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Organizational Theory - Science topic

General organizational theory
Questions related to Organizational Theory
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I am working on a research project. I would love to connect with someone who has a good understanding of Organizational Theory and its subtopics (ecology, strategy, analysis, etc.)
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You Should Also Learn About The different Type Of Communication inside The Company and i can help you with because it was my project but i did it with French language so we gone find some problemes to translate
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Self-organization is the emergence of collective behaviors based on interaction between the parties and in the absence of a central controller. That is to say in a self-organized system it is not possible to identify an agent that determines the behavior of the system.
Is there any evidence of companies that work like this?
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Org. design should fulfill one critical objectives - it should support the implementation of a firm's strategy. If an organizational system develops organically, it will be a slow adaptation to critical external contingencies, without clear strategy and leadership, which may lead to chaos and wasting org. resources, when exogenous conditions change rapidly.
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I am searching for a scale that measure paradoxical thinking or paradoxical frames, favourably a German scale. 
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Dear paradox enthusiasts,
In my doctoral thesis I am working on the topic of "Management of Paradoxes" and "Paradoxical Thinking" with a focus on family firms. In this context, I came across this exciting thread. Have any of you come across a scale? Although Ingram et al 2016 is a good start, I would go deeper in my consideration and develop my own scale if necessary.
I am looking forward to your answers.
Kind regards and stay healthy
Clemens
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Hello,
I am looking for a questionnaire based on Roger's Diffusion of Innovations - Innovations in Organizations theory.
Can someone give me an example?
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I believe the following article would be beneficial for your readings in this topic:
- ANDREW H. VAN DE VEN, EVERETT M. ROGERS (1988) Innovations and Organizations: Critical Perspectives, Communication Research, Volume: 15 issue: 5, page(s): 632-651, https://doi.org/10.1177/009365088015005007
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In my research,
Unit of analysis is organization
So, if I want to use individual theory in my research framework, is it possible or any suggestion.
Thank you
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You can base your theory at the organization level on what happens at the individual level, but you should recognize that what happens at one level does not necessarily translate to another. And it is best if you can articulate the mechanism through which the individual level affects the organizational. For example, you might be interested in firm profitability, so you base your theory on the job performance of individuals and explain how that translates into profit. Ideally you would test to see if the individual performance translates to profit--it might or might not for a variety of reasons. You can use the individual level as a theoretical explanation for why you expect the results you find at the organizational level, but it is best to measure the individual level and show its connection to the organizational.
To me the best use of theory is to derive hypotheses that get directly tested to confirm if the theory is correct. But often theory is used in the opposite way, to justify hypotheses and suggest a mechanism that produces particular results, although the mechanism is not tested.
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Work-family conflict (WFC) results when work interferes with family time or space; or when family matters interfere with work. These WFC events can cause tension within family or at work. Can you suggest what theoretical lens (or theories or conceptual frameworks) can be used from sociology, organisational theory, family literature, feminist studies or psychology or conflict literature to study WFC?
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I think the direction of your study drawing from your research questions and objectives are critical in determining your theoretical frame. For instance, if your study intend to probe the status quo of the family institution vis-a-vis the changes it effect or trigger, conflict theory, political economy theory or critical theory would be more appropraite for your study. But on the contrary, functionalist or system theory can be adopted for your study.
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Could someone please help in finding the specific questionnaire used in this book?
Survey of Organizations: A machine-scored standardized questionnaire instrument , by Taylor & Bowers, 1970
However, it does not contain the pages with the questionnaire and I still remain unable to obtain it. Would anyone be willing to help provide me the questionnaire?
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I have the same question? Did any body find a solution?
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The hottest topic of the day is COVID-19 and everyone seems to be adapting to this new reality, including the emergence of a widely distributed workforce. Are you or anyone you follow conducting research on COVID19 in the context of organizational behavior or theory (e.g.by adopting a crisis management paradigm?) ? What kind of theories are you/they utilizing for your studies? What kind of data are you relying on? I would be very happy to receive your answers.
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It is necessary to make more active research on: Applied behavior analysis (АВА),
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).
Attention deserves issues of risk management to reduce stakeholder loyalty.
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I want to be sure that my investigation of the extant literature is thorough in identifying all terms used to describe the manner in which deliberate/intended and emergent strategy (Mintzberg, 1978) unfold to become realized or unrealized/ephemeral strategy (Mirabeau & Maguire, 2014). For instance, another name I've found is adaptive strategy (Andersen & Nielsen, 2009). Does anyone else have additional terms I may need to research?
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Dear Ann:
I remember an author whose name is Quinn who coined the name "incremental strategy" (in spanish "estrategia incremental"). You can read some book by himself or several readings by Scholes/Whittington/Johnson or Mintzberg et al in "Strategy Safari". According to Quinn, managers have an initial strategy they pretend to use, while developing it they realize certain problems so they have to adapt it. These steps are small compared to the first one, so that´s why he speaks about "incremental strategy".
Regards
Gustavo Concari
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Dear Sir/Madam,
My name is Souliphone Luanglath who is a researcher at Tallinn University of Technology. 
My research is related to the organizational culture  (clan, adhocracy, market, and Hierarchical) and i have been trying to find the questionnaires of it for along time but could not find it. 
Does any one do a research about the organizational culture? 
Could you please tell me how to have the questionnaire and measurement of organizational culture (clan, adhocracy, market, and Hierarchical)?
Thank you in advance.
Kind regards,
Souliphone
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where will you apply the questionnaire ?
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Most organizational theories assume that employees make decisions by assessing the impact on the firm. However, we know that employees may pursue actions that benefit themselves or their function. So, an employee is less likely to recommend a decision that makes him redundant, even if it ultimately benefits the firm. Similarly, a functional manager may prefer the interest of the function over the interest of the firm.
The research on multifoci loyalty alludes to this. Is there any other research stream that explains this?
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Individual motivational and hygiene factors are self determined ; while the knowledge, skill and capability oriented factors are functionally oriented. Naturally all SOBC model applied researches will fall in this segment and offer you inputs.
Best wishes
Regards
Krishnan Umachandran
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What is the fundamental difference between organizational theory and organizational behavior?
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Organizational Behavior is the study of the human aspects of organizations. Organization Theory is a broader concept and, apart from the human aspects, it is interested in the purpose of the organizations, their interaction with the external environment, the use of the technology and the economic aspects.
Although they also belong to the scope of Organization Theory, because this is a broader concept, specific to the Organizational Behavior are the subjects related to the individual (diversity, personality, values, attitudes, emotions, motivation), the group (group dynamics, teams, communication, leadership), human resources policies and stress management.
Topics common to Organization Theory and Organizational Behavior are those related to power and politics, organizational culture, innovation and change, organizational design and structure, decision-making and ethics.
Some authors distinguish between Micro-Organizational Behavior and Macro-Organizational Behavior. In this case, to the field of study of Micro- Organizational Behavior belong the subjects related to the individual and the group and to the field of study of Macro-Organizational Behavior the topics related to organizational processes, interaction of organizations with the external environment and use of technology. According to these criteria, there is little difference then between Organization Theory and Organizational Behavior; Practically only the classical administrative theories and the economic theories of the organization belong exclusively to the Organization Theory.
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I'm investigating strategies audience of NGOs in google, how differ the current search criteria of users with positioning strategies of organizations.
Thank you.
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Am not sure if this answers your question but I did a longitudinal study of web traffic to an NGO (Nelson Mandela Foundation) see as well as an earlier study on how web visitors search and find the website of the particular NGO see
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Our Drs asked us to do an articles related to our management class, and I am looking for a new idea to do within 2 months. As these days researchers include technology in their research, do you have any interesting title to my project
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Identified research gaps in green HR
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Mindfulness as raising awareness on the present moment non-judgmentally. It is about paying full attention(firing all cylinders) on an object in one's working memory. Since you do it non-judgementally, without an urgency to rush through (that is very much time insensitive manner), your mind is calm and relaxed (all senses, thoughts, emotions/feelings, actions/behaviours etc. are in harmony/synchrony), possibly helping to form new neural networks of knowledge, forming as many connections as possible in a coherent, meaningful manner. That is, one is able to identify new relationships with a flexible/open mind (being creative and insightful without being hampered by stereotypes) among pieces of knowledge held in working memory. Consequently, it should help creating lasting (long-term) memories. Further, a characterising ability of mindfulness practices is the development of self-awareness or self-knowledge. With this self-knowledge, one not only understands oneself better but also, using it as a reference, he/she tends to understand others better (possible more empathically.
An interesting development at GOOGLE. It has a program called GOOGLE Talks on Emotional Intelligence/Healthy Minds/Empathy/Compassion/Personal Growth/Optimal Performance/Productivity etc. (The tech giant invites leading researchers in related areas to talk to their employees to direct them to personal growth leading to productivity) 
Jon Kabat-Zinn (Professor of Medicine who introduced mindfulness practices to mainstream medicine) on "Mindfulness Meditation"
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Many thanks, Amir.
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I am planning to invite people from different fields for a co-creation process. But what are the most relevant factors for creativity resulting in brilliant ideas for both, individuals and groups?  What should I look out for when inviting people and putting the groups together? What´s your experience, which literatur do you know concerning my question?
From my personal experience,relevant factors include:
Individual factos: un-biasedness, openess, curiosity, courage, intelligence, general knowledge, non-conformity, intuition, imagination
Group factors: Diversity (of perspectives), fun, trust, vision, solidarity, communication
Thanks for your ideas, thoughts and insights! 
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Hello Chris,
I share two references, both by me. I am new to RG and do not yet know how to upload papers for general use without violating any copyrights. If you can not find these papers and want them, send me your email and I will send a copy for personal educational use.
Core Issues. Understanding the emergence of creativity in people, over many thousands of years.
 1. A Reasonably Accurate History of Man: And The Next Age Article in Creativity and Innovation Management 2(3):188 - 196 · October 2006
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8691.1993.tb00095.x
"current state" on what blocks creativity in people
2. What Blocks Creativity – A Manager Perspective , Sep 1999, Creativity and Innovation Management, John Groth and John Peters
Good luck.  John kari01@tamu.edu
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The research starts by looking at educational managers but contributions from all fields are welcomed
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This will be a very non-academic response.  My first management position was at a retail store and I was 18.  Basically, all of management quit and I had the longest tenure (2 years).  I was promoted and, sadly, I was a jerk.  Pure and simply immaturity.  Arrogance is a dangerous thing when coupled with authority.  Many years later (after college, marriage and two kids and 15 more years of work experience), I earned/was given a promotion to middle management in a Fortune 500 Company.  With mentors, time and a whole lot of experience under my belt, I would like to think I settled a bit more in my skin and was less reactive to things. 
Now I own my own business and have 5 employees (all of whom have been with me for over 10 years).  I am the owner but I am very "hands on" in with my business so I am also the manager.  I don't pay all that well, but still they stay.  If you ask them why, they will tell you because I am fair and have provided them a place to be successful.  It  really is simply me getting out of their way. 
When I see an employee who can look with love and kindness toward their fellow employees and when they do all they can to help that person be successful, then I know they are ready for management in my company.
I am not sure if this is the kind of info you were looking for, but thought I would toss is out there in case it was helpful.  Good luck with your research.
Jenny
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Job embeddedness, orgnl culture, turnover intentions, orgn commitment, orgnl justice, HR practices/strategies seem to be over researched. Any particular areas that are under researched in this discipline and perhaps anything that can be borrowed from psychology, sociology or even anthropology to understand human behaviour in organisation, esp from quantitative perspective?
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expatriate management, cross cultural issues like CCQ, CCA, Cultural shock etc.
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*Young companies - 0 to 5 years of existence  *Quantitive methods only
The reason why I am seeking your opinion on quantitative methods only is because I am interested to find out what has worked well for you and why and not because I won`t be using qualitative methods in the research. This research will be measuring other phenomena as well and will include respondents from Bulgaria (or other parts in Europe too) as well as USA. 
Also, young companies as I would like to focus efforts into figuring out way to overcome challenges in newly started ventures. Startups and new entrepreneurial activities is mostly what I am interested in - in search of better ways to help them grow as sustainably developing companies. 
Thank you everyone.
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No, I am quite committed to the value provided by an integrated excellence model.
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Social media in the present era  became the integral part of lifestyle.
how it affect the productivity of the employees as well as organisational culture?  
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A Social Media could impact and influence on employee engagement by applying Psychological Roles including: Attitude, Perception, Personality and even relevant Culture, and Learning. The most suitable reference in this reason for guidance of your study is the book titled "Organizational Behavior" by Stephen Robbins.
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In organizational behavior, we need to know the relationship among these concepts.
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An attitude includes a long lasting way of believing , feeling, and intending to behave toward an object, idea, person, or group of persons. It has three components such as cognitive, affective, and behavioural tendency. Basically your attitude about someone or something may be positive or negative. For example, you (assume you are a departmental manager) can have a positive attitude about trade unions in your organization. In other words, you believe in, feel positively and intend to behave positively toward trade unions. 
Behaviour is actual action one has done. It is the way one has acted in a particular way. It is not an attitude but it affects attitude. For example, assume that the trade union of an organization has requested to provide a canteen facility within the organization which is not having that facility now. You are the HR Manager and you decided to have a meeting with the relevant union leaders. Your decision to have a meeting with the union leaders is your behavior.   
Trait is defined as a special quality or characteristic possessed by a person. It may be even a genetically determined characteristic. Intelligence, alertness to the needs of others, appearance, creativity, flexibility, and integrity are examples of traits. 
State is defined in this context as a particular situation. It is a particular condition in which one is at a particular time. 
If an attempt is made to find relationships among the above concepts or variables, it is possible to view that attitude is an independent variable and behaviour is a dependent variable while trait and state are moderators. There is attitude-behaviour link. Generally attitudes predict behavior and, therefore attitudes and behaviours are linked.  Example: Mrs R has a positive attitude toward democratic leadership. Her leadership style (behaviour) becomes democratic. 
Trait can be considered as a moderating variable which will cancel the relationship between attitude and behavior. Example: Mr. Manoj believes that government university teaching is a great thing and likes very much to do it. He has a positive attitude toward government university teaching. Will he do government university teaching? In other words will his attitude be consistent with his behavior? Assume that he does not have traits such as intelligence, creativity, and communication; and has never done any research. Hence, he does not do government university teaching.  Thus, trait is a factor on which attitude-behaviour link depends. 
State is another factor affecting attitude-behaviour link. Assume that Mr.Lal has a negative attitude about women in management. He joins a new company where his superior is a female. However, he finds that his peers behave positively with the superior. Consequently he has to respond positively to his female superior (even though his behavior is inconsistent with his attitude).
Best wishes!
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Much attention is now being paid to knowledge management within organizations as a critical factor in its success. What is your understanding of knowledge management?
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The core strength of the organization must be coupled to the desired goal. Organizational knowledge predominantly resides in human resource. It is essential to assimilate, create, store and transfer knowledge, in order to leverage the same for organizational growth and development. The comprehensive process of creating a knowledge-intensive organization is knowledge management.
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I'm studying routine dynamics (practice/process approach) and looking for articles that link organizational routines to it's larger context (macro context / environment) and some strategic issues.
If you have any suggestion of research that realizes this link I will be very grateful!
Some suggestions:
Howard-Grenville J (2005) The persistence of flexible organizational routines: The role of agency and organizational context. Organ. Sci. 16(6):618–636.
(Strategy as Practice) Seidl D., & Whittington, R. (2014). Enlarging the Strategy-as-Practice Research Agenda: Towards Taller and Flatter Ontologies. Organization Studies, 35(10), 1407-1421.
Kaplan S (2015) Truce breaking and remaking: The CEO’s role in
changing organizational routines. Gavetti G, Ocasio W, eds. Cognition and Strategy, Advances in Strategic Management, Vol. 3  (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, UK), 1–45
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Why not using a framework linking Social regulation theory (within organizations, producing routines) to neo-institutionalism? That is what has been proposed in :
-Schiffino, N., Taskin, L., Donis, C. & Raone, J. (2015) Crises et risques sociétaux :
quelles logiques d’apprentissage dans les organisations publiques ? Récit d’une aventure interdisciplinaire par comparaison d’études de cas. Louvain-la-Neuve : Presses Universitaires de Louvain.
-Donis, C., Raone, J., Schiffino, N. & Taskin, L. (2015) Understanding organizational learning from societal risks. A typology for assessing organizational coherence. In Schiffino, N., Taskin, L., Donis, C. & Raone, J. (Eds.) Organizing after crisis: The challenge of learning, 207-234. Brussels: Peter Lang Publishing, coll. Public action, vol. 13.
I can send you the chapters if required.
Good luck!
Laurent
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Whats the difference between Organization-based Psychological Ownership & Organizational Commitment?
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You are correct to infer that the two have some core similarities, although as you implied, there are also some important differences, with PO having more of an identity bent as compared to OC. (Anecdotally, imagine the employee who is highly committed to remaining with his/her company - possibly for a myriad of reasons - but does not necessarily personally identify with the company).  Some research has indicated that PO may be predictive of OC (see Han et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2012).  There is a good recent review of PO in JOB (Dawkins et al., 2017) that will point you toward some more relevant studies including those I noted above.
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Assuming that high centralised management style in the main small business characteristics, where the owner-managers have full control, authority and power in running the business operation. In particular, I am interested to investigate the level of personal control of owner-manager in hospitality small business and its relationship on employees' work behaviour.
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Delegating in the Workplace, available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266478092_Delegating_in_the_Workplace,  reproduces on page 4 a continuum of delegation that surely lends itself to the questionnaire/scale the question refers to.
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HI all,
I am working in a organization.The main problems that have aroused is daily we have shortage in warehouse. The cause of this problems is there are imbalance of inventory management. This leads to late delivery to customers. Moreover, even though  there is good systems in our company, still there are always problems arises.
Anyone may provide specific solutions to add value in inventory management while avoid shortage of materials in organization.
Thank you.
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Hi Durga
Inventory management, optimal order quantity, reorder point, shortage and how to deal with it... are well known issues in inventory and SCM. there are large number of models and techniques that can help you here.
you need to determine your system characteristics, causes of Shortage  to select the right model/technique that fit with your system.
Best Regards
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on other side is there any relationship between the  knowledge sharing behaviour dimension and strategic thinking ?
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Dear Maram,
I am very in tune with Ray, You can observe and next can measure the behavior itself and the factors that affect it if you distinguish four types of knowledge sharing
-- with bosses
-- with colleagues
-- with subordinates
-- with business partners.
In the first three cases you must deal with power, time, necessity, teaching skills, the proportion between codified (possible to be expressed in written or oral form) and non-codified (possible to be transmitted only through direct observations and action learning) knowledge to be transmitted and, indeed, acceptance in the specific culture of particular actions (like acceptance of teaching your boss). The the last case (knowledge sharing with business partners) you must create win-win situations for your business partners to absorb your knowledge.
Once you figure out which one of the four types of knowledge sharing you wish to study, you will be able to develop your own metrics, without looking at sometimes very strange "pseudo-academic" sources.
Bests,
Igor
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My research is in banking sector and I want to measure the Organizational performance of the same in these dimensions.
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I would suggest that stakeholder satisfaction can be one correlate of Organizational Performance, which would be defined in terms of the mission and purpose of the organization. I do not believe stakeholder satisfaction alone is a comprehensive or exhaustive indicator of Organizational Performance. 
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I am doing a research on the changes in the organizational structures from more complex hierarchical form towards simpler flat organizational form. In that regard I am looking for a questionnaire/s to measure that organizational structure`s change. Any suggestions? Thank you.
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The formulation of this question (and the quality of the responses it is then likely to elicit) will be improved if it made clear that hierarchical forms of organizations are the exclusive subject of inquiry. This is because there are also market and—increasingly—networked forms, with growing hybridization of configurations.
PS: Not to forget, tribalism still exists in certain regions but also, more prevalently, in such social expressions as civic interest groups, cultural festivities, fan clubs, sports, and nationalism. Some hold kinship to be so fundamental to human nature that tribalism is the primary fallback option when other forms of organization fail.
PPS: One way to structure a questionnaire to measure a (hierarchical) structure`s change toward a "flatter" form might be to compare and contrast some of the main, stylized features of organization. A long list would include purpose, agent of governance, locus of decision making, type of product and service, basis of control, basis of relations, basis of transactions, nature of transactions, basis of tasks, degree of dependence among parties, degree of vertical integration, degree of commitment of parties, assets and resources, nature of organizational boundaries, approach to conflict resolution, culture, tone, nature of incentives, and approach to information gathering.
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In accounting System one of in put elements is Accountants . they coming to organization caring with them  what they  beliefs and social legacy. do you think the accounting standers and other accounting principles can change their believes ? and how can be balance between the two?  
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The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) defines accounting as the art of recording, classifying, and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events which are, in part at least of financial character, and interpreting the results thereof. 
Accounting is a science and art at the same time, therefore, I may say that culture can affect accountants.
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Hi all!
In our study we try to explain why and how organizations create new processes. It is slightly different from process optimization or process innovation. So we look for validated measurements for process innovation (not "innovation process", not "innovation"). Does anyone have an idea?
Of course, if you have something on innovation only which might be applicable for process innovation, let me know.
Thank you in advance!
Faithfully,
Eugene
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One of the references on process innovation to be consulted 
Mona Ashok , Rajneesh Narula , Andrea Martinez-Noya , (2016) "How do collaboration and investments in knowledge management affect process innovation in services?", Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 20 Iss: 5, pp.1004 - 1024
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Good evening, colleagues!
In one of our qualitative study, we investigate organizational identity (employees' identity, organizational citizenship). Now we would like to collect some quantitative data. Do you know any validated measurements (questionnaires preferred) on identity? Any suggestion would be helpful!
Faithfully,
Eugene
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dear Yevgen, take a look at scale suggested by Leach et al. (2008) in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and our 2013 paper in British Journal of SP (Postmes, Haslam, & Jans, 2013, see also https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258509180_SISI_social_identification for recommendations on how to implement & measure this). For older scales that are interesting and relevant you could check out Mael & Ashforth's org.identification scale as well as Meyer & Allen's work on org. commitment.
Finally, you may be interested in a new measure of identity content we developed: Turner, Postmes, & Van Zomeren, 2015. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0137879
Best, Tom
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How is it possible for two organizations having 25000 employees. and i need to cause and effect of business strategies with innovation? Please help with references, in real tension. 
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Number of independent variables multiplied by 10
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Specifically follower perceptions of organizational justice within a corporate context. Thanks!
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They are not the newest ones but you can check the scales listed below:
Organizational Justice Scales
  • Procedural and Interactive Justice (Farh, Earley, and Lin 1997)
  • Distributive and Procedural Justice (Parker, Baltes, and Christiansen 1997)
  • Distributive and Procedural Justice (Sweeney and McFarlin 1997)
  • Procedural Fairness (Scarpello and Jones 1996)
  • Procedural Fairness, Employee Voice, and Justification (Daly and Geyer 1994)
  • Perceived Injustice (Hodson, Creighton, Jamison, Rieble, and Welsh 1994)
  • Distributive, Procedural, and Interactive Justice (Niehoff and Moorman 1993)
  • Distributive and Procedural Justice (Joy and Witt 1992)
  • Procedural Justice (McFarlin and Sweeney 1992)
  • Procedural and Interactive Justice (Moorman 1991)
  • Fairness Perceptions of an Organizational Policy (Grover 1991) Procedural Justice (Folger and Konovsky 1989)
  • Distributive Justice Index (Price and Mueller 1986)
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I am doing an MBA and are working on a Managing People assignment. My main questions is; "How to change in order to increase organizational effectiveness and prepare for future growth?". I found that the firm has a clan culture. Via the bath model I found that Encouragement should be the solution. How can you encourage in a clan culture? and can you deliberately affect the psychological contract positively and thereby change the culture?
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 Totally agree with the positive change approach.  On most organizations, there remains too heat an emphasis on the deficit paradigm and mindset. Look instead to strengths-based approaches within that context of positive change.  Building on strengths will take you much further than merely fixing what's wrong.
I suggest you focus on strengths-based design and build what should be.  Pay attention to behaviours.  A cultural audit that identifies behavioural strengths and development area would likely give you a much stronger basis for change and help select a new sales leader who can further develop the desired culture.
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Product-centric and geographic-centric organizational structures are the most common forms of organizational structure. Yet, several companies have made the shift towards a customer-centric structure. It is however dificult to determine to what extent a company has such an orientation. Which sources should be consulted to that end?
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you may want to use the PMS to evaluate to what extent  the company uses the customer centric culture (Customer perspective). I recommend to use the Balanced Scorecard. Secondly, the usage of EFE (External Factor Environment) might help you to find out on the extent of the customer centric structure being used by the company.
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The Blau's index (1-\sum _{i=1}^{R}p_{i}^{2}) is often used in the social sciences for pth proportion/percent of team members in i categories represented in the team. 
Could the Thatcher's faultline be used to simultaneously conceptualize heterogeneity among teams along i = n categories? In my data I have n = 8 categories and would like to view the combined team diversity in addition to 8 individual diversity measures. Is this a correct way of going about doing this?
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Sorry, can't help.
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I am looking for an established source (journal article, book) that clarifies what are the key factors of:
- company culture
- corporate governance
that promote sustainability-thinking in organization (for sustainability thinking I mean things like sustainability awareness, effectiveness of sustainability programs/projects in the organization, long-term thinking, etc.)
Any specific reference to the manufacturing industry is even more appreciated.
Thanks.
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Hi Ilaria
I have attached a list of papers from my research collection on business continuity, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, ethics, manufacturing, resilience, stewardship, and sustainability. There is a shift in corporate governance away from the traditional agency theory based approach to a more stewardship theory based approach, with greater emphasis being placed on sustainability, corporate social resonsibility, resilience, ethical behaviour, business continuity management. I don't know if the manufacturing references will be exactly what you are looking for, but you might as well have them.
You might want to check out the natural resource managment sectors, as they have been pretty much at the forefront of developing their businesses along sustainable lines, very much taking a stewardship view on everything they do. Have a read through these two books to get a good idea of their thinking:
[1] R. W. Y. Kao, Stewardship Based Economics. World Scientific, 2007.
[2] F. S. Chapin, G. P. Kofinas, and C. Folke, Principles of ecosystem stewardship: Resilience-based natural resource management in a changing world. Springer, 2009.
In the UK, corporate goernance rules have evolved considerably during the past decades, with a noticeable shift towards stewardship happening 5 years ago.
I hope this will help you find something useful.
Regards
Bob
enc
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I am doing a project on Employee Relationship Management Practices in Service organizations. Kindly suggest some dimensions and scale for measuring the construct.
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Could you tell me your email to send you the instrument?
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Dear all,
I am writing a meta-analysis about the effect of organizational factors to Dynamic Capabilities.
The organizational factors are in this case activities of the Top Management (e.g. Management commitment, slack time, structured processes, Management perspective, reflective openness and top management operational involvement) that create organizational structure and organizational culture in an enterprise and influence dynamic capabilities.
For this topic I am searching for "grey literature", unpublished articles or anything else, that I can use for my meta-analysis (especially to solve the puplication bias).
1000 Thx in advance for your help
Klaus
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Dynamic capabilities are a transversal topic between strategy and organization. Therefore, it is first necessary to define organizational factors that are different from dynamic capabilities and then to study the type of reciprocal influence in my view. See 
 2012: “Dynamic capabilities: a still unexplored issue with growing complexity” V. Della Corte, G. Del Gaudio, Corporate Ownership & Control, Vol. 9 N. 4, pp. 327-338, ISSN: 1727-9232
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I am writing a paper on change leadership. I choose to write it on Apple because I believe Apple is the best example of organizational change. When Jobs was fired from Apple, how the company suffered for the wrong kind of change and when Steve was back in Apple, how the company changed in a right way and became the top company in the world. I was wondering, when Steve came back in Apple as a CEO what kind of organizational model or framework did he followed so that later on Apple became so successful? I mean organizational model like the Six-Box, 7S or Star model not the organizational structure.
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The seven complex lessons in education for the future proposed by Morin is actual? 
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Regrettably, I cannot think that Edgar Morin's seven complex lessons in education in the future ever became "current", meaning, popular, prevalent, or in vogue. [Particularly enlightened pedagogical systems would be needed to educate for a sustainable future by integrating in curricula tools, methods, and approaches to (i) detect error and illusion, (ii) grasp principles of pertinent knowledge, (iii) teach the human condition, (iv) work for an Earth identity, (v) confront uncertainties, (vi) understand each other, and (vii) take responsibility for ethics for the human genre.] The only decided step that I can think of, in the recent past, relates to the scrapping of subjects in Finnish schools and their replacement with "topics"; it is not by coincidence that Finland has been, for years, a by-word for successful education, with a national system perched at the top of international league tables for literacy and numeracy. In my opinion, this is congruent with Morin's idea that education must encourage "general intelligence", apt to refer to the complex in context in a multidimensional way, within a global conception. But I can find little supportive evidence of an uptake of Morin's philosophy elsewhere. Of course, this is not to say that his ideas are not pertinent: if anything, the approval of the Sustainable Development Goals by the United Nations in September 2015 underscores the need to act on the seven complex lessons promptly.
To my mind at least, and somewhat paradoxically I reckon given the holism he has aspired to, Morin's important accent on complexity may be limited by the binary complementarities he rightly identifies here and there, e.g., productive/destructive, sapiens/demens, etc. Multidimensional, integrative approaches to the challenges of the 21st century are welcome, nay, obligatory; but, they need actionable starting points. In computer science, to use an analogy, booting is the process of starting a computer, specifically in relation to starting its software; the process involves several stages, at each of which a (smaller) program loads then executes a (larger) program; it is in this sense that the computer "pulls itself up by its bootstraps". I wonder what it might take to boot Morin's seven complex lessons in our daily lives (and naturally in education). Understanding Complexity, available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266476979_Understanding_Complexity, may be of interest: that article illustrates what kinds of decisions need to be taken in response to danger signals in simple, complicated, complex, and chaotic circumstances.
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Any article, theory, project, experience?
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Try to read the book written by Dawson, P. (1994). Organizational change: a processual approach. London: Paul Chapman. It may help you 
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I am looking to measure the effects of leadership styles (Transactional vs Transformational) on perceptions of employee psychological contract and organizational commitment. I am trying to find a measure which followers rate their perceptions of the leadership style apart from the MLQ as there is a substantial charge for the use of their questionnaire?
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Candice,
Carless et al. (2000) created a 7-item Global Transformational Leadership scale.  It has been shown to be valid and reliable in a number of different settings.  I adapted it slightly for my own research.  Hope that helps.
Take care,
Rob
Carless, S.A., Wearing, A.J. and Mann, L. (2000), “A short measure of transformational leadership”, Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol. 14 No. 3, pp. 389-405.
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Dear ones
I want some publications, articles, books about this question.
I'm working on knowledge management in organizations and want some topics about incentives, motivate methods, cultural subjects and etc about how to motivate the staff (managers and employees) on the way of implementing knowledge management. It may also refers to Human Resources in knowledge management.
Best Regards
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Today employees are viewed as organizational assets and not liabilities. It is for the organizational management to build up trust and mutual confidence through transparency, communication and ethical behavior, in order to motivate employees for knowledge management. Employees must realize that management values their contribution, which will eventually lead to improvement of organizational performance as well as fulfill the employee expectation. Management's display of equal, if not more, concern for Human Capital as compared to that of Financial Capital, will trigger the use of creative potential of employees through organizational knowledge management system. 
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In order to enable consistency on public services, one important dimension is the aesthetics. There are a number of touchpoints throughout the customer journey, including people-to-people interactions. Can we provide a consistent aesthetic solution for services? How could we evaluate that?
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Keep in mind that aesthetics is about a physical reaction/experience of beauty.  People have individual and different reactions to sensory experiences.  Feeling comfortable in a familiar setting is not the same as feeling joyful, euphoric, excited, etc in the visceral area of the body (Vagus nerve included) as we do when hearing certain music, smelling a certain fragrance, appreciating designs and  colors (art or flowers). Being relaxed is a beginning (the absence of stress/sympathetic NS); nurturing the parasympathetic responses and conditioning for controlling or anticipating/creating the  biochemical state for association with time and place and/or product.  Not all art is aesthetic(beautiful with parasympathetic reaction); some spaces are artful but cold and anesthetic--nothing is alive or enlivens the spirit.  Colorful flowers are helpful, but pictures of flowers are also good (cheap-looking faded plastic flowers are not so good since the reaction can be disappointment on close inspection--same with drooping flowers.  Think of joy, elation, happy, satisfaction, appreciation.  The music must not be current popular style.  Some people have preferences, but the ANS reaction is not about familiarity, it is about conditioning and can be subtle.  We can think of music as setting a mood but the deep ANS experience goes deeper than preference and certainly is not dance music.  People often put up with noisy music played through broken rattling speakers or other distortions such as static when radio is used.  Gentle classical music is generally perceived as pleasant.  Music is versatile since it can be linked to themes such as seasons and sales.  The Christmas songs in the USA have become a noise burden with incessant repetition that people tune out or endure.  Some New Age music is intended for relaxation and is sensed physically as a relaxing bath and nap for refreshment as opposed to the usual noisy world and noisy mind.
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i am doing research on work ethics and organizational jsutice and i am looking for different scales of work ethics. , and i know some of them like Islamic work ethics protestant work ethics and MWEP. as there are more sale of work ethics i need the scale of work ethic anybody can help me 
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I would like to recommend research into ' work as a method of personal development.' You might research into some yoga philosophy regarding this.  
I don't have anything definitive except work is an important aspect for focusing and directing attention. 
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I am looking for a scale measurement (3-6 items) that captures the horizontal centralization. Currently, I examine process of business unit restructuring. As such, I focus on the introduction of a new centralized business unit. The most established measurements follow the thought of the Aston studies and consider solely vertical centralization (e.g., dependence-independence from supervisor). Thanks for your help!
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I agree with Kenneth Rethmeier.
You could focus on a few centralised services, and use your own creativity. For example, while a recruitment decision is implemented by the human resources department, some departments that would be involved in decision-making are: the department/ function which has raised the recruitment need; the human resources department would be involved in assessment, reference checks, joining negotiations and formalities; the finance department may be involved in working out a package of compensation, stocks or a severance package and so on, as necessary.
You can explore the horizontal centralisation in this case.
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Working on how organization intend to increase market share, by adopting strategies to compete effectively on the market in the catering business.
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Many key factors were mentioned by the experts in this forum and, certainly, government policies could greatly affect a firm's performance.
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I have 3 variables, Innovation (2 Dimensions, 9 items), absorptive capacity (4 dimensions, 24 items) and Intellectual Capital (3 dimensions, 13 items). Should I perform CFA for individual variable or simultaneously draw all variables and run the analysis?
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Morning, 
I think you should perform your analysis for second order variables only. It means,  you create in AMOS a model with all the items  and then correlate the second order variablesome only in order to show the convergent and discriminant validity issues as well as model fit.
Once (in one of our studies) we used to perform both analyses - for first and for the second order constructs.  The reason was - we developed a new measure and we wanted to show that the items in the first order constructs do not overlap. The other reason for making both levels of analysis was the mix of formative and reflective measures. I.e. first level constructs were reflective, whereas second level constructs were formative. (Actually pretty close to those you are attempting to use in  your work).
Best,
Eugene 
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I´m looking for a viable theoretical framework to explain alliances between terrorist groups. 
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Thanks a lot Roberto, appreciate it!
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In the Andean world of peasant agriculture, wisdom is love, nurturance, symbiosis, conversation, reciprocity, and dance. That wisdom may be comprehended by the Quechua expression Sumaq Kawsay, commonly translated as "good living", although we prefer "fullness of life". The notion of Sumaq Kawsay has been lately the subject of academic debate in Latin America, particularly in the Andes, since it has been chosen as the leitmotiv by Ecuadorian and Bolivian Constitutions in the past two years.
The Ecuadorian Constitution in particular introduces, for the first time, the idea of nature as a subject entitled to rights, in the same way as human beings. The academic and social groups in which the term was first used, aim to propose a new development model based in Andean cultural roots, built on respect, equality among all, solidarity, harmony and equity. 
We have found a similar notion, "Gawad Kalinga" ("to give care" in Tagalog) in the Philippines. Are there any other ancestral principles that are similar in other cultures? f
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You are welcome. The complexity for policy makers and governments in trying to balance the values of Aboriginal and Indigenous peoples with 'main-stream science and technology' becomes very evident when you consider the UN Declaration on the Rights of Aboriginal People - particularly with respect to veto rights and energy development which is an active issue in Canada today. Also, under the Canadian Nuclear Waste Act there is an requirement to find a permanent repository for Canada's accumulated nuclear waste. The process that has been adopted is called adaptive phased management. At its core is a commitment to voluntary, informed consent. Many Aboriginal people embrace an ontology and metaphysics that is anti-main stream science and some are unconvinced that nuclear waste should be returned to mother earth which is the proposed activity - a deep geological repository. How we privilege understandings of our world from capitalist, environmentalist, indigenous perspectives as well as other social justice perspectives is one of the key challenge of our day.
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I am specifically talking about knowledge utilisation theory, not other knowledge-to-action theories. If you know about this theory and can check my understanding below that would be great! Thanks.
* Knowledge utilisation theory has its roots at the nexus between science and philosophy and is sometimes regarded as the umbrella knowledge-to-action theory.
* Knowledge utilisation theory is interested in whether knowledge is used instrumentally, symbolically, conceptually, or any mix of these utilisation types.
* Evaluating knowledge use from a knowledge utilisation lens involves looking at individual users versus organisational use, and exploring organisational contextual influences such as timing, resources, social conditions, power, politics, support for evaluation, and communication patterns.
* Knowledge utilisation seeks to understand what type of use is occurring – for example, whether the utilisation of knowledge manifests quickly into practice demonstrating the value placed on improvement and change, or whether the utilisation of knowledge slowly constructs deeper understanding over time.
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I do not know much about the topic but hopefully the attached article is of assistance.
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I have searched Scholar, Google, and various databases; naturally I came across several nonverbal annotation manuals, yet none focus specifically on natural leader-follower interaction occurring in real-life organizational settings (e.g. supervisor-led staff meetings, day-to-day work floor interactions).
I am asking the ResearchGate community in the hope that someone could point me in the right direction!
Thank you.
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Thank you Ian and Camille for you helpful suggestions!
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Organizational support theory, assumes employees form belief regarding their organizational values, their contributions and organizations cares about their well-being.
o Can this theory be measured?
o Specifically can employee’s perception of self-worth relationship to a leader’s style of leadership be measured?
o If so what are the appropriate validated measuring instruments?
o What literatures are there related to this topic?
o Are there any literatures or research studying a competency model approach related to employees self-worth relationship to leadership styles?
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Dear Donta!
We are currently applying the method of Markoczy & Goldberg (1995) in order to measure differences between mental models of managers. You can similarly apply this method and measure employees' beliefs concerning, e.g., a manager and check whether there are any significant differences. 
Sincerely,
Eugene
PS. The formula is in the paper of 1995.
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My Phd thesis is  "informal power in organization"  I have researched but I haven't reached any sources about informal power. I reached thousands of material about  power, but informal power. Can anyone suggest me the source about informal power in organization?
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Dear Ahmet,
The discussion concerning power in organizations you can also find well developed in Mats Alvessons book Communication, Power and Organization. There is a discussion about the power of discourses and on how power is exercised.
Best wishes
Lars Nordgren  
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Work Setting 
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Be aware that the observation subscale doesn't load mindfulness factor, if you had a sample without the experience with meditation.
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A recent case study of a large retail chain in the USA suggests the ability of the CEO to engage in generative doubt (i.e. deliberately seeking the experience of not-knowing) may be a key condition for organizational and strategic resilience. Has anyone observed this "generative doubt" ability in other studies of CEO behavior, corporate governance, and so forth? Possibly you have labeled it otherwise. Or do you believe generative doubt is incompatible with the role and behavior of CEOs, especially those in public corporations?
The article:
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In a complex world, nothing is more dangerous than "I know it all", perfect rationality and complete information is a myth, that most CEO will not admit to. Much less ignorance. Hence "I don't know"- bounded rationality, is not only a redundancy that is mainly "satisficing instead of optimizing", it serves to ultimately enhance adaptive decision-making, and to  innoculate CEOs from groupthink and "all the king's men" that are the usual cause of the "Humpty Dumpty" effect- too smart for one's own good. However knowing that "I don't know" will still not save CEOs from the "unknowable", which is a black swan event by definition.
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Cooperative firms are owned and run by their employees, who receive a fair share of the profit. I'm looking at any existing literature on the performance of such firms. Any suggestions? Thank you. 
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Hi Thomas,
These papers about the comparative analysis of workers’ cooperatives vs. capitalist firms may be of interest to you (from the oldest to the most recent ones) :
Ben-ner, A. 1988. 'The life cycle of worker-owned firms in market economies.' Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 10:3, 287-313.
Ben-Ner, A. 1988. 'Comparative empirical observations on worker-owned and capitalist firms.' International Journal of Industrial Organization, 6:1, 7-31.
Pérotin, V. 2006. 'Entry, exit, and the business cycle: Are cooperatives different?' Journal of Comparative Economics, 34:2, 295-316.
Burdín, G. & Dean, A. 2009. 'New evidence on wages and employment in worker cooperatives compared with capitalist firms.' Journal of Comparative Economics, 37:4, 517-33.
--
With regard to the performance of financial cooperatives during crises, there is a report of the International Labour Office, which can be found following this link:
See also this special issue of the Journal of Entrepreneurial and Organizational Diversity:
Hope this helps.
All the best,
Thomas
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Group and team are very different from each other regarding to their objectives and the member's characteristics.
Group consist of people with different skills and objectives.
Team consist of people who share the same skills with the same objectives.
According to the question, I need on how both have an effect according to the contemporary organization objectives. Your perspective was appreciated.
Thanks
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Team work is the fundamental landmark of civilisation. Whatever the cultural meaning of this, whatever the worldwide differences, team work is the secret of good Organisations. 
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I'd like to find a standarised questionaire that can measure whether organisational values are identified in an organisation and, if yes, how many employees accept those values. Can anyone help, please?
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Corporate values that are drawn by management are not rooted in basic social convictions and cannot be the bedrock of an organizational constitution. They serve only to rally the troops and are therefore manipulative in nature. What is more, advertising corporate values does not necessarily mean they will be practiced: over time, personnel weave their own interpretations and ideologies into organizational behavior; therefore, it is essential that personnel and management share an understanding of what corporate values are (or might be). Obviously, there must be reciprocity of obligation, enshrined in through two-way communications.
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I am fresh researcher who doing research in graduate proposal,  my topic is conflict management and organizational performance in public sectors. so,  I read the literature; but I did not find any items to measure this variables.
please help me the measurements of each variable?
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Ali,
Measuring conflict management might not be especially useful. It's too broad of a concept. It's more common to measure different types of conflict behaviors such as competition, cooperation, accommodation, and avoidance. See the works on conflict management in organizations by Pruitt, Rahim, Jehn, Tjosvold, and de Dreu.
The textbook Interpersonal Conflict by Wilmot and Hocker is an especially good book to get an overview of the wide range of the theoretical perspectives used in the study of interpersonal conflict.
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1. comparative contingency theory with other theories.
2. is the contingency theory adequate for management accounting research.
3.can the management accounting practice improve the performance.
4. models related with this subject. 
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You will find Management Accounting and Control Systems: An Organizational and Sociological Approach, 2nd Edition. Norman B. Macintosh, Paolo Quattrone and Wickramasinghe, D., and Alawattage, C. (2007) Management Accounting Change: Approaches and Perspectives. Routledge: London, UK very useful. I have attached some papers that you may find useful.
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Has there been a "material turn" in the social sciences? What are the main features of this "turn"?
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The material turn is a reaction to the so-called "discursive turn" initiated by poststructuralism's crises of representation, and basically looks at the roles that objects play in human action as well as signification. Latour and ANT are a landmark, some varieties of Critical Realism address this, but possibly the most interesting take is Graham Harman's work on Object Oriented Ontology and Speculative Realism. Within organization and management studies the realist take fails to get as far as Harman, and is dominated by Information scholars like Orlikowski. Dean Pierides, Jon Roffe and I did a stream at EGOS in 2014 on this - I can provide further references if needed from this and 're:Harman and critics. Should say there's also a body related corporeal turn which is again a response to the discursive but less strictly "objective" than OOO or SR.
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Dear colleagues!
We plan a study tackling the burn-out. Being relatively new in this area, we looked for available scales in academic papers. It would be great if you could share your experience concerning the following:
1.       We found the Maslach Burn-Out Invetory in the paper of Maslach and Jackson (1981). We know that the scales were slightly changed in the version of 1986. Moreover, there appeared new inventories, such as MBI-GS, MBI-HSS, MBI-ES. Do you know any studies which compare them? Would it be an issue, if we use the 1981-scale instead of newer versions? Did you find any advantage in newer scales? (our population are the for-profit client-oriented service organizations)
2.       In the paper of 1981 Maslach and Jacksons use two scales – one for Intensity and one for Frequency. In further versions the scale on intensity disappears. Intensity was one of the key points why we would use the 1981-scale. Did anyone of you face problems with the intensity scale? Is there any reason to avoid its usage?
3.       Finally, we think of using of an alternative to MBI – the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (Kristensen et al., 2005). If you used both of the scales, could you share your experience?
Thank you in advance!
Faithfully,
Eugene
PS. Can anybody email my the new version of the MBI? Would be great...
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 Renzo makes a good point about definitions. My view has always been that if burnout is nothing but exhaustion, there is no need for the term, burnout. It would be more straightforward and more scientifically accurate to call exhaustion what it is.
If the construct of interest is more complex than exhaustion, then you need to identify a measure that captures that complexity in more than one exhaustion dimension. 
A parallel discussion is underway with work or employee engagement. There's a conceptual challenge when using a colloquial term as the basis of a research construct. 
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Co-opetition is a concept used and enlarged in business. Is it possible to implement it in HEIs?
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A very interesting, timely and intriguing question Krzysztof! Not a great deal has been done on competition itself (though see https://core.ac.uk/download/files/108/398034.pdf) but surely as part of a wider gravitation towards a model of 'alliance capitalism', features of cooperation that align to the concept of strategic co-opetition are becoming more not less pronounced also in the HE sector as competition for funding, students and international collaborations/markets intensifies. There is certainly scope for applying many of the groundbreaking concepts first developed by Brandenburger and Nalebuff. Good luck with your research endeavors!   
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Conducive organization culture is essential for exploring and utilizing the creative potential of employees. Higher compensation is also a motivator. Retention of star performers, is essential for maintaining organizational competitive advantage.
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Hmmm ... while there are a host of reasons why people stay or leave organizations certainly compensation and culture are two of the important ones. Herzberg would of course lean toward culture as the dominant determinant for those choosing to stay.
From my standpoint, having been a hiring authority for much of my career, I would rather have a person who "fit within the culture" and "had a passion for the mission" than a person who was merely seeking to be "highly compensated." Given a non-religious application of the terms, I would prefer "missionaries" over "mercenaries" ... I believe that "missionaries" would stay and make positive contributions while "mercenaries" would become self-centered "careerists" willing to work for any organization regardless of its mission or his/her passion for the work being done as long as the organization was the "highest bidder" for his/her services.
In short, who would even care if those who are only concerned with money stayed?
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Perhaps this would involve organizational theory/behavior or social psychology. 
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You may check Karl Weick's sense making theory.  Identity threat is a core concept in the theory. Organization change often causes identity threats to its members.  I think people have individual differences on perceiving and coping with identity threat.  
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Can you share with us some of your thoughts and recent papers, as well? We had also a previous study on this (as shown in the link below) but we want to have some improvements on our next survey.
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Dear Romer, This paper might be of your interest. Full paper is available for download also:
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Can anyone help me by pointing me to a theory/ theoretical paper/ review that helps integrating inconsistent findings when comparing psychological (e.g., emotional exhaustion) and physiological/endocrinological (i.e., cortisol) data?
Thank you very much in advance!
Best wishes,
Judith
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Thank you very much Dr. Salim Aljubori,
I will check these references!
Best regards,
Judith
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High performance work system enhances the employees’ knowledge, skills, and abilities, motivation, and opportunity that helps to generate  higher productivity. But as per soft approach HRM policies focusing on employees' need fulfillment result in higher commitment, satisfaction  loyalty and low intention to leave, which in turn enhance behavioral performance as well as financial performance of the organisation
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Organizations are structured social entities, with defined membership( employees), having coordinated activities and goal directed systems. Organizational strategies are worked out for creating sustainable competitive advantage in a changing business environment. Human resources, being important organizational resources, are  required to be manged strategically in consonance with organizational strategies, in order to fulfill all the stakeholders' expectations, including that of employees. Therefore people oriented organizational strategies lead to the realization of organizational objectives through employee commitment. Sustainable high performance culture is created through ethics, transparency, empowerment, participation and employee commitment, which enhance employees' morale and productivity.
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What the operational measures of Dynamic Managerial Capabilities i.e. Managerial Cognition, Social Capital and Human Capital? Any references.
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Harshvardhan Singh, thank you for quick response and useful links. I am actually looking for the Managerial Dynamic Capabilities introduced by
(Adner & Helfat, 2003). The conceptual papers are available in this area but I haven't been able to find any Operational Measures so far. Cheers.
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We define management capacity as the ability to plan, organize, lead and control an organizational unit. We've been looking for one and the instruments are usually in the domain of leadership and not management. We also consider management capacity as a subset of policy capacity - primarily dealing with the operational and managerial aspects of policy making and implementation.
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WE (Workforce Equanimity) have found Wiley's Everything DiSC for Managers to be useful in working with managers' work styles and helping them evolve into the managerial role.  I understand that you are looking for a capacity test, to see who may fare better in the role; but our approach assumes that managers are already in place in most organizations, and that the decision was not a data-driven one; but more personal, relational, and performance valuated.  Working to make "better" managers is likely to be more beneficial to the org in the long run than trying to screen for managerial skills - though both have their merits.  I'm just not sure that the world really "knows," with sufficient detail, what constitutes a successful manager so that attribute potential can be measured in advance. 
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I am currently looking at the gains of forced ranking (rather than the conventional methods) on organizational performance
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Dear Pam,
Research hypothesis or hypotheses are inline with research question(s) and research objective(s). develop your hypotheses based on that.
you can also develop.......
....First identify the underlining structure of items that make up performance appraisal method scale, than go for your hypothesis or hypotheses. once you know the factors you can link that with organizational performance.
For further clarification kindly find the attached file, link... it may help
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Does anyone know of an instrument to measure SMEs productivity? It should be answered by uneducated and educated managers, and must provide comparable data along different economic sectors.
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So probably not helpful problems rather than solutions..... however, Having worked as a business profession within an SME, not just studying them, there are many non-tangible aspects that employees add to the business or tasks for them to complete to facilitate job completion that will be missed as part of most metrics. So although you maybe get a tangible figure for productivity that may tell a story (output/resource input), that snapshot will be insufficient on its own. I think productivity as a term is to broad to measure with any accuracy. I think you need to draw down further in my opinion. A firm can mass produce and look effective, but at what quality, how many returns? etc. 
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i want to compare between to service organizations. by measuring transparency level . 
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