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Organizational Commitment - Science topic

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I'm researching organizational commitment and I'm looking for the Cronbach alphas of the original Meyer and Allen (1990) organizational commitment scale and the revised version of Meyer, Allen, and Smith's (1993) organizational commitment scale respectively.
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Allen and Meyer's Organizational Commitment Scale - Flip eBook Pages 1-8 | AnyFlip
You have to read the whole thing because Cr alpha changes depending on which items they deleted.
[PDF] Meyer and Allen Model of Organizational Commitment: Measurement Issues | Semantic Scholar
Good luck Béatrice
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Am conducting research on the relationship between Happiness at work and Organizational commitment. Am using Meyer and Allen's (1993) OCS to measure the three aspects of organizational commitment. Am looking for a reliable and valid scale that can measure happiness at work to achieve a better result. It is my undergraduate project and I will be facing internal and external defense after my study so I also need other useful suggestions on how to achieve better results in this project. Am just a beginner as far as research is concerned.
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Job satisfaction by itself is not enough to retain good employees. I have published an article for a new construct, job delight which entails stronger emotions and positive behaviors.
I recommend to refer to my publication:
- Judeh, Mahfuz, Abed Suzan and Gali, Nazha (2022) Job Delight: Development and Validation of a New Construct, International Journal of Business Performance Management, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp. 285-303. DOI: 10.1504/IJBPM.2022.123823.
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Am conducting a study on organizational commitment and am looking for a scale that has high reliability that I can easily use for my study to achieve a better result.
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The Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) (arabpsychology.com)
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I am using two sample sizes for the independent variables: transformational leadership and intrinsic motivation. One dependent variable turnover intention and a moderating variable organizational commitment. The moderating variable is used for the independent variables.
When determining the sample sizes using G*Power I am a bit confused as to which tests to use, I do know it is the priori, two tail, power .90, medium or large effect size, and alpha 0.01.
Any insights, advice, or pointing me in the right direction to find the information would be greatly appreciated. Thanking in advance.
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I don't think that you will get any useful advice here other than, possibly, that you should go to a local (bio-)statistician.
You did not formulate any statistical hypothesis you plan to test. You did not even specify by what kind of random variable you model your DV ("turnover intention" does not seem to be something that can be modelled in a sensible way by a normal-distributed random variable). You did not say anything about the characteristics of the IVs and the moderator and their assumed relationships with the DV. It is extremely unlikely, to my experience, that you will be able to give
these details here so that a statistician can understand your problem and effectively help you. Therefore I resommend to talk face-to-face to a statistician so that seh can ask, you can answer and that both of you can approach a meaningful statistical model and define a meaningful statistical hypothesis to test, for which the required sample size can be determined -- what might require a simulation approach not provided by G*Power, so that you would need further assistance of help in running and interpreting such simulations.
Or you forgent about the sample-size calculation and just take the largest possible sample that is feasable within your time and money budget. As sampling does not seem to harm any creature, taking a very long time or being very expensive, you would not risk much in just aquiring a sample as-large-as possible and see if the data are sufficiently conclusive. However, this still requires you to set up a proper statistical model and to map your research question to a testable statistical hypothesis within this model; something for what you will likely need the help of a statistician, still.
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Dear all;
Kindly, share with me the link to the Farsi Translation of Organizational Commitment by Allen and Mayer 24 scales questionnaire.
Thanking you in advance for your cooperation and help.
Best regards
Mohammad Qais Rezvani
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Dear researchers
I want to use in my research the questionnaire developed by 'Natalie Allen and John Meyer' to measure Organizational Commitment (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/105348229190011Z). These researchers used the 7 point scale to measure Organizational Commitment.
May, I use 5 point scale instead of 7 point scale on the same questionnaire?
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Olivier Serrat is right: a 7-point scale may require a bit more cognitive effort from the respondent, but it may give more precision, if your respondents can handle this.
A 7-point may help respondents to be more precise; for instance they have to think whether to put their mark under subtly different answers like 'Yes! agree completely' and 'Yes agree', or to give another example 'Yes? hesitate but yet agree' and 'No, hesitate but yet disagree'. The example I give is from a 6-point scale, which has the advantage of leaving out the middle category; some respondents like to use this as an escape route for not deciding what they think or if they are afraid to be frank about their attitude.
So, I would advise you to consider this aspect as well.
Thinking about your question, it comes to mind that you may perhaps use both types of scale in your reseach and find out yourself what works best.
If your sample is big enough you can split the sample randomly and present half of the respondents the questions in 5-, and the other half in 7-point format. If you have some other variable that can be used to validate your scale, you can use the correlation with that criterium as an indicator which way is best. Generally, if one of the two types gives more clear correlations with other variables, I would certainly prefer that one. Also compare the reliability coefficients of both types and the item-total correlations of each of the items; it may be quite revealing!
Thanks for you question; it is well worth thinking about.
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Dear all,
I would like to inform that I am a student candidate for Ph.D. at Kurukshetra University and my subject relates to Organizational Commitment and job satisfaction of University Teachers.
I am interested in using the scale (OCQ) of the 24 questions. I was wondering if there is an English or Persian version for it.
Could you please inform me how I can get this scale?
Thank you in advance for your cooperation and help.
Regards
Mohammad Qais Rezvani
Ph.D. Scholar
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This research may be useful
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Respected Scholars!
I need scale of Organizational Commitment for my research work on School.
Is there anyone who can help me, so that I can work on my research project....
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You can check page 218 from the link below.
GOOD LUCK!
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Good day,
I am currently conducting my research for a master's mini dissertation and I am examining group cohesion as a driver to predict employee commitment and withdrawal behaviour. I would like to find out where can I get access and permission to use the following questionnaires:
- Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ - 18 items)
- Organizational Commitment Scale (OCS - 18 items)
- Turnover Intensions Scale (TIS - 6 items) Would you please advise regarding my request? I look forward to your response and hope to hear from you soon
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I am providing links for the questionnaires you are seeking. You may request original authors for the access.
1. Group Environment Questionnaire:
2. Organizational Commitment Scale:
You may also use another questionnaire:
All the best.
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Hello all,
Does someone know if there is a OCQ with a maximum of 3 or 4 questions. I need to tell something about commitment of the respondents. Thanks.
Best regards,
Sipke
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Good morning, pls I need questionnaire on organizational citizenship behavior. Can someone he'll me with it pls.
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Is this scale suitable for the university/education research context.
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What is the difference between organizational loyalty and organizational commitment?
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Hello!
I am a master's student, working on my thesis. One of the instruments I need to use is Meyer and Allen Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Since I am doing a replication study, I need the questionnaire translated in Swedish, either the 1993 or the 1999 version. Does anyone have a Swedish translation?
Kind Regards
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I think it is available in many languages, but as far as I know it’s available in Swidish language too but I’ll check and send it once I get it.
wish you all the best
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Hi! Here is the situation:
The researcher gathered data from 52 random managers and 102 random employees (and these employees are not necessarily under the said managers). She would like to measure if the emotional intelligence of the managers influences the work performance and organizational commitment of the employees. It was suggested to do regression here, but I advised otherwise as there are two different groups involved. What would be the best statistical tool for this?
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PS - I just thought about errors-in-variables models. I don't know much about them, but I think you usually have multiple x-value "measurements" for each y-value, not the other way around.
BTW - With what was done, you might have employees in the sample whose manager was not sampled. So you don't have any individual relationship there. If there is a group relationship, that sounds like it might really complicate the question.
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Hi, Currently I got a project from manufacturing company which has TPM concept. How can I combine perceived TPM excellence and the employee commitment in the manufacturing company. Can you help me with any questionnaire to be used in project?
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You can use Allens & Meyer's 3 component scale for measuring organizational commitment or use can use a global score test developed by Mowday et al. named as OCQ
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For a thesis idea I wanted to combine the process-oriented famous John P. Kotter 8-step change management Framework with the contextual dependencies from the Balogun and Hope Hailey Change Kaleidoscope and the individual characteristics of people ( co-workers) involved in the change process? With the formulation of the Research question as in: What type of people are needed in each phases of the Kotter process ( and involving the context perspective from the change kaleidoscope?
Do you think there is enough academic evidence / literature to forumulate such propositions for each (change) step to say what charactericts of people are needed? For example resilient and goal oriented Workers in the 1. Step: Establishing a sense of urgency (for change) and so on
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All the best in your study Val Vj
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Hi,
I'm looking to calculate the overall correlation based on correlations in subgroups.
To give an example, i've made scatterplots in the pictures attached. In the first picture (figure 3), looking at all data points, the correlation seems to be positive, but when limited to within a the subgroup (the circles) the correlation seems to be negative.
So my question is whether there is a test in SPSS or R that i can use to determine the overall correlations within the two categories.
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SPSS can compute pooled within-group correlations. This adjusts for group membership by computing sums of squares and sums of products around the group means, and then pooling to compute the correlation. It is either part of the MANOVA or the Discriminant Analysis procedure.
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I suggested McClean and Collins (2011) and my supervisor noted that it does not include all the relevant dimensions. I am reading around the topic of HCHR, so any good relevant papers are also appreciated.
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Following study has created two scales to measure bureaucratic and high commitment HRM practices using theory and concepts found in the HRM literature
Kaman, V., McCarthy, A. M., Gulbro, R. D., & Tucker, M. L. (2001). Bureaucratic and high commitment human resource practices in small service firms. Human Resource Planning, 24(1), 33-33.
Here, the scale was adapted from Snell and Dean (1992) and utilized to measure employee perceptions of the extent of highcommitment HRM practices
Nielsen, P., Rasmussen, P., Chiang, H. H., Han, T. S., & Chuang, J. S. (2011). The relationship between high‐commitment HRM and knowledge‐sharing behavior and its mediators. International Journal of Manpower.
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Balay's organizational commitment scale was done in 2000 and seems to be references everywhere. But I can't seem to find the scale or the questions for it. Any help would be great as to where I can find it.
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I would like to recommend reading the follwoing article done by Refik BALAY and Cemalettin İPEK in the year 2010:
- Refik BALAY and Cemalettin İPEK (2010) TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT IN TURKISH PRIMARY SCHOOLS, Journal of World of Turks ZfWT Vol. 2, No. 1.
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Hi everyone,
I have a question with the factor analysis, you have to do before doing the multiple regression.
I am doing a confirmatory factor analysis.
I am using scales that were already used by different papers. Is it right to put all the variables you have in the factor analysis in SPSS or is it also possible to do a factor analysis for each of your constructs. Because when I put all variables that I have got in one factor analysis, some items are loading on more than one factor. If I do single factor analysis my outcomes are much better.
Thank you so much for your help!
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You're not alone, Loarenz Hausneuer . This is a very common problem.
First, in regular SPSS, you're running Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). With EFA, you're trying to discover underlying components of your data or, more generally, groups of variables that are highly correlated with each other, and have low (zero) correlations with other groups of variables. EFA has no preconceived ideas about what you should see as an outcome. That's why it's "exploratory". Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) is very different. CFA seeks to confirm your preconceived ideas about what factor structures should be found. You won't see CFA in regular SPSS. You want to use SPSS-AMOS for CFA. Also, just as there a many other packages than SPSS for statistical analysis, including EFA, there are many other packages than AMOS for CFA. All are good - each has its own strengths.
If your supervisor has instructed you to use SPSS EFA in your analysis then it's okay to do so, but think about what that means.
When you run EFA then you're trying to discover common factors in your data, with no theory to hold you back (or guide your research). So if you discover that your data gives you a similar factor structure as that found by the people who produced your scale then you have evidence for the validity of the scale. Your measures produce a similar factor structure as the original research, even though your data were gathered at a different time with a different cohort. Celebrate!
Now, if theory says that some constructs are likely to be related to each other (e.g., friendships within the organisation are related to organisational commitment) then you should expect to see high correlations among the items from both measures - your should expect to see one factor with items from the Friendships construct and from the Commitment construct. If you don't find shared information (high correlations) among those individual items from different constructs then you won't find any strong relationship between your overall constructs.
So, if you want to use SPSS-EFA, then run your EFA one construct at at time. If you really want to run AMOS-CFA, then you should include all items (each linked to the appropriate latent variables). Technically, it's the more correct option, but it's probably a bigger task than you need.
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I'm currently working on a project to find the effect on job satisfaction(JS), organizational commitment(OC), and OCB.
1)Can I test the mediation effect on organizational commitment on JS and OCB as well as job satisfaction on OC and OCB in the same research? or
2)since it represents two different models; can I test it in the same research study
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Dear Thyagi Guruge,
You can test both the Mediation in the same model. Through SEM using AMOS, SMART PLS you can test. Another alternative is you can use The Process Model by Andrew Hayes. If you are using SPSS, you can download the process macro from http://processmacro.org/download.html
Two types of mediation can be tested for the model stated by you.
1) Serial Mediation- Model 6
2) Parallel Mediaton - Model 4
Details relating to the same is available in http://www.personal.psu.edu/jxb14/M554/specreg/templates.pdf
For more detailed contents you have to refer his book "Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis "
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Hello,
I am a PhD candidate at Capella University and I would like to use the affective and normative commitment questions for my dissertation. Can you please advise how I make this request and get permission?
Thank you,
Tonya Petty
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we know the scale is available. The issue is, who owns the copyright to give permission to use?
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Hi everyone. I am in the final stages of my thesis writing and my supervisor told me I can use Anova, OLS, PLS and it can be moderation, mediation or interaction. It's all up to me. Now, that has given me many options and I find it very difficult to decide as I'm not very experienced with quantitative research and using SPSS.
I am studying the relationships of job satisfaction and organizational commitment with organizational citizenship behavior, but with the addition of individual values. I propose that holding certain values alters the relationship between the other variables. I think this is a moderating effect, would you agree?
My main problem is that I don't know what would be the best way to analyze this model. I know for basic regression I would have to combine all items into one variable and this is not necessary for PLS so I'm leaning towards PLS, but how can I test the effect that the values (or a few of them) have on the other IV-DV relationships?
I include a picture of my model in SmartPLS where I have combined the items of the IVs and DV into single variables.
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If all these variables are continuous, I would not perform ANOVA which would require that you create categories for your IVs. I would use OLS regression. One issue is that there are 10 values, which means 10 IVs plus satisfaction and commitment. I would not treat values as a single latent variable (suggested in this figure) because the different variables are not alternate measures of the same thing. I would consider conducting a factor analysis to see if the 10 values might collapse into a smaller number of factors. If so, you could reduce values to a smaller number of dimensions, and then treat each dimension as a separate variable, assuming they make sense. But if the values are distinct and not highly related, you have 10 to deal with, either in the same analysis, or in separate analyses. The figure does not show values as a moderator, but you could easily conduct moderated regression of OCB on commitment and satisfaction, with values as moderators.
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Hello everyone. I am asking for help because I am completely confused.
For my thesis research, I am looking at how a person's individual values affects their job satisfaction and their organizational commitment, and in turn their organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). I've identified satisfaction and commitment as the foremost predictors of OCB from literary research, and want to test this relationship. In the below model you can see the dimensions of each concept, which I have based my survey items on.
Now my primary problem is that I have no idea how many hypotheses I have to test based on my conceptual model, or if this is my own choice (?). Here are my questions:
- Can I decide to divide the values in two sets, and say -for example- h1: org. commitment positively affects OCB, h2: set 1 positively affects org. commitment, so h3: set 1 positively affects OCB through org. commitment?
- And if so, do I have to use the same sets of values to base my hypotheses on for satisfaction, or can I make a different combination for the values > satisf. > OCB path?
- Also, is the arrow through the middle from values to OCB necessary for what I want to find out, or can I omit that relationship?
- And finally, I plan on doing my analysis through PLS path modelling. Is that correct or would you recommend a different method?
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If I understand you correctly, it looks like you're going to need one set of hypotheses for each value that you're going to test, Value1 through Value10. That's a lot of hypotheses!
It looks like you're hypothesizing that both Org Commitment and Job Satisfaction mediate the relationship between ValueX and OCB. This is only meaningful for the values that are significantly correlated to OCB (zero-order correlations). If such a relationship doesn't exist, mediation isn't meaningful.
However, I don't think I would make hypotheses about mediation. I can't imagine that the relationship between valuing hedonism, for example, and job satisfaction is very high (but I might be wrong). However, I think it might be interesting to examine whether holding certain values moderates a) the relationship between between job satisfaction and OCB, and b) the relationship between org commitment and OCB. This would help us better understand these relationships.
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I am testing a hypothesis on the differences in organisational commitment among working and non-working students. Given that organisational commitment is manifested in three dimensions, namely - normative, affective and continuance, do I need to run MANOVA with the three dimensions of the dependent variable in one go or shall I run multiple ANOVAs for each dimension separately?
Many thanks.
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I think you should run trice Anova, because if I am not mistaken the three type commitment from Allen and Mayer is not one dimensions. It's consist three type not dimensions. So we can not sum the score of item in affective and normative and continuance.
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There are some papers which prove that WB leads to OC whereas there are almost the same number of research done which states the reverse. Is there any seminal work done on the actual causal relationship between the two?
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I think in relationship between variables the theoretical foundation or literature can clarify the cause and effect relationship. so in articles that you read this point is important.
Another important thing is to read top articles which are published by top publisher like Elsevier, Wiley and...
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According to my experiences and insights it is one of most relevant impacts
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i would like to get the PDF for the article (The measurement of organizational commitment) by Richard T Mowday, Richard M Steers & Lyman W Porter
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kindly find attached PDF file
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Hello,
For a group project, we are researching the relationship between educational level and organizational commitment. Since there are conflicting findings, there probably is a moderator involved in this relationship. My group found one suggestion in a paper that the moderator could be work experience of an employee. Unfortunately, this argument is not strong enough, and we are having difficulties finding moderators in papers.
Is there anyone that could help us with suggestions for the moderator work experience? Or any other moderators?
Thank you in advance!
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Service Quality from the Lenses of Role Clarity and Organizational Itizenship Behavior
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Trying to elucidate the relationship between psychological contract of temporary employees and their organizational commitmnet- preferably temporary employees in a University setting.
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This all depends on the mission and vision of the organisation. The clearer and stronger the corporate vision, the stronger the commitment of all staff (including temporary) will be. If you want commitment then they have to be engaged with a purpose, and fitted in according to their own strengths. Then it works.
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Could you share please links to researches about to what extent the commitment of an employee is affected by other variables?
I am doing a matrix in order to know what previous studies have been done about the relationship between commitment and other variables. If you have done one investigation, or know some study, I will appreciate your contribution. Sincerely, Cristina from the Philippines
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Following factors are argued to play as determinants of enhancing Organizational Commitment of an employee:
1. Alignment of the values and interests of the organization with the values and interests of employees.
2. Support given by the top management for employee well-being.
3. Organizational justice
4. Organizational comprehension (understanding the organizational philosophy, vision, mission, history, present, and future well)
5. Perceived organizational support within employees
6. Employee Embeddedness (the extent to which an employee is tied to an organization and to the surrounding community (Stewart and Brown, 2009)
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Based on factor analysis in SPSS, I got these items for organizational commitment. I applied the Allen and Meyer (1990) questionnaire, which consists of three constructs: affective commitment, Continuance commitment and normative, but I got these five components, which name will be take every scale in these factor analysis? Is it possible to extend the effective and normative dimensions? Please find attached PDF file of factor analysis.
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I would agree that CFA would generally make more sense here, given that the Allen/Meyer model is so well established.
Let's take a look at your results.
The two "AC" factors are different because one of them contains all the reverse-scored items. This is a very common problem that has nothing to do with commitment. It is a methodological artifact. Some people therefore hesitate to use reverse-scored items, if they can be avoided.
The two "NC" factors are a bit more tricky.
Also, some researchers have divided the CC scale into a "lack of alternatives" (LA) and a "high sacrifices" (HS) sub-scale.
I would probably try a three-factor (AC, NC, CC) and a four-factor model (AC, NC, LA, HS) in CFA.
You could also include a method factor onto which all the reverse-scored items are allowed to load (in addition to the substantive factors).
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I did find a lot of papers on that matter, but never found a listing of the actual items used.
Can you please help me with that?
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I had used these items for my studies. They are only available in the book, the revised version of the Job Committment Questionnaire. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=jn4VFpFJ2qQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=meyer+and+allen&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjHwOPeprzcAhXFKo8KHWwFB-QQ6AEIJjAA#v=onepage&q=meyer%20and%20allen&f=false
Please refer to this link. The entire questionnaire is available only from this book. i did not find it in any other research article.
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Dear researchers,
I Want to add some axis (questions, items) to my organizational commitment survey, to know if employee commitment is the result of managers competency?
First topics of my design survey is based from TCM (Three-Component Model) Employee Commitment Survey, Academic Users Guide 2004, John P. Meyer and Natalie J. Allen, I want help to add some items to the survey to know if the employee commitment is the impact of managers competency?
I resume, I want two topics, one if there is commitment, second if it is by there managers
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As I understand from your statement that you want to add and verify a fourth dimension to organizational commitment. I believe you may add or change the questions after the permission of the author and after that you can conduct a pilot study, apply the factor analysis, and then do the verification.
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My topic is Relationship between transformational leadership style and affective organizational commitment: a study based on functional level employees .
Also i would like to ask in questionnaire to determine the transformational leadrship behaviour can i write "My supervisor" Communicate a convincing vision for the future. or should i replace it with my leader?
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Hello,
You can certainly use purposive sampling in doing quantitative research, but you make your research quasi experimental because you violate one of the basic requirements of experimental research which is the use of random sampling.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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what is the best targeted sample of questionnaire that related for the impact of green HRM practices on employee engagement and organizational commitment and performance ?
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Sekaran (2003) wrote:
"Roscoe (1975) proposes the following rules of thumb for determining sample size:
1. Sample sizes larger than 30 and less than 500 are appropriate for most research.
2. Where samples are to be broken into sub-samples; (male/females, juniors/seniors, etc.), a minimum sample size of 30 for each category is necessary.
3. In multivariate research (including multiple regression analyses), the sample size should be several times (preferably 10 times or more) as large as the number of variables in the study.
4. For simple experimental research with tight experimental controls (matched pairs, etc.), successful research is possible with samples as small as 10 to 20 in size."
Reference
Sekaran, U., 2003. Research methods for business: A skill building approach. John Wiley & Sons.
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Hi dear researchers.
I have worked in Organizational commitment topic, and I was confused by the concept of Organizational loyalty, is it a synonym of Organizational commitment?
Even though many researchers consider them as synonyms I suggest that organizational commitment has an obligatory action, i e the other one is an optional action. thus, many researchers used the first concept commonly
in Law (legacy aspect.however, they used loyalty in Marketing practices.
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Loyalty involves being firm and not changing in your relationship with someone, some organization or your country. It is your faithfulness. You do not give up your relationship, support, friendship or attachment when things go either favourably or unfavourably. During difficult times too you do not change your relationship with someone or something. That is your loyalty. In this context loyalty is a virtue and it is more than organizational commitment. If an attempt is made to differentiate between the loyalty and commitment, loyalty is more than commitment. Loyalty is moral and commitment may be or may not be moral. For example, one can be committed to do a bad thing by harming others. Loyalty is firmer that commitment. These ideas might be useful.
In OB literature, both organizational commitment (this term is more popular) and organizational loyalty are the same. If you want to make a scholastic distinction between the two terms, it requires a serious conceptualization.
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im conducting a research on relationship between public leadership roles and organizational commitment.
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I am looking for studies that found significant strong correlation between transactional leadership (or one of its components - contigent reward or managemen-by-exception) and organizational commitment.
Your help is very much appreciated.
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Hi,
I am conducting a study for my mba thesis of effects of organizational culture and knowledge sharing on organizational commitment, but I don't have any paper concern about this, the most is how to combine the knowledge sharing with organizational culture in framework.
Please help me understand more about this one.
Thank you in advance,
nhuthao
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This query can be addressed by looking at tools, approaches, and methods related to knowledge harvesting and sharing, social reminiscence, and narrative techniques. I have written on these topics; all related articles are here on ResearchGate, compiled under the project titled Nurturing Knowledge Economies, available at https://www.researchgate.net/project/Nurturing-Knowledge-Ecologies.
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For my Ph.D. thesis Emotional  Intelligence its impact on Performance of Employees and Organizational Commitment. I have taken 108 questions, For emotional  intelligence, I got reliability 0.96 and for my contextual performance I got  0.69 task performance is 0.88 and organizational commitment is got 0.61
Can anyone help whether my reliability scores are good for study?
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I think all measurement is considered good..
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I want to measure organizational commitment in higher educational faculties and I think that it is appropriate to know if the faculty has satisfaction in what s/he is doing.  Any questionnaire that could be of help?  Any author related with the topic? 
Thank you very much!
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Thanks to everyone! It was my first experience participating at research gate and it was a real pleasure to see how people in this community is open to help!
"Super" thanks
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Dear Friends
I've used a STANDARD TOOL for my research, in which all the dimensions of the tool are already presented. now my question is;
1. can i use factor analysis for this standard tool?
2. if not....why it is not possible?
3. what are the other statistical method to determine dimensions of the particular variable (ex. Organizational Commitment, too developed by Allen Meyer) of standard tool.
Expecting your Kind reply in this regard
Thank you
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I am interested in measuring Organizational Commitment in faculties of Higher Education Institutions, but I am having troubles in finding the original questionnaires.  Where can I find the questionnaires?  Any of them will be of great help.  Thank you very much!  CJ
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Search in Academia
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I am currently preparing a thesis proposal for a study of the effect(s) of gender stereotypes and discrimination on aspects of employee well-being.  I intend to survey employees on their experiences of gender stereotyping/discrimination and the effect of these experiences on (a) job satisfaction, (b) organizational commitment, (c) turnover intentions, and (d) withdrawal behaviors.  Thus, I am interested in investigating the relationship between gender discrimination and the aforementioned occupational outcomes. I have been researching appropriate measures for these constructs but have yet to reach a consensus on what to use.  
Through my research I have found many scales that measure sexism, although the majority are mostly-if not entirely-attitudinal measures.  Below is the current list of my top choices to measure gender stereotypes, sexism and discrimination (in descending order):
(1) Schedule of Sexist Events
(2) Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire
(3) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory
The Schedule of Sexist Events scale is my top choice currently as it most closely measures actual behavioral instances of experienced discrimination (SSE-Lifetime and SSE-Recent).  A limitation of this scale, however, is that it samples women exclusively.  If at all possible, I would like to use a measure that allows for a heterogeneous gender sample.  Based on others' experience, does anyone have any recommendations for measures to use?  Does anyone have any experience with the SSE or SCQ and ASI?  Any and all recommendations would be greatly appreciated.  I am not trying to determine whether an individual holds sexist beliefs, but rather if and how much an individual has experienced gender discrimination.
Thus far I have chosen the following measures for the remaining variables (but I am open to change):
Job Satisfaction: Job Satisfaction Survey (Spector, 1985).
Organizational Commitment: Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (Mowday, 1979)
Turnover Intentions: Turnover Intention Scale (TIS-6)
Withdrawal Behaviors: N/A 
I am comfortable with my choices of the JSS and OCQ.  I am, however, uncertain of the TIS-6 and have not been able to find a verified and valid measure for withdrawal behavior.  Any suggestions on scales/surveys/questionnaires that would fit these variables would be greatly appreciated.  
Thank you for your time and consideration!
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Three-Component Model file attached. In the same file, you also have the Organizational Questionnaire.  Hope it will help you. 
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For my Ph.D. study " Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Performance of Employees and Organizational commitment in Software Industry" for this I have taken Goodman scale of 18 items of Contextual and Task performance is good for the study?
Can we take predefined scales for study?
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Employees are notoriously bad at evaluating their own performance. Goodman's task performance scale is designed for a supervisor to complete for an employee. It is not designed for employees to complete for themselves.
So if supervisors are completing it for their employees, the questionnaire is a good measure of job performance. If employees are completing it for themselves, it has many weaknesses.
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Can anyone recommend me literature about E leadership and its impact on organizational commitment?  
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Thank you Amer for your help
Raed
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In organizational behavior, we need to know the relationship among these concepts.
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An attitude includes a long lasting way of believing , feeling, and intending to behave toward an object, idea, person, or group of persons. It has three components such as cognitive, affective, and behavioural tendency. Basically your attitude about someone or something may be positive or negative. For example, you (assume you are a departmental manager) can have a positive attitude about trade unions in your organization. In other words, you believe in, feel positively and intend to behave positively toward trade unions. 
Behaviour is actual action one has done. It is the way one has acted in a particular way. It is not an attitude but it affects attitude. For example, assume that the trade union of an organization has requested to provide a canteen facility within the organization which is not having that facility now. You are the HR Manager and you decided to have a meeting with the relevant union leaders. Your decision to have a meeting with the union leaders is your behavior.   
Trait is defined as a special quality or characteristic possessed by a person. It may be even a genetically determined characteristic. Intelligence, alertness to the needs of others, appearance, creativity, flexibility, and integrity are examples of traits. 
State is defined in this context as a particular situation. It is a particular condition in which one is at a particular time. 
If an attempt is made to find relationships among the above concepts or variables, it is possible to view that attitude is an independent variable and behaviour is a dependent variable while trait and state are moderators. There is attitude-behaviour link. Generally attitudes predict behavior and, therefore attitudes and behaviours are linked.  Example: Mrs R has a positive attitude toward democratic leadership. Her leadership style (behaviour) becomes democratic. 
Trait can be considered as a moderating variable which will cancel the relationship between attitude and behavior. Example: Mr. Manoj believes that government university teaching is a great thing and likes very much to do it. He has a positive attitude toward government university teaching. Will he do government university teaching? In other words will his attitude be consistent with his behavior? Assume that he does not have traits such as intelligence, creativity, and communication; and has never done any research. Hence, he does not do government university teaching.  Thus, trait is a factor on which attitude-behaviour link depends. 
State is another factor affecting attitude-behaviour link. Assume that Mr.Lal has a negative attitude about women in management. He joins a new company where his superior is a female. However, he finds that his peers behave positively with the superior. Consequently he has to respond positively to his female superior (even though his behavior is inconsistent with his attitude).
Best wishes!
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I am doing a research for my bachelor degree. I make a research about the role of volunteer satisfaction to organizational commitment in nonprofit organization 
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The measurement of Meyer & Allen is mostly referred to as three component model (affective, normative, continuance), while the OCQ was developed by Mowday and his colleagues.
Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 63(1), 1-18.
Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human resource management review, 1(1), 61-89.
Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of vocational behavior, 14(2), 224-247.
Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of applied psychology, 59(5), 603.
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Autocratic, Democratic, Laissez-faire
Affective commitment, Continuance commitment, Normative commitment
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Hi Devkant!
Many of the scales and instruments could already have been tested to associate and predict outcomes/effects of employees. Just to consider that.
Here is some suggestions...
measuring leadership styles: Larsson, Gerry. "The developmental leadership questionnaire (DLQ): Some psychometric properties." Scandinavian journal of psychology 47.4 (2006): 253-262
Bass, Bernard M., and Bruce J. Avolio. Full range leadership development: Manual for the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Palo Alto, CA: Mind Garden, 1997.
Avolio, Bruce J., and William L. Gardner. "Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership." The leadership quarterly 16.3 (2005): 315-338.
Pejtersen, Jan Hyld, et al. "The second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire." Scandinavian journal of public health 38.3 suppl (2010): 8-24.
For commitment, if you by that mean engaged employees, I use the work engagemet scale:
Schaufeli, W. B., and A. B. Bakker. "UWES–Utrecht work engagement scale: test manual." Unpublished Manuscript: Department of Psychology, Utrecht University (2003).
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would somebody kindly help me to arrive at conclusion of extracting factors from the given results of component rotated factors ran through principal component analysis with varimox rotation in SPSS. I have following queries.
Job satisfaction is a unidimensional scale but it loads on three different factors and on those three factors (1,5 & 7) no other items of other scales are loaded. Can i take all these items of job satisfaction that are loaded on 1, 5 & 7?
Likewise, Organizational commitment (Affective commitment) is also a unidimensional scale but loads on two different factors, should I take all these items or , how to deal with this situation?
Thanks
M. Imran
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You don't indicate how you decided on the number of factors to rotate. You have 4 scales it looks like, but you rotated 7 factors. You might have too many factors, and that can result in factors breaking in two. If your purpose is merely to verify that items of the four scales load together, I would rotate 4 and see if the item loadings match the original scales. That said, current practice in the journals is to use a CFA to verify that scales match factors. An advantage of CFA is that it provides overall fit statistics that indicate how well the data fit the hypothesized structure, although you cannot see the magnitude of cross-loadings llke you can in EFA because in CFA they are fixed to zero. If you are thinking to publish this, I would probably use CFA. If you decide to stick with EFA, many reviewers will complain if you report a principal components analysis--I would switch to a common factor model. Results will likely be very similar, but there are theoretical reasons many people prefer the common factor model.
The following paper provides a nice discussion of CFA vs. EFA.
Hurley, A. E., Scandura, T. A., Schriesheim, C. A., Brannick, M. T., Seers, A., Vandenberg, R. J., & Williams, L. J. (1997). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: Guidelines, issues, and alternatives. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(6), 667-683.
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I need some references about psychological commitment and the only book I found was "The psychological of commitment" for Kiesler 1971. The book is great but I obviously need more up to date books and studies. Most of the studies I found were focusing on the commitment in the context of organisational studies which is not what I am looking for. 
Could you help me with this please.
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As others are indicating, the commitment literature is really broad.  There is a lot of work continuing to be done.  Rather than look for books (although there are some recent books that are very good), it may be useful to look at some relatively recent review papers.  If you want to get familiar with the commitment literature, I strongly recommend reading the work of authos such as Howard Klein and John Meyer, amongst others.  Both Klein and Meyer are on ResearchGate, so it should be fairly easy to find some papers to read.
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Hi colleagues
I am estimating a moderating model in Amos, and I ended up with r-squared values of 10 and 18. are these values ok? what is the minimum expected? 
are these values ok? 
what is the minimum expected? 
how to improve it? 
Any references for further reading and citing?
thank you in advance.
Nizar 
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Dear Nizar
A high R-square of above 60%(0.60) is required for studies in the 'pure science' field because the behaviour of molecules and/or particles can be reasonably predicted to some degree of accuracy in science research; while an R-square as low as 10% is generally accepted for studies in the field of arts, humanities and social sciences because human behaviour cannot be accurately predicted, therefore, a low R-square is often not a problem in studies in the arts, humanities and social science field. However, that should not be an excuse for not improving the R-square value if it can be improved
Hope this helps!
Regards
Peterson
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It's a common catchphrase that "employees are our most important asset". But in real life many have encountered a striking paradox, where people as whole are really important while each individual is close to expendable. Is this so in your experience? Can you provide examples, arguments or links to a research regarding this? If so, what are the reasons for this kind of paradox?
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Yes it is true that human resources are the most important resource out of all the resources available for the manager to achieve organizational goals. The overwhelming significance of HR is due to its unique characteristics, which are:
1.      It is animate, active and living.
2.      It has the ability to think, feel and react.
3.      Its value appreciates with the passage of time (because of experience, training etc.).
4.      It has the ability to influence on determining its cost (pay).
5.      It has the ability to organize (as unions, teams etc.). 
6.      Its behaviour is complex and may be unpredictable.
7.      It has the ability of creativity and innovation, which cannot be found in any other resources.
8.      It makes decisions in respect of all other resources.
However, individually all employees are not the same. They get differed in terms of personality, competence, performance etc. Of course employees who are competent, motivated, committed and involved are always indispensable for the organization. Higher performers are always attempted to be retained by the organization.  Employees who are not valuable, not rare, not difficult to imitate, and not difficult to substitute are not treated as unique or the most important. 
Two features of a job are job essentiality and job exclusivity. While essentiality refers to how important or critical the job is to the overall success of the organization and exclusivity refers to how difficult it is to replace the person (Schuler and Youngblood, 1986,). These two features of a job determine the degree of power the job holder has in the organization. The employees who perform jobs which have low job essentiality and low job exclusivity are not considered as the most valuable or more valuable. 
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As most are familiar with the concept of micro and small enterprises, which works with many challenges like, lesser hierarchy, limited employees, issue relating to finance where the affordability of higher pay is an issue. In this situation how to motivate an employee with higher qualification ( say Post Graduation and above) and experience with more than eight years.  You can give your suggestions by considering the above said challenges.  
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though my fellow friends have given very useful insights but we should not ignore the scenario at the backdrop i.e. India. In India micro or small enterprises are started at domestic level with few workers e.g. we did a survey in Ludiana small scale industry, where the working conditions are very shabby and no one will like to stay for longer period. the management can retain high qualified employees only by developing affective commitment (emotional attachment) among such employees as it develops emotional bonding between employee and the organisation.
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Mediating role of perceived organizational support (POS) linking corporate volunteerism and organizational commitment.
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Thank you everyone for your feedback.
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Is organizational commitment scale a second order factor or first order factor? I am going to carry out CFA of Commitment scale. whther to measure it as first order factor putting all 16 items in AMOS, drawing covariances in three dimension or modeling it as a second order construct
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I assume you are referring to Meyer and Allen's work - given the synergy between your description and the three factor modelling they use. 
My perspective on it is that it is an aggregate construct best reflected as a first-order model which is manifested in three second-order dimensions, or in their case, circumstances. However, as Amer has mentioned, the best thing you can do is to test both using some best fit indices, and evaluate which fits better.
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What are the Effects of Organizational Change on Employees Commitment.
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The effect depends of how management handled the whole change process. There are known models for effective change process which when followed will educate employees on the reason and necessity for change, on how management is concerned about the emotional effects of change on the employee etc. If management properly articulated the change, and the urgency of change and also role modeled and institutionalized the change, the chances are that employees will buy into the change and will be favourably disposed to the organisation. Hence, employee commitment will not be negatively affected. For example if the change process will involve reduction of staff, the emotional connection of employers to the plight of those affected will tell a lot to those that are left and affect their commitment to the organization. If management did not care much about the situation of those affected, the remaining employees will simply extrapolate the management action to determine what would happen to them in future. In this case their commitment will be negatively affected.
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Dear Dr. Meyer,
I would like to inform you that I am a student candidate for a PhD in Cyprus University of Technology and my subject relates to job satisfaction, leadership style and commitment of physicians in public hospitals in Cyprus.
I am interested in using the scale (OCQ) of the 18 questions (1993). I was wondering if there is a Greek version for it.
Could you please inform me how I can get this scale?
Thank you in advance
Ioanna Gregoriou
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Here are the items.
Organizational commitment: Allen and Meyer, Journal of Occupational Psychology, 1990
I do not feel a strong sense of belonging to my organization.
I do not feel 'emotionally attached' to this organization.
I do not believe that a person must always be loyal to his or her organization.
I think that people these days move from company to company too often.
I enjoy discussing my organization with people outside it.
I do not feel like part of the family at my organization.
I would be very happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization.
I do not think that wanting to be a 'company man' or 'company woman' is sensible anymore.
I was taught to believe in the value of remaining loyal to one organization.
This organization has a great deal of personal meaning for me.
I really feel as if this organization's problems are my own.
I think that I could easily become as attracted to another organization as I am to this one.
Jumping from organization to organization does not seem at all unethical to me.
Things were better in the days when people stayed with one organization for most of their careers.
One of the major reasons I continue to work for this organization is that I believe that loyalty is important and therefore feel a sense of moral obligation to remain.
If I got another offer for a better job elsewhere I would not feel it was right to leave my organization.
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Based on the literature review I expect the relation between budget participation (IV) and budget slack (DV) to be not significant, however budget participation seems to play a key role in the development of budget slack through the interaction with other factors. Therefore I expect the variables information asymmetry, budget emphasis and organizational commitment (all 3 MV) to moderate the not significant relation between participation and budget slack. I am also interested in the direct effect of these moderator variables.
My main questions are:
* Is it possible to research moderator interactions on a not significant relation
* Is is possible to use information asymmetry, budget emphasis and organizational commitment both as a moderator- and idependent variable
* Is it possible to perform a OLS Regression on this conceptual model
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I think it’s an interesting topic for doctoral thesis
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Hui guys
I have encountered the following challenge: I have two continuous IV's (team commitment TC and organizational commitment OC) and two continuous DV's (i.e. team-directed helping behavior and organizational-directed extra-role behavior), and several covariates (age, gender, tenure).
The aim of my research is to show that there are cross-level additive and interactive effects (i.e. 1 - TC predicts organization-directed extra-role behavior over and above OC; 2 - OC predicts team-directed helping behaviors over and above TC; 3 - the two commitments interact in their positive effects on team- and organization-directed outcomes).
I used two approached to see whether there are additive and interactive effects of the two IV's on the 
1. a variable-centered approach (multiple regression)
2. a person-centered apporach (ANCOVA) where I formed different commitemnt patterns based on a median split of the IV's (i.e. low TC - low OC; low TC - high OC; high TC - low OC; and high TC - high OC) and examined the effect of these patterns on the DV (differences in group means).
If I run a multiple regression (variable-centered apporach), I get a significant interaction effect TC*OC on the DV. However, if I compare means based on the ANCOVA, I do not get significant differences in means between the high-high group (dual commitment) and the high-low group (unilateral commitment to the organization but not to the team).
I try to make sense of that. At first glance, the fact that there is a significant additive and interaction term in the regression analysis should also lead to significant mean differences in ANCOVA. However, that was not the case. Can anyone help?
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Dear Jörg,
one question: did you also enter the median splitted variables in the regression model? If not, it is not surprising that you get different results. It is not entirely predictable, how the results will change after a median split, but in general you could expect a massive loss of power, i.e. you cant find differences, although they are there. This is due to the loss of information. The information of your continous variable is reuduced to 1/0. Differences between values within each group are ingnored; similar values in the original variable, may now be treated as differently, if they fall in different categories (values around the median for example).
So, you should generally avoid dichotomization (Irwin article, Altman article), there may be only a few reasons to do it (Farrington article).
But please have a look at the articles attached.
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Is the relationship between leadership styles and organizational commitment among employees in a private university? Could we say about "the best leadership styles" in a private university?
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Very interesting question!
I think that in addition to leadership style there may be other variables that determine the organizational commitment of the employees. These may include: personality & life cycle stage and maturity levels of the employee, leadership values, fit between employee values and organizational values/culture.
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job satisfaction, organizational commitment, data analysis samples
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Hi Noor,
Am looking of corporate  employees.
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I am searching for any research done on meta-analysis on organizational commitment, already acquired one from Prof J P Meyer and Associates
Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences.
Meyer, John P.; Stanley, David J.; Herscovitch, Lynne; Topolnytsky, Laryssa
Journal of Vocational Behavior, v61 n1 p20-52 Aug 2002
Can anyone suggest more?
Thank you.
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Commitment is an important construct. But it seems that in recent years, the number of studies on commitment is decreasing. I recommend a chapter in a book: Porter, Steers, and Mowday's chapter on commitment in Great Minds in Management.  They mentioned meta-analyses on commitment.  
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According to self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan) external regulation behaviors are performed to satisfy an external demand or obtain an externally imposed reward contingency. Individuals typically experience externally regulated behavior as controlled or alienated. This contrasts with intrinsic motivation which is defined as the doing of an activity for its inherent satisfactions rather than for some separable consequence. When intrinsically motivated a person is moved to act for the fun or challenge entailed rather than because of external prods, pressures, or rewards.
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I agree that external pressure plays an important part on compliance. In some cases including voluntary disclosure of information in the financial and related statements arise due to awareness of the need for transparency, publicity opportunities, and sense of accountability. Ethical perspective may play a part.
Gin
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hi
i am doing a research on organizational commitment by using meyer and allen's 1997 scale. This scale includes the commitment's types of which each has six items. when i ran EFA on my data, i ended up with less items for each commitment's type.
Now, given it is a pre-validated in western countries, and my research is conducted in Arab countries, what could be the justification for such less items' per commitment's type.
Thank you in advance.
Regards
Nizar
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there is nothing wrong if some of the items get deleted from a validated construct in different cultural context. in your case all three types of commitment emerged but with less items, which is hardly a matter of concern. Proceed further with CFA for its validity.
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organizational commitment in sri lankan context
organizational commitment of academics
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Why do not try with searching by using Google Scholar, Scopus, or digital libraries of publishers such as Emerald Publishing or ScienceDirect. You can set your key words and get large amount of articles.
For example, key words: organizational commitment AND Sri Lanka
Good luck, and enjoy in your research!
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What is the latest approved scale for measuring Organizational Commitment? Can we use the same scale to measure commitment of Volunteers?
Thank You
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Try the attached paper p.72 all the best
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I plan to do research on employee engagement. Would like to study research papers on employee engagement. Can anyone connect me with research papers on employee engagement?
Regards,
Srikanth Payal.
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The following references could be a good start, but there are of course a huge amount of articles within the field:
Hakanen, J. J., Schaufelui, W. B., & Ahola, K. (2008). The job demands-resources model: A three-year cross-lagged study of burnout, depression, commitment, and work engagement. Work & Stress, 22, 224–241.
Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 268–279.
Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (2008). Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 498–512.
Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: a multisample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior 25, 293–315.
Schaufeli, W., & Salanova, M. (2007). Work engagement: An emerging psychological concept and its implications for organizations. In S. W. Gilliand (Eds.), Managing social and ethical issues in organizations (pp. 135–177). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
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I want to examine the direct relationships between workplace spirituality and employee attitudes (job satisfaction and organizational commitment) through correlation analyses. The Shapiro wilk tests for the questionnaire items of all three variables are significant. On the other hand, skeweness and kurtosis values are within the range +/- 1.2. Should I go for linear regression analysis?
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Your data distribution may not be the only problem here I am afraid. The scales you are correlating are subjective ones and we would not usually consider it appropriate to use parametric tests on them. This is because it is not normally, no pun intended, thought wise to claim that people making judgements on such scales do so on a properly linear basis. The data therefore isn't thought to be ratio or even interval necessarily but more likely ordinal, so non-parametric tests are more conservative . See Sidney Siegel, non parametric statistics for the behavioural sciences if you need more information on this. I might be able to help further if you described exactly how the response scales are set up and the responses elicited.
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Does a leader's authentic leadership practice and leadership communication impact a follower's organizational commitment? What factors make a significant difference in leadership?
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Hi Pete,
As Krishnan suggested, the management ability is what makes a good leader.
Please view the attached image.
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On employees' organizational commitment, I want to research the effect of vision, humility and empowerment and trust and dependent variables.
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inteviews or survey / questionnaires are appropriate. The hypothesis related to the relationship between servant leadership and employees' organizational commitment could be tested by using non-parametric interdependence tests like chi-square.....
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Now I'm in collecting the review of organisational commitment. According to review, many of them noticed and doing their research in organisational commitment in three dimension i.e affective commitment, continous commitment & normative commitment. How can I split my organisational commitment questionnaire in this dimension?
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Dear Kaplan
You need to go back to orginal artical about Three-Component Model (TCM) of commitment (Meyer & Allen, 1991). And note that there Revised Version (Meyer, Allen, & Smith, 1993). Open the attached file.