Science topic

Ontario - Science topic

A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
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Publications related to Ontario (10,000)
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Background Anserine bursitis is characterized by the presence of spontaneous pain with tenderness at the inferomedial aspect of the knee joint. Neural prolotherapy aims to relieve pain of a variety of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. The study aim was to explore the short-term efficacy of neural prolotherapy (subcutaneous perineural injection of...
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Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate whether the degree of patellar cartilage loss confirmed during index surgery affects the clinical and radiologic outcomes of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) performed without patellar resurfacing. Methods We prospectively divided 2012 patients with a minimum follow-up of 12 months into two groups acco...
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Background Most North American temperate forests are plantation or regrowth forests, which are actively managed. These forests are in different stages of their growth cycles and their ability to sequester atmospheric carbon is affected by extreme weather events. In this study, the impact of heat and drought events on carbon sequestration in an age-...
Article
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Background Data on antimicrobial use (AMU) in pig production are needed for the development of good antimicrobial stewardship practices to reduce the risk of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria that can cause illness in animals and humans. In Canada, there is a lack of quantitative data on AMU in the farrowing and nursery stages of pig production....
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Objective Person-to-person transmission can occur during outbreaks of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC), however the impact of this transmission route is not well understood. This study aimed to examine the role of person-to-person transmission during a VTEC outbreak, and how targeting this route may reduce outbreak size. A deterministic compar...
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Agricultural drainage ditches are necessary for regulating moisture contents in fields for crop production, and moreover, they can provide and regulate important ecosystem services. Drainage ditches and their associated riparian zones can be significant sources of enhanced N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions, since they receive nutrient laden runoff and dra...
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Restoration of temperate forests alters the diurnal dynamics of land surface temperature (LST) and evapotranspiration (ET) through increases in biomass, diversity, and complexity. The ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) is the first space-based thermal imaging instrument that allows for a study of diurnal...
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The use of artificial light to supplement natural light is essential for successful greenhouse winter production in regions with low natural sunlight to meet the increasing consumer demand for fresh vegetables. Traditionally, high-pressure sodium lights have been used. However, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are receiving substantial interests as the...
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Previous studies have demonstrated that tree species diversity increases productivity and may enhance nutrient cycling in forests. The effect of mixing tree species on stand‐level nutrient use efficiency (NutUE) has seldom been studied, and even less so in the context of climate change. Here we present the first study examining how diversity effect...
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Background The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and radiological outcomes of two surgical methods for tibial plateau fractures (TPFs): minimally invasive surgery (MIS) using a double reverse traction repositor and traditional open reduction internal fixation (ORIF). Methods From our prospectively collated database, 187 consecuti...
Article
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This study applied cognitive diagnostic models to assess students' learning progressions in energy. A Q-matrix (i.e., an item attribute alignment table) was proposed based on existing literature about learning progressions of energy in the physical science domain and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assessment frame...
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Purpose To examine the risk of perinatal mental illness, including new-onset disorders and recurrent or ongoing use of mental health care, comparing women with physical, sensory, intellectual/developmental, and multiple disabilities to those without a disability. Methods From all women aged 15–49 years with a singleton birth in Ontario, Canada (20...
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Introduction Our earlier studies reported that an additional lag screw placed from the opposite side increases the stability of the fixation construct in medial open wedge high tibia osteotomy (MOWHTO). The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical relevance of the use of a supplemental screw with immediate post-operative full weight-bearing an...
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Introduction The treatment of glioma with temozolomide chemoradiotherapy predisposes patients to pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). Because PCP is a rare outcome, very little is known about specific clinical risk factors for its development in patients with glioma. Methods We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of glioma patients un...
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Background Older adults with multimorbidity experience frequent care transitions, particularly from hospital to home, which are often poorly coordinated and fragmented. We conducted a pragmatic randomized controlled trial to test the implementation and effectiveness of Community Assets Supporting Transitions (CAST), an evidence-informed nurse-led i...
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Background The risk of congenital heart disease (CHD) has been found to vary by maternal socioeconomic status (SES) and rural-urban residence. In this study, we examined associations of CHD with two maternal SES indicators and stratified the analysis by maternal rural-urban residence. Methods This was a population-based retrospective cohort study....
Book
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Book Description This book provides a fundamental understanding of the importance of the microbiome in the life of virtually all multicellular organisms. It explains why microbes are an integral part of living organisms and describes the diverse roles they perform for their hosts. Although the significance of modified bacteria like the mitochondrio...
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Valid, reliable, and acceptable tools for assessing self-reported competence in evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM) are required to provide insight into the current status of EIDM knowledge, skills, attitudes/beliefs, and behaviours for registered nurses working in public health. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity, reliabilit...
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Purpose Teachers play an important role in detecting and reporting child maltreatment by virtue of their extensive contact with children. Current research, while limited, shows a tendency among teachers to under-detect and under-report various forms of child abuse and neglect. Methods: Using data from a pilot evaluation of child maltreatment traini...
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Background: It is believed that the cessation of normative cancer care services during the COVID-19 pandemic may be resulting in pathologic upstaging and higher long-term mortality rates. We aimed to understand how the pandemic has affected our patients diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: We conducted a single-centre retros...
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Purpose Injured workers can experience adverse effects from work injury and claims processes.Workers may be treated unfairly by employers, compensation boards, and return-to-work coordinators; however,how workers respond to these challenges is unknown. This article describes how injured precarious workersresponded behaviourally and emotionally to p...
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The anti-fibroblast growth factor 23 monoclonal antibody burosumab corrects hypophosphatemia in adults with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) and improves pain, stiffness, physical function, and fatigue. This post hoc subgroup analysis used data from the 24-week placebo-controlled period of a phase 3 study in 134 adults with XLH (ClinicalTrials.gov N...
Preprint
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A nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) based compartmental model of COVID-19 provides a continuous trace of infection over space and time. Finer resolutions in the spatial discretization, the inclusion of additional model compartments and model stratifications based on clinically relevant categories contribute to an increase in the number...
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Using qualitative data from an interdisciplinary research project about mental health and community engagement with Indigenous youth in Kasabonika Lake First Nation (Ontario, Canada), this paper explores the factors that constrain and facilitate their ability to contribute to the well-being of their community. Case studies are employed to demonstra...
Article
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Background Little is known about the feasibility of progressive shoulder exercises (PSE) for patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis (OA) or rotator cuff tear arthropathy (CTA). The aim of this study was to investigate whether 12 weeks of PSE is feasible in patients with glenohumeral OA or CTA eligible for shoulder arthroplasty. Moreover, to repo...
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To halve per capita global food waste by 2030, policies and programs that effectively reduce household food waste generation are needed. Building upon a previous randomized controlled trial, this study evaluated the long-term effectiveness of the “Reduce Food Waste, Save Money” household food waste reduction intervention by comparing direct measure...
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Standardized client feedback surveys encourage a culture of continuous quality improvement, allow for comparison of results over time and across similar types of service providers, and encourage use of evidence-based practices. Recognizing the importance of family and other caregivers in supporting people accessing services for mental health and su...
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Tracking the emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 lineages using phylogenetics has proven critical to inform the timing and stringency of COVID-19 public health interventions. We investigated the effectiveness of international travel restrictions at reducing SARS-CoV-2 importations and transmission in Canada in the first two waves of 2020 and early 2...
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There is limited research that examines the employment-related geographical mobility (E-RGM) of journeypersons in the construction industry. Such an investigation is important because migration can help reduce labour shortages and surpluses and allow journeypersons to obtain gainful employment. In this paper we investigate the E-RGM of construction...
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The tar spot complex (TSC) is a devastating disease of maize ( Zea mays L.), occurring in 17 countries throughout Central, South, and North America and the Caribbean, and can cause grain yield losses of up to 80%. As yield losses from the disease continue to intensify in Central America, Phyllachora maydis , one of the causal pathogens of TSC, was...
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Brandon Bzovey,1 William Ngo2,3 1Centre for Ocular Research & Education, School of Optometry & Vision Science University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; 2School of Optometry & Vision Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; 3Centre for Eye and Vision Research (CEVR), Hong Kong, People’s Republic of ChinaCorrespondence: Wi...
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Mercury (Hg) is a widespread contaminant known to pose severe risks to wildlife and human health. While Hg emissions have declined in recent decades, legacy emissions and stored Hg will continue to impact watershed Hg cycling for the foreseeable future. Boreal forests are a major concern due to their capacity for storing Hg, vulnerability to distur...
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Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are becoming gradually common in our everyday lives, associated with the rapid growth of electric vehicles (EVs) as well as hybrid vehicles (HVs). The thermal performance of a battery pack has a significant impact on its stability, aging, and durability. Hence the thermal management system (TMS) of battery packs for EVs...
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Purpose Assessing the physicochemical characteristics of the stream suspended sediment phase (SSP) is a common component of watershed monitoring, whereas the biological attributes of the SSP are more rarely described. The microbial component is valuable to sediment apportionment studies and can inform on pathogen transport and in-stream biogeochemi...
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Plant invasions often lead to homogenization of plant communities, but the potential for homogenization of other trophic levels is understudied in many systems. Biotic communities in coastal wetlands are closely tied to daily and yearly water-level fluctuations. We compared the bird community in invasive Phragmites australis (European common reed)...
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Irene McGhee,1 Jordan Tarshis,1 Susan DeSousa2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 2Sunnybrook Canadian Simulation Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaCorrespondence: Irene McGhee, Email irene.mcghee@utoronto.caPurpose: To study the effect of a communication tool...
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Objective To explore the safety, and efficacy of a proprietary hydrolyzed oil extract from seeds of Biota orientalis (hBO/Epiitalis®, Interpath Pty Ltd) in patients with knee pain due to osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Patients aged 40–65 with X-ray diagnosed knee OA and knee pain ≥ 60 on a 100-point VAS (visual analog scale) were enrolled and random...
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Human activities have greatly changed global phosphorus (P) cycling, posing urgent challenges related to both supply uncertainty and aquatic eutrophication. However, the long‐term dynamics of P across Canada remain unquantified and under‐explored. Using a material flow analysis model, we quantified temporal dynamics of P cycling in Canadian provinc...
Article
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Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) are widely used to track contaminants in surface waters. However, POCIS have not been used previously to monitor for artificial sweeteners as an indicator of wastewater pollution. In this study, we report for the first time the POCIS sampling rates (Rscal) for four artificial sweetener compounds,...
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Introduction Frailty is a strong predictor of adverse postoperative outcomes. Prehabilitation may improve outcomes after surgery for older people with frailty by addressing physical and physiologic deficits. The objective of this trial is to evaluate the efficacy of home-based multimodal prehabilitation in decreasing patient-reported disability and...
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IntroductionThe influence of a previous high tibial osteotomy (HTO) on the outcome and survival of a knee arthroplasty is a debated issue. The purpose of this study is to compare subjective, radiographic, and functional outcomes of unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) and total knee replacement (TKR) after failed open wedge HTO.Methods26 post-HT...
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Background COVID-19 has drastically changed the everyday lives of children, including limiting interactions with peers, loss of regularly organized activities, and closure of schools and recreational facilities. While COVID-19 protocols are in place to reduce viral transmission, they have affected children’s access to physical activity opportunitie...
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The footprints of petroleum microseepage can be associated with chemical and microbial processes in initially homogeneous strata and/or with the fluid transport properties of the rocks through which oil and gas migrate. This work examines the role of such driving factors in two contrasting geological settings by comparing numerical modeling predict...
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Objective: Women with a history of pre-eclampsia have an elevated lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease that may be partly attributed to an adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile, the etiology of which is unclear. Hypothesizing that this adverse risk profile may begin to arise over time in the years before pregnancy, we sought to evaluate th...
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Background Fused hips with spine stiffness in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) reduce spinopelvic mobility. We aimed to assess spinopelvic mobility pattern and acetabular anteversion in AS after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Material and methods Ninety-four stiff hips in 58 AS individuals (mean age: 37.05) who underwent THA between 2012 and 2018 with a...
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Delayed access to mental health services for children and adolescents has been linked to an increased risk of harm and nonattendance to scheduled appointments. While studies suggest that the lack of standardized assessments for prioritizing individuals has contributed to long wait times, the inconsistent use of assessments across service sectors in...
Article
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Aim The purpose of this study is to: (a) describe public health nursing roles over the course of the COVID‐19 pandemic in Ontario, Canada; (b) describe the contextual factors that influence public health nursing role implementation; and (c) describe nurses' perceived impact of their roles on client outcomes and professional/personal nursing practic...
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Environmental stewardship is increasingly important as human actions threaten the natural world. Now, more than ever, it is necessary to understand what makes stewardship initiatives successful. This study investigates stewardship success in the Niagara Region of Ontario, Canada. Specifically, the research seeks to determine what factors are associ...
Article
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The adverse mental health outcomes of youth in-care have been examined from a number of disciplinary perspectives. A sociological approach emphasizes the importance that environmental and social factors play in the development of mental health problems. What remains unknown is the extent to which general strain theory (GST) and self-control theory...
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Sulfide formation in anaerobic lake sediments depends on supply rates of organic carbon and sulfate. Improvements to wastewater treatment plant effluent quality (e.g., lower total phosphorus (P)) and sulfur emissions can affect sulfide formation rates, which, in turn, can affect metal chemistry including internal iron loading. To determine if these...
Chapter
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Industrial greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reporting has been an error-prone process due to the lack of universally accepted guidelines. Challenges pertaining to industrial GHG emission quantification consist of enhancing the accuracy of estimates by reducing the risk of double-counting. Currently, GHG emissions from overall natural gas use and large...
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Laponite nanoparticles have been proposed for soil densification to reduce the negative impacts of seismic hazards. However, the effects of laponite on the aquatic ecosystem are lacking. In this study, different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5%) of laponite were used to investigate the growth and total chlorophyll content of microalgae:...
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Eighty nine (42%) of Canada’s 215 freshwater fish species have been assessed as at risk by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. This study examines genomic population structure of the at-risk Grass Pickerel (Esox americanus vermiculatus), a small (≤ 33 cm) predatory fish that in Canada has a range spanning approximately 114...
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This study evaluated level of service need before and after a short-term community mental health case management intervention from the perspective of both clients and case managers. Ontario Common Assessment of Need data were used to describe client needs. McNemar’s test was applied to assess differences in pre- and post- need scores. Psychological...
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Field observations and measurements of wetland plants have traditionally been used to monitor and evaluate wetland condition; however, there has been increasing use of remote sensing applications for rapid evaluations of wetland productivity and change. Combining key aspects of field-and remote sensing-based wetland evaluation methods can provide m...
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Background Unnecessary antibiotic use is associated with adverse side effects and rising rates of resistance at the individual and population level. This study used a theory-informed approach to identify potentially modifiable determinants of antibiotic prescribing for patients presenting to primary care with upper respiratory tract infection sympt...
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This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effect of phonophoresis when various gel types were used. Medline (using PubMed), EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were used to search for relevant studies from the date of their inception to June 28, 2021. We included studies that were randomized controll...
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The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of focused low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (FLIPUS) with pulsed shortwave diathermy (PSWD) in subjects with painful knee osteoarthritis (OA). In a prospective randomized trial, 114 knee OA patients were randomly allocated to receive FLIPUS or PSWD therapy. The primary outcome was the chan...
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Purpose To assess the accuracy of the Kane formula for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation in the pediatric population. Methods The charts of pediatric patients who underwent cataract surgery with in-the-bag IOL implantation with one of two IOL models (SA60AT or MA60AC) between 2012 and 2018 in The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario...