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Organic Chemicals - Science topic

A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
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Publications related to Organic Chemicals (10,000)
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Background Chemical pollution forms a severe threat for human and environmental health. While the risks for European lowland water bodies are well known, there is little knowledge on remote aquatic ecosystems and particularly mountain lakes, despite their importance for the provision of freshwater. Here, we critically review the current knowledge o...
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Organic chemical reactions have been used to functionalize preformed conducting polymers (CPs). The extensive work performed on polyaniline (PANI), polypyrrole (PPy), and polythiophene (PT) is described together with the more limited work on other CPs. Two approaches have been taken for the functionalization: (i) direct reactions on the CP chains a...
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Un gran número de los procesos metabólicos y biológicos son catalizados por enzimas; las enzimas son compuestos químicos orgánicos que pertenecen al grupo específico de las biomoléculas denominadas proteínas. Las enzimas poseen en su estructura molecular cuaternaria, organizaciones internas que permiten definir un lugar denominado centro activo; su...
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A literature review of bioaccumulation and biotransformation of organic chemicals in birds was undertaken, aiming to support scoping and prioritization of future research. The objectives were to characterize available bioaccumulation/biotransformation data, identify knowledge gaps, determine how extant data can be used, and explore the strategy and...
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Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) are in situ methods that have been applied to pre-concentrate a range of marine toxins, pesticides and pharmaceutical compounds that occur at low levels in marine and environmental waters. Recent research has identified the widespread distribution o...
Preprint
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Abstract: For long it has been discussed that life emerged from simple organic chemistry. If this is so then this should be supported by the general knowledge within the field of organic chemistry. One aspect in organic chemistry we can look up on in this research is the yield within organic chemistry. The yield of a chemical reaction determines h...
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Animal studies indicate deleterious effects of nitrate exposure on fecundity, but effects in humans are unknown, both for the prenatal and postnatal periods. We aimed to investigate if exposure to nitrate in maternal drinking water during the sensitive period of fetal life is associated with measures of fecundity in the adult sons. In a sub-analysi...
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Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) plays important roles in aquatic environments, and its optical properties provide a series of indices for evaluating the source and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM). However, little is known about the varying photodegradation of CDOM from different sources and the effects on the optical indi...
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Because ceramide-like lipo-amino acid cholesteryl derivatives can exert a bound water-holding function due to their lamellae-forming properties, in this study, we determined if topical application of those derivatives to atopic dry skin would elicit an ameliorative effect on skin symptoms, at least on its water-holding function. In this clinical st...
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The increase in food needs due to high population growth in Niger has led to the intensification of urban agriculture and the increased use of pesticides. The objective of this study is primarily to assess the polar pesticide contamination (mainly herbicides) of the Niger River and its tributary, the Mekrou River, in Niger, using both grab sampling...
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We have trained the Extreme Minimum Learning Machine (EMLM) machine learning model to predict chemical potentials of individual conformers of multifunctional organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The model is able to predict chemical potentials of molecules that are in the size range of the training data with a root-mean-square...
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Sticholysins are α-pore-forming toxins produced by the sea-anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. These toxins exert their activity by forming pores on sphingomyelin-containing membranes. Recognition of sphingomyelin by sticholysins is required to start the process of pore formation. Sphingomyelin recognition is coupled with membrane binding and followe...
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Gold Nanoparticles (GNPs), owing to their unique properties and versatile preparation strategy, have been demonstrated to exhibit promising applications in diverse fields, which include bio-sensors, catalysts, nanomedicines and radiotherapy. Yet, the nature of the interfacial interaction of GNPs with their chemical environment remains elusive. Expe...
Preprint
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This paper describes an automatized multi-step methodology in order to identify the relationships between integrative pesticide quantifications and land-use on a given watershed. This methodology contains multivariate statistical analyses such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), which are commonly used for...
Article
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The study was conducted to consider the anticoccidial and immunogenic effectivities of encapsulated organic acids and anticoccidial drugs in broilers reared on a reused litter infected with Eimeria spp. for simulating in-field exposure to avian coccidiosis. 525 mixed-sex one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial experimen...
Chapter
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One of the major food crops farmed on a global scale is wheat. The microbial community of a soil affects its appropriateness for growing a crop in addition to its chemical and physical characteristics. The natural reservoir is called the rhizosphere, and it exhibits higher microbial activity. Mixed populations of saprophytic microbes, soilborne pla...
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The River Itchen and River Test, two chalk streams in Southern England, are sites of special scientific interest. These ecosystems face a number of environmental pressures from anthropogenic inputs of organic pollutants. Hence, we investigated the occurrence of these chemicals within the two catchments. Spot water samples (1 L) were collected at ni...
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Cu nanoparticles were produced by using solid-state dewetting (dry) of a 1.3 nm Cu layer or laser ablation of a Cu solid target (wet) in acetone and methanol. The morphology and chemical composition of the nanoparticles were investigated as a function of the synthesis methods and their key parameters of the annealing temperature (200–500 °C) and th...
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The resistance of hard corals to warming can be negatively affected by nitrate eutrophication, but related knowledge for soft corals is scarce. We thus investigated the ecophysiological response of the pulsating soft coral Xenia umbellata to different levels of nitrate eutrophication (control = 0.6, medium = 6, high = 37 μM nitrate) in a laboratory...
Article
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Polyphenols, organic acids and metal ions are an important group of compounds that affect the human health and quality of food and beverage products, including wines. It is known that a specific correlation between these groups exist. While wines coming from the New World and the Old World countries are extensively studied, wines coming from cool-c...
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Urine is a major source of reclaimed water and fertilizer. Urine treatment involves two key processes: the recovery of nutrients and the rejection of trace organic compounds (TOrCs). In this study, we investigated the rejection of TOrCs and the recovery of nutrients in human urine using a seawater-driven forward osmosis and membrane distillation (F...
Article
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This study was conducted to simulate salpingitis of laying hens by observing the morphology and expression of inflammatory genes in the oviduct. A total of 120 81-wk-old Roman Pink laying hens in good physical condition without the oviduct disease with an average egg production rate of 76% were fed a basal diet for 2 wks and then randomly allocated...
Preprint
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Retrosynthetic planning plays a critical role in drug discovery and organic chemistry. Starting from a target molecule as the root node, it aims to find a complete reaction tree subject to the constraint that all leaf nodes belong to a set of starting materials. The multi-step reactions are crucial because they determine the flow chart in the produ...
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The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of an innovative oleogelation strategy, the aerogel-template approach, on protein and lipid digestibility. Whey protein isolate (WP) was converted into aerogel particles via supercritical CO2 drying. Oleogels were then prepared by absorption of sunflower (SO) or flaxseed (FLX) oil (80%, w/w) into...
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Modern industrialization has led to the creation of a wide range of organic chemicals, especially in the form of multicomponent mixtures, thus making the evaluation of environmental pollution more difficult by normal methods. In this paper, we attempt to use forward stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) and nonlinear radial basis function neura...
Article
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Herein, the adsorption/desorption behaviors of benzoic acid (BA) and phthalic acid (PA) on three functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at various pH were investigated, and the charge-assisted H-bond (CAHB) was verified by DFT and FTIR analyses to play a key role. The results indicated that the adsorption order of BA and PA on CNTs was different fr...
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Xanthone-containing natural products display diverse pharmacological properties. The biosynthetic mechanisms of the xanthone formation have not been well documented. Here we show that the flavoprotein monooxygenase FlsO1 in the biosynthesis of fluostatins not only functionally compensates for the monooxygenase FlsO2 in converting prejadomycin to de...
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In the present work, we report the first rotational study of N-acetylgalactosamine, a cancer-associated sugar derivative, by means of high-resolution rotational spectroscopy. Two different conformers have been conclusively characterized using broadband Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy coupled with a laser ablation vaporization system. Addit...
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Organic chemicals are formed from carbon and its derivatives. They can be either in the form of a chain or a ring. The growing population and urbanization will fuel the growth of end-use industries such as agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, food & beverages, and cosmetics in turn fueling the growth of the organic chemicals market. “According to SNS In...
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Soil organic matter (SOM) is of vital importance to soil health, and also plays a crucial role in the quality of the crops such as tobacco. However, the link between tobacco quality and SOM chemical compositions is still not well understood. To fill the information gap, we analyzed the quality of tobacco leaves and the corresponding SOM molecular c...
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The present research work was done at NARC Islamabad, to search the potential of combine organic application, bio fertilizers & chemicals for improving micronutrient concentration in spinach. Different treatments were designed to compare with NP fertilizer, bio fertilizers and Organic fertilizer to observe micronutrient concentration in shoot an...
Article
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The sulfate anion radical (SO4•-) is a reactive oxidant formed in the autoxidation chain of sulfur dioxide, among other sources. Recently, new formation pathways toward SO4•- and other reactive sulfur species have been reported. This work investigated the second-order rate coefficients for the aqueous SO4•- oxidation of the following important orga...
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In the present study, 29 chemicals derived from tire wear were monitored by deploying Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) in four WWTPs and two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) located in a municipality in southern Ontario, Canada. Target analytes included 1,3-diphenylguanidine (DPG), the oxidation byproduct of N-(1,3-dimethy...
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Partition coefficients for storage lipid-water (logK lw ) and phospholipid-water (logK pw ) phases are key parameters to understand the bioaccumulation and toxicity of organic contaminants. However, the published experimental databases of these properties are dwarfs and current estimation approaches are cumbersome. Here, we present partition models...
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Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for several applications. Thus, they have been intensively reported and commercialized by several international companies. However, little is known about the fate and risk of MOFs to living organisms. Here, the toxic effect of two Zinc (Zn)-based MOFs; zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF-8) a...
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The assessment of long-range transport potential (LRTP) is enshrined in several frameworks for chemical regulation such as the Stockholm Convention. Screening for LRTP is commonly done with the OECD Pov and LRTP Screening Tool employing two metrics, characteristic travel distance (CTD) and transfer efficiency (TE). Here we introduce a set of three...
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Patients with schizophrenia experience cognitive impairment related to neural network dysfunction and deficits in sensory processing. These deficits are thought to be caused by N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction and can be assessed in patient populations using electroencephalography (EEG). This substudy from a Phase II, randomized, double-...
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Fluorinated organic compounds are common among pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and materials. The significant strength of the C-F bond results in chemical inertness that, depending on the context, is beneficial, problematic or simply a formidable synthetic challenge. Electrosynthesis is a rapidly expanding methodology that can enable new reactivity...
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A refined metal is transformed by corrosion into a more chemically stable state, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulphide. Corrosion is a very natural phenomena and a severe concern in the worldwide community. Organic chemicals with nitrogen, Sulphur, oxygen, and phosphorus in their functional groups are the most well-known corrosion inhibitors. T...
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Pollution derived from car tires is of growing research interest due to its apparent omnipresence in the urban environment and its associated toxicity. Studies have focused largely on the occurrence of these tire materials, deemed tire wear particles (TWPs), and their associated chemicals in the aquatic environment. However, less attention has been...
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Pesticide risk assessment within the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is largely deficient in the assessment of the actual exposure and chemical mixture effects. Pesticide contamination, in particular herbicidal loading, has been shown to exert pressure on surface waters. Such pollution can have direct impact on autotrophic species, as well as in...
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Molecular design principles provide guidelines for augmenting a molecule with a smaller group of atoms to realize a desired property or function. We demonstrate that these concepts can be used to create an optical cycling centre, the Ca(I)–O unit, that can be attached to a number of aromatic ligands, enabling the scattering of many photons from the...
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Recently, interest and demand for healthy and useful food products have become a global requirement. Thus, the production of functional foods with high polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants is very challenging. In this study, four functional spreadable oleogels based on canola oil and milk proteins were developed. These spreadable oleogels w...
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Relationships between toxicity and chemical hydrophobicity have been known for nearly 100 years in mammals and fish, typically using the log of the octanol:water partition coefficient (Kow). The current study reassessed the influence of mode of action (MOA) on acute aquatic toxicity-log Kow relationships using a comprehensive database of 617 organi...
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Melon wine and white cherry wines purchased from the commercial market were studied. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the elemental composition, antioxidant activity and optical properties of these fruit wines. The analysis of certain elements in wines is of interest because the concentrations of some of them are regulated, others because...
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The direct evidence for the formation of charge-assisted hydrogen bond (CAHB) between the charged groups of ionizable organic chemicals (IOCs) and carbonaceous materials with similar proton affinity remains elusive. We therefore selected three pharmaceutical contaminants (PCs) as representative IOCs to provide the direct evidence of CAHB formation...
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The preparation of YBCO superconducting films by using metal organic chemical deposition (MOD) involves low-temperature pyrolysis and high-temperature treatment. The former process generally requires the introduction of water vapor and other gases. The study on pyrolysis in a low vacuum environment and non-carrier gas atmosphere has never been repo...
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Two batch-loaded microcosm treatability studies of eight days' duration (192 hours) were conducted concurrently from July 26 through August 3 in an environmentally controlled greenhouse at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Constructed Wetlands Research Facility in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, USA. These, the first of five treatability studies, were...
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Wastewater consisting of different pharmaceuticals and drug residues is quite challenging to treat and dispose of. This situation poses a significant impact on the health aspect of humans and other biotic organisms in the environment. The main concern of hospital wastewater (HWW) is the resistivity towards treatment using the different conventional...
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Nitrogen isotopes and abundances in sedimentary rocks have become an important tool for reconstructing biogeochemical cycles in ancient ecosystems. There are two archives of nitrogen in the rock record, namely kerogen‐bound amines and silicate‐bound ammonium, and it is well documented that the isotopic ratios of these two archives can be offset fro...
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Background: JNJ-73763989 comprises two hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific, liver-targeted N-galactosamine-conjugated short interfering RNA triggers, JNJ-73763976 and JNJ-73763924. JNJ-73763989 pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability were assessed in two phase 1 studies: Japanese (NCT04002752), and non-Japanese healthy participants and chronic hepa...
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The Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemicals (SHERLOC) is one of the instruments mounted on the Perseverance rover’s robotic arm. SHERLOC focuses on searching for mineral species and organics that may contain spectral signatures of hydrous environments and past microbial life. It measures the Raman scatteri...
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Metals are an important atmospheric aerosol component; their impacts on health and the environment depend also on their solubility, dissolution kinetics and chemical form in which they are present in the aerosol (e.g., oxidation state, inorganic salt or oxide/hydroxide, organic complex). In this study, we investigated the impact of fog processing o...
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The prototype of a highly versatile and efficient preparative mass spectrometry system used for the deposition of molecules in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) is presented, along with encouraging performance data obtained using four model species that are thermolabile or not sublimable. The test panel comprises two small organic compounds, a small and very...
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Organic ultraviolet (UV) filter compounds are crucial components of sunscreen products, which are used to absorb UV radiation. However, the increase in consumption of UV filters has led to environmental concerns about their impacts on the environment and human health. This review found that the high lipophilicity and stability of UV filters can cau...
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Water contamination has turned into one of the most serious issues in the world. Nanomaterials are proficient to carry away heavy metals, organic and inorganic dyes, pesticides, and small molecules from polluted water. In this regard, nanoparticles have gained much attention due to their extraordinary properties compared to bulk materials. Metal ox...
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Richard Anschütz (1852-1937) was an important German chemist in the second half of the XIX century and the first quarter of the XX century. He carried out experimental studies in the field of organic chemistry. He proposed a new method for the synthesis of anthracene. He developed vacuum distillation. He prepared pure chloroform. He rescued the nam...
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is especially severe in aged populations1. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are highly effective, but vaccine efficacy is partly compromised by the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with enhanced transmissibility2. The emergence of these variants emphasizes the need for further development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapies, especia...