers a 1-week course on this subject, various dates, various places:
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MRI which uses NMR enjoy the resonance feature of hydrogen nucleus for imaging. this technique is completely different from reflection feature of objects used in radar scanning. i would like to know why this technique is not used for radar scanning to detect other material that used in aircraft or devices that have special materials .
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Radars are used to detect the moving objects that are faraway from the radar. That is to say it teledetects the objects. It loos lie seeing the objects by the eye of an observer.These objects are normally in air and their case is made from metal. So, the best way to detect them is by using  radio waves. in order to resolve the objects geometrically one uses microwaves radiators which emits in a relatively narrow angles and therefore., the transmitter radiates microwave, which propagates till meeting the object where it bounces back to the radar station where the receiver reside. So, in the radar station both the transmitter and receiver are present side by side. By receiving the bounced wave one can measure the delay time between the transmitted and the revived reflected wave , from which one can measure the distance between the radar station and the object.
If one exploits the absorption of waves such as in NMR, one would put the receiver behind the object to measure the transmittance for teledetection this would be practically impossible. 
This may shed some light on answering your question.
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I want to learn PLC programming and I need any PLC simulator.
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Online PLC Simulator free of charge! Many resources are available at this page.
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I am doing controller for CPV solar sun tracking system using SPA on PLC and I have almost succeeded to track the sun, it tracks on azimuth but there is an error with zenith. I don't know its cause. Is it the elevation parameter or the gear ratio?. does the elevation from see level affect strongly? I programmed it to start from steep position at sunrise and i don't know exactly this degree of start. I also don't know the degree of the whole stroke. what do  you think?
I don't know the parking angle of the tracker. I don't know the elevation angle as the tracker doesn't reach its end ( it  may be moving from 5 to 88 degree) I don't know it exactly as the mechanical structure isn't mine
thanks
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Please, allow me an observation:
I have not checked the accuracy of algorithm used in SunEarthTools.com to obtain Sun position but in the section Sun position equation it says:
The calculation of the position of the sun is based on equations from Astronomical Algorithms, by J.J. Michalsky.
Accuracy of 0.01 deg, the observed values may vary from calculations because they depend by: atmospheric composition, temperature, pressure and other conditions.
It’s very rare the diference in 6 degree that you point in your answer above.
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Am working on the Ballast Water Treatment System using UV-C Radiations with Medium Pressure Mercury Lamp. 
  1. Do i need to use any driver for controlling the lamp Intensity?
  2. Is there any Electronic Ballast that can act as a driver and can be connected to the PLC directly?
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I agree with professor Andersen, 
Also you can see the problem from another angle. You can split the total Irradiation (Watts) at a larger number of lamps instead of 1 and to on/of different number of lamps depending on the intensity that you need every time .... 
(maybe you must model the distribution of light inside the reactor with this solution)
if you just adjust the Watts i believe that you may reduce significant the lamp life
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Can anybody tell me how to setup VersaMax PLC High Speed Counter and what Ladder Logic Block is to be used? Basically I am trying to count a quadrature encoder A & B pulse, In forward rotation value will increase and In reverse rotation value will decrease. Please help me.
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Thank you very much for your reply. Fortunately I have already connected the encoder and able to read the quadrature pulse in PLC.
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The intended study area is Kakuri Stream which recieves effluent water from Nigeria Brewery Plc. 
Can I pls use both aquatic plants and bacteria in the remediation process?
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Dear Prof W., Wang, I sincerely appreciate your answer.
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Dear All,
I have a project related to PLC but I've never used PLC beforehand. Currently, I want to study PLC programming languages (prefer Structure Text). Could you please recommend me the PLC simulator?
Thank you so much for your support.
PLC model: MELSEC-Q Series - Q03UDECPU
Regards,
Tuan Huynh
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Hi, yes most of the vendors that support IEC 61131-3 standar should support ST on the simulator.
I would recomend you CODESYS, it is a free development plattform that has full suport to IEC 61131-3. It has a PC simulator and free visualization simulato also. You could even try your code on a Raspberry Pi in order to simulate it with the hardware.
Regards,
Armando Narvaez.
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looking for some serious works about Power Line Communications (PLC), if any one have papers or tesis that can share with; I'll appreciate it.
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Hello,
You can find a PhD Proposal on the subject of PLC (Power Line Communication) systems on my ResearchGate page. The document is titled "CC & PLC Systems".  It has numerous citations.
Regards,
Tom Cuff
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How can one communicate BETWEEN two PLC ?
[email removed by admin]
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Most suppliers of PLC's support socket communication. Using this method you only need the existing Ethernet network and no additional hardware.
If you can specify the vendors that you want to communicate between, you can get a more specific answer.
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I am struggling in finding the proper literature on the topic. please help me. Thank You.
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 Dear sourab
 PLC and pneumatic or hydraulics are two different domains.Literature of such kind  will  only be available with manufacturers of such integrated systems.Try with alen bradly or siemons.you  may get necessary help 
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I have applied this approach on SCADA system model composed of two nodes (SCADA Master and PLC). The approach gave as a result of utilizations (%) of nodes and tasks response times due to the introduction of each solution. What can I do to prove that the approach is working in the real world ? 
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Hi Anas
That is a little clearer, thanks. What you are saying is that you are comfortable that the security countermeasure will do what you expect it to do. You just want to be able to prove that is actually happening. In other words, you seek to audit the effectiveness of the countermeasure to ensure it complies with your goals.
That comes down to simple measurement. Using a lowcost SCADA DC motor is a good starting point. You need to collect data which would be representative of the normal range of operations of the equipment, in this case your lowcost SCADA DC motor. This allows you to recognise normal patterns of operation. Once you understand what is “normal”, you can then attach your countermeasure system, carry out an attack on the system, then record the response. This will provide you with a range of data that will allow you to interpret the signals passing through your system to detect what is normal behaviour, what constitutes attack behaviour, what constitutes countermeasure, and to identify whether the system has been returned to the status quo.
Providing you can successfully test this with your lowcost SCADA DC motor, then you should be able to successfully apply the technique to the real world system, or scale it up to larger systems. The only proviso being that you need to collect sufficient data on the real system to establish what the norms of operation are. Obviously, for a complex SCADA system, the challenge becomes much greater. But always remember to bear in mind that your countermeasures will only protect you as far as they have been designed to do. They will not necessarily protect you from new threats, although for simple systems, a single response may well cover a variety of attacks.
Regards
Bob
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to all plc progrmmer
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I don´t remenber that Mitsubishi FX series PLC have this option, as Marcel mentioned other brands of PLC have, if you are able to change the PLC I recomend you do that.
If not, and you must work with Mitsubishi, you can create a proporcional control in the ladder. I use this in several equipment to control inlet pressure in leak tester for gas valve and it work pretty good.
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I know that Schneider PLCs work with Mod-bus protocol for networking, however, I wonder if there is any other PLC and industrial automation brands that work with mod-bus?
If two brands work on the same network protocol like mod-bus are they compatible? I mean can I design an industrial automation with devices from more than 1 brand? Like choosing actuator from one brands and PLC from other brands.
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Many PLC manufacturer supports mod-bus
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I want to establish communication between KEPServerEX and Siemens S7-313-c2-DP PLC using Siemens serial MPI cable (order no. : 6ES7 901-0BF00-0AA0). To do so, I was trying to download the PLC program through serial MPI cable. I have also tried different configurations of PG/PC interface for the serial MPI cable. However, I encountered errors in each case. So, what is the procedure to establish communication between serial MPI cable and Siemens S7-313-C2-DP PLC? Thank you.
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 You need to use USB / MPI adapter.
But if you are using Sİemens Field PG , that is already inserted in computer.
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Dear all,
             I would like to deploy the Simulink PLC Coder generated Structured Text code in Siemens PLC. Right now, I have tried the 'plcdemo_simple_subsystem' example and deployed the generated Structured text code in Siemens S7-318-2-DP PLC. Now, I want to know that how can we assign real/process I/Os to the I/Os in the code? Besides, the code also consists of transfer function, so how is it possible to use the code with real time system? Your help will be very much appreciated. Thank you.
Regards,
Ankur Gajjar
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I am having Siemens 313-c2-DP PLC and I want to establish communication between PLC and suitable OPC server. The problem is that this PLC supports profibus and MPI communication protocols only. Since, I don't have the appropriate resources for profibus, I would like to establish communication through MPI USB cable. So, can you provide the name of the OPC servers which can communicate with the S7-300 series PLC over MPI USB protocol (except IBH server)? Thank you.
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Thanks everyone for your input. I have transferred my work on VIPA 315-2 SB PLC with CP343-1 lean ethernet module. I am using Kepware version 5 and it is working perfectly fine.
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In some PLC based solar trackers, real-time processing speed is too limited to use astronomical algorithms in high accuracy sun tracking. In precise solar tracking, a lookup table can be pre-calculated and the solar vector values (sun azimuth rotation and sun elevation altitude) stored in the lookup table or spreadsheet. With a pre-established lookup table, a PLC can obtain the position of the sun at any time and then the direction of tracking mechanism is adjusted to point to the direction of the sun, much like tracking preset waypoints in (solar) navigation in a time-synchronous manner. Was hoping researchers can share practical challenges or complications with Eprom type lookup tables in PLC or microcontroller environments.  
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I have made some solar tracking devices. For the required precise, the double float data type is needed when use astronomical algorithms in high accuracy sun tracking. So, microcontroller can not satisfy this requirement. Arm7 chip is recommended. I used arm7 to carry out spa algorithm well. For PLC application, the sun position should precalculated using PC with high precise astronomical algorithms. For one GPS location, a 512M flash may store 20 years sunposition data. In practice, it is neccessary to revise the data using a sunlight sensor. Because there are errors in installation of solar tracking devices, errors in deformation lead by gravity and wind load, uniform inground settlement. What  I want to say is that it is not neccessary to use SPA algorithms unless astronomical observation. For solar engineering, low precise algorithms combining with sunlight sensor is more practical in cost and in reliability.
In attach, there are a C file for high precise sunposition and a low precise algoritm in matlab language. 
The link is a paper using  low precise algorithms combining with sunlight sensor
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I have hovered over MATLAB help, and I don't want to use the code generator for PLC. I was wondering if there are any means to use pre-programmed black boxes with adjustable settings. I'd appreciate any comments
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 Hi Vahid.
In Matlab you can model a Discrete Event Systems with graphical tool called StateChart of simulik. You can see in (http://www.mathworks.com/discovery/state-chart.html)
This tool is not a standard PLC language, but the logic of the system can be simulated with this tool.
Translation from PLC ladder diagram to state chart to test prototype code is as under:
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See above
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1)
DCS is the acronym for Distributed control systems;
SCADA is the acronym for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
2)
DCS is process oriented;
SCADA is data-gathering oriented.
3)
DCS is process state driven; 
SCADA system is event driven.
4)
A DCS is a process control system that uses a network to interconnect sensors, controllers, operator terminals and actuators. A DCS typically contains one or more computers for control and mostly use both proprietary interconnections and protocols for communications.
SCADA may be called Human-Machine Interface (HMI). SCADA systems are used to monitor or to control chemical, physical or transport processes.
5)
Distributed Control System (DCS) consists of one or more controllers used to implement advanced process control techniques.
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems cannot carry out advanced process control techniques.
6)
DCS is more integrated and can do more higher-end stuff, but
SCADA systems are more flexible.
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For implementation of PLC inside FPGA.
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to Hesham Gad:
Would you be so kind to recommend some literature for implementing timers via FSM?
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Most literature gives sales as the variable to pinpoint the location of a product in the PLC. However i'm looking for other variables to determine at what phase/stage a product is.
Who can provide me the right answers/literature? 
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There is no exact measure, Geoffrey Moore's Chasm has already been mentioned. One concrete way to see if a product has reached maturity is that it is usually marked by sales increasing at a decreasing rate unlike what has been stated above. Caution in interpreting that post. In other words growth is tapering off without declining. This is a tipping point for maturity. When it actually backs off is the point of decline. These are two good indicators. 
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Hie guys .Help please .I am trying to design a closed loop feed braking system to control the brakes using a PLC for a locomotive (10 gauge). I was planning on using a Hall Effect sensor to pick up rotational speed and also measure it, I have just been told it will not be as accurate. Some suggested I try a tachogenerator and another suggested to me to convert a PWM output into a voltage output but I don’t know where to start. Thanks you?
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Ben, I don't understand your question very well.  I gather that you have a rotating drive shaft that presumably connects a drive motor to one or more wheels.  Are you trying to control a regenerative braking system by switching the resistance in the braking circuit?  Are you trying to detect wheel slip?  What determines how much braking you need?  What is your requirement for "accuracy"?  How were you planning to use the Hall Effect Sensor--to measure the braking current?   Hall sensors are typically used to measure DC current and can be fairly accurate, but if you are just dissipating power in a resistor bank you can do the same thing quite cheaply by just measuring the voltage across the load resistors.  This solution would not give you any information about the rotational speed of the shaft or wheel slip, however.   If you need to measure the speed of he shaft/wheel, then the suggestion above about encoders is valid, although you may be able to build a more robust system by using an inductive proximity sensor to sense a keyway on the shaft or the teeth of a gear or sprocket.  Inductive sensors are typically impervious to water, dirt, grease, etc. and also much less fragile if mechanical shock is an issue than an optical encoder would be.  And many PLCs do have inputs specifically for pulse inputs from speed sensors.
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What are the main challenges, advantages and drawbacks of this technology (PLC)?
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You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.
From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.
Kind regards, Prof Dr ZOL BAHRI
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I am using Allan Bradley PLC with a servo module (1756-M02AE) for obtaining velocity and position. In this, I am using a position loop for controlling the velocity of the structure. I need a in detailed explanation regarding this position loop. In this regard, I am attaching the document of the servo module. Please refer to page number 132 in the document for the line diagram of the position loop.
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Ve
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Professional learning communities seem to be 'everywhere' in dutch schools nowadays. However nobody really seems to know what makes a 'good' professional learning community. What is necessary for a professional learning community to really 'learn' and to do it together? I am curious to know about experiences you may have studying learning in PLC's
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Helma, I haven't studied PLCs but have attempted to create them in a teaching environment. I work with 12 to 15 teachers most of the time but am involved beyond that as part of a committee to develop up to 100 teachers. My experience is that being part of a learning group requires intellectual commitment and the only way to get that buy in is by appealing to their professional ethics and goals. My group are mainly teachers of science so I appealed to their belief in experimentation. The way they see learning is through action research. We discuss problems that need working on, ideas to try to improve outcomes, experiments to try in pedagpgy, assessment and curriculum, then action the ideas as indepndant professionals and report back. I keep this fairly informal and often act as  conduit for ideas. In 10 years, I have a fairly active PLC as evidenced by the interactions between staff members, groups and me as their manager. If I want a particular focus now, I insert it into the mix of problems to solve. One important spect is to keep the descriptions of problems, solutions, ideas to experiment with fairly general so individuals can take their own approach. That way they feel in control and we get a wide range of experiments.
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In xylem, hydraulic conductivity measurements, what is the desired concentration of bleach that should be used in order to constrain bacterial growth on the samples before the vacuum process?
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Hi
Thanks for the answers
It seems that determining the maximum conductivity after vacuum  is the most sensitive stage in this process.
Thanks
Yakir
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Programmable Logic Controllers
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Relay concept is the basic for all programmable logic controllers. The difference is relay uses the analog signals but the PLC uses the digital signals. These digital signals can be given from a computer through the simulation.
So, a program can be written to the controllers and depending upon the inputs it will give the output.