Science topic

Observation - Science topic

The act of regarding attentively and studying facts and occurrences, gathering data through analyzing, measuring, and drawing conclusions, with the purpose of applying the observed information to theoretical assumptions. Observation as a scientific method in the acquisition of knowledge began in classical antiquity; in modern science and medicine its greatest application is facilitated by modern technology. Observation is one of the components of the research process.
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Fellow Researchers, I need some wisdom.
I am currently performing an experiment involving CaCo2 cells seeded on a Transwell. I don't have experience with such assays, therefore please forgive me, if my questions are somewhat ignorant. I've searched ResearchGate and found some answers in this discussion:
(23) Can transwell-cultured Caco-2 monolayers be imaged with BD Pathway confocal microscopy while keeping them in transwell? (researchgate.net)
However, I wonder - is there a possibility to observe the Transwells while on a plastic plate, without the necessity of transferring the Transwells to a glass dish? Additionally, I use the type of Transwells that stand on the bottom of the well, not hang on the borders of the well, therefore I am not sure if this solution would work in my case. My idea was- if I used a non-inverted microscope, could I maybe see my cells in the Transwell? I understand that after seeding, my cells need 21 days to differentiate and form a monolayer, however, how can I check that they are in fact attached to the Transwell and growing if I have no way of seeing them? Is staining with some viability dye the only way? I am afraid of a scenario in which I wait 21 days for my cells to differentiate while in fact – they didn’t even attach?
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Hi Ariadna,
I work with primary lung epithelial cells in transwell cultures, but I can give you some ideas on how I do my cultures.
During the differentiation and maturation phase I image my transwells on an inverted brightfield microscope. whether this will work on your microscope depends on the working distance of your objectives. Our confocal certainly doesn't have the working distance needed for in-situ imaging of the transwells.
For my confocal imaging, I fix the membrane and cut it out, imaging it as a whole mount on ordinary glass slides. Were you wanting to do IF images at different time points?
Also worth noting (at least for my primary lung epithelia) that the cells should grow to full confluence in a few days, so make sure you seed sufficient cells (I seed 1.5e5 cells per 12mm insert). It's the differentiation that takes time.
If you're just wanting to check that there are cells present, they should be visible on an inverted brightfield microscope. I of course have the advantage that I can see beating cilia and mucous production under the brightfield as signs of differentiation.
Another measure of cell-layer intergrity and barrier function could be trans-epitheial electrical resistance (TEER). This can be measured over time, without killing your cells. There's a neat paper on constructing your own device to measure TEER if you don't have the budget to buy a commercial device:
Hope this helps!
Sam
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I'm doing a structured observation tallying how many times a teachers does a certain practice in 10 minute intervals. How would you analyse this data?
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You have count data which can be modelled as a log NBD regression. There are book length treatments by Hilbe.
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[ These criticisms may apply more to studies in the behavioral sciences, those being the ones I know about. ]
There is a big tendency for researchers to do research that [supposedly] TRIES to "build on" previous research. AND, there is a belief that such studies will lead to better understanding of (/definition-of) core concepts in a "field". AND, ALSO, other even less related (less concretely or physically interrelated) studies, such as interdisciplinary studies, are believed to lead to better understanding as well.
I believe neither of these is necessarily the case or even likely true (and, to a notable extent, never true, with some research as it is). I believe it is more often NOT true that progress is being made these ways, since the unit of analysis and its aspects are not clear, OR that real (proven) developed relations have not been found. Given the present research ways (many having long, numerous historical/philosophical roots), I believe that more often than good, real desired results (from findings), the results will NOT be interpretable in any reliable or valid way. This an area where some good scientific analytic philosophers could be of good help (thus, the reason for the existence of this discussion question).
My view is that if you do not have well-guided/well-justified and WELL-related studies, specifically, with all phenomenon involved or of present interest RELATING AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE TO DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OF essentially FOR-SURE FOUNDATIONAL OVERT PHENOMENON __AND___/__OR___ a clear case or clear reflection of such actual phenomenon (and, here too, CONCRETE LINKS at some time were shown and INVOLVED), then you are "off-track". Such is needed for science advancement ITSELF (<-- this being key to science and a MAJOR indication OF REAL SCIENCE itself). [ (In Psychology, the subject and aims of studies and findings should be to illuminate KEY Behavior PATTERNS, by clearly relating all of them to directly observable overt behavior patterns that ARE reliably and validly seen (with clear concrete foundations) OR to such "things" THAT WERE (and, ideally: have been) once so clearly and reliably seen during development (i.e. ontogeny)) (yet notice: STILL there is plenty of latitude left for many types of concepts to be involved in proposed explanations, given development and the demonstrated possibilities of the huge capacities of the Memories).) ]
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Dear Spencer Miles
I agree with everything you said. You flushed some things out and addressed some nuances. Your post is a very welcome contribution.
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It was required from me to find a research problem (or research statement) regarding to student-teacher observation peers method (a method of observation, analysis and evaluating teaching in class-room)
do you have any ideas?
can you provide me with appropriate references that can help me read and know more about this topic?
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I would like to welcome this topic, which is de facto in the field of didactics. Thus, the goal of the teaching process is influenced, and determines the teacher-student relationship.
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This morning (December 2, 2019) at about 6 UTC+1 and at a geographic place of about 52° N 13° E I saw a chain of 12 or more satellites in two groups (5 or more + 7), flying with equal distances in each group from west to east over the zenith (i.e. far from the equator). Does someone know this constellation of satellites or a web site which may be searched for orbits of satellites visible by naked eye?
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From the Holiday Greetings by IAU President Debra Elmegreen, Dec. 23, 2021:
"The IAU is in final negotiations to establish the new Center for the Protection of the Dark and Quiet Sky from Satellite Constellation Interference <https://iau.org/news/announcements/detail/ann21039/> . Meanwhile, at the Dark and Quiet Skies for Science and Society II Conference <http://research.iac.es/congreso/quietdarksky2021/pages/rationale.php> , several hundred participants discussed implementation of recommendations to mitigate threats to our view of the night sky."
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I have a regression problem with two objective variables or outputs (named E & r). I made a model for every objective separately. I used Gaussian processes regression.
I obtained prediction for both objectives as can be seen in the attached images (error bar shows standard deviation).
Title of the plots shows R2 & RMSE of prediction. There is a categorical variable in dataset (Mixer) which has two values (50L, 2400L), shown by different colors on the plot.
Next, I calculated R2 & RMSE separately for every Mixer (shown in the legend in the attached images).
As you can see, for objective "E", RMSE of Mixer 2400L (blue color) is less than RMSE of Mixer 50L (orange color). But, its R2 is very low which is surprising for me. I expect that when RMSE is lower, R2 should be higher.
And for objective "r", RMSE of both Mixers are almost similar. But, R2 of Mixer 2400L is much lower.
I have only one assumption about this phenomenon. Reason of low R2 is because of lower No. of samples for Mixer 2400L.
No. of Observations:
  • Total : 119
  • Mixer 50L : 106
  • Mixer 2400L : 13
If you have any idea. please let me know.
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PS - Reviewing the question, apparently the bars are not prediction intervals, but just sigma (RMSE).  Ideally, for larger predicted-y, sigma should be larger, contrary to what is often assumed.  (See https://www.researchgate.net/project/OLS-Regression-Should-Not-Be-a-Default-for-WLS-Regression, and the various updates there.)  Ken Brewer explained why and to what extent this should occur.  See https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320853387_Essential_Heteroscedasticity.  When the ideal 'formula' for predicted-y is not found, this may not hold. I do not know about any special features of the regression used here.
Looking at your last graph, at RMSE (sigma), and R-squared, sigma is about the same for each of the two cases, but R-squared is better for the case where there were more data.  OK.  Sigma (standard deviation) is not reduced with a larger sample size, but the standard errors of the model coefficients are reduced with a larger sample size.  So, that is why you stated "Reason of low R2 is because of lower No. of [observations in the sample]."  (This assumes that the same model is used in either case, or a very similar one.) The smaller sample size made the regression coefficient standard errors larger, which would make a given sigma smaller in comparison. 
However, you cannot count on this all the time.  Typically with a small sample size, you will get a bad estimate of sigma (not to mention that ideally sigma is bigger for bigger predicted-y).  With a small sample, nothing is reliable.  With a very small sample, you could easily get an R-squared of close to one if just a couple of points are used and they 'line-up' by chance.  You could obtain a wide range of results. 
Here sigma looks close to unchanged with larger predicted-y. However, the axes are reversed, so I'm looking at the wrong one.  You might get about the same results, but you should correct that.  It is confusing. 
Please change your axes and recalculate everything.
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I recently posted an observation on this question on Why most research use Wrought Alloys when Researching Cast Al-MMC's? Most of papers I see coming to IJMC on Al-MMC's are using wrought as host metal. The common ones are: 6061, 6063, 7045, 7075, and 2000 series. These are very difficult to cast, which is why most of the researchers use very simple shapes just to get test coupons. They also usually conduct only limited mechanical tests and focus on wear testing, which is of limited value to design engineers. These are mostly academic studies and they tend to cite each other's works. I understand trying to limit compositional interactions, but this approach doesn't develop alloys that can be used into useful commercial shapes. The early Al-MMC's were based upon A356 (Al-Si) and also Al-Si-Cu (like 319 and 383) as a means to improve stiffness (modulus) and high temperature properties. There were collaborative efforts to see what material was needed to solve problems and see if it worked.
Prof. Rohatgi gave an AFS Golden Anniversary Lecture in 2019 that was published in the IJMC:
Ajay Kumar, P., Rohatgi, P. & Weiss, D. 50 Years of Foundry-Produced Metal Matrix Composites and Future Opportunities. Inter Metalcast 14, 291–317 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40962-019-00375-4
See the online version: https://rdcu.be/cB8IH
Unfortunately, this trend of using wrought alloys as the base metal is why a significant number get Transferred to other more materials orientated journals or Open Access. Very few look at can the MMC's developed be cast into complex shapes and can the material be re-processed. This is a BIG PROBLEM!!!! Our universities and researchers must address this issue, if we want to advance the use of materials that can see practical applications. Don't just seek Solutions in Search of a Problem.
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Dear Thomas,
interesting observation and probably not something metallurgy specific but a general effect in "old technology" subjects.
Bringing together different disciplines such as composites and metallurgy always bring up a certain degree of dilettantism as the two or more groups often do not understand the complementary requirements, that's a general effect. Moreover the basic metalurgy topics such as aluminium cast and wrought alloys are not very fancy topics anymore, they are poorly covered in students teaching. One foundry institute after the other is closed and my impression is that the knowledge gets lost and the effect you mention is created by an increasing deficit of basic understanding.
I am out of the metallurgy business for almost 25 years now and in my current research field which is structural ceramics the situation is very similar. Many researchers do not consider or even know the older works from the 1980s which are often really excellent and prefer to cite to read the latest publications. This is no problem as long as the new publications bring up novel findings. For me as a reviewer for many journals it seems however that this is done regardless of quality.
best regards
Frank
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I have monthly data and I fount seasonality in my data. I want to apply SARIMA but i am not sure that on 28 observation I can use SARIMA or not? kindly share any reference if there can apply SARIMA on 28 monthly observations.
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Tanzila Noor , if you are using SARIMA Model you need more number of data points, in order to be sure about the presence of seasonality. which type of data are you using? It will be best for you, if you first remove the seasonality from the data, then you can use ARIMA Model too, which will be easier. First plot the data in frequency domain and then remove the seasonality pattern by removing that component.
Regards,
Bijoy Dutta
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I have a secondary data that I am to carryout a spatial price transmission on for my master thesis. I have 33 missing observations in the Urban and 23 missing observations in rural , out of a total 100 weekly observations. I planned to use VAR model but the large number missing observations compared to the total data makes me a little confused, even if I interpolate, I am scared the research might not really make sense?
Please, has anyone experienced similar challenge, please what did you so?
Please what do you suggest I do with the missing observations?
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Fill in the missing values by linear interpolation and continue to model it by. VAR.
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Suppose we have a system designed to deliver services to customers arriving during weekdays. The arrival process is modeled as a Poisson process with an Arrival rate of λ, also we use agent-based modeling with NetLogo to study the behavior of customers. After multiple Observation and replication of the model, the first 8 hours was selected as the warm-up period and the remaining time as the steady-state. If we consider the average length of stay (ALOS) as the crucial output data, how should we handle the initialization bias in this case?
As a workaround, is removing those data sufficient if we take into account the effects of the warm-up period on the ALOS?
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Kindly read this work may you can get a strong base about what you are looking for.
If you cannot download it, please let me know. I will try to download it from my side.
Regards
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Hello,
I have a dataset of 850 subjects and 6 potential raters. Each subject can be classified into 4 nominal categories. My idea is to split the dataset equally among the raters but holding out a subset for an initial calculation of agreement.
I wonder what should be the size of this subset so that all raters can evaluate it and calculate the agreement. From what I have read, the proper calculation would be Lights' Kappa (since there are more than two raters with fully-crossed design [Hallgren, 2012]).
Is there any software package that can help me estimate the size of that subset?
Best,
Bruno
Hallgren, K .A. (2012), Computing Inter-Rater Reliability for Observational Data: An Overview and Tutorial. Tutor Quant Methods Psychol. 2012 ; 8(1): 23–34.
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Dear Bruno,
As far as I know, using SPSS would do the job. The following link could be useful: https://youtu.be/HMmKFvvteyU
Best wishes,
Maurice Schols
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Hello Researchers,
My question is:
Q. Is it sensible/possible to use Quantile Autoregressive Distributed Lag (QARDL) approach to assess the association among the variables, when there are only 27 observations?
thanks
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yes, try mipolate or denton ssc in STATA
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Observation of bacteria under a SEM or MET
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I did not understand your answer can you explain to me, please?!!
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Observation of cell wall of a bactéria in electron microscope
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If you are interested in the surface details of the cell wall, you'll likely need SEM. If you are interested in its cross-sectional details, you'll likely need TEM.
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Some of the common assumptions for the parametric tests include Normality, Randomness, Absence of Outliers, Homogeneity of Variances, Independence of Observations, and Linearity.
whether Random sampling (data collection method) is included this list or not?
Reply with references .
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Hello Shahul,
as random sampling only exists in an ideal work and every actual sample more or less differs from a random sample, the question is how far the sampling deviates from random sampling and whether this deviations actually changes the theoretical distribution distribution that underlies the estimation of Standard errors (and thus, p values). Nobody knows that. Therefore, a practical solution is to apply parametric tests when its defendable and even than being a bit modest in one's conclusions. Otherwise, we have to stop to apply them at al.
My thoughts (being a person with only moderate statistical background ;)
Best,
--Holger
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I am currently working on an Ed-tech project where we are trying to evaluate Android based Learning application. We are working with primary students and are in process of designing an Observational tool for measuring student engagement. We are aiming to measure Behavioral, cognitive and Emotional engagement but have not been able to find out any observational tool which has been used to measure all three dimensions.
Can anyone suggest any observational tools which has been used in Pakistan or India or in developed countries to measure student engagement in primary grades ?
Thanks in advance.
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@ Jun Iio
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Is there any reading resource available as reference to conduct research trials in the field. I am looking for step by step guidance for example 1. Site selection, 2. soil sample (which Composite or other), 3. Experimental design (RCBD, Factorial or other), 4. Observations (in plant pathology trial), 5. appropriate analysis and finally conclusion.
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Your question covers a PLETHORA of important aspects (variables) concerning agronomic and silvic research. In this short space I will NOT TRY to answer all. HOWEVER one of the best and OLDEST references for experimentation and analysis is:
Gomez, K.A. & Gomez, A.R. STATISTICAL PROCEDURES FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH. (An International Rice Research Institute book), John Wiley & Sons.
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I have a big data which contains 4787 Observations and almost 100 variables. Questionnaire has some nested questions like selected respondents are asked to Answer Q#2 if they have answers Q#1 as YES and Q#8 would be answered by those who answered Q#4 as YES, like that data is shrinking and missing values are increasing. So, how to handle this kind of missing data in R which are systematic missing not the user-missing data.
Firstly, if I am deleting all the observation with NA, it results in losing 75% of the data and losing good data points.
Secondly, Mice package in R is for user-missing data ( situation in which respondent failed to answer the question).
Kindly help in this regard
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Hello Saeed,
This type of missing data is ignorable, since response-contingent questions (e.g., Do you own an automobile? If so, what brand?) that are properly skipped avoids having unqualified respondents give answers to questions.
So, if you are engaging in an analysis that involves one or more response-contingent questions, you are necessarily restricted to those for whom the question applies. This usually means a subset of the total sample.
It's not a flaw; it's nothing that would require imputation.
Good luck with your work.
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Locally derived surveillance data to track resistance patterns and better understand the burden of AMR on patients there.
Observations from minned resources now show that Pfizer Inc sponsored Antimicrobial Testing Leadership and Surveillance (ATLAS) is an online platform that provides widespread access to data on both emerging bacterial and fungal resistance patterns.
This is supporting Public health and invariably steps that backup health promotion
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Great, nice information...
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Much of this is quoted from elsewhere, but I think deserves its own thread:
Kuhn, who I have always seen as having a only a partial (that is: just a "some-parts" understanding) of a paradigm, still seems at least in the direction of being correct in some noteworthy ways. According to Kuhn : An immature science is preparadigmatic -- that is, it is still in its natural history phase of competing schools. Slowly, a science matures and becomes paradigmatic. (End of short summary of some of his views.) [ It will be clear I do not fully agree with these views, in particular: the " 'natural' history" part. ]
I would say that preparadigmatic is not yet science at all and characterized by flailing and floundering UNTIL a paradigm is found (and RATHER: actually, this should be done NOW and with any necessary efforts: FORMULATED). Preparadigmatic is nothing good, clear or even "natural"; it is a state of insufficiency, failing to provide for making for clear sustained integrated progress (and even, as indicated, I would say this situation is: unnecessary -- see my delineation of the characteristics of a paradigm * to see why this situation in Psychology is unnecessary and INEXCUSABLE, because clearly you MUST be doing paradigm definition the best you can, clearly and respectably). _AND_ we are not talking about progress in one vein (sub-"area"), but some interpretable, agreeable findings for the whole field -- a necessary condition of HAVING ANY sort of general SCIENCE AT ALL; obviously Psychology does not have that and should not be considered a science just because people in that field want to say that and supposedly aspire in that way [ ("aspire" somehow -- usually essentially mythologically, irrationally, and just "hoping beyond hope" (as people say)) ] In short: that state of preparadigmatic should not be tolerated; major efforts should be clearly going on to improve from this state immediately ("if not sooner", as they say -- i.e. this SHOULD HAVE BEEN DONE SOONER).
Since I think I DO KNOW at least many of the characteristics of a paradigm (presented elsewhere, for one: in the description of the "... Ethogram Theory" Project *) AND since mine is the only paradigm being "offered up", Psychology people should damn well take full note of that and fully read and come to a reasonable understanding of my perspective and approach -- all that leading to clear, testable hypotheses that, IF SHOWN CORRECT, would be of general applicability and importance and very reliable (in the formal sense) and , thus (as I say): agreeable. IN short, I OFFER THE ONLY FULL-FLEDGED GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PARADIGM and if someone is in the Psychology field and really cares about science, they must take note (and fully assess it) (no reason for any exception): Minimally, all must "see" AND READ:
Barring any "competition", my paradigm should be studied and fully understood -- NO REASONABLE SCIENCE CHOICE ABOUT IT. It stands alone in Psychology, as a proposal for a NECESSARY "ingredient" for SCIENCE for Psychology.
* FOOTNOTE (this footnote is referenced-to twice in the essay above): The characteristics of a paradigm are presented the Project referred to: https://www.researchgate.net/project/Human-Ethology-and-Development-Ethogram-Theory-A-Full-Fledged-Paradigm-Shift-for-PSYCHOLOGY (in particular, in its description)
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I agree with William J. F. Keenan
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I am analyzing the data using two instruments i.e. a Questionnaire and Observation (Checklist). A questionnaire used to asked teaching strategies used by the teachers. They rated themselves using Likert scale. But I need to confirm whether they are using teaching strategies for real in classroom. I used observation checklist to confirm it.
Here I have two data set. One is questionnaire in the form of Likert scale and second one is observation checklist.
What statistical tool I use to compare the results and produce the concrete findings of my research.
I have read literature and came into conclusion that chi-square test would be appropriate. I need valuable suggestions that what I need to do?
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Humair Akhtar , I already told which analysis you should do. I am not quite so sure why you are asking it again. You must associate "X" with "Y" using a generalized linear model. Now, please find online ways of running an ordinal logistic regression in SPSS - you live in an era in which this information can be easily found with a simple Google search (I have already found it).
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Hello, I'm working on a terminology project with Regenstrief Institute for LOINC terms (Logical Observations Identifiers Names and Codes). They've already created terms for the CDC and WHO assays; commercial vendors are now applying for terms, introducing signal combinations of ORF, E, N, RdRp, S, etc. We're trying to proactively determine where data analytics on population health is going to be best served. Is it enough to know nucleic acids of SARS CoV 2 was detected, or might the greater good be served by recording the individual signals of samples in databases? Thank you in advance.
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Since the pandemic began, Regenstrief Institute has created new LOINC terms for nucleic acid detection, antigen and antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. At the time the question was originally asked, little was known about the virus. Now in September with vaccine clinical trials ongoing, we have learned about binding antibodies that can be created by the body, but don't neutralize the virus, as well as neutralizing antibodies.
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Our data is yearly time series on macroeconomic variables. Observations = 20 years. Dependent variable is GDP growth. Independent variables are governement terms (dummies) Consumptions, net trade, FDI, F. reserve, population growth, and agri. prod. The main objective is to examine the impact of government terms on economic development.
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20 years of data and you have so many independent variables may run into problems when using GMM. GMM is an instrumental approach to estimation and most effective to address heterogeneity issues in cross sectional dynamic panel models. For your problem there are other estimators you can use which you can try and compared. Time series data normally have serial correlaton problems compared to heteroskedasticity in cross sectional data.
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Hello all,
How do I reference the NIH Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies (in text and in the reference list).
Thank you so much for your help,
Yossi
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1. Go to Google Scholar
2. google health-topics/study-quality-assessment-tools
it will list on the top of the lists.
3.then select citation sign : ,,"
it will show you many referencing styles
For MLA
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. "Study Quality Assessment Tools [https://www. nhlbi. nih. gov/health-topics/study-quality-assessment-tools]." (2019).
For APA
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2019). Study Quality Assessment Tools [https://www. nhlbi. nih. gov/health-topics/study-quality-assessment-tools].
For Chicago
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. "Study Quality Assessment Tools [https://www. nhlbi. nih. gov/health-topics/study-quality-assessment-tools]." (2019).
For Harvard
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2019. Study Quality Assessment Tools [https://www. nhlbi. nih. gov/health-topics/study-quality-assessment-tools].
For Vancouver
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Study Quality Assessment Tools [https://www. nhlbi. nih. gov/health-topics/study-quality-assessment-tools].
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There are, of course (correspondingly), "idiotic" Questions. And ridiculous speculations by-analogy (and by-analogy is always suspect). (An example of "Answers" by foundation-less and link-less analogy is " 'quantum' explanations" to several psychological things; it is a bad joke any such person could have a graduate degree !) Sorry: my perception of common things here on RG. And, after years of nonsense, I have decided to state my observation.
It is likely very nearly pointless that I am here on RG (and there have been only so many years I have been able to try to fool myself).
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Questions for the sake of questioning, answers for the sake of answering
I also find that medical issues are being answered by people who have credentials in chemistry, Physics, arts, computer sciences.
Sometimes, the people are discussing matters that are not related the the questions asked and being recommended for such answers.
It could be that most of the medical health care workers are busy in their duties looking after challenging COVID-19 patients and have little time to participate in the discussions on the forum of Researchgate (RG).
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The focus of this discussion is software for Football. According Chang (2018), mentioning Carling (2005), generally, performance analysis can be classified into two main categories: notational analysis and motion analysis. The two systems have different focuses. Notational analysis provides factual record about the position of the ball, the players involved, the action concerned, the time and the outcome of the activity, etc. Motion analysis focuses on raw features of an individual’s activity and movement, for example, identifying fatigue and measuring of work rate.
The two systems contribute for the performance analysis which has three main aims:
  1. Observing one’s own team’s performance to identify strengths and weakness
  2. Analysing opposition performance by using data and trying to counter opposing strengths and exploit weaknesses
  3. To evaluate whether a training programme has been effective in improving match performance
Performance analysis is not just about analysing matches and games. It is essential in the training programme to help coaches improve players’ performance. The following figure shows the coaching cycle. Performance analysis plays a key role in this cycle. Starting from the top, “Performance” means the performance in the game or training. “Observation” can be from the coach or video camera. Since research indicates that coaches are able to recall fewer than half of the key incidents that arise during the game, video camera is a better way which can record all the key events (actions and movements) for further analysis. In “Analysis”, it means analysis of data which include data management. For example, using performance analysis software to code the game, editing footages from the camera, extraction of data from data provider, etc. These are the areas in which the performance analyst spent most of the time. The product of this “analysis” stage can be statistical analysis and video recordings. In “Interpretation”, it can be put in two ways according to my experience. It could be done by coach or performance analyst. Some analysts have the authorisation from coach to interpret the data and then write a report or make a presentation to the coach or team. Some coaches just want the data from performance analysts and the coaches will interpret the data by themselves. It really depends on the coaches’ preference and the partnership between the analyst and the coach. After that, “planning” means the coach plan what to do after knowing what went wrong or which part the team did well. The coaches have to evaluate the performance prior to this planning stage. Otherwise, he doesn’t know how to improve the team’s performance in the next match. In most of the cases, it means the planning of the coaching session using the result of the performance analysis. “Preparation” means the execution of those coaching session in the training so prepare the team for the coming game. It will go back to the “Performance” stage and the whole cycle keep going.
What kind of Software or App are you using for Performance Analysis in football? Can you share with us the positives and negatives aspects according your experience?
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Sportscode, Dartfish.
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I am aware of articles that have considered 10, 15, 20, 25 degrees for elevation mask. Which one is reliable for the equatorial and low-latitude, why is it? I would be glad if a citable reference is also included.
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Dear Ayomide Olabode,
At middle and low latitudes, the cut-off angle used depends mainly on the task to be solved.
For example, to map TEC variations with high spatial resolution, we use a cut-off angle of 70 degrees.
Nykiel, G.; Zanimonskiy, Y.M.; Yampolski, Y.M.; Figurski, M. Efficient Usage of Dense GNSS Networks in Central Europe for the Visualization and Investigation of Ionospheric TEC Variations. Sensors 2017, 17, 2298.
Best regards.
YZ
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Hi everyone, I am doing a systematic review on the assessment of the spine with a specific assessment tool. Most studies included punctually assess subjects, and no intervention is done. It only consists of assessing subjects' kinematics or other variables. Do we agree that this study design is observational? Do you know some quality assessment tools for this type of studies? I already found the "National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NIH) Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies", but I don't know if this one is the best for this topic. (link: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/study-quality-assessment-tools) Thank you, Alexandre Luc
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other scoring systems are:
the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (ARHQ) methodology checklist
Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies‐2 (QUADAS‐2) tool
Oxford Quality Scoring System
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Hello,
I need to assess the quality of studies included in a systematic review of the literature based on the tool developed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH): Quality Assessement Tool for Observational cohort and cross-sectional studies.
I'm having difficulty answering question #5: "Was a (...) power description, or variance and effect estimates provides?"
In the cohort studies included in my systematic review (N= between 564 and 50,000 participants), how do I know if a description of power or variance and effect estimates was provided? How is this information usually formulated?
Many thanks in advance.
Murielle
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The quality assessment is usually based on the reported data. So, if the author reported that they calculated the sample size or they mentioned the CI for OR, RR, or MD, you can consider that as they calculated the sample size. you can find that mentioned in the study methodology
If you did not find any evidence, so it is unclear and you cannot consider it as 1
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Hello everyone. I have yearly Observation and Raster value data. I need to calculate monthly Pearson Correlation Coefficient. I started to do it, but it took lots of time. I realize It will take too much time if I calculate it manually.
Are there any ways (codes) to calculate it by machine programing ? or the only way to calculate it by hand ?
Thanks in advance.
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Dear Rufat Guluzade,
You can calculate PCC with R programming language, for more information about this subject, i suggest you to see example of this calculation trough links and attached files on topic.
Best regards
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I don't know what is the criteria for classify as "good, fair or poor" when i using Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Could anyone help me, please, with this question?
Best regards
Irismar Gonçalves
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Basically in quality assurance, there is still a debate as to "what quality should be and its appending quantitative and qualitative indicators". It is a big mistake to say "good, fair, poor" as quality is aimed at improvements and not as jugmental or prescriptive tool. What is good might not be good depending on the assessment metrics or in the "eyes of the beholders" or even in the capabilities of both the assessor and assessed. But using the performance excellence assessment framework of MBNQA for process criteria ADLI (approach, deployment, learning & integration) and results LeTCI (Levels, Trend, Comparisons & Integration) one can more objectively provide an objective score of where one stands rather than good/fair/poor standing.
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I want to correct thirty years of daily and monthly output of wind data from two ecmwf models using station observation data to obtain suitable patterns for different levels in the region. What is the best way to do this?
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Hi I'm Professor Soheil Sayyed Hosseini To solve the problem see my article on this issue of my control, which is published by the University of Rochester. If it is acceptable, say I wish you well.
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If Psychology continues (even thoughtlessly) with its baseless, unproven, and (actually) UNLIKELY-true (i.e. likely false) core assumptions, won't just a lot of very poor research be done and none good ? Here is something so you can just see the "tip of the iceberg":
Psychology theorists/researchers do not find behavior patterns of a biological nature (showing biological patterning); even more telling is that the VERY RARELY even use the phrase "behavior PATTERNS" -- which absolutely MUST be the way it is. THIS ALONE MAKES THE CASE OF THE CLOSED-OFF AND ARTIFICIAL NATURE OF PSYCHOLOGY AND HOW IT IS NOT A SCIENCE.
[( By the way : If you want to see what a real paradigm shift looks like -- THE paradigm shift -- then see the papers and writings on Ethogram Theory (under my Profile). (Beyond Kuhn.))]
[(As Psychology continues its extreme negligence, I can provide equally extreme well-founded criticism (and put it all down in writing, with all the reasoning and justification -- much better assumptions and arguments than they can mount). I guess its a "standoff": but its me vs [who-knows-who, the heck, or their numbers] -- they certainly might be characterized as cowards, at least in "these parts" (MT).)]
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Observation (participant/direct) is one of the data collection methods in qualitative research (e.g.ethnographic study). I am just wondering how consent is sought in such a way that behaviors of those being observed will not be affected? What are the common requirements (or comments) of IRBs in using this method of data collection?
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If you are involved with a university, you can get that information from Institutional Review Board or if you are in a country that gives you permission to conduct the study. That form must be filled out by participants before you start research with participants or it can void your research.
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My data are I(2). So, after first difference they become I(1). My optimal lag length is 5. I run Johansen co-integration test, and result shows they are co-integrated. After that, I run VECM. As procedure suggest, I used 4 lag length in VECM calculation. But it returned with following message "Insufficient Number of Observation". It should be noted that, I have 28 observation , from 1990 to 2017.
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The question is how many of these four variables is endogenous. If all are endogenous and the lag-length is four, then the short-run model for each of them involves estimation of 18 parameters (including the constant term and the error correction term). Thus, the number of parameter estimates in total will be 72. You can not estimate this much parameters with a sample size of just 28!
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Hey guys. I ve been trying financial support for my research here in Brazil.... but without success. I ve tried four times in Brazilian agencies, and still waiting for some answers. I ve got some money by the means of collective financing here... but not enough.
My student Thibault Mlg started other campaign on a French website: https://www.leetchi.com/c/comment-les-organismes-se-fossilisent-projet-de-recherche
For those who can contribute or divulge: Thank you! For those who want to know a little about my work, see my papers here in research gate, or send me an email: forancelli.ufscar@gmail.com
Here follow an abstract of my project:
"How do fossils preserve?" Although many physicists consider traveling to the past as practically impossible, paleontologists have long known how to access past events. The temporal ordering of the paleontological record in rocks allows us to travel to the past and revisit ecosystems and environments that no longer exist. More than telling the tale of extinct organisms, fossil and rock can provide informations on past biological factors, environmental conditions, and other natural processes that help in our knowledge about origin and evolution of life on Earth and maybe even on other planets. Observation and experimentation are the methods that dominate science. Paleontology excels by testing hypotheses based mostly on observation of the fossil record; and continues to be endure with conflicting conceptual and explanatory questions about it. Clays are a broad spectrum of mineral varieties with different chemical properties. They are possibly related to life in its origin, and certainly involved with contexts of exceptional preserved paleobiotas (such as Marizal, Tamengo and Corumbataí formations, Brazil). In this project we expect to understand the effect of mineralogy and chemical properties of sediments on the preservation of soft tissues. For this purpose, we will test experimentally different processes and environments of fossilization, using analitic techniques in order to access data.
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Hello Mirian,
I have some thoughts on your proposal, which I am approaching from my experience in having an MSci in palaeobiology; I occassionally publish on taphonomy and palaeontology - please see my publications. The following is critical, but I hope you find it constructive :)
  • Firstly, I think the proposal is not specific enough. Successful projects clearly describe an unanswered question, why progress is important, and what new methods or data have arisen to address the question. The proposal should get to the point quickly, and convey enthusiasm for the potential. The abstact feels vague, and suddenly veers into talking about clays without context. The proposal should close with a summary of the whole project, and excite the reviewer; I don't think the final sentence meets those requirements. Convince the reviewer that the question is worth pursuing, that new methodologies or data are rich with possibilities, and that future research will be stimulated.
  • I think the first half of the abstract is redundant. Those evaluating the proposal are scientifically literate, and only need a sentence or two to set the context.
  • Personally, I don't think the project proposal is sexy enough. "How do fossils preserve?" is now generally well-understood, and the areas we aren't clear on are unlikely to provide exciting revisions to our view of macroevolution. Instead, put yourself in the place of the reviewer, who will be thinking "what important research has happened recently, and what specifically are you going to do with our money to be a part of that?". The project title should be specific and compelling, perhaps even quirky or controversial.
  • You have put your question under the category of "The Origin of Life". Palaeontology is concerned with evolution, ecology and biodiversity through time, but cannot say much about abiogenesis. Fossils with tissues only tell us about great big eukaryotes, and eukaryotes are far-removed from true origins. Even microfossils and biomarkers which might provide some insight on life ~3.8Ga ago aren't very informative about the origin of life. Abiogenesis itself, I feel, can only be investigated through chemical and thermodynamic principles, and is not a direct discipline of palaeontology. I feel Nick Lane's / colleagues recent publications on this topic are important, if you are interested.
Hope that is of some help.
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I have all my field notes (Observation and Semi structured interview) questions and answers I just need to analysis them so I can write my findings, analysis and evaluation.
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The original abbreviation for SPSS was Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, as such it is limited to the statistical analysis of numerical data.
Software that is designed to handle qualitative data includes: ATLAS.ti, Dedoose, MAXQDA, and NVivo. If you university does not provide access to one of these packages, you could look into the free version of QDA Miner Lite.
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I have been reading about the observer effect as conceptualised in Physics. However, I would like to know how this concept has been applied in the social sciences.
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You can as well read Benefits of ‘observer effects’: lessons from the field by Torin Monahan and Jilla Fisher Vanderbilt University, USA
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In some lecture report[1] they say Zonal flow stands for the mode with toroidal/poloidal mode number n=m=0 mode in plasma physics. So the n=0, m!=0 Geodesic Acoustic Mode (GAM) is not Zonal flow. But in other paper[2][3], they say GAM is also a kind of Zonal flow. So who is right and who is wrong? Exactly what is zonal flow in plasma physics?
[2] L.W. Yan et al 2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 1673 Three-dimensional features of GAM zonal flows in the HL-2A tokamak
[3] L. Lachhvani, J. Ghosh, P. K. Chattopadhyay, N. Chakrabarti, and R. Pal, “Observation of geodesic acoustic mode in SINP-tokamak and its behaviour with varying edge safety factor,” Phys. Plasmas, vol. 24, no. 11, 2017.
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Dear Nan Chu,
In my view, they are nor right or wrong, it is a subject of definition. It looks like you have a tokamak in mind. Toroidal and poloidal rotations in tokamaks are analogs of the zonal flows in the atmosphere, while oscillations of plasma pressure are analogs of GAM.
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Hi,
I have pairs of data for two different methods (i.e., biometric data taken for two different sensors). However, those data are repeated for each human subject (i.e., each sensor captures biometric data several times for each subject).
For example,
Human Subject      Method x     -      Method y
    1                               4.231               5.53344
    1                               2.112               4.111
    .......
    2                               1.432               2.473
    2                               7.666               3.234   
.....................           
Since we have the following: 
1) two groups where the dependent variable is the biometric variable 
and independent variables refer to sensors (i.e., different methods),
2) Data are continuous,
3) The data follow the normal distribution
This will allow us to use the paired t-test. The only thing that I am not sure about is that can we simply put the two columns Method x and y and run the t-test? My understanding is that we cannot and we need to take the mean for each subject and then use them for the t-test instead of the actual data.
Let me know know what you think.
Thank you,
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If several pairs are repeated, then you should adapt the analysis to reflect that.
If you were convinced that repetition didn't change the outcome, then averaging the scores would be one approach. However, if you thought that repeated exposure to the same treatment protocols (for the same case) did affect the scores, then your choices could include: (a) using only cases having all repetitions, and apply a doubly repeated measures analysis; (b) dropping instances of duplicated cases having a 2nd, 3rd, etc., exposure to the treatment protocols from your analysis; or (c) going back and exposing all the single-exposed cases (with just one x-y experience) to additional exposures of methods x and y, then using method (a).
Good luck with your work.
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In a paper published this week in nature, researchers at XENON1T reported that they had observed radioactive decay of xenon 124. Xenon 124 went to tellurium 124, and the atomic number went from 54 to 52.
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It's great out of box system experimentation observations!!!!!
Often proof getting hidden in unexpected natural phenomena.....
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Dear all,
I am working on panel data set (220 Observations (Countries,years)), and after implementing outliers test on stata (Interquartile test) I found that I have 25 outliers in different countries.
11 on one country and the rest are existed in the others. I maked sure that is not a human error.
I don't want to remove them as it could be the behavior of the data as my data set applied on MENA region.
thanks in advance.
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OUTLIERS may be verified whether the total counts of outliers are statistically significant? If yes, then you might considered analyze the data under extreme Value Theory (EVT). Outliers are not problem; they are values in a set of observation. Data of any kind should be treated "as they are." let the nature of the data lead to your model selection. Do not pre-select a model before the data. Data should take precedence, not model. A model is a tool for the job. A particular type of tool may not be applicable for all types of jobs. Each data set represents a a type of job waiting to be analyzed. if the outliers counts are significant, work with it. It requires a particular tool of analysis.
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Observation/data plays a crucial role in any kind of research study, in general and scientific research, in particular. But some people claim that the real skill exists in analysing those data statistically for interpreting the trend of research towards a meaningful conclusion.
What is your precious remark or view in this regard?
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The second (procedure of statistical analysis of data) cannot exist without the first [Actual observation (data)]. So, from this perspective, the first is more important than the second.
Regards
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Yep. RG is equating science with experiments. There may be those who like this, but experimentation is NOT THE ENTIRE SCIENTIFIC METHOD (and I would argue that experimentation is THE LEAST OF IT -- especially if one is developing a new perspective and approach). RG appears to have no appreciation for "just" verified observations -- even though that may be exactly what really new discovery looks like . Those observations may, in time (but not right away), be followed by experimentation. Verified observations by themselves may be very important and all we have for some time (in some new areas/kinds of investigation).
The outrageous bias of RG is so great that they now hide the Project Updates (of the Log) with multiple queries about one's experiments and hypotheses -- as if all good, clear hypotheses could be put "in a nut shell" (in a small "blank", with little context) AND that experiments are all that matter (or at least all that deserves several special headings). How about a heading for: "Verified Observations"?
I would ask: What experiments did Einstein do to lead and come up with his understanding of the universe? Did he start with experiments? NO!! He started with observation and MATH (which is basically verified observation). True, eventually some experiments were done to VERIFY HIS IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS -- but all this did NOT begin with experiments..
And, all of this is not to mention major swathes of Biology. Come on, give us a break.
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And: Daniel Goldman:
OBSERVATIONS are are as falsifiable as experiments, if they lack high inter-observer reliablities (P.S.: p<.05 has NO magic). That all aspiring scientists do not know this is frankly disgraceful. Realize that science is just good reliable, and shown valid, COMMUNICATION -- as is true of all good communication; this can most certainly be found and true of sets of observations. Experiments are communication; observations are communication. DO NOT TRY TO PUT "MAGIC" IN TO ONE OF THOSE.
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Observations and suggestions requested.
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You are most welcome. Please suggest the process.
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Hi,
I want to compare soil parameters and water table data (observed vs model output). Please list all the statistics possible.
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We usually use the root mean square value to compare simulated (modeled) data with observed data to assess the accuracy of the model to represent reality.
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Observation is a very vital scientific method that helps a lot in the collection of the primary information that is reliable in nature in which direct study of the situation is involved.
Observations sometimes act scientifically, when used by the researchers in various research works but it should be noted that all observations are not scientific in nature.
It is important that investigator (observer) understand the functions of the observation, otherwise the gathered data may not be accurate.
So, it is the prime requirement that observer first planned out properly about 'what has to be observed'.
Therefore, I am looking for the correct procedure to develop a details about the observation before I start observation.
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Dear Andrey Vinajera Zamora
The materials is realy helpful for me.
Thanks a lot.
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"Perception affects perspective and vise versa"
Looking for a short and concise ans.
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Perception is the collapse of the number form character of unstable metrics set up amid the defining observer and the item to be observed.
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We are working on reflection-in-action. More precisely, how junior doctors engage in reflection during the action and we are using shadowing as a data collection method. Of course, this is different from reflection-on-action (Schon), in which practitioners reflect after they have taken decision and actions. There is much more evidence on reflection-on-action.
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I agree that it is about time - which is a reflection of prioritisation - what an organisation values to invest time in. While there is little understanding about the value of reflective praxis, an organisation is unlikely to make time for it. And a couple of the key threats to this way of working being valued is a) it makes the invisibilised and unheard present, which can be threaten peoples' standing in many ways and b) it makes decision making distributed which threatens explicit and tacit power systems and cultures in organisations. So until the practice that requires reflection in action is related to an issue that is compelling enough to the organisation to learn about and support this transformative shift in how change is done, it is unlikley to be invested in. Added to this is that to do it well, we have to learn to learn which requires a formalised learning culture to built into an organisation or discipline - so the preproduction investment is also significnat.
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The question is self-explanatory. Observations in the common region are not too much ( 5-10%).
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Those observation which are part of one distribution but are in range of the other distribution are false alarm or missed detection (type I and type II errors).
There are a certain methods; like PCA, Fischer discriminator, SVM, Factor analysis, clustering, neural networks, AI, etc. that tries to decrease these type of error in detection.
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Excuse my questions presented as statements. I actually mean that I have an idea but want others' thoughts.
I have a strong argument that verifiability in science does not carry an "axiomatic" value in science, but that it is there to reduce uncertainty (equiv: increase certainty). When we extrapolate too far, we cannot be that certain of our theory. How do we reduce it? Observation.
Bedford and Cooke: "In practical scientific and engineering contexts, certainty is achieved through observation, and uncertainty is that which is removed by observation. Hence in these contexts uncertainty is concerned with the results of possible observations."
Agree? Comments?
Ref: Bedford, Tim; Cooke, Roger. Probabilistic Risk Analysis: Foundations and Methods (Page 19). Cambridge University Press. Kindle Edition.
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Your first statement is very insightful. Theoretical scientists like us always like to reduce the real world to a more manageable model which necessitates simplifying assumptions. So first verify your assumptions, but in the real world, as Einstein says - a mathematical model will always be uncertain! see https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/risk-assessment-21st-century-fit-purpose-david-slater/
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In my study, video recordings (360 ° video) of different rooms were made. Several people watched these videos and created a room sketch of the room in the video. Are there any established techniques with which such self-drawn floor plans can be compared?
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Hello Ronald,
Thank you for your answer and the references! The general question in this study is:
To what extent does video-based observation differ by using "Classic" and 360 ° video?
The room sketches are only a small part of the study.
Based on the room sketches, I would like to see if there are differences in the position of the objects (eg tables, chairs, door, camera) and the spatial arrangement to each other when different video types are used. In addition, various spatial capability tests were performed.
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In what extension there are observational indications from gravitational waves emerging from neutron star mergers of non-negligible contribution from vacuum energy to their total mass?
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As far as I understand, every object propagating for large distances (non gravitationally bounded) should have a vacuum energy contribution. As electromagnetic waves suffer a redshift, this should also be expected to happen for GWs. I think one may expect an effective w as well as an effective k, however these are probably corrections of order Lambda... I don't think that with a direct measurement of GWs one would be able to isolate such small contribution.
Hope it helps.
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Is there observational evidence that polar amplication is anthropogenically induced? if so, can someone point me to relevant material on polar amplication during the instrumental period?
Thanks
Asong
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Thanks very much @Kenneth M Towe. This is very helpful.
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How can we detect metallic silver / Silver oxide using SEM Observation?
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If you have an SEM machine fitted with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, sometimes called EDX) this all provide you with elemental analysis and you can detect the silver - it may not give you quantitative detection - it depends to see extent on the nature of the sample, but would give you an idea
Alternatively, if your SEM has a backscattering mode AND you know that Ag would be the only metal contaminant, then the Ag should hopefully glow brightly compared to your sample
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In China, the data collection from rivers, lakes and wetlands is crucial to global freshwater biodiversity observation network.
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Thanks! Microorganism biodiversity can be crucial to Freshwater Biodiversity Observation Network.
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I am planning to research on application of certain theories using case studies. Since this is considered as a qualitative approach, decided to use Structured Observation technique. Please advice whether Structured Observation can be used in deductive research.
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If you are using your observations in a structured way to test pre-existing ways of understanding your case, then yes.
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It is stated in some interpretations of QM (exceptionally to mention Copenhagen interpretation) that an object stays in superposition (SP) as long as not a human (good physicist– just kidding) brain observes it and so projects it on a definite state (dead/alive). But as I think the following very simple example disproves this statement. I consider a working clock in a closed room. It was left at 2 o’clock and it is not observed (even put in vacuum to avoid decoherence induced by the medium) – e.g. closed there for 2 hours and then by entering the room one sees of course that it is showing 4 o’clock instead of 2 o’clock. But according to the above mentioned interpretations every instant it must have been in a superposion of showing the next second or not. If observation is what causes it to move then there were not such and hence it must still be showing 2 o’clock. (analogously as the cat is both dead/alive) So I think this disproves the statements for staying in SP until a brain or environment appears to project it. Do you agree?
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Danielle,
I wonder in your theory what is the width of a photon? It turns out that is has macroscopic dimensions? (X=lambda and even more d+2X) All current data show that it is pointlike. At least in your theory it can react with electron which is much smaller.
Very important - does your photon splits in two in DSE and why is never observed splitted?
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Although its a very basic question but i think it must be discussed in forum like this, that before we start studying any property like electrical, optical, thermo-mechanical etc. of any sample, what must be kept in mind regarding material characterization e.g.
Electrical and Magnetic Techniques
Mechanical Testing
Thermal Techniques
Microscopy
Macroscopic Observation
Microscopic Observation
Diffraction Techniques
Spectroscopic Techniques etc.
Like If one is studying electrical properties than what characterization techniques like Scanning Electron Spectroscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), FTIR, XRD, EDS, EDXA, EDXMA, XPS, etc. one must have to go through ?
and similarly for other properties......?
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Theoretically you are right, but you can imagine that this is a never ending story and very expensive if you really plan to characterize your material with all the proposed techniques. It is like in life: you cannot marry all women in order to test which is the best one for you.
Practically, we are looking for simple correlations between properties. If mechanical test are required one assumes that the initial microstructure is possibly necessary to characterize before. But already this "simple" work is not that simple since you need to define which feature of the mircrostructure you prefer. Grain size? Grain shape? Phase distribution? Defect structure? Element distribution? Grain boundaries? 2D? 3D? Sometimes, you even do not find a correlation which does not mean that there is no. It only shows that the selected features (or combinations of them) have not yet been considered or investigated. Since you cannot find something which you do not know yet (only after testing you know at least one property variation) you can later look for some specific correlations.
Of course, some standard procedures are always recommended: visual inspection in the scale you expect some reactions. This can be already done by a light microscopic investigation, it can also cause some TEM work, although you have to consider the statistical relevance of each of these techniques. If you think, XRD gives you some initial information just do it. Mostly, these investigations are required to confirm that the initial state is as expected or required for this investigation. The grain size for XRD, the surface preparation for EBSD, the specimen selection for TEM. You can only try to prevent any repetition of experiments since you forgot to prepare the investigated sample properly. This is especially important for all later investigations. Which kind of sample (preparation) quality do they need? Some of them you cannot do later since you possibly affect your sample improperly so that the measurements can be done but do not show the quality of results you are expecting.
In other words, I do not think there is a standard procedure for all. You can or have to define one for your specific applications. This is clear! Otherwise, no experiment can be seriously compared with another. This is already difficult enough since you cannot change this standard procedure in the middle of your tests. Otherwise you ave to repeat everything.
Do what is necessary, and not what is possible!
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Hospitals are required to comply with various laws and bylaws. Investigator want to study whether a particular hospital is complying with green building laws, he will check the dimensions of the patient and other areas in the hospital and compare them with green building standards. What would be this study design? Will it be a case study ? or Observational descriptive study? or any other type of study design? Please help
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There is no hypothesis here. It will be a simple descriptive epidemiological study. Data collection will involve obtaining information on the availability as against the pre-decided norms. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe the proportional achievement (as %) against the pre-decided norms by the regulatory authority. Don't calculate the 95% CI since you will be studying the "total population" and not a sample (here the concerned hospital will comprise the "total population" and the study will be like a total populatiomn census).
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 In performing  transient simulations with ansys fluent (Workbench),The ansys file that is
created is huge (148 GB),and I have 27 case to simulate.
                                                                                                                                                                         I am looking for any way to reduce the size of the results file.
Observations:
- In all cases ,I am interesting just for the inlet and outlet of fluid temperature and it's velocity.
- In all cases I have to simulate 93 days ,and all days contain the first 11 hours (I want to record it results ) and the last 13 hours(I am not interesting to record it).
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You can use the command:
OUTRES, Item, Freq, Cname
the following link explains to you how you can use it......Best wishes.
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Observation from Mediterranean Sea
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Ask the question to Lassad Neifar
University of Sfax:
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While counterstaining the alcian blue stained cells with fast red, the alcian blue is getting washed off.
The protocol I followed was- staining the fixed cells with alcian blue (1% prepared in 3% acetic acid pH 2.5), 30 min incubation. Washing with distilled water and staining with fast red (0.1 g fast red + 5 g aluminium sulfate in 100 ml distilled water), 5 min incubation. Observation under light microscope.
Kindly suggest the modification or flaw in this protocol.
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Thank you Mr Baboo, the suggestion as well as recommendation are really useful.
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I have a numerical dataset made up of features set extracted from brain MRI images. The observations in the dataset represents two classes such as Tumor or Non-Tumor cell. I want to train a deep learning model on these features and test the performance on unseen data. So, can anybody help me to get the matlab implementation of the deep learning model. As a researcher, It would be a big relief.
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Bilal ,
Supervised learning. i am not looking for image based classification. I am searching extracted features based prediction.
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I just have salinity observation at tidal average. Is it possible to estimate intrusion at HWS based on Tidal average?
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Thank you Mr. Hansen. i am studying salinity intrusion at estuary and freshwater inflow on a river. I did not consider yet  salinity intrusion at groundwater.
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.How therapeutic are levels of observations in the management of suicide or self harm?
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In the perinatal period you have studies on self harm  from database collected in mother-baby units where the mother-infant dyad is observed and treated to help presenting releapse.
Risk factors for suicide attempt in pregnancy and the post-partum
period in women with serious mental illnesses
Florence Gressier a, b, *, Virginie Guillard a, Odile Cazas a, Bruno Falissard c,
Nine M-C. Glangeaud-Freudenthal d, Anne-Laure Sutter-Dallay e
a Department of Psychiatry, Assistance Publique-H^opitaux de Paris, Bic^etre University Hospital, 78 rue du General Leclerc,
Journal of Psychiatric Research 84 (2017) 284e291
0022-3956/© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
I don't know if this anwer your question
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For my research sampling I chose 8 people from the population, however, I can't locate reasons why a specific number. The number is for observation and interview.
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The following information may further help: 
“it is important to select information-rich cases for study in depth. Information-rich cases are those from which one can learn a great deal about issues of central importance to the purpose of the research, thus the term purposive sampling.” (Polkinghorne, 2005, p. 140). 
“we want to caution against assuming that six to twelve interviews will always be enough to achieve a desired research objective. Purposive samples still need to be carefully selected……if a selected group is relatively heterogeneous, and the domain of inquiry is diffuse and/or vague” (Guest et al, 2006, p. 79). 
  • Guest, G., Bunce, A. and Johnson, L. (2006) How Many Interviews Are Enough?: An Experiment with Data Saturation and Variability, Field Methods, 18, 1, pp. 59-82.
  • Polkinghorne, D. E. (2005) Language and Meaning: Data Collection in Qualitative Research, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52, 2, pp. 137-145.
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Hello, everyone.  
While evaluating a general circulation model (GCM) with observation, we can see the trends obtained from few GCMs are though similar to observation (say, both have negative trend) but are not always significant (for example at 5%). So, How are we to interpret the trends in a GCM that are not significant?
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Hi Jitendra,
I assume your question is whether the observed and modeled precipitation trends are consistent.
Depending on the time period and geographical area you examine, internal variability can be quite large, hindering the detection of a trend. You could for example use several realizations of the same model (i.e. with different initial conditions, but the same external forcings) to examine what possible outcomes might be. If the observed precipitation trend falls within the range of trends in these model realizations (and if the simulated variability is consistent with the observed precipitation variability), then this shows that the particular model simulates precipitation trends that are consistent with the observed trends.
If you're working with global climate models: For example, the CESM1-LENS is a large ensemble with different initial conditions: http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/projects/community-projects/LENS/
Hope that helps.
Cheers,
Martin
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I am having trouble finding sources explicitly talking about this, but get the sense that highly polymorphic species don't much occur at high latitudes. Does anyone have anecdotes or papers refuting or supporting this observation?
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All very useful sources! Thank you.
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Observation made in Bulolo, PNG, 1993.
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corrct  - wrote that email quickly and did not check the spelling
There is or was a Wallace's Wallace’s standardwing lek there. But the were logging the area. We camped there for 2 nights year? 2009 maybe
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We are three students and need your support for our project about the equipment for Nature Observation and Hunting in Scandinavia.
Its mostly about binoculars and scopes.
As we do it in Scandinavia, it turned out to be pretty hard for us to find people.
That´s why we would be so pleased if you can support us! It would help us a lot!! 
Just fill out this survey:
Thanks a lot!
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Please don't post commercial market surveys here! This is a research forum, not a market place.
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Dear scientific community,
Someone could tell me the relationship between all Reactivity Descriptors.
For example, I have a system with: 
E(HOMO)                    ---> -7.1351
E(LUMO)                    --->  -2.5527
Gap energy                --->  4.5824
Electronegativity (χ)   --->   4.8439
Hardness (ƞ)              --->   2.2912
Chemical Poten. (µ)  --->   -4.8439
Softness (Ѕ)               --->   0.4364
Electrophilicity (ω)      --->  11.731
Note: all values are in eV.
So, with these reactivity descriptors, what observations can I do?
Thank,
Ubeiden
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The attached paper might be of help
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Hi fellow researches,
For a descriptive analysis on capital flows and interest rate differentials, I construct a variable for net private capital flows from quarterly BOPS data. However, of course not all quarterly observations include all categories of flows (e.g. for certain quarters, portfolio flows are missing completely). How do you tend to deal with these incomplete observations? Do you use them while constructing your series or do you apply a certain rule (e.g. include only if at least net fdi, net portfolio and net other are available)?
Thanks very much in advance!
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include net amount,or apply interpolation and find an approx missing amount
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for example:
i have annual data of one station values upto 50 years with time(year)
like:
i) observation recorded values=200,150,300,123,154,102,154,.........123,201,361 (50 values)
ii) time(date)
values=1950,1951,19