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PBL - Science topic

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Planetary Boundary Layer Height and its diurnal change
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A tough question in any kind of complex terrain. The classic definitions do not work
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I am interested in the concept of active learning, its related methodologies (PBL, cooperative learning, peer learning) and theories to support it.
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24 December MMXXI
I don't know of any,
and I hope none exists!
Cordially...
ASJ
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Project Based Learning is a pedagogic framework to learn and teach a subject through a project. ... Recently, a few ELT practitioners have come up with a framework to make PBL applicable to ELT while expanding on the principles and practice of task-based learning.Project-Based
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Project-based learning requires students to work on real-world problems and devise solutions. PBL is based on the Constructivist theory where students work collaborate or work in groups and apply the skills taught in class to complete a task ( i.e. essay, assignment, presentation, final research project, end-of term paper). As the group works through the task they acquire communication and collaboration skills.
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Hi,
Firstly, this is not so much a discussion as a question for potential networking.
In my Ph.D. project, I research engineering students' development of generic skills/competence in PBL and wondered if other Ph.Ds or senior researchers would like to network and meet - we've all grown accustomed to Zooming, Teaming etc. to discuss topics related to competence-development education not necessarily limited to PBL or engineering education.
If interested, please write.
Take care,
Anders
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Samy Azer.Kiprotich Kiptum that such a network is definitely needed. I am interested in those publications Samy Azer
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Needs some guide lines till how much extent we give students permission to use electronic resources in session B
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Recently, upon the increase in need for tutors in parallel with the increase in number of students, alternative searches have started to ease the educator’s load. Considering that the students can make use of information technologies, the educator’s load becomes easier; a student-centered electronic PBL (e-PBL) application in which students competent in PBL can steer themselves was planned at the end of third year of the educational program. The developed e-PBL application was not developed as an alternative to the classical face-to-face PBL sessions which are applied in the educational program during the first 3 years. It was planned as a transition model between the pre-clinically applied PBL and Task-based Learning programs which are applied in the clinical years.
REFERENCE
Application of an Electronic Problem-Based Learning System in Undergraduate Medical Education Program Berna Musal1 *, Onur Keskin1 and Pinar Tuncel2 1Department of Medical Education, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey 2Department of Biochemistry, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey
LINK
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Several works have investigated which problems affect the work of a PBL group. Both students and tutors report that, among others, lack of commitment or motivation is one of the most frequent problem. Unfortunately, I could not find any peer-reviewed work which would investigate how tutors deal with this problem and which strategies are considered the most effective. Any suggestions?
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There are studies available comparing PBL and Non PBL
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I am trying to do a correlation between SO2 data obtained from satellite AURA OMI and SO2 data obtained from Ground Monitoring Stations.
Since both values show the level of concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere, though in different units, and one should increase if other is increasing but then why do they show a weak and negative correlation?
The study area is the Ahmedabad District. The correlation has been done for annual mean values for the years 2014-18.
Here is the screenshot of scatter plots generated from the regression analysis.
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From NASA's Worldview Portal
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In recent years, papers by Sun (https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C21&q=The+Role+of+Large-Coherent-Eddy+Transport+in+the+Atmospheric+Surface+Layer+Based+on+CASES-99+Observations&btnG=), as well as those by Mahrt (2013; 2015 within the above reference) and van de Wiel BJH (2012 within the above reference) have examined how wind speed thresholds, particularly in the neutral to stable limit, results in changes in TKE production and therefore the evolutionary characteristics of the PBL.
In the study by Sun, they derive a height dependent wind speed threshold using the CASES-99 data (Fig. 4e). They find a strong dependence of a velocity threshold on ustar, thetastar, and the theta gradient across the lower PBL; this can be understood by studying Fig. 3, 4, and 6. They emphasize a transition from a TKE/TPE framework when V < Vs (winds are less than the velocity threshold) to a TKE dominated framework. They attribute this as an eroding of the thermodynamic structure into one that is vertically uniform and a decrease in thetastar. This is also reflected in their figures.
These results are very interesting and tie in nicely to works by Zilitinkevich. There is still much work that needs to be done in the very stable limit, but from an operational perspective, these results appear potentially useful at parameterizing the PBL, especially during dynamic transitions such as the onset of LLJs, diurnal cycle, etc. With that said, this analysis was conducted over a short grass region and therefore is not generalized to characterize the impacts of different roughness types. The other references attempt to look into this, and this is somewhat examined in Fig. 4 of van de Wiel (2012); however, I have yet to see a comprehensive analysis of this as relates to surface type dependencies.
Does anyone know of a follow-up study or a group that is currently working on examining these details from an observational point of view?
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Update:
Upon researching further it seems there are some basic studies that try to address this question. A study published this year by some of the same authors - shown here: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C21&q=Understanding+physical+processes+represented+by+the+Monin-OBukhov+Bulk+formula+for+momentum+transfer&btnG= - compares results from CASES-99 (flat short grass) and FLOSS-II (complex terrain). The conditions between the two campaigns are quite different, with strong diurnal variability for CASES-99 (very little cases of clouds) while FLOSS-II had an abundance of rainy days. Persistent cloudy and rainy days limited a strong analysis of the impact of different stability regimes on the application of HOST in complex terrain. They did see for both sites that HOST seemed applicable. However, I wasn't able to deduce a generalization of roughness on this result.
A few key findings from these studies include:
1. Regardless of stability, there exists a very thin neutral sublayer (<1m) that is ever-present.
2. the height dependence of ustar depends on the strength of diurnal variation and roughness length
3. the importance of non-local eddies, either from shear or buoyancy, on the stability of surface layers
4. HOST converges to MOST in the neutral limit for any wind condition near the surface
There are some possible concerns from these studies, however.
1. The tower being used for CASES-99 has measurements from 0.5m to 60m above the surface. From a historical perspective, the surface layer has been consistently defined as 10% of the boundary layer, which, according the authors, has no basis. I somewhat agree with that inference; but, I do have concerns about how they do not identify the transition between the top of the surface layer with the layers above. There's a chance that some of their analysis incorporates cases where the measurement height exists outside the surface layer. This may muddle the results and reduce the intended result of examining HOST. Maybe they did consider this, but I couldn't identify this in the text.
2. The ever-present neutral sublayer may also vary in height and may not be fixed. I could depend both on the roughness elements distributed across the site and the thermal roughness length as well (maybe).
FYI, the bottom paragraph of the second page from the bolded source above lists a series of studies looking into HOST over various terrain. I haven't looked into this yet myself, but I guess this would be the next logical step.
I'm also curious about hearing anyone's thoughts on HOST
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Dear colleagues, Focusing on PBL promotion for some time now, we grew to start questioning its effectiveness. Are you familiar with any studies looking into it? What methods and tools have been used? What are the results? Thank you!
Martin
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Various studies have already shown that project-based learning in several conditions produces successful outcomes because it emphasizes on student-centric instruction.
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Any software that you recommend which can help in obtaining precise PBL (Planetary Boundary Layer) structure/height using the raw ceilometer data as an input.
Thank you.
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Hi Nakul,
In most of the ceilometer, aerosol topmost layer (seibert et al., 2000, Munkel et al., 2007) is consider as PBL (most of the time it referred as mixing layer height during windy day time period/residual layer during stable night period).
As you mentioned that you want to retrieve PBL directly from a software. So, I would like to suggest you that based on manufacturer of ceilometer, software available.
CHM viewer -Lufft CHM Ceilometer
Lab View - Vaisala ceilometer.
Hope so this information is useful for you.
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I'm looking for already developed BN models of competencies related to PBL.
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Dear Robyn, Mark and Ben,
I hope you are all well? I'm contacting you following a very preliminary discussion with Robyn about developing a shared simulation project between OXB and University of Brighton. I'm particuarly interested in the effectiveness of simulation in cardiorespiratory teaching for our pre-registration MSc physiotherapy students who follow a PBL programme.
I wondered if you would be willing to share some basic information about your current study and if you would be interested in engaging in a joint project? I understand that you use EBL which would bring a good level of similarity to our PBL approach.
With very best wishes,
Annabel Williams
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I am using specific pedagogy for cardio respiratory physiotherapy to teach more than 10 years for my undergraduate and postgraduate students. Annabel Williams
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Hi, I am getting high dry bias for non local pbl schemes in WRF but temperature output is very good statistically compared to local schemes. What are the options for reducing this bias without changing the pbl scheme (maybe in dynamics options?). I would very much like your input as I have little experience with WRF yet.
Regards
Neeldip
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I have noticed this behavior using the YSU PBL scheme, which is a nonlocal PBL that causes an overmixed PBL, especially over areas with a well-mixed atmosphere. If you are finding dry bias over monitoring stations in urban areas, I recommend the use of the urban canopy model (sf_urban_physics), even the simpler one ( sf_urban_physics =1). Additionally, I would also activate the mosaic LU categories in NOAH LSM ( sf_surface_mosaic =1). These two options will incorporate sub-grid processes that help in heat flux, temperature, and humidity.
if you are interested, you can read this paper (DOI: 10.1175/WAF-D-14-00105.1) which makes a review of the PBL schemes in WRF.
Be careful with microphysics options, because I already tested some if them over Brazil and I found huge differences in modeled rain.
Regards
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I have practiced and attended so many workshops related to PBL construction and conducting and analysing the sessions . rite now working on making some guide lines for constructing the case scenario for case discussions as in our curriculum there are so many case discussions.
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Consider how you will defend both reliability and validity in the construction of your PBL scenario and guidelines. If you were to simulate a real world event or phenomena, and had some literature support for that construction, I think you would be ok.
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Have you used Azer's paper (enclosed) in facilitating the discussion of mechanisms in PBL? What was your experience and what was the experience of your students? I lookforward to learn from you of ideas you used or techniques that helped your students.
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Nazia Asad - Thank you for your recommendation. May I know how are you planning to use this paper at your school. Do you have a PBL program? Are you interested in teaching students how to build mechanisms?
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Congratulations. I will read it and provide you with feedback.
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Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has been used in medical and health-related education for over 40 years. Team-based Learning (TBL) has been tried in some schools over the last 10-15 years, one would wonder about any study that has shown specific advantages of TBL over PBL or any other methods used in teaching/learning in higher education
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Thank you all for your responses and the discussion.
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Learning through different means will lead learners to gain knowledge at different levels and shape their attitude and practice especially beneficial in nursing education and clinical practice. Is there any difference or similarity between Problem-based Learning (PBL) and Challenge-based Learning (CBL) in nursing or health education?
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I really appriciate the response by Azer sir.
Just want to add, CBL is a subset of PBL and it is real life. There are differences between these and is well summarized in the following poster.
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I explained in a forum that PBL is a self-directed learning. However, some of the academicians did not agree by saying that tutors intervene in the PBL delivery process. I still belive PBL as one of the students-led learning process.
What do you think?
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Further to my earlier response, I recommend reading my book "Navigating Problem-Based Learning. Churchill Livingstone, El Saviour, 2008"
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Also I have these questions:
2.What king of level spacing should we employ above the PBL for such studies?
3.Also what should be the model top height for such studies? Is it really necessary to go above the tropopause.
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Thanks
Ali Alwaeli
for the info.
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I have seen a variety of methods that people use to rest after thawing PBMCs to inject them into mice including:
(1) Thaw, wash in HBSS, and inject right away (no resting)
(2) Thaw, and then culture in RPMI (5% human serum, 1% pen/strep, 1% LGlutamine, 1% NEAA, 1% sodium pyruvate, and 0.1% E-mercaptoethanol) at 37 overnight.
(3) Thaw, and rest overnight at 4C in RPMI with 20% FBS and 10 mM EDTA in Falcon tubes
(4) Thaw, rest in RPMI (1% pen/strep, 10% FBS) for 18h at 37
Has anyone humanized NSG mice using cyropreserved PBMCs. What methodology did you use for thawing/resting, and did you successfully humanize your mice?
Thanks in advance!!!
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Thanks so much!
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Problem-based learning (PBL) is the most significant innovation in education for the profession for many years . Some argue that it is the most important development since the move of professional training into educational institutions
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The best curriculum is the curriculum that addresses the local needs of each country i.e contextual, and should also satisfy the professional needs and the learners' needs.
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This is an invitation to my training workshop. I am conducting a workshop on becoming a PBL facilitator. I would like to hear from you about the facilitation skills of a PBL tutor. What are these skills?
How can be acquired? How can these skills be mastered? What are the other roles of a PBL tutor? If you have any question in this area, please share so that we can provide a scholarly discussion. I enclose more detail about the two-day training workshop.
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A PBL facilitator should know best in how to ask the right question to participants. This is a MUST have skill since the right questions asked with the right way to the right person could provide the required directions to participants.
Coaching is another. I sincerely hope you could explore these two.
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This is an invitation to my training workshop. I want to open a discussion about writing PBL cases. Did you share in writing case scenarios in your program/course? What was your experience? What are the areas do you feel you need further training? This is an opportunity to share your experience and ask questions and also share your responses to issues raised. A pleasure to hear from you.
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Dear Paul. Thank you for your comments. We have a range of resources we recommend for PBL. Among these are my papers and my book titled, Navigating Problem-Based Learning. Published by Churchill Livingstone: Elsevier, 2008, I enclose the cover page.
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It seems that teaching and learning methods should be modified in the era of Industrie 4.0.
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Yes, it is still relevant even though we facing with IR4.0 . It is fundamental criteria of teaching competencies in T&L. What we need to be expert is about how to apply technology effectively in T&L.
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mam,
can you help me in preparing a notes and finding the outcome of this method. i want to implement this method in computer course for the graduate students.
i need a sample copy for
1. how to prepare notes to implement Problem based Learning?
2. questioner to find out come of the course using PBL.
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There are a lot of articles published on this topic and many of them are based on senior projects for graduation purposes. Furthermore, simulated studies on converting traditional to applications.
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There are many Medical School Curriculum, either classic, or Team-Based Learning (TBL) or Problem Based Learning (PBL) ...and each school try to do it best for own students...according to your opinion which one you think is more interesting for the students with good feedback outcome?? Thanks
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Thanks for all your wonderful opinions ...I will take them in my consideration...
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Knowledge of LCL height can help in the accurate determination of PBL height. What's the relationship between the two? Does it have to do with the height of the formation of cumulus clouds? I am looking for an in-depth explanation.
Thank you in advance.
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I have to do an experiment with IFNbeta and I want to use it at a concentration of 1 pg/ml. The activity of IFNbeta is 10 units/ml while the specific activity is 10 units/mg. The stock that I have has a concentration of 10^4 units/ml. How do I calculate the volume of stock to obtain a final concentration of 1 pg/ml?
I also found this on PBL assay:
The formula to use to convert S.A. to pg/ml is as follow: [(1 x 10E+09)/(Lot specific activity in units/mg)] x [Lot-specific concentration in units/ml]
Thank you for your help.
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The IFNbeta dosage of 10 units/ml; what is the units? Is it MIU? Is it mcg? Is it something else?
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How to motivate university students who are new to project-based learning and who have been in a lecture-based learning throughout their entire education.
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It is important to inform the students about the advantages and process of PBL before starting the sessions. Let the students know that PBL is actually the approach through which the students will be able to learn the application of theoretical knowledge, which is similar to what they are going to face in their practical/ professional life. Tell them that this will help them develop the competencies required in the real world. Generally students are more motivated to learn something when it is related to their future professions.
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I have taught my first project based learning (PBL) design course this semester to fourth year civil engineering students. I wonder if any educator here would like to share her/his experience so that we exchange thoughts.
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Our Civil Engineering programme started since last year a fully PBL curriculum. Each semester we collaborate with real clients (Municipalities, companies, etc.) who provide a real complex problem to solve. Students must develop an innovative solution and to present it in various phases to clients and lecturers. All the theoretical knowledge provided is used within the project. The design approach is based on research principles. We have a very positive experience so far. Students are very involved and they seem developing a deeper understanding of the topics when they apply them to real case studies. We measured also a substantial increase in their satisfaction towards our study programme. Without any doubt, the PBL curriculum is working for us.
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Thank you for all your contributions and I invite you to help us expand our current research that brings PBL as a knowledge building tool. Problem-based learning guides that the number of academics for a core discussion is 8 to 15 and because it is a methodology appropriate to the growth of scientific thinking our suggestion is that in the classrooms there are between 24 to 45 students. It seems like an excessive number, however I remember that the PBL will make the academic learn to make decision, where the construction of the thought is modulated by real, everyday experiences.
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I have found that the use of structured essays allows me to us problem based learning in a larger class. This helps with on-line classes as well.
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Hello everyone, I need to perform a culture of lymphocytes isolated from healthy volunteers' blood samples using Ficoll Paque and that in order to study the DNA damage induced by several chemotherapy agents as well as DNA repair capacity. Therefore, I need to know if there is any optimal protocol that allows good PBL survival ? Also, for how long can we keep the lymphocytes in culture before doing the drugs tests ? Thank you
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Hi, you can follow this link
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Project Based Learning (PBL) seems to be transforming many traditional classrooms. I'm using the Buck Institute definition of PBL, where students develop the questions, processes and projects to achieve the desired learning outcomes.
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I have found that virtual poster competitions are a very good way of presenting research from online students. My criminal justice students participate in an annual virtual poster competition with several other universities. The power point images of the posters are submitted rather than a paper poster. This allows my online students to have the same opportunities to participate in projects and research as my face to face students.
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In the second tutorial in PBL students discuss their learning issues as a group so that they comprehend the different aspects related to the case. However, in some schools students distribute these learning issues among them and present them as powerpoint-answers. What do students in your school do? Do they discuss these learning issues through a scribe and construct these answers together as a group, or they present the responses created by individual students using powerpoint?
Which approach do you encourage as a tutor?
What is the educational basis for the approach used in your PBL groups?
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I have used both.
With the omnipresence of ICT, students tend to use PowerPoint, some even include short videos in theirs.
I encourage them to split the presentation among them, and set a timeframe in the evalutaion tool I give to each group. Some groups tend to go over the limit re timeframe and contents. for the latter I insist that the group leader emails me with any queries with regards to the set tasks.
Whiteboard and marker, I use when I teach a particular group in a one off session. So I set the whole class either a problem for the group or different problems for different groups to solve on the spot with me being available to clarify any difficult aspects. Reason for choice method, whole class problem or individual groups problems, varies for different reasons; from class size, to class dynmaics, to time available. It is very intuitive for me here.
Whichever problem method is used, I pick groups randomly after the allotted time is over to present their findings for discussion. Students listening to the presentation are encouraged to query anything presented, though most often than not, I have to start the ball rolling. Ironically I used to find this challenging method much more productive student interactive discussion wise.
Powerpoints tend to stultify the rest of the students listening to them; probably the current saying 'death by powerpoint' is a truism. Which is another excellent reason to use PBL:)
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How do you evaluate the problem-based learning (PBL) tutors? Do you, in your school, ask students to assess their PBL tutors using a standardised form? Or your school prefer not to use this type of evaluation? If you not, what other assessment do you have in your school to evaluate the performance of PBL tutors?
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In my home country, education assessment and evaluation processes generally include students opinion. This applies to all tutors and teachers.
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Many tutors feel that it is ok to read the tutor's guide and it is not important to attend the briefing/debriefing sessions. Why do we need these sessions? Are there any benefits behind them in problem-based learning programs?
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If you do not attend the sessions how are you ever going to know what techniques actually work or more importantly doesn't work?
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Share your strategy in designing the PBL class? what are the challenges for the students and teachers in it? Discuss your
assessment of the whole experience both from students' and teacher's perspective

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Project Based Learning (PBL) is very effective and productive way of learning if administered and delivered properly. It is important to:
1) make sure that project fits the curriculum and level of students.
2) assign student's team and to make sure that each students is contributing to the project equally
3) write Project Report in proper format and subject mastery level
4) make project final presentations in front of class
5) assessment policies must clearly stated at the beginning of thew project
6) proper timing of the project and mastery of the subject are essential
Plus, consider creating Virtual Groups of students from different schools in the nation and worldwide. This will help students to learn working with colleagues with different cultures and traditions and master the subject of collaboration and globalization
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Bearing in mind issues related to (1) what students might think about PBL and (2) what they do in response to PBL encounters
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If it's new to them you might think about looking into acculturation/enculturation into community of practice - see this paper for example:
or 'academic discourse socialization'
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I have labelled drug (protein) with FITC.
And then performed the drug binding to PBL from experimental mice or control by using FACS, I was observed binding only sensitized mice immune cells in blood: B, Neutrophil, Basophil, MQ and DC but not T cells, RBCs.
Can anyone suggest me for the same.
1. How I will identify exact receptors or binding partner present on these cells
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Thanks
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Dear all,
I am currently collecting studies for Brazil (Northeast), Iran, Sudan, Ecuador, and West Africa, in which parameterization physics (cumulus, microphysics, PBL, etc.) experiments have been conducted.
I already have found a few and additional knowledge from personal communications, but I would be happy if I could get a clearer picture. Background: I am going to conduct (convection permitting) simulations for these regions, and try to get a good starting point for additional experiments ....
Cheers, Patrick
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Hi Patrick,
I agree with Arif. I would like to add two sources of information from Brazil. Here you can find several WRF runs for every part of Brazil.
1) The web page of the Brazilian Society of Meteorology where you can find information about the Anual conference. http://www.sbmet.org.br/portal/index.php
2) The Brazilian Journal of Meteorology
BONUS: The Facebook group of Brazilian Meteorology is very active and academic. You can ask in english and lots of people will answer: https://www.facebook.com/groups/234331993288958/
Best, Sergio
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This question seeks to understand possible extent of problem based learning application. this could be with respect to Community health workers, counselors and their possible use of such knowledge in the community.
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Problem based learning (PBL) is surely helpful in community health education. As we know, PBL was first introduced in the medical school of McMaster University in 1969. PBL is more than “problem solving”. The problem is used to help students, community health workers and counselors to identify their own learning needs as they attempt to understand the problem, to collaborate, to research and apply the information to solve the problem, and reap other benefits besides solving the problem. (I have been using PBL for my classes.)
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All the stakeholders effectively attribute towards curriculum designing, integration and problem based learning methodology.
What effectively students can contribute as stakeholders?
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Dear Faraz,
in my experience one important contribution from students comes from their feedback on the PBL experience - see for example this article:
Scholkmann, A. (2017). “What I learn is what I like.” How do students in ICT-supported problem-based learning rate the quality of the learning experience, and how does it relate to the acquisition of competences? Education and Information Technologies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-017-9629-7.
I have alsohad very good experiences with integrationg students' views on PBL by integrating more senior students as PBL--tutors for younger studtends, and discussing their observations and experiences with them.
I've not heard about procedures for students more actively contributing to the PBL-curriculum, for example through submission of PBL-cases. However, I would be thrilled to read about such examples, if there are any!
Kind regards,
Antonia
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I have been using PBL for two decades now. Two things struck me in the goups randomly assigned to work together. I wrote about this extensively in the endnotes section in my book on TE Education since it is something of a hobby horse of mine. The process of using this teaching strategy, even in large groups, is explained fully ther
The group might be dysfunctional for various reasons but usually the two reasons I gave above in the question predominate though I tried to minmise them by randomly assigning group leaders for each group.
I also encountered both problems mentione above during my elearning course, and frankly found the ostracising one much more disturbing personally.
I never liked giving group assignments as an assessment strategy; the PBL presentations were a simple teaching strategy to engage students with learning and further reading as required at HE level.
Once I was constrained by student demands to give them the option of doing an assignment in pairs. If done in pairs both students had to write a small reflection on the whole process. Reading the reflections, everything was as smooth as silk, which made me sceptical of course.
Come a year later I learnt how the assignment was done by one person while the other did the assignment of the other study unit in a couple of instances; so much for the reflective account..
With regards to group assignments allocated by other academics, I had heard too much hoary incidents by students confiding me, to even remotely consider it, hence my duo students effort.
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Journal wise, it's a bit like an annotated bibliography, in which they keep their research and record thoughts and reflections, more context orientated than the reflective journal which I suppose in this case is more concerned with content and form.
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Which method is more effective (PBL Vs Lecture) in medical collge?
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Problem-based is noted to be the preferred approach in the Medicine but lectures can provide a foundation to the topic. PBL develops the student's critical and analytical skills that so important for the medical field. I can also recommend debating as an alternative to pure PBL. See this link for a sample of the debating method, results, and feedback from students:
Best regards,
Debra
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Students' conceptions of Project-based learning (PBL). We wanna apply phenomenography to investigate students conceptions. Therefore we would like to know the difference between 'Phenomenography' vs 'Phenomenology'
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With phenomenology you are looking at a theoretical stance which may lead to various methodological choices.  Phenomenography is a methodology rather than a theoretical positioning.  
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Curious about the diurnal temperature variations in winters and summer, how much they depend on PBL height and Longwave radiations. Any suggestions of book, model and articles is appreciated. 
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I think Oke is still useful: Oke, T. R. (1987) Boundary Layer Climates, 2 edition. London; New York, Routledge.
I also like McIlveen: McIlveen, J. F. R. (1998) Fundamentals of Weather and Climate, Cheltenham, UK, Stanley Thorne (Publishers) Ltd.  
Two more recent books can be found at:  
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Strategies are only part of teaching in STEM academies.  Another critical 
factor is effect size.  Have you used ESs in your research conclusions?  
If so, what have you found? Thank you.
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In his Visible Learning  for Teachers, he gave an example in the book's Appendix  E per what you are discussing.  He noted (page 272) that over a five months period, the 0.40 average should still be expected.  He also gave the reasons for his conclusion: teachers often adjust the difficulty of a test to take into account the elapsed time, and  teachers more often create assessments on specific topics within a year's curriculum.  He further noted that within a year the aim was greater than 0.40; 0.8 over two years, 1.2 over three years, and so on.  Thus, he saw no problem using ES calculations in shorter time periods.
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I need to isolate total RNA from PBL of bovine blood for reverse transcription. The blood sample was collected by another lab and shipped to my lab, but it was delayed so that I got the blood one week after the animal was bled.
So, is that possible for me to get good PBL and RNA from this sample?I didn't isolate the PBL yet.
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@Shahinaz Mahmood Shalaby 
Hi Shahinaz, thanks for your suggestion. I did try to isolate PBL with Histopaque, but got nothing with 50ml blood. In fact, we usually isolate cell within 2h after bleeding. But this time we have no choice but to go ahead to see if we are lucky, but no...
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Project-based learning in Grade 3 pupils about force and motion.
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Hi Lea Legaspi & Ana Maria.
Here is some reading materials that I use when referring to pedagogy and learner centricity.
Issues in Teachers' Reinterpretation of a Task-Based Innovation in Primary Schools. David Carless TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 4 (Winter, 2004), pp. 639-662
Where's the evidence that active learning works? J Michael - Advances in physiology education, 2006 - Am Physiological Society.
David H. Jonassen
Instructional Design Models for Well-Structured and Ill-Structured Problem-Solving
Learning Outcomes
Donner, R. S., & Bickley, H. (1990). Problem-based learning: an assessment of its feasibility and cost. Human Pathology, 21(9), 881-885.
Rob.
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Today’s students, more than ever, often find course-based learning to be boring and meaningless.
In PBL, students are active, not passive; a project engages their hearts and minds, and provides real-world relevance for learning.
After completing a project, students remember what they learn and retain it longer than is often the case with traditional instruction.
 Because of this, students who gain content knowledge with PBL are better able to apply what they know and can do to new situations.
What do you think about established this type of center in your country?
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in IRAN, I established this type of research and training center in field of Engineering and training students to improve student's research factors. for more information please follow this link
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What best strategies to adopt in reforming a PBL medical school curriculum?
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There are many interpretations of PBL, but if the primary instructional strategy is to give learners a problem and ask them to discover the solution themselves with minimal guidance, then there is little evidence  for effectiveness (See Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006), except perhaps for learners with substantial prior knowledge.  For complex tasks, the evidence reveals the effectiveness of using cognitive task analysis with multiple experts to capture the knowledge and skills they use to perform complex tasks and solve difficult problems.  CTA results can then be demonstrated and practiced by learners using increasingly complex problems to enhance transferability and adaptability. 
Richard E. Clark has written extensively on medical education and I recommend following him on RG.
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I want to know the reason behind the thickness of the PBL which leads to the confinement of aerosols over the North India region in the winter season.
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The  confinement of aerosol over the northern India (basically IGB) during the winter season  is primarily due to cold flows with low wind speed especially coming from high Himalayan mountain range along the foot hills of Himalayan belt (Gautam et al., 2007) which lead to formation of stable layer over the region.
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The literature debates on tips for successful small group sessions, but among these long list of important tips what is the most important have's and must not have's?
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Be a good non judgemental listener.
Promote a collegial atmosphere.
Everyone in there has experience which must be shared in a safer atmosphere, good luck.
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Problem-based learning (PBL)
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Debra,
Thanks for the links! I am really interested in neurological basis of thinking. Why do individuals think differently on a topic? I know it relates to their knowledge and past experiences, but there must be a fundamental difference in the brain wiring that underpin a particular way of thinking pattern.
Shaoyu
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Has anyone applied Mellor–Yamada Nakanishi Niino 2.5 and 3 PBL schemes and sensitivity analysis for precipitation over subtropical area. Kindly let share your experiences if you have did it.
Cheers!
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No problem thanks for your email
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I need to characterize Treg from PBL and the protocol says I have to add PMA/ionomycine+ Golgistop for intracellular cytokines detection by FACS.  What is the aim of using PMA/ionomcyine. Is only for brief activation of T cells? Does that affect cell surface markers? or is it mainly to induce cytokines production? Can I look at the intracellular cytokines without activation?
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PMA/Ionomycin will stimulate the cells rather strongly. Without this (re-)activation, you will not see much cytokine producing cells, since Tcells produce most of the cytokines rather transiently after activation (so you can only stain cytokines of already in-vivo activated cells). With PMA/Iono stimulation, T cells that are capable of producing certain cytokine will do so.
Golgistop will retain the cytokines in the cell instead of secretion, which allows you to stain them in the first place.
Surfacemarker are affected through the stimulation, i.E. cd40L will show up, while cd4 will mainly be internalised.
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I am currently working on the design of a Learner Support System (LSS) for online adult students and the aspect I am focusing on now is developing knowledge building skills. My premise is that learners' capacity for knowledge building is best developed within a problem-solving, or Problem-based Learning (PBL) context.
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Hello, Olabisi.
I have not done any practical work in the areas you mentioned but as a functionary of education, these notions are I encounter almost always. I think constructivism is basically a teaching paradigm (theory) based on observation and scientific study -- about how people learn.
It suggests that people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. When we encounter something new, we have to reconcile it with our previous ideas and experience, maybe changing what we believe, or maybe discarding the new information as irrelevant. In any case, we are active creators of our own knowledge. To do this, we must ask questions, explore, and assess what we know.
In the classroom, the constructivist view of learning can point towards a number of different teaching practices. In the most general sense, it usually means encouraging students to use active techniques (experiments, real-world problem solving) to create more knowledge and then to reflect on and talk about what they are doing and how their understanding is changing. The teacher makes sure she understands the students' preexisting conceptions, and guides the activity to address them and then build on them. 
Conversely, problem-solving, to me is a teaching strategy (technique), an ongoing activity which allows learners to discover knowledge at their own pace. It sometimes entails overcoming obstacles by generating hypo-theses, testing those predictions, and arriving at satisfactory solutions.
Problem-solving involves three basic functions: Seeking information; Generating new knowledge and Making decisions.
In fact, problem-solving is, and should be, a very real part of the curriculum. It presupposes that students can take on some of the responsibility for their own learning and can take personal action to solve problems, resolve conflicts, discuss alternatives, and focus on thinking as a vital element of the curriculum. It provides students with opportunities to use their newly acquired knowledge in meaningful, real-life activities and assists them in working at higher levels of thinking.
Maybe, the only thin line between them would be that through constructivism, learners can solve practical problems and vice versa. All the best 
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What contract clauses and terms do we often see in PBL contracts, but not in traditional contracts, because they deviate from or isn't present in traditional contracts? It would be very appreciated if someone would share their experiences  working with PBL or share some of the contractual clauses/terms.
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How does Performance-Based Logistics (PBL) contract derogate from traditional contracting?
I have been leading operations and contract logistics for the US military for nearly two decades, and new changes have been implemented based on transport and logistics performance. The government is now concerned with levels of service and time sensitivity to ports, forts, and shipyards. This may require freight tracking (GPS) in the future on all shipments, but some have it now.  I agree that traditional contracts have been looked upon as "old school".
Look for these types of government contracts to remain consistent in transport, supply chain, and logistics. For example, the new PBL contracts are similar to ranking soccer teams, where carriers, sub-contractors, and logistics firms are ranked and rated. The PBL ratings helps determine future volume and business allocation.
An A+ gets your logistics company more business with suppliers and government logistics officers. Computers will hold the data needed to determine future logistics contractors and freight carriers. I have been linked to military logistics for decades. The PBL is a tool used by all government logistics bases to understand the level of service and document mission failures. It has been in the works for a few years.
Great question!!!
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Problem Based Learning is considered as an effective method of teaching and learning in Medical Schools with distinct advantages over traditional methods. Does PBL lead to lifelong learning as compared to lectures which are considered as a "passive" learning...
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Problem-based learning is not wrong epistemological approach to medical education. Problem based is learner centered approach. The learner is a person  who is physiological, psychological, emotional, intellectual, cultural, social, and spiritual being. These elements of a learner as a person are taken into account in the application of problem-based learning. The focus of learning takes the wholeness of the learner
Similarly  in Person Centered Medicine the focus of health care is on the wholeness of of the person. Person-centered medicine focuses on the state of physical, mental, social and spiritual well-being through health promotion and disease reduction. Health needs are highly individualized because of the uniqueness of the person. Health promotion and disease reduction take into account the wholeness of the person.
In the person centered medicine the human elements as a person  are at the center of health promotion and disease reduction while in learner-centered education the  human elements of the learner are at the center of education. Therefore there is no difference between PERSON in Person Centered Medicine and the PERSON in learner-centered education.