Science topic

Nutrition Assessment - Science topic

Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
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I want to know, is there any association between fish consumption and nutritional status of adolescents; and its related review of literature if any. 
Thanks.
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Are there any alternatives to food frequency questionnaires for assessing differences in nutritional intake among children (under 6 years)?
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Through a questionnaire that contains a set of questions, the mother answers these questions and takes the height and weight to extract the body mass index
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In a study among People living with HIV, a food diary was used in documenting dietary intake of the participants. No information was collected on the quantity of food consumed, the price of food was collected but the data were collected in different communities of a large city. Also, the price of food has increased substantially in the last six months and current pricing may not provide a good estimate of quantity of food consumed during the data collection period.
A qualitative approach is being considered, we have not seen any study where food diary was used to deduce the dietary diversity. We want to know the possibility and likely modality for such attempt.
Thank you.
Seun 
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There is a growing debate over the validity and value of data derived from memory-based dietary assessment methods (M-BMs) such as FFQs, food diaries, and 24HRs. My empirically supported position is that all forms of M-BMs are pseudo-scientific, produce non-falsifiable and physiologically implausible data, and should not be used in nutrition research. Please see the recent 'Controversy & Debate' Series in the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology for details: Archer E, Marlow ML, Lavie CJ. The Fatal Flaws of Food Frequency Questionnaires and Other Memory-Based Dietary Assessment Methods. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2018.
Link: Archer E, Marlow ML, Lavie CJ. Controversy and Debate: Memory-Based Dietary Assessment Methods Paper #3. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2018. Link:
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Why not take a nutritional and life style assessment, which would predict  those problems, instead of invasive testing which has proven not to be very predictive?   It means about 5 one  hour interviews and  a home visit.   
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QUESTION "Your tests are equally prone to error as self reported diet and exercise."  How can scientific testing done correctly be equal to self-reporting?  ANSWER: Scientific testing produces false positives and false negatives, which cause more testing.  I believe that tests for prostate cancer in men have been stopped because they resulted in more damage than good.  This is true in the testing for preeclampsia but when it comes to women there is not the fear of doing damage as we see in the sky high rates of cesarean and induction, which do kill women. In interviews with doctors, most people do tend to tell some truths when they visit the doctor and the problem is not false positives, but the doctor being skilled enough or interested enough to ask them the right questions.  For example, instead of asking do you smoke, one can ask, how many cigarettes do you smoke per 24 hours?  Look for signs of smoking.   One can insist on a three day diet diary.
QUESTION "And once you make a home visit, then there is no error." A home visit is no guarantee of truthfulness, obviously one cannot watch them every day! ANSWER: I would guess that you are not familiar with home visits.  At home visits, you see exactly what is going on if you pay attention.  Just open the refrigerator and the food cabinets and go to the bathroom.  If one is interested, there is very little one can hide at a properly conducted home visit.  People are not going to go stock up on tons of foods that they never eat.
I dont know how the conversation got changed from tests for preeclampsia to infertility, but infertility is of course very related to diet and life style and whether the couple are copulating.
 Thanks for your questions.
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When having a patient recieving enteral nutrition we reduce the fluid from the IV line of the 24 hour. But do we need to substract the total of the enteral feeding of the total fluids even thought the enteral feed is not a whole sum of fluid because there are solutes, and i sometimes have to go and talk to the nutrition department that the increase the enteral load to fast on a critical patient that needs the IV line for fluid intake regarding specific cases?
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Ok, According to A.S.P.E.N guideline in determination of required fluid in ml/ day by multiply % water in formula times daily formula in mL to determine water contribution of EN.
Subtract formula water from total fluid requirements to determine water flushes.
For example,
Patient needs 2200 ml fluid
2000 ml formula * 84% water = 1680 ml
So, 2200 - 1680 = 520 ml of additional water ( by IV or medication dilution).
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In my research I want to assess sugar intake of preschool children. for this i develop a food frequency questionnaire and collect data on diet. to calculate sugar intake i want an easy method as i have to analyse about 100 food samples. I want the method in detail.
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spectrophotometric method.
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Which are the suitable micronutrients could be effectively used including commercial sulphates and chelated forms in the fertigation for perennial fruits ?
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Very intelligently placed question on a very intriguing issue , which needs to be addressed in providing the comprehensive schedule of fertigation , instead of regulating NPK through fertigation and practicing foliar spray for micronutrients. Lets listen from our colleagues , why there are limited efforts on fertigation of micronutrients, regardless of crops . Is it because of better efficacy of foliar spray over fertigation  or any other reasons .
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L-carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound biosynthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine.In eukaryotic cells, it is required for the transport of fatty acids from the intermembraneous space in the mitochondria, into the mitochondrial matrix during the breakdown of lipids (fats) for the generation of metabolic energy.It is widely available as anutritional supplement. 
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The Truth about L-Carnitine Side Effects
by Dr. Julian Whitaker
Filed Under: Heart Health, Nutritional Support
Last Reviewed 03/28/2014
The Truth about L-Carnitine Side Effects
As you may have read or heard in the news lately, a new study published in the journal Nature Medicine suggests that the L-carnitine, not the saturated fat, found in red meat is the real culprit in heart disease risk and that L-carnitine supplements are unsafe and have side effects. Folks, this is just the latest example of the pitfalls associated with mainstream media reporting and medical research.
First of all, the study authors state that gut bacteria convert carnitine into a compound called trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), and they believe that TMAO allows cholesterol to build up in artery walls, thereby raising heart disease risk. However, even if carnitine is converted to TMAO, it is highly unlikely to be a primary player in red meat’s adverse health effects, as the researchers theorized. Here’s why.
A pound of steak contains approximately 400 mg of carnitine, some of which is likely converted to TMAO. But a pound of fish contains 1,700 mg of TMAO. So if TMAO is the real culprit then why is fish, which contains much more TMAO than what your body would convert from the L-carnitine found in red meat, universally accepted as being cardio-protective?
No Studied L-Carnitine Side Effects with Normal Usage
As for the suggestion that L-carnitine side effects are harmful, this is simply a matter of guilt by association. The researchers state that when mice were fed the human equivalent of 26,000 mg of carnitine per day, they developed arterial blockages—that equate to 26–52 times the normal supplement dose of 500–1,000 mg!
Furthermore, all of the news reports neglected to mention any of the previous human clinical trials and other studies that demonstrated carnitine’s significant benefits, including those studies using rabbits, which are considered to be the best model of human heart disease.
The bottom line: I stand by my recommendation of 500–1,000 mg of supplemental L-carnitine per day.
Now it’s your turn: Do you take L-carnitine supplements?
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I want to know how to measure the Glycemic index of rice through an in-vitro method? Also the what is the protocol?
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Protocol established by CSIRO might help you. 
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There is some recommended nutritional value for VLBW and LBW infants in Peditric Nutrition book but i can not find any recommended values for feeding preterm infants who are ABW.
I would be grateful, if you advise me in this regard.
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I am working on 'determination of nutritional values in some Indica rice land-races'. I want to investigate the correlation between the morphological characteristics and nutritional content in specific land races (if any). I could not find good and reliable literature on the topic. If seniors and colleagues can help me by providing links/literature/references on the topic.
Thanks in advance,
Regards,
P. Roy.
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Dear Priyabrata,
The following links may be of help.
De B, Nag G. Metabolic diversity in the grains of Indian varieties of rice. C R Biol. 2014 Apr;337(4):283-93. doi: 10.1016/j.crvi.2014.01.006. Epub 2014 Mar 11. PubMed PMID: 24702898.
Shobana S, Malleshi NG, Sudha V, Spiegelman D, Hong B, Hu FB, Willett WC, Krishnaswamy K, Mohan V. Nutritional and sensory profile of two Indian rice varieties with different degrees of polishing. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2011
Dec;62(8):800-10. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2011.585962. Epub 2011 May 27. PubMed PMID: 21619458.
Ti H, Li Q, Zhang R, Zhang M, Deng Y, Wei Z, Chi J, Zhang Y. Free and bound
phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of milled fractions of different
indica rice varieties cultivated in southern China. Food Chem. 2014 Sep
15;159:166-74. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.03.029. Epub 2014 Mar 17. PubMed
PMID: 24767040.
Quantification of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and γ-oryzanol contents and their distribution in some commercial rice varieties in Taiwan.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3959956/   
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I am currently working on my master thesis regarding “Dietary patterns and dietary diversity among overweight and obese children”
This project is based on a “cross-sectional study” amongst a rural population. Since a validated food frequency questionnaire for this population does not exist, can we use 24-hour recall intervals for analysis of dietary patterns or is an appropriate food frequency questionnaire needed for this project?
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For tracking individual dietary patterns, FFQ's are more appropriate. 24 hour recalls are more appropriate if you are trying to gauge a specific demographic's eating patterns.
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Is there any easy approach to apply based on available statistics at national level? 
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Helo Dr Sieber,
you can find good information about malnutrition in 
regards
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Using Z score systems in reference to a certain population, the following terms are employed- stunted (< 2 S.D. for height-for-age), wasted (<2 S.D. weight-for-age) and underweight (< 2 S.D. weight-for-height.
However, how do their rates vary in a study population despite the fact that they all represent under-nutrition .
Moreover, what inference can be drawn from such variance ?
Is it due to a specific attribute to population or an inherent characteristic of the index itself?
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Dear  Khushboo Verma,
The variation in the prevalence of these indicators is due to the population to which the measurements are taken. That is why several authors associate nutritional status with socioeconomic and demographic factors, and viceversa. It is important to understand the association and involvement of economic's factors and the access to some food that are also found related. I have built a table that show how in some cases when you do not have anthropometric measures for nutritional status, it is done through economic indicators. I leave the link if it's any response .
Regards.
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Human beings have adapted well through maintaining dietary habits in mountainous areas but it is also fact that people in such areas especially children have low nutritional status in compare to lowland areas. The changing dietary habits in mountainous areas have either degraded or bettered the nutritional status of these people. The growing food insecurity in such fragile environments is a global concern today. Anybody working is this line may kindly share information.
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You might want to specifically consider Iodine deficiency if you collect data on nutritional habits of people living in mountainous regions. From the Himalayas to the Balkans people suffer from Iodine deficiency disorders especially where the natural pattern includes alternating flood plains and mountains. Iodine deficiency is associated with high prevalence of endemic cretinism, goiter, short stature, and deafness resulting in loss of intellectual capacity.
Even in areas with moderate iodine deficiency (iodine ingestion 20 to 49 μg/day), clinically euthyroid children and adults often have definite abnormalities of psychomotor and intellectual development.
Delange F, Bürgi H, Chen ZP et al. Thyroid 2002;12:915–24
Berbel P, Obregón MJ, Bernal J et al. Trends Endocrinol
Metab 2007;18:338–43
Modern Nutrition 11th ed. Chapter 95
Hope that helps
IG
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There are many patients who are very poor and are unable to bear the cost of cancer treatment. I am looking for such organizations who support nutrition for poor cancer people. If any body knows such organization that can come forward for such types of help?
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I'm guessing you are searching for international resources. I'm less familiar with those. However, in the US the Oley Foundation has educational resources for patients in need of home enteral and parenteral nutrition support. They also have an equipment exchange: http://www.oley.org/equipexchange.html.
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In this study, the results showed an association between nutritional status with intelligence by using the correlation test. But it was not clearly stated in the abstract if the nutritional statuses, which were used in the analysis of correlation with intelligence, were by height for age or weight for age.
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Lesley Haynes no longer practises as a Registered Dietitian and is now retired.
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Why is fighting hidden hunger important?
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Agree with Ali and Namukolo
At WHO data base  there is a data on  minerals and vitamins and their assessment methodds  
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Diet diaries and food frequency questionnaires are time consuming.
What alternative methods exist as alternative to 24 hours recall and diet diaries to assess the dietary patterns in epidemiological studies?
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Send out short surveys.
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Because height range in male and females is different and gender could be an interfering factor for analysis of both genders together.
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In research studies where gender interferes with the results of the study, the more acceptable and rational way to neutralise its effect is: 1-to match the study groups regarding gender or 2- if possible, carry out the study in single gender, the most appropriate one.
Good Luck.
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Is clinical assessment reliable in chronically malnourished patients? Are there any reliable biomarkers?
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Hello George,
I think that one of the most reliable screening tools to assess malnutrition is the 'Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool' ('MUST'). Also, Onodera's prognostic nutritional index (OPNI) is an easily calculated scoring system for malnutrition.