Science topic

Osteology - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Osteology, and find Osteology experts.
Questions related to Osteology
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
8 answers
In most of the studies of patients with osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI), application of bisphosphonates led to a beneficial increase in bone density (measured by DXA). What is your experience in this topic?
Relevant answer
Answer
In our research, we found that Bisphosphonates increased oral bone volume in osteogenesis imperfecta. These findings corroborate with the findings in the medical field about the increase in bone volume with bisphosphonate treatment.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
11 answers
Surgery or physical therapy?
Relevant answer
Answer
Following any means to treat OA. Strengthening of the quadriceps muscles goes a long way.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
3 answers
I'm working on the osteology of fossil anuran amphibians. Please let me know has the radioulna some diagnostic characters in these animals (i.e. is it possible to determine this bone up to species/genus level etc.)? I will be very thankful for your comments.
Relevant answer
Answer
Я определяю эти кости как Anura: строение их у современных представителей из Восточной Европы очень сходно. Иногда кажется, что какие-то конкретные кости более вероятно относятся к тому или другому семейству, но я не могу объяснить это морфологическими особенностями.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
8 answers
What would be the best way to determine if a piece of bone in an archaeological artefact is human or non human? A story associated with the object is that the bone is human. As it is not able to be damaged, destructive testing is not allowed. The bone has been worked into a fish hook so its original form or which element it is from is unknown. Any suggestions?
Relevant answer
Answer
An additional possibility is microCT.  Vasculature patterns can be used to indicate human versus, say, artiodactyl bone.  If you have nanoCT, and can visualize the distribution and number of osteocyte lacunae, this is also a very effective way of determining the probability that the bone was from a human or not.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
2 answers
Any specifics related to the numerous variations found? Particularly on the side of the Hemi and Accessory Hemi azygos vein.
Relevant answer
Answer
This is a comprehensive review
The azygos vein pathway: an overview from anatomical
variations to pathological changes
Piciucchi S, Barone D, Sanna S, Dubini A, Goodman LR, Oboldi D, Bertocco M, Ciccotosto C, Gavelli G, Carloni A, Poletti V.
Insights Imaging. 2014 Oct;5(5):619-28.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
1 answer
The question says it all.
Relevant answer
Answer
Joseph:
Have a look at this link for important insights:
Best
Syed
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
4 answers
Hey. For osteology fish. Someone has a protocol or an approach to dissect and visualize the bone head?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Tiago 
really, this article is useful
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
28 answers
Is there a way to identify cannibalism through osteology? 
Relevant answer
Answer
There are multiple ways, most rely on contextual clues.
Analysis of cut- marks can indicate whether people were butchered or defleshed. Comparison of the treatment of human remains with animal remains from the same site can increase confidence that the butchery was geared towards the consumption of people.
Similarly, the degree of burning of human bones can be recorded and compared to how animal remains from the same context were treated.
Damage/polish patterns indicative of boiling in pots are sometimes present on human bones, indicating cooking of some sort.
I guess the only way to really definitively prove cannibalism is from the analysis of human tissue in human coprolites.
One of the landmark works on the identification of cannibalism from bone assemblages is: 
White, T.D., 1992: Prehistoric Cannibalism at Mancos 5MTUMR-2346, Princeton University Press.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
5 answers
For my non-metric trait study on humans, I am in need of learning the basic homology between humerus and femur. What kind of evolutionary anatomical differences or similarities exist between the two very bones? Could you recommend any basic literature on this topic? Thank you very much in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
...just out of interest, I have also just ordered a copy of this book, which looks like it has some interesting chapters on limb development and evolution in humans. I obviously haven't read it yet, but it might also be of interest to you:
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
8 answers
Dear colleagues, has somebody an idea what this can be? These are spheroidal prickly figures (diameter less than 1mm), which are arranged rare single, mostly in groups. Here you can see it in the frontal sinus of a human Os frontale.
Relevant answer
Answer
Lichens substitute in manganese oxide.  That may be worth investigating further.  We have had this experience on fossil bones from South African cave sites.  
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
8 answers
63 yr old obese lady. Non diabetic and normal vitamin D level
Relevant answer
Answer
Recently saw one of my old operated case (14yrs ago) with acute onset of pain & increasing deformity (valgus) of the right knee for the last 3 months. Suggestions, please?
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
8 answers
If a person lying down on the ground is stabbed on the sternum with sufficient force, will there be any sort of trauma/ fracture on the spine?
Relevant answer
Answer
Roopashree Talanki ; first of all ,when we are dealing with a victim of a crime ` the real cause of death` requires full autopsy without a single exception . The circumstances that causes ultimate death could be `multiple and simultaneous and could equally contribute to the death` . The nature of injuries in a given crime victim can be stabbing , blunt force , strangulation, drowning even poisoning at the same time ` .
So in this case near Sternal intercostal penetrating Chest Stabbing(s ) themselves -together or individually - not necessarily cause death of an individual UNLESS it directly contributes to direct cardiac injury with cardiac tamponade and or great vessel injury, large pneumothorax or large hemothorax . Seeing the multiple ` only skin` penetrating stab wound(s) around the sternum per se NOT NECESSARILY mean those stabbings are `penetrating deep enough to reach the vital structures` lungs,great vessels or heart`. Even they penetrate through the chest wall documented through – testing by probing the wound itself – simply because not every penetrating chest wound cause vital injury at all - . So those parasternal stab wounds at the skin may be coincidental and misleading , the actual events that leading to ultimate death may well include , fall from a height –before or after the stabbing- or even jumping from height after the initial non fetal stabbing around the sternum . The instrument used at the crime –if exist and found- that presumably caused the injury helps to connect the dots of the circumstances . This instrument`s authenticity that it was actually used at this crime without any reasonable doubt has to be confirmed too .
As I stated earlier first and most you need `Full and comprehensive autopsy` including comprehensive toxicology screen as well as total body CAT scan . To determine each and every injury at the victim and extend of injuries in detail .
The best answer for the court and the jury is `I need full and comprehensive autopsy` and `I can NOT answer whether wound around the parasternal skin actually contributed to death of that individual` as well as coincidental spine injury . He/ She might have other injuries as well . Cervical , thoracic or lumbar spine injuries are very frequently seen among crime victims no matter what actually caused their ultimate death , simply because of `physical violence as well as fear and flight `reactions and jumping from height as well as blunt force and penetrating injuries ALL COEXIST at the crime victim . All of these facts I listed are based on my personal experience as Chief Surgical Resident in dealing with clinical Surgical Trauma victims at a South Bronx New York Major Trauma Center as well as 37 years of uninterrupted Clinical Practice in Emergency Medicine in the States . Do NOT make any `prejudicial statement to a Jury of lay people` before you having the full knowledge of the circumstances that ultimately caused death of the victim , most of the time the Jury members will misunderstand what you have said even do not understand or comprehend what you mean or said to them . That is the reality . Best luck for you .
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
8 answers
Hello,
I look desperately for the reference of a publication (Poland ?, 1960s) about the ribs of large Ice Age Mammals. It contains wonderful plates with illustrations of the ribs of woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis), of horse, aurochs, deer etc., and figures of sections of the ribs. Unfortunately, I lost the paper and do not remember author, title and journal. I would be grateful if anyone can give me the reference.
Best regards,
Stefan Wenzel
Relevant answer
Answer
Unfortunately, I do not know of such publication. I can give email to Paul Wojtala. He is an employee of the Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow
Best wishes
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
6 answers
The spheno-occipital synchondrosis is frequently used for estimation of age in humans, with complete fusion of that synchondrosis denoting an adult (it fuses during adolescence). The literature on the subject is abundant in the fields of forensic anthropology, reconstructive surgery, bioarchaeology, etc. However, I fail to find any literature for estimating age in non-human animals using fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis. I am particularly curious to know whether this trait can be used to tell adults apart from subadults/juveniles in Ungulates (also in Carnivores and non-human Primates, by the way). Does anyone know anything about the subject, or at least point me to some papers/books?
Relevant answer
Answer
The important question porbably is, what means maturity. Is it sexual maturity (in the sense of fertile germ cells or as age at first reproduction) or is it skeletal maturity (in the sense of all or most epiphyses fusing or even completely fused). Often the second is taken as a proxy for the first. In ungulates this can be quite variable. Like sheep ewes that can be inseminated under favorable consitions as early as with 7 month. We are curating a collection of skulls and parts of the postcranium of Soay sheep with known age-at-death. Some epiphyses show signs of fusion in the course of the second year. In the third year all epiphyses start fusing and show last remnants up to the beginning of the fourth year. Fusion of the basioccipital to the basisphenoid is occuring in the second year of life. So in these creatures this fusion is somewaht inbetween (potential) sexual maturity and skeletal maturity. I would expect it to vary considerably between other genera and even more between orders.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
4 answers
Does anybody know Lithoglyphus pygmaeus specimens (or ornaments manufactured from this gastropod) discovered in prehistoric sites?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Cătălin,
From what I could find on a quick search on the Internet, I understand that L. pygmaeus is a species currently found only near the Danube in the area of Giurgiu (http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/156068/0).
It may be possible that the species had a larger geographic range in the past, but, just in case it didn't, I suggest you also look for information on ornaments made from other Lythoglyphus species, as close comparison material.
For example, L. naticoides was used in prehistoric times for making ornaments. Here's a paper that can get you started:
Apparently, a L. naticoides necklacewas also found in Romania:
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
19 answers
Broken anterior processus in one os malleus is almost the same size as manubrium. Is anyone met similar change ? Maybe it's normal variability ?
Pictures and above question from my collegue / Zdjęcie i pytanie od pana Marcina :
Relevant answer
Answer
My answer was toward tibial distal end exostosis-malleolus. If you mean ear ossciles, then it is not occupational,  but to pathological or even traumatic osteosclerosis.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
7 answers
I am culturing osteoclast from bone marrow. After flushing bone marrow, and culture overnight to get non-adherent cells. Treat the cells with M-CSF to expand cell number. But sometimes before the cells reaching 70% confluence, most of them become detached and dying. When RANKL is used, the cells become round without pseudopods. Also after differentiation using M-CSF and RANKL for 4 days, sometimes cells become detached.  But sometimes I can get good osteoclasts. I don't know why. Does anyone ever experience such dying cells? I need a lot of cells, and I don't want them to be dying before confluence. Thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
Previously I often do culture osteoclast from mice bone marrow in femur. It seems that I do this experiment different from you. I attached a protocol for you. Good lucky!
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
10 answers
We know of many pioneering researchers use odontometry as a tool, but does anyone know what person established this term, and the first context of its use? Are there references of this?
Regards.
Relevant answer
Answer
Owen is a good address: He published the book Odontography in 1840-1845. Two books with Odontology in the titles are:
Peyer B (1968) Comparative Odontology. Univ Press Chicago
Keil A (1966) Grundzüge der Odontologie. Borntraeger Berlin
Best wishes Kurt
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
10 answers
Recurrent Fibrous dysplasia is a very challenging condition to treat. Any new developments in this field...
Relevant answer
Answer
Totally agree with Raju Vaishya and Panayot Tanchev... Wedge osteotomy, extended curettage and fixation but real need to preserve head vascularization. Do we have any informations about it? My preference would be GAMMA Nail at his age
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
5 answers
I am a beginner of osteology of rats and mie.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you very much Sir.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
6 answers
I am looking for some references on Paracamelus, more precisely some osteological description, and comparatives with recent camelids. Any ideas? thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
Is also a bit risky to use footprint since some camel breeds have big feet but small bodies. By the way front feet are larger then rear feet (65% of the body weight is in front). It is also important to establish the sex of the specimen since male camels are considerably larger the female camels and 29% higher values may be simply bones of males individuals. The geology of the area, in the time period when the fossils was living, should be known since camels of hilly areas are never very tall (1.7-1.8 m fem, 2 m males) while camels of flat areas, like the one in the picture, tend to be very tall   
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
3 answers
Does anyone have a protocol to make osteologic discs? E.g. hydroxyapitate discs. BD bioscience no longer produce them and the one protocol I have takes 3 weeks.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Ruth!
Indeed BD do not produce them for years now, Corning however do.
Corning Osteoassay is available in plates and strips and works like magic. We use it a lot. If you need help with the protocol please do not hesitate to contact.
The other way includes cow teeth, a manual saw, a radial saw (the blade for which is like 500$), a hole punch and a lot of work... If you prefer this way let me know.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
3 answers
We are currently performing primary osteoblasts cultures obtained from human trabecullar bone. Although we have not problems to isolate them, it has been described that phenotype reversion occurs after several culture passages. Given that we need sufficient amount of these cells for protein extraction and other studies my question is: How can we supplement the medium to grant the maintenance of osteoblast phenotype during a reasonable time period?
Relevant answer
Answer
 Thank you very much for your help, Ariana.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
4 answers
Patient might be on  bisphosphonate which is associated with osteomyelitis of
the jaw and delayed wound healing.
Relevant answer
Answer
Healing of a fracture is generally not delayed but there are probably exceptions to this.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
10 answers
Hello
I need to put together a report about Saxon oysters, all the identification, measurements, etc. have been done by an specialist. I need to write the report for the publication and I can't find much literature or reports where oysters have been fully analysed.
The site is a Saxon site in London. I would really appreciate any help or any report that anybody could forward. All of them will be correctly referenced.
Thank you very much.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Marta,
There is an article in 2007 by Sébastien Lepetz (French National Center for Scientific Studies) about oyster's trade and consumption in during the Gallo-Roman Period. I found the pdf on his personal website (see the link). There is a lot of french bibliography in this article, with references of the archeological data.
Schneider, M, et al. (2007), 'L'exploitation, la commercialisation et la consommation des huîtres à l'époque romaine en Gaule. Origine géographique et source d'approvisionnement des huîtres du Vieil-Evreux et de Chartres.', in E. Ridel, E. Barré, and A. Zysberg (eds.), Publication des actes du colloque "Les nourritures de la mer, de la criée à l'assiette. Colloque de TATIHOU organisé par la S.F.H.M du 2 au 4 octobre 2003 (4; Caen: Centre de Recherche d'Histoire Quantitative, Histoire Maritime), 12-34.
Best regards,
Christian
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
3 answers
Tarlov cysts--another cause of sacral insufficiency fractures?
Relevant answer
Answer
In spite of the "bone erosion" in case of a Tarlov cyst enlargement, pathological fractures of the sacrum are very rare, if ever.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
10 answers
I was asked to confirm or deny the possibility of any connection between mandibular body fractures (mandibular body and angle) caused by a dog in a young boy and mandibular hypoplasia observed many years later. It is required for legal purposes. I cannot find any relevant literature so far.
Relevant answer
Answer
dear sir,
it was documented that trauma to the growth centers subsequently sometimes lead to different degrees of growth affection starting from slowing to complete secession. in case of mandible the trauma to condylar growth center is almost always indirect meaning that one end of the bone receive the trauma and the other end affected. the maximum force transmitted to the growth center of the condyle occurs after anterior part of the mandible[symphyseal trauma] even if no fracture resulted. the body and angle have less transmitted force to the condyle but when the direction of trauma was at the inferior border great force will be transmitted to the condyle and affection resulted[your case] beside growth cession the case may undergo ankylosis later on due to joint haematoma.
Atef Fouda,
Prof Oral&Maxillofacial Surgery,
Cairo University,
Egypt.    
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
16 answers
I'm interested in (medieval) cases where burials with people who had leprosy were not isolated, but were included in the settlement's graveyard, thus perhaps showing some sort of care for the sick etc.
There's a case in Croatia where 4 leper burials were found in a single graveyard of all together 112 burials. The leper burials were obviously not isolated, the artifacts found in the graves didn't differ from other graves and there were even two dual burials (sick female + healthy male).
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Steven, I found a newspaper article about the woman but no relevant publication. I'll keep looking!
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
5 answers
I am interested in a good protocol for demineralized bone particles in order to obtain osteoinductive proteins.
I found a paper that uses 2M HCl and pH 1.5 at room temperature - what do you think about it?
Relevant answer
Answer
This paper by Reddi and Huggins from 1972 has the complete protocol that was similar to what Marshal Urist used at UCLA in 1965.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
6 answers
Hello all:
I am looking for any works dealing with the ultrastructure of the rostrum (bill) of any fish in the families Istiophoridae or Xiphiidae (bill-fishes), in particular of swordfish, marlin or similar species.
I have some osteological works but I am looking for something more structural.
Thanks in advance,
Juan Francisco.
Relevant answer
Answer
Kenneth, thanks for the interest in our paper, it's nice knowing people are reading it :)
Juan Francisco, we found little previous structural work on Xiphias, and it was typically either shown via hand drawings or in individual histological images where it was hard to understand how the tissue structure fit into the context of the whole bill.  Still, some of those previous studies were really useful starting points for us - we ended up citing them mostly in the supplemental information of the paper, here is a version with that attached.
Best wishes,
Mason
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
6 answers
It is apparently better to use a ceramic or porcelain drill instead of a metal drill bit to sample bone and teeth for oxygen stable isotope analysis because the metal could alter the d18O signal. Could someone explain why this is?
Relevant answer
Answer
Given the chemical make-up of ceramic / porcelain drill bits one would have thought it is the other way 'round. The only way I can think of a metal drill bit changing the 18O signature of bone or tooth bioapatite would be through heat stress (too much pressure being applied while drilling or drill set to too high a speed or both).  In all my work we have always used diamond-tipped drill bits in concjunction with a variable-speed dental drill.  If the correlation we got between bioapatite 18O and source water 18O is anything to go by, this combination of tools (and using a moderate drill speed) does not cause any 18O artefacts.  BTW, if you do not have a dental drill (with foot pedal for speed control) buy one; it is worth it.  However, do not purchase an NHS-for-human-dentistry approved model since they are beastly expensive. Look for a dental drill in veterinary supplies companies.  What they sell is exactly the same article (sometimes even from the same Swiss manufacturer) but at a fraction of the cost what NHS supplies companies charge.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
9 answers
This is an old kingdom mummy these are the only bone of the foot I have, cannot understand the cause of this polishing. Sadly the photo does not do it justice.
Relevant answer
Answer
Eburnation is typically indicative of osteoarthritis. The aetiology of OA is multifactorial. Women are especially vulnerable to the condition post menopause due to the hormonal changes. It is also associated with load bearing joints - so perhaps this suggests strenuous physical activity on behalf of the individual, particularly through this area of the foot.
As for the actual polishing of the bone, it is caused by the breakdown and eventual loss of the cartilage of the joint. Osteoblasts then respond by depositing subchondral bone (sclerosis), which eventually leads to bone-to-bone contact. This produces the polished effect you can seen on the joint surface.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
9 answers
Knowing the influence of environmental factors, I wonder if it is correct/possible to estimate biological relatedness from the morphology of these bones.
Relevant answer
Answer
Before the advent of easy genotyping, phenotypic distances (such as you suggest) have been used to estimate relatedness between populations. However, a 1997 paper by Burstin and Charcosset (see link) showed that there exists a triangular relationship between genetic and phenotypic distances: Short genetic distances are associated with short phenotypic distances, but long genetic distances are associated with a wide range of phenotypic distance. In other words: Phenotypic distances are not all that predictive of genetic distances.
I agree with @Pedro: If possible use some type of genetic markers to infer relatedness or genetic distance.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
16 answers
This is a skeleton of an old kingdom mummy, my colleagues and I had noticed the roots of the teeth mainly in the maxilla have developed these mineral growths. It seems to have occurred primarily on the molars but there are also signs of it on the premolars. We believe this is due to the body reacting with the natron salt.
Any advice would be helpful.
Relevant answer
Answer
Image for Catherine and Mandana !
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
3 answers
Any references about this topic?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, one case to be published in Acta Med Adriatica very soon (accepted, in print)...
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
9 answers
I have been trying to locate some radiography databases for my research on the sample I have of Egyptian mummies. So far the only site I have found is IMPACT which does not work, does anyone know of any other sites that have x rays, CT's or even just skeletal images of mummies?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Catherine,
I have some x-ray and ct-scan of roman mummies if it interest you. I think that in the Vatican Laboratories they could have records of x-ray of egyptian mummies because have a discrete collection of their.
M
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
5 answers
We are in the fourth stage of our investigation and the results look very promising.
Relevant answer
Answer
Or, if you can give me your email address...
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
15 answers
I'm researching mummies and I am trying to find pathologies for my study. I am not sure whether it is the angle of the x ray causing these 2 circles in the orbit or whether it is an anomaly.
Relevant answer
Answer
That one is fun! I am assuming that you are referring to the small foramen indicated at the arrow on the segment of your image that I have attached. The superior circle is the optic foramen and the inferior circle is the medial aspect of the superior orbital fissure.
I noticed that the University of Liverpool has a Medical Imaging and Radiotherapy department within the School of Health Sciences. Their Head is Dr. Stuart Mackay. He may be able to connect you to someone that can help you screen your images.
Carla
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
6 answers
See attachment.
Relevant answer
If the subolfactory process is the same thing as ventrolateral process (see the attached image 1), than I think that parolfactory bulb recess is not the subolfactory process. I guess that paired parolfactory bulb recesses should be the depressions on the medial sides of ventrolateral processes that indicates olfactory bulb.
But than there should be the space between the olfactory bulb and frontal? (image 3) What for?
My drawings of frontal sections are correct?
In mosasaurs olfactory canal not embraced ventrally by ventrolateral processes (0); or canal almost or completely enclosed below (1) (Image 2)
I hope that I have correctly stated my point!
Thanks for the Gauthier et al. paper!
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
19 answers
For my research I am trying to find health issues with the Egyptian elite and royal mummies.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Catherine,
The inner and outer tables (and diploe) of the skull are normal; the superior triangle at the top is the "Superior sagittal sinus" . So you have a normal coronal XR of a child skull!
You can see also the beginning of the "frontal sinus"development. They take their individual anatomical characteristics about 2 years and are visible on XR about 6 or 8 years old. Under the right orbit, sit the maxillary sinus; at 5 years they take a pyramid shape but I only see its foramen!
Best regards. PhiL.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
2 answers
Is anyone aware of newer studies about the etiology of Schmorl's nodes? "Etiology largely unknown" is so dissatisfying in the interpretation of osteoarchaeological results.
Relevant answer
Answer
Some information about the etiology are listed in this article - sure you'll discover more when looking at the references cited.
Vertebral morphology influences the development of Schmorl's nodes in the lower thoracic vertebrae (Plomp KA, Roberts CA, Viðarsdóttir US)
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2012 Dec;149(4):572-82. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22168.
  • asked a question related to Osteology
Question
2 answers
I'm working on a research proposal on the genetic mapping of common biodistance markers.
Relevant answer
Answer
Do you mean associate mapping? Or do you mean seeing how the results of each compare? My dissertation looked at the products of biodistance analysis using nuclear microsatellites and dental non-metric datasets.