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Nutrient Management - Science topic

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Hello everyone,
I am growing tomatoes plants in greenhouse on an inert substrate consisted of only perlite.
I would like to apply potassium K stress and thus I would like to use Hoagland nutrient solution.
As the nutrient solution is described for hydroponics, I was wondering whether it is useful to apply it also on perlite, and in case yes what is the procedure?
I could not find in literature but in case someone knows anything or knows a good paper please let me know.
Thanks
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You grow plants in perlite with hydroponic solution which has all main and trace elements like Hoagland solution. Therefore if you use hydroponic solution in perlite you should not have any K deficiency. If you have it means something wrong in your liquid feed. Check the hydroponic solution if it is calculated properly.
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Nanotechnology proved to be effective in medical,industry, and other important sectors. The ambition of nanomaterials in agriculture is to reduce the amount of spread chemicals, minimize nutrient losses in fertilization and increased yield through pest and nutrient management. Are they really effective?? And which application proved to be applicable?
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Thanks, Dr. Chandrakala Marigowda sharing your country's recent applications. How many kilograms is the package which could be substituted by a 500ml bottle?
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Urea is the major nitrogen fertilizer in India almost 80% of the nitrogen fertilizer is in the form of urea, so application dynamics of urea with relation to irrigation has a prime importance to increase the NUE and WUE.
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Urea is rapidly hydrolyzed to ammonium (this process is completed in about 5 days), which can be potentially lost through ammonia volatilization. But if urea is placed at a depth (even 1-2 cm below the soil surface), losses of urea-N via ammonia volatilization are greatly reduced or are minimal. The application of urea before or after irrigation is linked with ammonia volatilization losses rather than the issues discussed above by different colleagues. In coarse-textured soils where water percolation rates are high, it is recommended to apply urea before the irrigation event as the percolating water carries urea to a depth in the soil and urea-N does not remain prone to losses via ammonia volatilization. But one should make sure that the time between urea application and irrigation is kept to a minimum. Urea lying on the dry soil before application of irrigation water can also be hydrolyzed to ammonium though to a limited extent. We need to keep in mind that that urea is very hygroscopic.
In heavy-textured soil, the best way to apply urea is to incorporate it into the soil at a depth. But when urea is to be topdressed while the crop is in the field, apply urea immediately after the irrigation water has percolated down the soil surface. Due to the heavy texture of the soil, water slowly keeps moving down and transports urea to a depth where it is safe from ammonia volatilization losses.
Kindly go through the attached publication of ours. It should make you more knowledgeable on this subject.
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Now a days many techniques are available on crop nutrition such as soil testing, plant testing, foliar diagnosis, soil test crop response method and colour chart method etc. Though many number of methods are available to diagnose deficiency or toxicity of nutrients either in soil or on crop plants , identification of type and level of nutrient deficiency or toxicity is difficult for recommending nutrient application. In this connection, discussion on soil mineral resource identification, nutrient release from the particular mineral and quantity of elements release my give better idea on nutrient management for agri / horti /forestry crops especially in organic agriculture.
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Nutrients management is main problem in calcareous soils
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Simple immobilisation on account formation of calcium phosphate ,in addition to adsorption of phosphates on calcium carbonate particles of calcareous soils...
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In the case of nutrient management practices, what kind of changes can we expect in dry matter % as compared to the control where no nutrient was supplied. If we consider a known amount of fresh sample weight whether the dry matter % will increase or decrease in plants having sufficient nutrient supply as compared to the control?
Elaboration:
1. There are two plot conditions; the first one does not have an external nutrient supply hence facing nutritional deficiency ( control) and the second one has sufficient supply of nutrients (NM). All the other factors are kept same.
2. Now we have taken a known amount of fresh chopped sample (say 500 grams) for both the treatments and oven-dried it following the standard procedure.
3. What kind of outcome can we expect for dry matter percentage? whether the Drymatter% of control sample will be higher than the NM or vice-versa?
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The dry matter content have a direct co-relation with the nutrient management. There are so many research articles, which will help you in assessing the impact of variation in nutrient management on dry matter and nutrient uptake.
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We have tried to use FYM for partial replacement of Urea N and simulated with DSSAT. Unfortunately we could not get any effect of it. The model is simply taking the Urea-N ignoring the effect of FYM. Can anyone help us.
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Nutrient management
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Hi, could you send me your development on PDF format - Is sewage sludge permitted in organic farming as a source of nutrients ?
Of electronic:
Greetings
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For nutrient management, primarily based on multilocation trials, blanket fertilizer recommendations (RDF) given to crop, without considering soil nutrient status. Secondly based on Soil fertility chart, fertilizer doses are manipulated. Over these two Nutrient management concept, STCR and IPNS have shown favourable responses on crop yield and soil health. Among these Which one more sustainable in improving crop yield and soil health.
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In case of STCR and IPNS the STCR is more suitable for plant as compare to IPNS for soil health.
before apply the nutrients to plant its more important to know about the fertility status of our field
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Dear All scientific community, please help me to understand the function and mode os application of silica a nutrient to the plants. Is it really worth to apply this as a foliar nutrition, is yes which is the right source for that.
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Yes! Please see the following PDF attachment.
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I plan on conducting the research using slow-release P fertilizers prepared by activating the dolomite phosphate rocks using organic acids. The research question is,
Is slow release fertilizer conducive for plant production?
To answer this question I need to study and quantify the release mechanism of it. What could be the best approach?
I plan on conducting Lab incubation / green house studies in the beginning followed by field works. What soil and plant measurements, (and how) I should take?
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I agree with above respondent. But I suggest for site specific nutrient management based soil testing and integrated approach of nutrient management
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During last 5-6 decades we have generated enough data from traditional experiments on nutrient management with graded levels of fertilizers in almost all systems and situations. Research on permutations & combination of chemical fertilizer is still going on. Is there any need to continue the same for some more decades? OR agronomists should focus more on: (1) nutrient management on the basis of soil fertility status and crop's removal, (2) STCR, (3) SSNM, (4) nano fertilizer, (5) soil fertility analysis by hyperspectral imagery & nutrient management. Certainly for developing & tropical countries INM should be considered to supply nutrients, not to rely only on chemicals, targeting production sustainability.
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@Jagadish, thanks for your nice analytical comments. Actually we have become too traditional. My request is to think beyond, think latest, think more precisely.
Thanks once again.
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Like boron is a crucial nutrient for Cauliflower. Does broccoli has any kind of such crucial nutrient impacting on yield and quality ?
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Sulphur, boron, molybdenum and zinc.
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I am looking for information or research papers for recommendation of fertilizer application and nutrient management for different tree under afforestation/agroforestry at salt affected soils (sodic, saline and saline-sodic). Please share information regarding this will be highly useful for me. Thank you
Sincerely,
Manish Kumar
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Fertilization of salt affected soils is not recommend since application of most of fertilizers to soil causes increase in osmotic potential of soil solution which has negative effect of plant growth ,yield and quality.
  • For this reason foliar nano fertilization , top dress fertilization can be use which are not causing increase in osmotic potential of soil solution.
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which nutrient could be responsible for higher curcumin percentage and essential oil in turmeric?
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Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), also called diferuloylmethane, is the main natural polyphenol found in the rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and in others Curcuma spp. Proximate analysis shows nutrients like phosphorous , potassium , calcium and iron are involved...
Some interesting PDFs are enclosed for referal...
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Integrated nutrient management based on combined use of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers is very common in South Asia. A large number of researchers have proven its usefulness in terms of better yields than when same amount of nutrients are applied as mineral fertilizers. However, not much information is available as to how much these systems contribute to global warming through emission of nitrous oxide. Recently, researchers from China have a published several papers on this topic.
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It's very important
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Is there a way to stimulate carotenoid (beta-Carotene) biosynthesis on field ?
Furthermore is there a correlation of the Sweet-potato skin color with any fertilization practices ? (more intense orange skin color)
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Hi!
Are you talking about the Orange Flesh sweet potatoes (OFSP) or normal sweet potatoes? Because OFSP is a genetically improved variety that contain high level of beta-carotene sometimes comparable to carrots.
But talking of a nutrient inducing the biosynthesis of beta-carotene in normal potatoes!! That may be a research topic! Though some mineral elements are Always needed as enzymes cofactors during synthesis, but then the pathway should exist.
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I want to get a list of funding agencies who supports nutrient management research specifically in cereal based cropping systems.
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ICRISAT, CSRI and PD of consern crops.
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Many farmer's are applying the fertilizers through foliar, and they are continuously asking what is the use efficiency of this Fertilizer through foliar application, and how to increase the efficiency, please suggest.
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Following
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Is SPAD values of flag leaves were significantly affected by differential fertilizer management?
Is any correlations with grain yield and different growth stages of crop?
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SPAD Values and Nitrogen Nutrition Index for the Evaluation of
Rice Nitrogen Status( Plant Prod. Sci. 17(1): 81―92 (2014) )
Abstract: Plant-based diagnosis is one of the most important methods to determine nitrogen (N) content of crops. Our objective was to establish the relationship between soil-plant analysis development (SPAD) values and N nutrition index (NNI) during the three developmental stages of rice and apply the SPAD meter as diagnostic tools for predicting grain yield response to N fertilization. We determined the SPAD values of four uppermost fully expanded leaves of two rice cultivars at six N fertilization levels at three growth stages and examined the relationship between SPAD values and NNI. The critical N concentration (Nc) was 5.31 W–0.5 in Xiushui63, and 5.38 W–0.49 in Hang43, where W is the total shoot biomass. The correlation between SPAD value and NNI varied with the leaf position, developmental stage, and variety. The lower leaf appeared to be more sensitive to the N level than the upper leaf in the response of biomass, and could be more suitable as a test sample for N status diagnosis, especially in the booting and heading stage. The dependence of grain yield on SPAD values of the fourth fully expanded leaf (L4) was significant at booting stage (R2 L4 = 0.82** in 2011, R2 L4 = 0.72** in 2012). Ratio of SPAD values of L4 to that in the N-saturated plot (RSPAD) (R2 L4 = 0.92** in 2011, R2 L4 = 0.77** in 2012) and NNI (R2 = 0.96** in 2011, R2 = 0.86** in 2012) at booting stage demonstrated a closer relationship with grain yield. PDF enclosed for further reference...
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With Soybean target yield of 18 quintal per acre, I am applying (all dose per acre)
40 kg P2O5 (soil Olsen P is 20 ppm),
45 kg murate of potash (soil K 180 ppm),
10 kg sulphur (gandhak)
Micronutrients mix, sulphate salts of
10 kg Zn and Fe each; 2 kg Cu and Mn
And 1kg Mo and B.
In addition 2 T Vermicompost
(Along with Rizobium and PSB seed treatment)
In highly cited review paper on Soybean N uptake, there is reference of 200 Kg N uptake (above ground biomass) by 20 qtl / acre Soybean. With 20% in below ground. This is 240 kg/acre. Assuming 40 % uptake from BNF, this works out to be ~ 140 kg. However excess basal dose negativity affects nodule establishment. So I propose to experiment a split application: Basal 40 kg (Ammonium in DAP + Urea). Which should be the next points of applications?? And in what form?
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I agree with Kulvir Singh in the inadvisability of applying nitrogen on soybean. Soybean is sensitive to low soil acidity if you can get a soil pH reading liming maybe one of your best options for optimizing soybean production. In relation to nutrient application the phosphorus is best applied close to the seeding area to stimulate early growth and rooting. The potassium is best applied at flowering to stimulate the translocation of photosynthetate into developing pods. In terms of micronutrients if the pH is right you might not have any issue at all. If in the vegetative stage you get chlorosis the type of micronutrient deficiency can be found by leaf tissue analysis. In alkaline soils iron and manganese deficiencies as well as zinc are possible. If you have accessibility of rock phosphate and you have an acid tendency soil I would suggest mixing vermicompost with phosphate as your starter fertilizer then use potassium at mid flowering. If you have any soil or leaf analysis I would be glad to give an assessment based on my experience.
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I am thinking of conducting a research in Terai of Nepal based on the principle of Site Specific Nutrient management in Rice. The farming of Rice in the region is lowland and rainfed, while the cropping system is either, Rice-Wheat, Rice-Maize or Rice-Mustard/Lentil or Rice-Fallow depending upon places. I want to perform research in the farmer's field rather than research station, so I'm looking to hear from you, about the best SSNM approach for the farmer's field, so that farmers can also benefit from the research. Thank you!
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PFA
SSNM CONTENT OF UTILITY
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SSNM is a general concept for optimizing  the demand and supply of nutrients according to their variation in space and time. What should be the right approach to evaluate it, Is it a component of site-specific crop management or precision farming?
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I agree with you Dr Tarafdar. If have to make an effective use of soil fertility variograms, we need to have crop nutrient requirement . And this information has to be soil, cultivar/ variety and desired yield specific....then only SSNM could be effectively use as a part  of precision nutrient management.We also have to  make distinction between nutrient uptake and nutrient removal..
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Redox state and prevailing ambiance influence heavy metal inactivation and detoxification as well as transformation of nutrients (C, N & P) in soil and aquatic environment
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Most of the studies have been done with regard to biochar originated from plant biomass. Application of biochar , especially in acid soils has proven more beneficial than alkaline soils.  hoever , there are  pressing documents to prove that biochars are equally effective in alkaline soils as well . Application of biochar invariably improves the adsorptive capacity of soils through enhancement of CEC of soils, therefore , better NUE can very well be anticipated. If it is acidic soils , it brings an improvement of soil pH , thereby ,  brings  conspicuous imprvoments in soil fertility plus biological soil properties as well. but , the most distinctive advantage of biochar as an physical amendment is the  provision of carbon contributing handsomely towards the non-labile fraction of soil SOC, as the carbon from biochar has maximum residence time compared to ant other form of organic residues including the organic manures... 
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A large amount of nutrient waste is getting disposed in surface water sources. Point and non point sources of pollutants are disposing their waste into the surface water sources. is there any free nutrient model available for nutrient management at regional basis.
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Here is another concept called 4R-nutrient Stewardship concept ..
The 4Rs of nutrient management— applying the right fertilizer source at the right rate at the right time and in the right place—easily summarize the increasingly complex fertility decisions that have to be made by CCAs and their farmer clients. In this issue, we take a look at how this concept is being implemented in the field.by By Tanner Ehmke, Crops & Soils magazine contributing writer
PDf enclosed for  further reading ...
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In my study, planktonic individual & planktonic consortia mode of bacteria was used for nutrient (ammonia, nitrate and phosphate) removal. The obtained result was the highest nutrient removal with planktonic individual than planktonic consortia.Why?
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Himanshu , have you tested their complimentarity , that they do not inhibit the activity of each other  over a period of time when studied in a consortium mode than they are independent to each other. Thats the most critical point in the efficiency of any microbial consortium ..? Unless this is tested , you can not declare a group of  microbes as consortium..? Rossiana has raised a valid point. 
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Im looking for literature on potassium and phosphate leaching in apple orchards.
I have papers by Neilsen 1985 and Siczek 2008, but I'm really looking for something more substantial, either journal papers or reports.
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Let me put up another response . Nitrogen leaching followed the similar pattern during the times of fertigation ( April -June) ..Here is PDF enclosed for further reading ..
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Few aspects: pre- sown, mid course and post-harvest  advisories, soil health service, water and nutrients management, general package of practices, problem soils remedies, insects-pests forecasting, market intelligent systems, forewarning systems, weather-based agro-advisories etc
specific examples of successes at regional scales
Most of decision tools are preliminary or very crude or based on simple thum rules
Large useful information available, but scattered, not collated on common decision platform
Special section to be created for problem/degraded lands
Problem in yield forecasting in areas under intensive agriculture or for tropical/sub-tropical geographies
Contrasting results sometimes available in published literature, bring us at confused platform, possibly in a hurry to publish results by some of the research groups
Central platform of knowledge dissemination most of the time missing
Isolated subject matter research outputs, not collated for a systems' approach
May i am indicating more negative points, in order to create discussion, although significant research being/has been done by most of the researchers
Need of advanced computational methods/professionals to create DSS, effective to integrate relational layers and crop simulation tools for the decision making
regards
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Thanks Dr Biswas, sometimes the results of various agencies are contrasting so create confusion. Some of the agencies disseminate results with their selfish motive and interest, so may be misleading. IF A CENTRALIZED PLATFORM (PUBLIC-PRIVATE INTERACTION) is established with useful content for dissemination, farmers may start relying on the link/agency for agro-advisory inputs. We have to target in this direction, which is missing even in India too, although some successful regional platforms are available
regards
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To me as a crop modeller, very tough situation-
Many nutrients,
Non-linear and complex interaction amongst them for availability and uptake
Complex behaviour under different production environments
Not following any definitive behaviour, which could be expressed through numeric approach
Technical coefficient, thumb rule, experts judgement followed
STCR equations show location and temporal specificity
Modelling multi-nutrients system on dymanic/mechanistic scale too cumbersome 
Mechanistic cum empirical approach seems solution, but to be initiated through coordinated networks
Soil biological aspects happen to be relatively weak in crop simulation models, although incorporated, but rather in a very crude and empirical way
pl help the group to handle this situation
regards
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Seeing  a very meak response , let me trigger some discussion on such an interesting topic. Do you feel , that the major  types of nutrient interactions will undergo some basic changes , regardless of nutrient management strategy .... 
For example, if High phosphate induced zinc non-availability operational under conventional fertilization programe,  will vanish under INM strategy..?
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Soil health assessment to be used for irrigation/nutrients management, tillage options, identification of suitable resource conservation technologies
Soil health assessment in terms of soil physical, chemical, physico-chemical and biological health
Soil quality index to be computed from easily determinable and easily available soil parameters
Effective application of these methods on operational scale
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Sir,
Division of Agricultural Physics, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi has developed online calculator for soil physical health assessment. You can visit the following website
Another bit more comprehensive one developed by Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi which can be found at the following website
After registration you can use that.
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Just taking samples from the topsoil? And what depth is for you the top soil => ploughing depth (e.g. 25 cm) or working depth e.g. working depth of the cultivator (e.g. 12 cm)? And what does the difference from 12 cm to 25 cm mean for the calculating of the right amount of nutrients?
Or do you recommend to do the soil sampling for the analysis of P, K and Mg for the subsoil also?
To have soil samples for the topsoil (0 -30 cm) and from the subsoil (30 – 60cm), does make it senses? And how do you will take the results from the subsoil into account for the calculating of the right amount of nutrients?
Thank you for your answers!
Best greetings from Osnabrück, Stefan Hinck
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Most important is to know the feeder root zone of any crop , and this zone will not vary much , despite other favorable soil conditions,since it is more of genetically controlled than any other mechanical factors. Very often , there is strong effect of seasonality on feeder root distribution pattern . So , fertilizer application needs to be tuned according to seasonality of feeder root distribution pattern . Therefore , we will confine to such soil depth only , rather than worrying for other depths , where there are lesser proportion  of feeder roots , unnecessary adding to the fertilizer doses, with much reduced fertilizer -use-efficiency.
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Hello All...
I am here to know that what is the effective dose of botanicals under field condition for the nutrient management. Please be known that many scientist have used botanical on the basis of N contents @110 kg N/ha. There is lot of confusion in the recommendation of botanicals' dose. Some where I have found 3 or 5 10 or 12.5 or 20 or 25 tonnes/ha for the same crop even in the same area and same crop.
Experts are requested to suggest in this matter.
Rizwan Ali Ansari
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 Use of botanicals as a nutrient source is , infact , not so popular for alleviating nutrient deficiencies or as maintenance dose . Green manure is very popular practice with or without cover crops as popular practice of floor management , but i doubt , these practices could , anyway meet nutrient requirement of the crop  , could be possible for some ornamental plants..?
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Dear friends
I agree that the nutritional composition of the food crops, fruits and vegetables can be improved through breeding, transgenic and other biotechnological approaches. Is it possible to increase the nutrient content i.e. Zn content in particular variety of any crops through nutrient management and microbial interventions?. Eg. P content in banana varying from 0.20% to 0.35% due to nutrient management and microbial interventions. Whether this kind of variation is possible or not? If it is so, the entire nutritional compositions of fruits or vegetables will vary accordingly. Some clarity is required in this regard.
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Andrea , thats a good point . but , this will only reveal the changes in nutrient density of different crops grown over the years. And , it will let you know , how  has this  happend , simply because of the nutrient mining . In some cases , the reduction in nutrient density has not been experienced , for example , in europe.
However , our most important and genuine concern is , how can we raise the nutrient density in edible plant parts . unfortunately , most of the edible plant parts are considered very poor sink for micronutrients ?. How can we produce /breed the crop varieties having higher nutrient -use-efficiency.   
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Fertilizers are considered major drivers of agriculture , contributing nearly half of the total cost involved in  production of any crop. Of late , there has been paradigm shift in fertlizer use from straight conventional fertilizers to complex fertilizers to customised fertilizers.  In this background , i am proposing following issues to be  addressed with central theme of inter-relation between customised fertilizers and site specific nutrient management  through comprehensive discussion :
* Distinct  benefits of customised fertilizers over conventional fertilizers.
* Customised fertilizer use as virtual answer to emerging multiple nutrient deficiencies.
*  Crop -specific customised fertilizers.
* Soil -specific customised fertilizers in the light of soil fertility variogram.
* Customised fertilizerss compatibility with fertigation and hydroponic use.
* Customised fertilizers and fertilizer-use-efficiency. 
Thanks and regards  for your precious responses
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Site-Specific Nutrient Management (SSNM) provides guidance relevant to the context of farmers’ fields. SSNM maintains or enhances crop yields, while providing savings for farmers through more efficient fertilizer use. By minimizing fertilizer overuse, greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced, in some cases up to 50%
KEY MESSAGES:
1 Site-Specific Nutrient Management (SSNM) optimizes the supply of soil nutrients over space and time to match crop requirements.
2 SSNM increases crop productivity and improves efficiency of fertilizer use.
3 SSNM mitigates greenhouse gases from agriculture in areas with high nitrogen fertilizer use.
4 Incentives for adoption of SSNM depend strongly on fertilizer prices.
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Because of the future phosphorus deficiency in the world, I am looking for possible solutions/possibilities within onion and potato plant breeding focused on nutrient-efficiency and phosphorus uptake in particular. 
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Hi Sjoerd,
I hope the folowing artcles will be useful for you.
Best regards,
Noemi
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Behavior of crops and soils is never uniform on a geographic unit , necessitating further the utility of correct diagnosis-based nutrient application . However, there are still many discrepancies in optimizing the crop response , distinct  failure to produce economic response of fertilizer is one of them . Highlighting these issues, my present set of questions is dedicated: 
* Do you feel, if different crops are grown on the same soil type, fertilizer recommendation will change?
* How do we arrive at crop-based fertilizer recommendation?
* How does such fertilizer recommendations take into account  the residual and cumulative effects of fertilizers?
* Do you feel, soil test/plant analysis -based crop response is still the only  diagnostic basis of such crop behavior?
* If so , how will you determine the efficacy of one test over other test methods?
*What is the utility of  4R-Nutrient Stewardship in optimizing the crop nutrient response?
Thanks and Regards
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Dr Anoop,
Thanks for providing the opportunity to be part of an important discussion.
Fertilizer recommendation in same soil type should be different for not only crop species, rather we should have it for different varieties of the same crop.
Regarding general fertilizer recommendation my views look absurd and may not be appreciated. Farmers' do regular monitoring for good production. It's not always the appropriate quantity or volume, but timely and efficient management of inputs that gives the best economic benefit, which is one of the main criteria for fertilizer prescription. So, the CARE is more important than precise applications. Can we think of fertilizer recommendation on the basis of soil physical condition (soil type as you mentioned, water retention/movement capacity, drainage and aeration status etc), soil biological environment (SOM, soil micro-flora which has been a topic of discussion in one of your questions, enzyme etc etc) and crop characteristics (root growth behaviour, shoot:root ratio, nutrient partitioning pattern etc)???
Thanks and regards to all.
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1. Lot of information on soil test values (spatio-temporal)) available
2. Soil quality indices e.g. SQI by Ratan Lal et al, Cornell soil health index, STCR network ar Indian Institute of Soil Science  etc available for application
3. Potential of use in nutrients management, water management, tillage options, crops'/cropping systems suitability, residue management, problem soils management demonstrated mainly on research farm fields with limited scale case studies in smaller regions
4. e-communication of advisory to farmers (demonstrated at limited scale)
No real effective soil health service, specifically in regions with intensive agriculture (in particular south asia, south-east asia, regions in africa)?
How to handle the situation for effective operational soil health service?
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Is there rapid field test available for diagnosing the microbial abundance of soil as indicator of soil health ? . Another problem , one may face is with regard to utmost sensitivity of soil microbes to any kind of input or even any adversity in climate , such microbe may undergo   changes in structural  and functional  diversity . there are so many soil health -related parameters , but we need to have a parameter which fairly stable over time and space , from  convenience in  evaluation  in field , and possibly in field 
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Number  of methods ( Soil fertilization ,  Foliar fertilization , Trunk nutrition , Fertigation ,  Organic manuring , Integrated nutrient management ) are adopted in meeting the nutrient requirement of crops. These methods of fertilization have their own merits and demerits , depending upon the crop , soil conditions ,agroclimate etc . It is equally difficult to claim one method of fertilization as most efficient , since fertilizer-user-efficiency is the major concern .  I have following questions to offer to my learned colleagues to respond please:
* Foliar fertilization is more suitable to which kind  crops?
* What are the basic foliar characteristics of a crop to facilitate better efficacy of foliar applied nutrients? 
* Do we need to neutralize the pH of the foliar  solution ?
* Whether use of surfacetant will improve the efficacy of foliar applied nutrients ?
* Is there any role of microbial formulations to be a part of foliar sprays ?
* Why a foliar spray of multi-micronutrients , especially containing Fe, Mn and Zn together  develops toxicity symptoms on the foliage?
* What are ways and means to improve the efficacy of foliar applied nutrients?
*  How can we domesticate the conventional micronutrient fertilizers for effective  foliar sprays?
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Angamuthu , I am talking of any nono-fertilizer suitable as a nutrient source , if you dissolve it in water , the identity of that nano-size is lost since it is cent percent solubilized in water . On the other hand , you take any  commercial fertilizer ( For example ) , you dissolve it in water , it solubilized cent percent in water . Now compare the efficacy of two fertilizer sources ( Dissolved nano-size fertilizer or dissolved commercial fertilizer)as foliar spray , Do you feel which one will perform better?
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I know the best time for applying fertilizer for mature plants are after rainfall seasons means between 6 or 8 months. I want to know more specific time (the months ) for that in Malaysia 
Thank you so very much 
Mohammad Yadegari 
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Dear Mohamad Yadegari
Your need for supplementing oil palm will best be served by doing foliar analysis and comparing to optimized values for the stage of development.
For accurate foliar analysis you will need 20 leaflets to be dried and analyzed. Some people can judge this based on the leaf color and there are chlorophyll meters which can be useful.
The greatest use of Nitrogen is in peak stages of growth and care should be taken not to over amend with Nitrogen as the plant will be top heavy. Depending on the acidity of the soil you may want to change how you amend your plant for Nitrogen. With your foliar analysis you will also get insight on other critical elements which might not be optimized and it may suggest soil treatments for further plantings.
Your nutritional plan should always include the complete soil analysis and even water analysis if you irrigate and needs fluctuate depending on the changes of environmental conditions particularly rainfall which will cause leaching and denitrification.
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We know that sodium is the most important ion for HD patient for weight gain in the interdialytic period. I mean, if the patient has a lot of salt, weight gain will increase. Is the same situation valid for the dialysate sodium levels? If dialysate sodium is higher, can sodium loading be dangerous to the patient?
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thank you for your kindness.
best wishes
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What is the recommendation for the period of basic soil nutrients P, K, Mg sampling on arable land? All 3 to 4 years, ... shorter or longer?
Thank you! With best regards from Osnabrück, Stefan
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Off course , i am bit too late to respond to this question , but  better  late than  never . We in perennial crops recommend to undertake analyis for P,K,Mg  at an every alternate years.  Putting too many slag years, probably will put the  potential impact of  fertilization in a bit of jeopardy. We very frequently use leaf nalysis in conjunction with soil analysis for addressing these nutrients with regard to their budgeting.
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Why do leaves get burn after receiving foliar nitrogen application?
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Yes , leaf burn as acommon symptoms ,  are usually obseved in many plants of commercial importance when urea having biuret concentration  is sprayed as foliar spray , even at 1-2% concentration., irrespective of soil type. Such biuret toxicity in actual terms are more common when plants are in pre-evaluation stage. 
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Perennial crops are distinctly different than annuals ,in terms of  long juvenile period, perennial framework , long  annual  growth cycle etc . Number of  nutrient management practices are in vogue. These practices comprise of :conventional basin application of nutrients using the optimum dose  , microbially loaded organic manures plus  rainfed green manuring  , integrated nutrient management involving  a combination of inorganic fertilizers , organic manures, and  single/multiple inoculation of  microbes,  fertigation , site specific nutrient management , biodynamic  farming, Panchgavya farming  etc , all   with only one objective to meet the nutrient demand of the crop  through balanced fertilization , taking into the account , the nature and properties of soil  . It is really point of debate amongst researchers, as which  method of fertilization stands out to be the best . I invite the comments of our esteemed researchers.  
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A nutrient management strategy said to be effective has to be sustainable , Shashi. Which method of nutrient management is best with respect to quality production of crop  without incurring any potential mining of nutrient reserve of soil , means considering the overall  impact. And any practitioner of nutrient management would surely look at all these , with sustainability of the practice at the top.
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I am working on optimization of nitrogen in maize and want to compare different regression models to determine economic optimum rate. I found somewhere in literature that quadratic model did not give valid description of the yield responses and tended to indicate the optimal rate of fertilization that were too high and the same happened in my work also. Quadratic plus plateau model may best describe the yield response but I do not have any idea how to develop such a model and which software is useful in this regard.
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Please look into the following paper:
Comparison of modified Mitscherlich and response plateau models for calibrating soil test nitrogen recommendations for rice on Typic ustochrept. K. Alivelu and others 
Communications in soil science and plant  analysis 11/2003 34,2633_2643
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The nutrient status of arable land has to be determined. The soil sampling is vehicle-based and is carried out in the tramline.
Is soil sampling in the tramline recommendable ?
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Dear Stefan,
                      If you get arable lands for sampling near the tram line in which agriculture is regularly practised and is in no way disturbed by other anthropogenic activities, you can collect samples. Most important is that your research design should be in the tune of your research objectives.
Good wishes.
Soumendu Chatterjee 
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I would be interested to know if after a full cycle of forest plantations of Pinus sp without fertilization, if they could recover the initial level of nutrients (e.g. by atmospheric deposition) or if that level is never recovered. 
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Hi,
You can find the review I made for radiata pine on page 182 of 'Sustainable Management of radiata pine plantations' FAO forestry paper 170'.  It is available on-line or can be downloaded through my Research Gate  site. In Table 10.2 the data is presented on  a mean annual basis, with the 'Other inputs' line being rainfall for P and cations.
Although there are many variables involved, stem-only harvesting is usually OK in the long term on many sites. Weathering rates, erosion, leaching losses and N fixation etc, as well as rainfall needs to be considered. Weathering is often more important than rainfall inputs for P and cations.
Some researchers have also developed models that can be run to see if there are trends over several rotations, but of course they are only so good as the data used to develop them and assumptions made. 
Don
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Please provide me the information if you have . it is needed for my research work.
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Dr. Sunil,
My name is Emerson. I´m working at Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA). My collegue Dr. Israel Pereira Alexandre Filho is working with organic fertilizers in babycorn and can help you. Your mail adress is israel.pereira@embrapa.br.
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I want to evaluate the role of sulfur and zinc on weed emergence in Dry Direct Seeded Rice.
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Thanks