Science topic

Oculomotor Muscles - Science topic

The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
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Publications related to Oculomotor Muscles (9,974)
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Article
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Idiopathic superior oblique muscle palsy is a major type of paralytic, non-comitant strabismus and presents vertical and cyclo-torsional deviation of one eye against the other eye, with a large vertical fusion range and abnormal head posture such as head tilt. Genetic background is considered to play a role in its development, as patients with idio...
Article
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Introduction Cysticercosis is caused by parasitic infestation mainly by the larval form of Taenia solium. Orbital cysticercosis may involve both the intraocular structures and orbit particularly the extraocular muscles. The clinical manifestations are caused mainly by the mass effect of the cyst in the initial period resulting in ocular motility re...
Article
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Background The last definition of the post-enucleation socket syndrome (PESS) by Tyers and Collin—formulated almost 40 years ago in 1982—is predominantly based on the clinical characteristics and does not include the insights of newer studies into the pathophysiological mechanism of the PESS. Methods A systematic PubMed literature review regarding...
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Ocular complications occur in up to one-third of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Among them, orbital myositis (OM) is considered a rare manifestation that affects the extraocular muscles and causes pain and restriction with eye movement. We report a case of OM in a 48-year-old female with SLE and secondary Sjogren’s Syndrome, who...
Article
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Here, we compared sensory outcomes between patients with successful motor outcomes and recurrent exotropia after intermittent exotropia surgery. We retrospectively analyzed 303 patients who underwent surgery for intermittent exotropia, divided into two groups: successful motor outcome defined as an alignment between 10 prism diopters (PD) exodeviat...
Article
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Purpose: Clinical assessment of ocular movements is essential for the diagnosis and management of ocular motility disorders. This study aimed to propose a deep learning-based image analysis to automatically measure ocular movements based on photographs and to investigate the relationship between ocular movements and age. Methods: 207 healthy vol...
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Historically, the central mesencephalic reticular formation has been regarded as a purely horizontal gaze center based on the fact that electrical stimulation of this region produces horizontal saccades, it provides monosynaptic input to medial rectus motoneurons, and cells recorded in this region often display a peak in firing when horizontal sacc...
Article
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Background The third segment of the vertebral artery (V3) is vulnerable during far lateral and retrosigmoid approaches. Although the suboccipital triangle (SOT) is a useful anatomical landmark, the relationship between V3 and the muscles forming the triangle is not well-described. We aimed to demonstrate the relationship between the V3, surrounding...
Article
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Purpose: We describe and compare the normative values of orbital structures in an Australian cohort on T1-weighted MRI and fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI. Methods: Retrospective review of patients who underwent 3T orbital MRI. The maximum extraocular muscle (EOM) and superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) diameters on normal orbits wer...
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The purpose was to ascertain if any relation exists between the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) in active stage and the severity of extraocular muscle involvement and the extent of exophthalmos. Methods: A total of 96 eyes and orbits of 48 adult patients with active TAO were investigated....
Article
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The pathogenesis of myopia is driven by genetic and environmental risk factors. Accommodation not only alters the curvature and shape of the lens but also involves contraction of the ciliary and extraocular muscles, which influences intraocular pressure (IOP). Scleral matrix remodeling has been shown to contribute to the biomechanical susceptibilit...
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Background: The correlation between intraocular pressure (IOP) and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) patients was explored. Methods: This study included 82 eyes in 41 TAO patients who had a large difference in the IOP between each eye. We measured the T2 relaxation time (T2RT) of the extra...
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Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes (PNS) constitute a rare group of disorders whose optimal treatment is yet to be established. We report a patient with bilateral orbital inflammation associated with PNS, who responded well to surgical resection of the primary tumor. An 83-year-old woman was referred to our department for treatment of a progressiv...
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The purpose of this study was to compare the differences of V-pattern exotropia in craniosynostosis and normal children. 39 children were included in this study, 19 craniosynostosis and 20 children in control group. They underwent comprehensive ocular examinations and received strabismus surgery. The extraocular muscle samples were analysed. Compar...
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Purpose: To report a case of indirect carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a patient who presented as a case of thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). Case presentation: A 60-year-old female, known case of hypothyroidism, presented with left-sided headache associated with pain, protrusion and redness of left eye, the examination revealing vision of 2...
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Purpose: This study aimed to describe and analyze the clinical features of 20 eyes of 15 primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) patients. Methods: This was a retrospective case series and a review of the literature. Fifteen PVRL patients (20 affected eyes) referred between February 2011 and December 2019 were recruited, and their medical records...
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The T12811C mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation has been reported in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) previously, with vision loss as the main manifestation. The involvement of other organ systems, including the central and peripheral nervous system, heart, and extraocular muscles, has not been well described. This case series report investi...
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Computed tomography (CT) imaging of the orbit with measurement of extraocular muscle size can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring conditions that affect extraocular muscles. However, the manual measurement of extraocular muscle size can be time-consuming and tedious. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of deep learning al...
Article
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Extraocular muscle enlargement can occur secondary to a range of orbital and systemic diseases. Although the most common cause of extraocular muscle enlargement is thyroid eye disease, a range of other inflammatory, infective, neoplastic, and vascular conditions can alter the size and shape of the extraocular muscles. Imaging with computed tomograp...
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Late presentations of post-traumatic residual orbital roof deformities ensuing from old, unaddressed orbital injuries, can be extremely challenging to manage and quite complicated to correct, owing to proximity of the brain and frontal sinus, malunion or bony fusion of the displaced, delicate orbital fracture fragments, necrosis of entrapped extrao...
Preprint
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Ultrasound being a portable imaging device that is capable of making fast regional estimates of body composition, is an attractive assessment tool in instances when other methods are limited (risks of contrast in MRI and or radiation in CT scan). Furthermore, much of the research suggests that it is reliable, reproducible, not only an accurate mean...
Article
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Thyroid Eye Disease (TED) is an autoimmune disease that affects the extraocular muscles and periorbital fat. It most commonly occurs with Graves' Disease (GD) as an extrathyroidal manifestation, hence, it is also sometimes used interchangeably with Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO). Well-known autoimmune markers for GD include thyroid stimulating hormone...
Article
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Rationale: A few cases of intercalary staphyloma have been reported in patients with Marfan syndrome, but we believe that this is the first case of intercalary staphyloma in Marfan syndrome developing after strabismus surgery. Patient concerns: A 9-year-old girl diagnosed with Marfan syndrome visited a strabismus clinic for treatment of esotropi...
Article
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Objectives The clinical course of thyroid eye disease (TED) is heterogeneous and predicting patients who may develop the severe sequelae of the disease is difficult. In this study, we evaluated the longitudinal association between changes in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody (TRAb) levels and course of disease activity and s...
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Purpose of Review To review emerging treatments for thyroid eye disease (TED) associated extraocular muscle myopathy and dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON). Recent Findings Emerging targeted biologic therapies may alter the disease course in TED. Teprotumumab, a type I insulin-like growth factor receptor inhibitor, is the most recent addition to th...
Article
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Ultrasonography contains a wide selection of clinical indications. For instance, when examining a patient with ocular discomfort or pain, clinicians will use ultrasound to ensure a diagnosis of inflammation, orbital myositis, or dacryoadenitis. Imaging is often used to identify retrobulbar tissue, as well as the extraocular muscles, in patients wit...
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Background Intramuscular haemangiomas are rare, benign vascular tumours that represent < 1% of all haemangiomas. When involving the extraocular muscles, haemangiomas are extremely rare, with only nine cases reported in the literature; to date there are no reported cases of extraocular muscle haemangiomas extending into the brain. Case presentation...
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This study investigates the efficacy, healing efficiency, and safety of skin orbicularis oculi muscle combined with tissue flap repair for eyelid trauma patients. According to the different methods of surgical intervention, this study chooses 78 cases of eyelid injury patients. This study sets up the joint intervention group and the routine repair...
Article
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Purpose To describe etiology, clinical characteristics, radiological features and management of isolated inferior oblique pareses. Methods A diagnosis of inferior oblique paresis was made after a thorough strabismus examination and neuroimaging. The patients were managed surgically with adjustable strabismus surgery, or conservatively. Surgical su...
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Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an aggressive malignant tumor that arises from the nasopharyngeal epithelial lining. Most patients with NPC present with a neck mass or cranial nerve palsy. It is infrequent for patients with NPC to present to an ophthalmologist initially with ophthalmic complaints and absence of prior diagnosis of NPC. W...
Article
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Orbital myositis (OM) is an extremely rare ocular extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease. Acute or chronic inflammation of one or more extraocular muscles leads to symptoms related to the mass effect including orbital pain, swelling, ophthalmoplegia, proptosis, and diplopia. Although the use of steroids typically leads to rapid...
Article
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Purpose Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) is an inflammatory process that may involve the ocular surface, orbital fat, extraocular muscles, and optic nerves in patients with Graves’ disease (GD). We aimed to compare thicknesses of retinal layers in patients with GD with and without GO. Methods One hundred seven patients with GD [23 with GO (Group 1), 84 wi...
Article
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Fibrosis of extraocular muscles (EOMs) is a marker of end-stage in Graves’ orbitopathy (GO). To determine the antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of disulfiram (DSF) on perimysial orbital fibroblasts (pOFs) in a GO model in vitro, primary cultures of pOFs from eight patients with GO and six...
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We present a case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) presenting with salivary gland enlargement and right parotid abscess, left-sided facial palsy, Lacrimal Gland, extraocular muscle involvement and rapidly progressive necrotizing keratitis. Followed by review of available literature on salivary gland involvement in GPA and how salivary glan...
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In the present report, we describe a case of sclerosing orbital pseudotumor in an 11‐year‐old castrated male American Shorthair cat. Ophthalmic exam showed lagophthalmos, retracted right upper eyelid, and resistant to retropulsion in his right eye. Under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, increased volume of the extraocular muscles (EOMs) of t...
Article
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Diplopia is a common symptom after blowout fractures, with an incidence of 43.6%-83%. Although there is some consensus toward surgical correction, diplopia is not always resolved by surgery. Thus, there is a clinical dilemma for surgeons with regard to performing surgery at a specific time. This review aimed to create an algorithm to support accura...
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Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to show with three-dimensional simulations how the diagnostic supine roll test (SRT) is affected by the initial position of the debris within the horizontal canal (hc) and study the nystagmus patterns on changing the sequence of testing and its impact on the diagnosis of the side of involvement in...
Article
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There are many difficulties a student or educator can present in the anatomy course. Technological advances and availability of new tools have provided alternatives to improve the learning method. A 3D model of an orbit and ocular globe (OG) was designed and 3D printed. It consisted of a roof, floor, medial and lateral walls, and a posterior wall....
Article
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Purpose: To describe the clinical role of swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography in extraocular muscle imaging in various strabismic conditions. Study design: Prospective observational study. Participants: A total of 1104 extraocular muscles of 150 subjects were imaged. Normal eyes (640 muscles), eyes undergoing re-operatio...
Article
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Background The surgical outcome is usually not satisfactory for treatment of primary infantile exotropia (PIE) with large exodeviation angels of more than 50 prism diopters (PD). Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of augmented bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession (ABLRR) in treatment of PIE with large deviation angles. Methods A retrospectiv...
Article
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A 92-year-old female with poorly controlled systemic hypertension presented with bilateral eye redness, lid fullness, conjunctival chemosis, ophthalmoplegia, and ptosis for two days. A neuro-ophthalmic evaluation revealed bilateral proptosis, severe conjunctival chemosis and congestion, and an almost complete bilateral ophthalmoplegia with a comple...
Article
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We report a 57-year-old female with left globe enucleation following head trauma after falling. The left globe was intact and protruded from the orbit. A CT scan revealed anterior globe protrusion with avulsions of the optic nerve and the extraocular muscles with posterior-lateral dislocation of the left lateral orbital wall. Due to the unstable ge...
Article
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Objective: The application of botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) in the treatment of paralytic strabismus has been recognized, but there are few studies on the treatment of acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE). This study was aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of AACE and compare the therapeutic effects of BTXA and traditional surger...
Article
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To determine whether intermittent exotropia (IXT) surgery affects contrast sensitivity (CS), this retrospective study evaluated the changes in monocular and binocular CS and the binocular summation ratio (BSR) quantified as the ratio between the values of the binocular and the better monocular CS score (BSR = binocular CS score/better monocular CS...
Article
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Discrete extraocular muscles (EOMs) metastases are extremely rare events. Here is a case of isolated orbital metastases involving EOMs in a female patient who was previously diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer. She received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Years later, the patient complained of gradually progressive ptosis of the rig...
Article
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Goal of the study was to evaluate bony orbit remodeling and extraocular muscle (EOM) volume in thyroid eye disease (TED) and their role as predicting factors for development of dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON). Orbital computed tomography of 92 patients with TED with (76 orbits) or without DON (98 orbits) were retrospectively evaluated. Orbits (n...
Article
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Purpose: To describe the squamous cell carcinoma in the orbit as a primary site through systematic review and case report. Method: A Systematic review of the literature was performed to focus on all the cases of primary squamous cell carcinoma that involves the orbit and exclude the cases that affect the ocular surface area and eye lid. Results: Pr...
Article
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Background Isolated orbital myositis of the inferior oblique muscle (IObM) is rare, with few reported cases. Case Description A 65-year-old woman was aware of double vision and left dacryorrhea for 2 months. At presentation, the patient showed mild restriction on the downward gaze. In addition, a subcutaneous mass was palpated on the left eyelid....
Article
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Orbital metastases are a rare but life-altering complication in cancer. Most commonly seen in breast cancer, metastases to the optic nerves or extraocular muscles can have a devastating impact on visual acuity and quality of life. Hormone receptor status plays a central role in metastatic breast cancer treatment, with endocrine therapy often repres...
Article
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The Active Pulley Hypothesis (APH) is based on modern functional anatomical descriptions of the oculomotor plant, and postulates behaviors of the orbital pulleys proposed to be positioned by the extraocular muscles (EOMs). A computational model is needed to understand this schema quantitatively. We developed and evaluated a novel biomechanical mode...
Article
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Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare, treatable, antibody-mediated disease characterized by fatigable muscle weakness of extraocular muscles (EOMs) and non-ocular skeletal muscles. The antibodies are directed against muscle-endplate proteins, most frequently the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) alpha-subunit. Although most MG patients respond to immunosup...
Article
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Objective: Orbital myositis is a rare clinical condition that involves idiopathic inflammation mostly of extraocular muscles. The purpose of this study was to present a diagnostic and treatment plan of orbital myositis. Methods: A 60-year-old female presented with decreased visual acuity on her left eye, ocular hypertension, restricted and painful...
Article
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Purpose To report an unusual case of spontaneous orbital hemorrhage in the setting of DIC and hepatic failure. Observations A 33-year-old female presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with acute liver failure. During the first week of her hospital admission, she developed unilateral eyelid swelling and proptosis, prompting a consult to ophthal...
Article
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Purpose To evaluate and compare different surgical approaches for the treatment of Helveston syndrome and provide further information for preoperative planning. Methods From February 2008 to December 2018, data of 52 patients with Helveston syndrome were retrospectively reviewed. Different surgical approaches were selected based on the extent of A...
Article
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Purpose Normative oblique muscle data may help to diagnose pathological enlargement of the oblique muscles. We aim to describe the normative values of the superior and inferior oblique muscles in an Australian cohort on T1-weighted MRI and fat suppressed contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI. Methods A retrospective review of patients who underwent 3...
Article
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Background IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4ROD) is a phenotype of IgG4-related disease (IgG4RD) with ophthalmic involvement. The pathological IgG4+ plasmacyte count has only been used for diagnosis. We aimed to explore its possible clinical value in the management of IgG4ROD. Methods Fifty-five pathologically diagnosed IgG4ROD patients were i...