Science topic

Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases - Science topic

A collective term for nutritional disorders resulting from poor absorption or nutritional imbalance, and metabolic disorders resulting from defects in biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) or breakdown (CATABOLISM) of endogenous substances.
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I am interested in the relationship between diet and FTO gene expression. Most studies have been performed on FTO expression changes in hypothalamus. But as we know, FTO is expressed ubiquitous. We are going to do a research on this subject in adolescents in Iran and I look forward to hearing from everybody that can help us.
Thank you
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Thank you for you response
Studies in recent years has been shown the FTO role in cell metabolism through mTOR pathway. so we expect the FTO gene expression can influenced by many dietary factors such as calorie intake, dietary protein, dietary fat and so on.
But about The gene expression changes in blood cell, we don't know anything...
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I am interested in your experience and any advise you can give.
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Dear Dr Vaccaro, I have studied human nutrition many years ago when there were not the ISPP. The best way to become proficient in a subject, in my opinion, is to do research and teach that topic. To do research you have to study hard, ask you questions, analyze the methods for answers. To teach you have to study even more, you have to know how to grasp the essentials, but above all always have students or young researchers who will "push" with their questions and their intelligence.
Even the clinical observation is obviously essential, but the field of dietetics is very difficult, because there are many variables involved and the observed effects (I mean the effects of diet) are often mild and are seen in the medium to long term. In other areas of medicine it is easier to learn by experience, in the case of the diet I think is very very difficult (in the face of what appears on the Internet, where everyone knows everything and knows for sure). In human nutrition all doctors, all biologists, all pharmacists, and even half of the citizens, believe they are experts, even if they have not studied. This causes many errors and much confusion. Therefore, I am in favor of in-depth, controlled graduation systems, possibly after Medical studies..
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Hypophosphatemio is a verz dangerous metabolic situation by many patients, specillz in intenzive care unit, by status epilpticus, ect. It is necessery to proof the nvou of Phosphor, not only the standard electrolits. The correction must be very fast, because the start symptoms are unspecific, and the end can be paralysis of respiratorz muscels, coma and death.
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Whereas severe hypophosphatemia may lead to acute hemolytic anemia, decreased myocardial contractility, neuromuscular disturbance, respiratory weakness or even rhabdomyolysis and altered mental status, its impact on survival remains questionable.
At evidence no effect in DKA In contrast with a potential prognosis factor in case of AKI which received CVVH therapy.
Even, if we observed rare case of acute severe hypophosphatemia in acute exacerbation of COPD, its role on respiratory failure could not be established: severe respiratory acidosis or metabolic alkalosis during the first days of mechanical ventilation???
Two publications could be helpful, but the question remains of interest.
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L-carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound biosynthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine.In eukaryotic cells, it is required for the transport of fatty acids from the intermembraneous space in the mitochondria, into the mitochondrial matrix during the breakdown of lipids (fats) for the generation of metabolic energy.It is widely available as anutritional supplement. 
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The Truth about L-Carnitine Side Effects
by Dr. Julian Whitaker
Filed Under: Heart Health, Nutritional Support
Last Reviewed 03/28/2014
The Truth about L-Carnitine Side Effects
As you may have read or heard in the news lately, a new study published in the journal Nature Medicine suggests that the L-carnitine, not the saturated fat, found in red meat is the real culprit in heart disease risk and that L-carnitine supplements are unsafe and have side effects. Folks, this is just the latest example of the pitfalls associated with mainstream media reporting and medical research.
First of all, the study authors state that gut bacteria convert carnitine into a compound called trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), and they believe that TMAO allows cholesterol to build up in artery walls, thereby raising heart disease risk. However, even if carnitine is converted to TMAO, it is highly unlikely to be a primary player in red meat’s adverse health effects, as the researchers theorized. Here’s why.
A pound of steak contains approximately 400 mg of carnitine, some of which is likely converted to TMAO. But a pound of fish contains 1,700 mg of TMAO. So if TMAO is the real culprit then why is fish, which contains much more TMAO than what your body would convert from the L-carnitine found in red meat, universally accepted as being cardio-protective?
No Studied L-Carnitine Side Effects with Normal Usage
As for the suggestion that L-carnitine side effects are harmful, this is simply a matter of guilt by association. The researchers state that when mice were fed the human equivalent of 26,000 mg of carnitine per day, they developed arterial blockages—that equate to 26–52 times the normal supplement dose of 500–1,000 mg!
Furthermore, all of the news reports neglected to mention any of the previous human clinical trials and other studies that demonstrated carnitine’s significant benefits, including those studies using rabbits, which are considered to be the best model of human heart disease.
The bottom line: I stand by my recommendation of 500–1,000 mg of supplemental L-carnitine per day.
Now it’s your turn: Do you take L-carnitine supplements?
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I am currently looking for research on any clinical study of the direct correlation between oil extraction and specific diseases in Africa, such as cancer, asthma or other respiratory illnesses in Africa.
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Dear Udoh, the study that has been done at Khartoum Sudan in tanneries may in one way correlate industries, chemicals, waste products and skin complications, hope you find some of the points you are looking for.
38. Kamal El-Din H El-Hassan, M.D, Yousif M El-Kordofani, MD, Bashir, A.H.H, MD. The Prevalence of Occupational Dermatosis among Workers in Khartoum State’s Tanneries. Original Article. AJDV, 2014, 3(2).
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Which is the best method for estimating gut incretins? Can any one share me reference?
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Hi Ruchi,
Don't forget when purchasing that a 96 well plate will only analyse 72 samples due to the need for quality control samples to be run through.
Best Wishes,
Jamie 
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behaviors , nutritional habits , causes
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Overexpression of uncoupling proteins in small rodents is an effective way to alter thermogenesis. This strategy prevents diet induced obesity and insulin resistance (link 1). There is now substantial interest in alternative methods of increasing thermogenesis as a means to treat obesity (links 2 and 3). However, due to the volume : surface ratio, small rodents have a high tolerance for elevated thermogenesis (link 4) as a result of UCP overexpression. Humans have a much lower surface area : volume ratio and therefore have a reduced capacity to dissipate heat. Therefore, will overweight humans have a sufficient tolerance for enhanced thermogenesis for this to be a safe and viable treatment option?
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although most of research on obesity is concenrating on white adipose tissue and the development,differentiation ie hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes and pfeadipocyytes in WAT and role of inflammation and macrophage infiltration directly or conversion of preadi[ocytes,metabolic endotoxemia,gut microbiota lreading to increased LPS absorption from increased GIT permeability with altered gut microbiota is some of the aetiopathogenesis with infiltration of Treg cells,cdt4. CHT8 cellsiNKT CELLS th17 all have ben found but importance is being given simultaneously to the microrna which affect the differentiATION OF BRITE AND BROWN ADIPOCYTES AND IMPORTANCE OF MIrna'S 26,155,27a,b,130 a ,miR155 etc in adipocyte differentiation and how further roles of FGF21 may affect thermogenesis and natriureteic peptides
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I have induced type 2 diabetes mailitus using high fat diet (45% fat) plus multiple low dose of streptozotocin (30mg). So can any please tell me Which type insulin (Short, log, Intermidiate acting or Biphasic insuline) should be used to carry out Insulin Tolerance Test in type 2 diabetic rats?
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I would recommend the most "normal" formulation you can find. In my lab, we use Humulin R, but any simliar brand should work. I don't use any of the especially fast acting analogs, just plain insulin. Get your baseline, inject IP and begin collecting your time points.