Organizational Theory

Organizational Theory

  • Karwan Sherwani added an answer:
    What Hypotheses can one use to link forced ranking (performance appraisal method) to Organizational performance?

    I am currently looking at the gains of forced ranking (rather than the conventional methods) on organizational performance

    Karwan Sherwani

    If your Dependent Variable is Organizational performance and Independent Variable is Forced ranking, then you may construct a hypothesis to state: Ho= Forced ranking performance appraisal negatively affects organizational performance.  H1= Forced ranking performance appraisal positivly affects organizational performance. using Correlation then regression analysis you can find the answers to accept and reject.

  • Deacon Larry Hiner, PsyD added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest an instrument to measure "management capacity?

    We define management capacity as the ability to plan, organize, lead and control an organizational unit. We've been looking for one and the instruments are usually in the domain of leadership and not management. We also consider management capacity as a subset of policy capacity - primarily dealing with the operational and managerial aspects of policy making and implementation.

    Deacon Larry Hiner, PsyD

    WE (Workforce Equanimity) have found Wiley's Everything DiSC for Managers to be useful in working with managers' work styles and helping them evolve into the managerial role.  I understand that you are looking for a capacity test, to see who may fare better in the role; but our approach assumes that managers are already in place in most organizations, and that the decision was not a data-driven one; but more personal, relational, and performance valuated.  Working to make "better" managers is likely to be more beneficial to the org in the long run than trying to screen for managerial skills - though both have their merits.  I'm just not sure that the world really "knows," with sufficient detail, what constitutes a successful manager so that attribute potential can be measured in advance. 

  • Stewart Woolston added an answer:
    Do you know of a an instrument to measure SMEs productivity?

    Does anyone know of an instrument to measure SMEs productivity? It should be answered by uneducated and educated managers, and must provide comparable data along different economic sectors.

    Stewart Woolston

    So probably not helpful problems rather than solutions..... however, Having worked as a business profession within an SME, not just studying them, there are many non-tangible aspects that employees add to the business or tasks for them to complete to facilitate job completion that will be missed as part of most metrics. So although you maybe get a tangible figure for productivity that may tell a story (output/resource input), that snapshot will be insufficient on its own. I think productivity as a term is to broad to measure with any accuracy. I think you need to draw down further in my opinion. A firm can mass produce and look effective, but at what quality, how many returns? etc. 

  • P. Tommy Y. Sumatera Suyasa added an answer:
    How can i measure transparency in service organization?

    i want to compare between to service organizations. by measuring transparency level . 

    P. Tommy Y. Sumatera Suyasa

    Good question and inspiring ... If the sense of transparency is disclosure of information management to the members of the organization, then the transparency within an organization can be measured by counting the number of policies, decisions, or the management of the budget submitted to the organization's members.

  • Isidoro Arroyo Almaraz added an answer:
    Please can anyone suggest me an publication about google analytics and NGO?

    I'm investigating strategies audience of NGOs in google, how differ the current search criteria of users with positioning strategies of organizations.
    Thank you.

    Isidoro Arroyo Almaraz

    Thank you so much. I think that will be very helpful. Although I would like to know which words users use search engines on the Internet when seeking NGOs and NGOs which words to use to position their searches.

  • Hamdy Elsaid abd elhamed Elnawasry added an answer:
    Are there any previous studies related to measuring breaches in psychological contracting?

    Can I get any previous research papers related to measuring breaches in psychological contracting?

  • Sean Walker added an answer:
    How does one approach a misinterpreted labeling of operations without disrupting the synergy of the department?

    Through an operational leadership perspective, how does one approach a misinterpreted labeling of operations without disrupting the synergy of the department? Is there any supporting evidence of shifting operational labeling without hindering morale?

    Sean Walker

    First, I would say that the key to defeating issues of employee morale stemming from organizational change is to properly communicate the change initiative with the employees. This is the key for any change initiative.

    Second, I would suggest looking into the literature on change management. For Example, Lewin's Change model requires that an organization unfreezes the old "way",  introduce the new way, and refreeze. This process should help facilitate this process without alienating employees.

    I hope this helps



  • Nabila Nisha added an answer:
    What are the terms: Public Choice, Transaction Cost and Principal-Agent Theories?
    What are Public Choice, Transaction Cost and Principal-Agent Theories, Public Administration or Governance?
    I have gone through some articles but have not been able to comprehend.
    All I need is brief explanation to understand what these are in 4-5 lines each.
    Nabila Nisha

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: This book focuses broadly on the banking sector of Bangladesh, wherein the segment of transaction banking is responsible for providing services to multinational enterprises. It specifically discusses the history and position of a leading bank in Bangladesh and the services and solutions that they offer to their global clients. This study further explores the satisfaction level of global clients regarding the services offered by the global client coverage segment of this bank. Data from surveys and interviews of the staff has been used to examine the knowledge level of global clients regarding the bank’s services; to investigate clients’ views regarding the quality and standard of the services; to identify the gaps between the services that clients want and those which are actually being provided by the segment; and to suggest ways of improving the services offered by this segment. This book therefore provides important policy matters related to the improvement of transaction banking services in Bangladesh.
      Full-text · Book · Dec 2015
  • Maxim Miterev added an answer:
    How to measure effect of lean management on organizational performance?

    How to measure effect of lean management/lean practices on organizational performance? model, methods, etc.

    Maxim Miterev

    Dear Tetyana,

    You might be willing to have a look at PhD thesis "Be lean to be resilient: Setting capabilities for turbulent times" recently defended by my colleague Dr. Seyoum Eshetu Birkie. The thesis is exactly about the interplay between the lean production, operational resilience and organizational performance. It a compilation thesis based on his papers published in established international journals, and the cover essay might be available online.

  • Shayrea Cade added an answer:
    What reasons may explain why some public organizations are using performance management informations and why others don't?

    What kind of variables may explain the fact that some public municipalities (for instance) are developing and using performance management practices and tools, while others don't use such practices and tools? Are institutional variables a plausible explanation? Organizational ones?

    Shayrea Cade

    My guess is that they are trying to measure their outputs, decide on key goals etc. Some public organizations may not know much on how to implement quality management to measure and integrate their outcomes.  For example, if you asked a key decision maker: What is a high performing public organization and how do you measure it... many may not know how to answer. Why? because there outcome is to provide to the public... and it is not based on money... so do you look at A help  quota?

  • Heather Douglas added an answer:
    Is there any knowledge of the performance of cooperative firms?

    Cooperative firms are owned and run by their employees, who receive a fair share of the profit. I'm looking at any existing literature on the performance of such firms. Any suggestions? Thank you. 

  • Steven Wallis added an answer:
    What are some core references on work/task commitment within the Organization Theory literature?

    Dear researchers,

    I am looking for core references on learning performance, commitment and managerial work within the Organization Theory (OT) literature.

    Could any of you give me some hints about classic and recent research on these topics? Specially on work/task commitment. Just 5 to 10 references tops. 

    Thank you in advance for all your help!

    Best wishes,


    Steven Wallis

    Lots of good sources suggested! I would question what is meant by "core." Generally, core concepts are thought of as those that are most cited - or most popular - or foundation to the origins of the field. My research suggests that those are not useful ways of understanding the field - especially as the field grows and becomes fragmented. An interesting alternative is to understand the core concepts as those that are more closely connected with one another (where those connections are causal). This is in contrast to the "belt" concepts that are more atomistic (such as a bullet point list). see attached paper for an example...

  • Stephan Kaiser added an answer:
    Does a scale for paradoxical thinking or paradoxical frames exist apart from the scale of Ingram et al. 2014?

    I am searching for a scale that measure paradoxical thinking or paradoxical frames, favourably a German scale. 

    Stephan Kaiser

    Dear Rafael Wilms,

    you may connect to Arjan Kozica (ESB Reutlingen), he is doing research on paradox theory and might support you.

    Best wishes Stephan Kaiser

  • Ra'ed (Moh'd Taisir) Masa'deh added an answer:
    Motivational leadership involves presenting a clear organizational vision and inspiring employees to work towards this vision. What do you think?

    Transformational leadership can be defined as “a motivational leadership style which involves presenting a clear organizational vision and inspiring employees to work towards this vision through establishing connections with employees, understanding employees’ needs, and helping employees reach their potential, contributes to good outcomes for an organisation” (Fitzgerald and Schutte, 2010, p.495).

    My question is how to inspire others? any solid techniques?

    Thank you so much.   

    Ra'ed (Moh'd Taisir) Masa'deh

    Dear Sir Ljubomir Jacić,

    Thank you so much for your kind contribution. 


  • Martin Parker added an answer:
    Workplace democracy was a concept of the 1970's (Carol Pateman, etc.). Does anyone know about new models and concepts of workplace democracy?
    Workplace Democracy seems to be discussed in the US more than in Europe, maybe due to Europe's stronger trade unions' traditions. In democratic theory, a renaissance of these discussions from the 1970s is not yet visible in Europe, it seems. I am wondering if you know more about this.
    Martin Parker

    There is a lot of material on 'alternative organizing', which of course includes workplace democracy, within the general field of 'critical management studies'. Have a look, for example, at an edited collection I recently did - Martin Parker et al (eds) (2014) The Routledge Companion to Alternative Organizations. 

  • David Giauque added an answer:
    Do you have good references regarding "sociology of public administration"?
    Currently it is easy to find very good books or articles dedicated to "sociology of organization". Astonishingly, it is more complicated to find publications (books or articles) with respect to "sociology of public administration". It seems that these two scientific fields are separated. It seems strange to me.
    David Giauque

     Dear Ronald. Thank you very much for your advise and for the complete answer to my question. I will for sure have a look to these articles and books. And, as I live in a multicultural country I will be able to read also in German.

  • Sivakumar Suppremaniam added an answer:
    Are culture and leadership two sides of the same coin?

    Edgar Schein claims that: "Culture and leadership are two sides of the same coin. When organizations start or when groups start there is always a leader who has a preferred way of doing things, and those preferences by definition are going to be imposed on the group members. If you don’t like the way I run this group, I’ll replace you. The leader’s values and preferences are the first ways that a group or organization does things and if that works it becomes eventually the culture of that group. So in a very real sense, founders and leaders create culture.

    Can the same be true for an organization within business ecosystem?

    Sivakumar Suppremaniam

    Research paper on success of Six Sigma where leadership is one of the critical success factor concluded through statistical data that success of an initiative is influenced  by leadership but not cultural impact.

  • Mohammed Alkhawlani added an answer:
    Challenge question about one of the hottest issues in research methodology?

    Please guys I need your help

    In an organizational research, Assume there are two independent variables named X and Y; and the research aims to study the effect of X and Y on the dependent Variable named Z.

    Till now, doing such study has no problem; but the question is:

    Can I combine X and Y (items) and study the effect of both of them together at the same time on Z.

    IF yes, which theory can cover such this methodology?

    IF no, please Justify why

    Thank you

    Mohammed Alkhawlani

    Dear Michael T. Roether 

    Thank you for your replay

    SEM or PLS Statistically it’s just a tool whatever you input it gives you a result.

    The problem is the theoretical background

    By the way, I have made third order CFA and the result was perfect and I made it with PLS it give me a perfect result

    But with the social science methodology is it acceptable?

    If yes; which theory can cover that statistical method?

    Thank you

  • Mita Brahma added an answer:
    Can Dimensions of Entrepreneurial Orientation be considered as Indvidual Behavior in Organizational Context?

    I am working on technology adoption and looking for individual behaviors of the employees in an organization to measure the adoption of the technology. Can th dimensions of Entrepreneurial Orientation (Innovation, Proactiveness, Risk Taking) be taken as individual behavior (Innovative Behavior, Proactive Behavior and Risk Taking Behavior)? If yes, can someone please tell me some material which can correlate these behaviors with the organizational theory?

    Mita Brahma

    The following paper describes the entrepreneurial behaviour of managers, its antecedents & consequences. While this is not exactly what you want, I do think it is an important paper in your area: 

    Kuratko, D. F., Ireland, R. D. Covin, J. G. & Hornsby, J. S. (2005). A model of middle-level managers' entrepreneurial behaviour. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice. November Issue. 699-716.

  • Muhammad Rafique added an answer:
    Is it feasible to address impact of individual level variables (IVs) on organizational level variables ( DVs)?

    individual level measure  ( organizational commitment): I am loyal to my job etc

    organization level measure ( organization data acquisition capability ) :  My organization uses group discussions for data acquisition  etc

    Generally the literature says NO to this but I have come across certain studies  which have been carried out like this.

    Your comments on this aspect please!

    Thanks in advance

    Muhammad Rafique

    Dear sir,

    I am quite satisfied with your answer as it has solved even next question which I was going to post on RG.

    Once again thank you!



  • Shian-Loong Bernard Lew added an answer:
    How to measure the complexity of organizations?
    Are there measures for complexity of organizational structures, processes, networks or supply chains? And does it even make sense?
    Shian-Loong Bernard Lew

    Look at the nature of its feedback loops (as conceived by Jay Forrester, and in the present John Sterman).However not all types of feedback produces complexity. Garreth Morgan's book, Images of Organization offers a good read on complexity and chaos in an organizational context. Also Pascal's Surfing the edge of chaos. Jeffrey Pfeffer & Charles Perrow were early theorists of complexity approaches in organization theory. A 1999 survey and review attached. Another focal point for organizational complexity are its goals.

    + 2 more attachments

  • Rich Mcdonnell added an answer:
    Which fashion luxury firm's business model is the most innovative? Why? What role does its network contribute to its market power?

    I am interested in gaining a better understanding of how fashion and luxury firms leverage their extended network (e.g., strategic alliance partners) to build and sustain a competitive advantage in the market. 

    Rich Mcdonnell

    Mark - for some reason your comment didn't completely post.

    Please retry - I am looking forward to reading your comment.


  • John Carnegie added an answer:
    Which are the positive impacts of organizational structure in Managed Services?

    Can anyone provide recommendations or articles relating to organizational structure w.r.t managed services / outsourcing within the telecommunication sector.

    I really appreciate any assistance offered.

    John Carnegie

    Hello, Elisha.

    If we view an organization as a named repository for work, resources, services, and other organizations, then the organizational structure should include the work and resources necessary for successful service delivery. If portions of that service delivery are dependent on outsourced services, then the organizational structure should include the work necessary to ensure that the service provider

    • delivers quality discrete services in a timely manner and
    • assures the quality and availability of continuous services to the needs of the contracting organization.

    Hence, the positive impact of the organizational structure is that it embeds the awareness of its dependencies and internal responsibilities necessary to deliver according to its service catalog.

  • Vikas Rai Bhatnagar added an answer:
    I am looking for an instrument that measures directive, transactional, transformational and empowering styles of leadership. Any suggestions please?

    I am exploring the impact of leadership styles on employee performance, with happiness as mediators. Am investigating directive, transactional, transformational and empowering leadership styles. Has anyone used an instrument or is aware of one that measures these four leadership styles?

    Vikas Rai Bhatnagar

    Thanks Perikles, Bharat and Daryn for your valuable inputs. I am finally thinking of developing the scale by using the items given in paper titled "Transactors, transformers and beyond-A multi-method development of a theoretical typology of leadership" authored by Craig L. Pierce et al and published in the Journal of Management Development in 2003.

  • Umema Hani added an answer:
    What is the impact of project management in the software engineering business?
    Project management
    Umema Hani

    I think you should collect organizational data to explore your question

  • Daryn Dyer added an answer:
    How Activity Theory can be applied to help understand and identify the training and development needs in the contemporary organizations?

    it is about Human Resource Development

    Daryn Dyer

    I have looked more closely at activity theory and how it might be applied to organizational training:

    Subject: independent variable, objective: dependent variable

    Mediating/moderating variables: tools, rules, community, division of labour

    The moderating variable need to be synchronized with the training environment. For example, tools: online tutorials, tests, work samples

    rules: company policies, org-cultural precedents-norms, ethics, budget constraints

    Community: peer support, managerial support or lack of , expectations, societal expectations/support, 

    Division of Labour: trainer, trainee, respective motives, co-workers, team-mates

    Bear in mind that: Activity theory is focused on all of the actors both physical and non-physical that play a role in the outcome of a given input. 

  • Luis Fonseca added an answer:
    Can anyone please help me find any peer reviewed articles that show negative relationship between TQM and organizational performance?

    If possible, any recent empirical study.

    Luis Fonseca

    Dear Nischal,


    I suggest the articles below. Most articles report a positive relationship between TQM and Organizational Performance , however there are some that have achieved mixed or even negative relationships:

    - Manal Yunis Joo Jung Shouming Chen, (2013),"TQM, strategy, and performance: a firm-level analysis", International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 30 Iss 6 pp. 690 - 714,
    Permanent link to this document

    - Vinod Kumar, Franck Choisne, Danuta de Grosbois, Uma Kumar, (2009),"Impact of TQM on company's performance", International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 26 Iss 1 pp. 23-37,

    -  Christos V. Fotopoulos, Evangelos L. Psomas, (2010),"The structural relationships between TQM factors and organizational performance", The TQM Journal, Vol. 22 Iss 5 pp. 539-552 ,http://

    - Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad, (2014),"Why TQM programmes fail? A pathology approach", The TQM Journal, Vol. 26 Iss 2 pp. 160-187,

    I wish you a great research.



  • Ron Koller added an answer:
    Why is the role of an external change management agent important during the change management process?


    I am looking for the latest insights about the role of the external change management agent. The findings should be based on researches. 



    Ron Koller


    as you are probably finding out, not too much empirical research exists about external roles.  I'm sure you can find plenty of industry research done by consulting firms justifying why clients need to hire external consultants.

    In my recent experience as a doctoral student, I found the following book that addressed the difference between "change agents" versus "change recipients."  95% of research has been from the change agent perspective.  Only recently have researchers begun to look at the change recipient point of view.

    Page 20 starts a section called "Organizational Change Roles." While this is not explicitly an answer to your question, they have plenty of references that you could track down.  Also, you could contact the authors too.

    Cawsey, T. F., Deszca, G., & Ingols, C. (2011). Organizational change: An action-oriented toolkit. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Good luck.


  • Mubarak Hussain Haider added an answer:
    What is the impact of transformational leadership on organizational performance?

    How does transformational leadership affect organisational performance?

    Mubarak Hussain Haider

    TFL  is Style of leadership in which the leader identifies the needed change, creates a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executes the change with the commitment of the members of the group. He has the ability of creating a euphoric situation and every subordinate ignites in a way to achieve more goals among others. Under TFL the healthy competition and ownership  prevail that steers the organization to perform better. Good Luck

About Organizational Theory

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