Science topic

# Numismatics - Science topic

Study of coins, tokens, medals, etc. However, it usually refers to medals pertaining to the history of medicine.
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I’m curious if a newer theory on pain exists or whether we are still attempting to understand the theory fully in order to prove/disprove its correlation.
I understand it was a theory and required research to prove, however I’m not sure how a theory is proved if the medical establishment doesn’t still can’t successfully prevent or reverse the condition. Confirmation of a theory should balance recovery, reversal and management of pain through research studies, not simply pharmacological and pain management. We have severe chronic illnesses that fall distinctly in pain theory territory, for instance fibromyalgia a disease that has been coined “invisible“, abuses ones own body but can’t be tested or resolved and isn’t classified as an autoimmune condition. Yet the common information given to patients is we don’t understand fibromyalgia, nor how to reverse the condition. Some treatments are available to manage individual side effects of illness, generally consisting of seeing multiple disciplinary medical fields.
Central Sensitization Syndrome perhaps is a foundational stone in the theory. However I find it inconceivable with the advent of scientific medical research advancements (funded as part of the covid 19 pandemic), that this disease can continue to be discounted as a type of pandemic of various origins, given it often has certain known triggers ie infectious disease, PTSD And various other illness classifications.
There is growing recognition that probably the vast majority of “benign” chronic pain presentations represent a brain problem rather than a problem with receptors.
Different researchers, depending on speciality, have investigated a variety of aspects, all of which point to 2 factors: conditioned triggers to actual pain signalling, and learned hypersensitivity in response to “normal” signals from receptors.
None of this research is related to the work or theories of Melzack and Wall.
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Do you think cryptocurrencies are reliable assets to engage in swing trading? Some suggestions would be very much appreciated and helpful in my ongoing resecrh on cryptocurrencies.
You can further consider these publications helpful:
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A cryptofinance market is a market where cryptocurrencies are traded. The top ten cryptocurrencies by market capitalization are Bitcoin(BTC), Ethereum(ETH), Binance Coin(BNB), Tether(USDT), Solana(SOL), Cardano(ADA), U.S. Dollar Coin(USDC), XRP(XRP), Terra(LUNA), and Polkadot(DOT). The risk-return tradeoff of cryptocurrencies is different from that of stocks, currencies, and precious metals for the following reasons: (1) Cryptocurrencies are not exposed to most common stock market and macroeconomic factors; (2) Cryptocurrencies are not exposed to the returns of currencies and commodities; (3) Cryptocurrency returns can be predicted by factors that are unique to the cryptocurrency markets.The risks of holding cryptocurrencies are high because cryptocurrencies are highly volatile, intangible, exist on a non-regulated 24-hour market, and are uninsured by any authority. All these characteristics appeal to criminal and illegitimate purposes.
So, how do you measure the risks and returns in a cryptofinance market? Any suggestions will be very much appreciated in supporting my ongoing research in cryptocurrencies.
Hello Ako,
To effectively calculate risks and return, I will recommend you try your hands on GARCH model. Also, except you pay for API, you might not be able to calculate returns for all listed assets in a singular analysis (I stand to be corrected). I made that mistake recently.
Hope this helps. Cheers.
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International exchanges are inevitable in order to develop our projects and to ensure a sufficient critical base for the research. This confronts us with the problem of translating ideas, concepts and results that have developed in our local working language. As we know, English nowadays plays the role of the pivotal language in most conferences and publications. My intention is not to argue with this position -- a pivotal language is needed -- but to understand what are the main problems raised by writing and communicating in a language that is not the one in which the work is done.
English speakers themselves must question the meaning of words, sometimes neologisms, used by a non-English speaker. Of course, what is at stake is not the words but the meaning they convey. These issues are being addressed in the study of learning mathematics in a second language, or in the study of the variety and variability of teachers' vocabularies in different languages.
As researchers the issue is somewhat different. In particular, we must coin words and expressions to name phenomena or concepts in our own working language and then the challenge of translating them, or to understand words and expressions specific to the domain coming from another cultural and linguistic environment-- sometimes via the pivotal language.
I am preparing a short essay on these issues. I will appreciate your contributions, hence my questions:
Do you have examples to share or any particular experience? What do you think about the reasons for these difficulties and the impact they may have on your own communication?
Teachers may assist students achieve academic success by explicitly communicating positive expectations for each student, providing equal opportunity for students to engage in class discussions, and conveying to students that they are confidence in their capacity to succeed in their courses.
This is not something you learn when you first start learning arithmetic. However, this is a fundamental skill that every student should master since it allows them to develop critical thinking. Certain situations in life need you to be analytical, which is critical when making judgments.
Mathematics is the systematic application of matter. Mathematics organizes and prevents chaos in our lives. Mathematics fosters certain abilities such as reasoning ability, creativity, abstract or spatial thinking, critical thinking, problem-solving ability, and even excellent communication skills.
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Kindly let me know your thoughts
It might depend upon the type of research and obviously whose (which country/government). In the United States, Title 18, Chapter 17 of US Code talks about mutilation etc of coins and currency. It also specifies that the prohibition is for fraudulently doing so. For example, destructive analysis testing to determine metal content and percentages might not fall under that provision. Photography and scanning coins should be no issue but, as Robert Bracey mentions above, there are requirements that must be followed (in the US at least) regarding size and resolution of any photography of paper currency.
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in Batubahara Kingdom never mentioned about Sultan Zainal Abidin Muazam Sah, but his name was written in coins that found in batubahara residency nowadays
Thank you Mr. Moh Syukron Adzim
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I am a third year otolaryngology resident, and I've been using cheap, dental loupes for our operations. They cost around $30. Cheap doesn't mean non - functional. It has 2.5 x magnification and provides a clear (although the field of view could use some improvement; feels like looking through a coin) view, but with no built - in light source. Then there are shadowless headlamps, more popularly the Dr. Kim brand, which costs around 1400 dollars, or a cheaper, very similar Mamang brand in Alibaba, which is around 330 - 360$.
My question is: do you think these types of headlights provide additional benefit and marked difference during surgery? For sure the field of view may be better because of the bigger lens of attachable loupes, but I'm not certain if spending hundreds or thousands of dollars would provide marginal benefit with how we do operations. For reference, most of our operation are thyroidectomies, neck dissections, tonsillectomies. etc. I think my cheap dental loupes suffice, because the overhead lighting in most operating rooms are bright enough
Hoping to get some insights from those already with years of experience operating. :)
Sharpness and Durability should be considered. We look more into cavities and we sometimes have to carry out long procedures
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my dear all,
i'm really interested in Ancient numismatics studies(specially around south Asian region). If any research group, society or a academic group that conducting researches about ancient numismatics please let me know. i would like to be a part of those researches.
thank you,
Kasun S. Jayasuriya
To join the ONS visit their website at http://orientalnumismaticsociety.org/ look under 'regions' to find the appropriate regional secretary and contact them for details (membership varies slightly by region).
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Which coinage do you consider to be the oldest coinage in the world? Lydian Lion Coins? Or Chinese coins?
I think the coins issued in the civilizations of Mesopotamia and the Nile are the oldest coins
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From the time I went to Greek school, this was a hot topic with no real answers. Suddenly, this investigator, Asterios Tsintsifos who is not an academic, but simply writes on Facebook, presents a suite of ancient coins showing Homer on coins of this northern Asia Minor town of Sesamos, also known as Amastris. Mr Tsintsifos appears to have the information at his fingertips, while researchers have been looking for Homer's birthplace for centuries!
When do you think the public will ever find out the answer to this question?
Historians place his birth sometime around 750 BC and conjecture that he was born and resided in or near Chios. However, seven cities claimed to have been his birthplace. Due to the lack of information about Homer the person, many scholars hold the poems themselves as the best windows into his life. For instance, it is from the description of the blind bard in The Odyssey that many historians have guessed that Homer was blind. The Odyssey's depiction of the bard as a minstrel in the service of local kings also gives some insight into the life of the poet practicing his craft. What is undeniable is that.....
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In 1929, Fritz Zwicky published his proof of c-global and hence of the infinite eternal cosmos. It entails a life-threatening feature of CERN’s. And, less importantly, the falsity of quite a few Nobel medals.
In this way, Zwicky continues to overtax humankind’s IQ like a guardian angel. Everyone loves this humor-filled man who passed away in 1974.
Dec. 8, 2020
These 2 statements need more motivation.
Regards
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I have found it from the stomach of a fish caught from Red sea, Saudi Arabia. It is tiny, flat, rounded and hard as same like a coin.
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Hi everyone,
I have the following two questions and hope you can give me some suggestions.
• How to figure out if a coin is fair or unfair? and what is the probability of head?
Here is my thinking, please correct me if any mistake.
To figure out whether the coin is fair or not, a hypothesis test, H0: p=0.5 vs Ha: p !=0.5, is used, then employing the t-test to get a p-value that compares with the level of significance \alpha. Any other ideas?
If we want to find the probability of head, could we set a p-value as a threshold to infer the p0 in the hypothesis? More detail: Here the hypothesis is H0: p=p0 vs Ha: p !=p0, and the p-value is given.
• If flipped 10 times only, is the sample sufficient? If not, what is the minimum number of times should be flipped?
If you have any ideas or suggestions, I would appreciate it.
Regards,
Bruce already gave you the direction of using a binomial test (instead of a t-test) and to do a sample size calculation based on the confidence you want to put on the conclusions that p(head)=0.5 or that p(head)=0.5±d, where d is some finite difference to 0.5 you would consider "irrelevantly small".
Regarding yor question "If we want to find the probability of head, ...": this is not and cannot be adressed by a statistical test. This is an estimation problem. A crude solution is to go with the maximum likelihood estimate and possibly with a confidence interval around this estimate. However, the correct solution would be to state some prior expectation over p(head) and use the likelihood of your data to get the posterior of p(head) from what you may take the mode and determine a credible interval. For large samples and not-so-strange priors, there won't be much of a difference between the confidence interval and the credible interval, this is why using a confidence interval is often good enough (althogh the logic behind these intervals is very different).
To give you an idea about the sample size: If you don't have a very specific prior that the coin must be very fair and you want to detect a deviation of ±0.01 percent points with 95% confidence and conclude p(head)=0.5 also with 95% confidence, you would need data from at least 64964 tosses of that coin. With just 10 tosses you can say almost nothing concrete about p(head).
PS: philosophical side-note: there is nothing like a "fair coin" (despite the frequent re-iteration of this term in so many stats books). "Fairness" related to a game, in which you put a stake that equals the expected win. Consider I have a coin with head on either side, but you don't know that. I will toss the coin, and you will bet on the outcome. If you pay $1 for a toss and win$2 if your guess is correct, the game is fair - although p(head) for this coin is 1.0. The same applies for any coin with any p(head), given your choice of the outcome is independent of the coin (that is, you don't know the coin; you may even know that how much different p(head) is from 0.5, but not in what direction). And the coin does not even need to be tossed at all. It could lie around since the beginning of the world or be deliberately put on one side by me. As long as you don't know about the coin or if I would favour a particular side being up, the game remains fair.
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Please help by reflecting on Causation (as coined by Sarasvathy) and Causal Reasoning. How the two concepts differ or relate? many thanks
Causation is just a process in the world. Causal reasoning or causal explanation is a mental activity that makes use of the concept of causation e.g. by appealing to generalizations or assumed laws that appeal to assumed or observed causal relationships. If all people suddenly disappeared, causation would still exist, but there would be no causal reasoning or causal explanation.
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The dataset in question is basically Olympics medal tally. The dataframe has the below mentioned columns with the Name of the country as Index.
It is a (146, 16) dataset.
#Summer Gold Silver Bronze Total #Winter Gold.1 Silver.1 Bronze.1 Total.1 #Games Gold.2 Silver.2 Bronze.2 Combined total
I am tasked with finding the country which have the biggest difference between their summer and winter gold medal counts.
diff= []
for i in range(5):
diff.append(df[df.columns[1][i]]- df[df.columns[6][i]])
return diff.idxmax()
This was what i tried. But i am getting KeyError. What should I do?
abs(df.[['Gold', 'Gold.1']].diff(axis=1)).idxmax(axis=0)
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Dear researchers,
In my study, I have qualitatively (with a bit of quantitative) found results when comparing how cities and states attract international organizations. These results I coin low, average, and high, in order to compare my 8 cases. Now I am at the point of justifying these set boundaries. Who can help me justify how I set those? On a 10-point scale, sometimes between 5-6 is average, but in other cases between 5-7 (when my respondents needed to give themselves a score, they score high in self-congratulation). In other measures, I have a system of plusses and minuses. In other, I have centrality measures of betweenness centrality: between 1.4 and 1.8 where everything higher than 1.6 is red or low (longer distances between actors is bad), and between 1.6 and 1.5 is average, and lower than 1.5 is green or high. In the number of nodes, the range is between 14-25 (I put the boundaries on lower than 16, between 16-21 and higher than 21. For diversity of actors the range was 3-8 types of actors (I put the boundaries on lower than 4, between 4-6 and higher than 6). It feels right, but how can I justify these set boundaries in a correct way, any suggestions? Literature maybe?
thanks,
Rosa
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So, my main question has to do with the following task. I have a system basically that describes the motion of a rigid body non convnsional UAV. Using a thruster in the z-axis and for cannards to deflect the outcoming flow. It can be described as a ducted fan UAV. SO, I have set a trimming point with all the derivatives equal to zero in Simulink and specify an altitude for hovering, basically this has to do with steady state conditions. My dynamics are closely connected with these of a 6-DOF system, and my output vector is of 12 states (Euler angles position velocities angular rates....)
Using that opereation point I am trying to conduct the linearization of the equations on Simulink once again. Whenever I am using as the output states anly angular velocities 'p,q,r' and euler angles 'phi, theta, psi' in order to design an attitude controller my results say that matrices a,b that refering to my system are described as controllable as well as observable.
On the other side of the coin though whenever I am just add three quantities more, like position in inertial frame 'x,y'z, or velocities u,v,w my rank of controllability reduces to 2 giving me at least 7 uncontrollable states each time. That means that the system is uncontrollable.
Also if i only linearize using quantities of the state vector of position x, y, z anf euler agnle psi in order to make a position controller, still the whole system is uncontrollable.
So in a few words. Whever I specify states that have to do with position and velocities system is uncontrollable.
Also whnever I am using the quantities from euler equation, like euler angles and angular rates system is controllable.
Why is that??
Can you summarize the entire context with the governing equations and tell us the operating point and the dynamics that you want to linearize?
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Best regards
Can a person become infected with Covid-19 through polluted paper money or coins?
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This afternoon I was (almost) impeded from paying cash at a supermarket in Belgium with the argument that the use of cash might cause transmission of coronavirus !? Incidentally they used no-touch cash machines and cashiers did not wear any face masks!
I checked literature but I found no shred of evidence to support their claim. There are clear indications of bacterial contamination on currency, but I could not find any evidence for transmissible viral pathogens present on banknotes and coins. Anybody can help?
THANKS !
Koen Van Waerebeek
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In the October 2015 issue of "Israel Numismatic Research" there is an article about two previously unrecognized symbols on coins issued by Herod Antipas. These symbols, a star and a cornucopia, occur only in a brief minting of coins dated to 33-34 CE. They are also suggestive of a belief in the coming "Day of the Lord", which would be good news for Jews. However, as they are well after the Sabbath of Jubilee years, the issue cannot be linked to that. However, it could be linked to the discovery of the Shroud of Turin which could be viewed as a positive sign that the "Day of the Lord" was eminent.
Now since it was admitted in 2005 by the man who had approved the Nature journal article dating the Shroud of Turin to the medieval period that maybe they did not do a careful enough review of the data, and in a 2019 article it is claimed that the raw data simply does not justify the conclusion drawn, and multiple other dating approaches all date to a 1st century date, might these coins be evidence that Herod Antipas knew of the Shroud?
I did not cheque the star but the cornucopia (single as well as dual) appeared already on 150/140 BC Seleucid and Phoenician coins. I also think that the date for the shroud has been settled by all sorts of scientific techniques during the past three decades. It certainly does not belong to the early Christian era.
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Interestingly, greedy algorithms resemble how humans solve many simple problems without using much brainpower or with limited information. For instance, when working as cashiers and making change, a human naturally uses a greedy approach. You can state the make-change problem as paying a given amount (the change) using the least number of bills and coins among the available denominations.
Greedy algorithm for feature selection problem has been studied by the statistics and machine learning communities for many years. It has received more attention recently because of enthusiastic research in data mining.
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During proposal defence and even viva evaluation, most of the student coined a terminology called "Base Paper"
Their everything comes from base paper i.e. Gap, theory, model and even methodology. How can one extract research gap by following the future recommendation of single so called 'base paper'
We should discourage it strongly, it is far better to pick gap from practise, and then from literature.
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I want to produce button/coin shaped SDC electrolyte for SOFC.
1. May I know what is the most suitable support that can be easily remove from the SDC film after casting & drying process?
2. Should I punch/cut the SDC film into button/coin shaped after drying or after presintering process?
I agree with Darshan answers. For making a coin shape, laser cut on green sheet is also a good option to try.
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Initial coin offering to finance SMEs.
Companies who raised their start up capital through offering initial coins
how would it improve on or differ from conventional factors influencing SME financing - risk, reward ratio, etc.
hence, in what way would it reduce the risk to the investor, or increase attractiveness for the investor?
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Insects came first of the earth of any human being. It is natural but pest is created/coined by the human being for their own interest. 75% of the world's animal species are insects.
Organisms that become 'pest' are not limited to any class, phylum, or even kingdom. Insects are frequent pests; other invertebrates including mite, tick, nematode, mollusk; vertebrates including rodents, deer, coyotes, and birds; pathogenic microorganism; weeds are pest.
Pest compete with people for food, fibre, shelter, transmit pathogens, feed on people; or otherwise threaten human health, comfort, or welfare. Broadly, a pest is an organism that reduces the availability, quality, or value of some human resource.
Insects comprise approximately 86.35% of their phylum. Alternative name of insects is hexapoda. Most diverse group of organisms on the planet. Insects are bi-lateral symmetry; body divided into three parts, viz., head, thorax and abdomen; they possess one pair of compound eyes, one pair of antennae, two pair of wings and three pair of legs; reproductive apparatus placed at the end of the abdomen.
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A gramophone gets music or the spoken word back from incised grooves in a disk. The grooves were made by vibrations laid down as sound in matter. Is it possible that Nature left its imprint in matter such as rock and metals (e.g. coins) that could be retrieved as sound from the past? For example, battles, impact of meteors and asteroids in the K/T boundary, 66 million years ago?
Dear James and Louis, I know about Wikipedia's text concerning music, Stonehenge and Mexico's pyramid with contributions from 1998-2017. I was more concerned with the enormous noise of an incoming meteor or an asteroid because if this did not leave a measurable soundtrack behind, what do we expect from music and battle noises? So, the question is still up-to-date, I suppose.
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I am looking at old coins and want to use reference spectra to get quantitative information about the coins. I believe I need spectra of known reference materials to do that, but I don't have any with the right collection of elements.
The sample spectra very much depend on excitation energy and filters. I think it would be ways better to measure samples with known elemental compositions with your instrument and to determine the calibration coefficients by yourself rather than to rely on reference spectra from elsewhere.
Anyway, there is the fundamental parameters method (FP) along with the coefficient based calibration and quantification. For compact samples like coins containing solely heavy elements FP should work well.
Normally the manufacturers give detailed advice how to calibrate the instrument. You also may look here for some theory, including the problem of thin layers: http://www.icdd.com/resources/axa/vol42/v42_01.pdf
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I want to synthesize Lithium ion battery/coin cell.For that i have to make electrodes using my materials.I want to ask can i use DMF as solvent in those slurries instead of DMSO ?
Thank You !!!
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Some colleagues and I have been wondering how to get ahold of origins of certain facts that are these days just widely accepted.
For example, as we are researching on skin, we would like to find out who actually "discovered" the structure of the skin and therefore "coined" terms like stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, keratinocytes or fibroblasts.
This can of course be transferred to all other anatomy-related facts, like for example, who discovered the N. vagus and decided to call it that?
Is there a way of finding the original source of these things?
Hi,
I think the best way to go would be to find a good medicine history textbook or to browse historical books regarding specific topics. As an example, the UK Medical Heritage library contains many very old textbooks that might have the historical reference you are looking for.
Good luck,
Nicolas
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The methods of mining the digital coin (Bitquin) are draining large amounts of energy. This energy is wasted without benefiting in development
The attrition achieved through the use of
the digital coin (Bitquin) extraction methods is hampering efforts to achieve sustainability Therefore, the more this depletion leads to the destruction of efforts to achieve sustainability
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Agribusiness is the business of agricultural production. The term was coined in 1957 by Goldberg and Davis. It includes agrichemicals, breeding, crop production (farming and contract farming), distribution, farm machinery, processing, and seed supply, as well as marketing and retail sales. All agents of the food and fiber value chain and those institutions that influence it are part of the agribusiness system.
In any field of research required for workers in the agricultural sector, or for specific crops.
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India, with over 1.3 billion people, managed to win only two medals–one silver and a bronze – in the Rio Olympics 2016. In Asian Games 2018, its performance is very poor in comparison with China, Japan and South Korea.
Thanks @ Yooil Bae for your valuable contribution.
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There are some open problems begging for answers, including but not limited to:
· When a specific term was first coined?
· Who did coin a specific term?
· What if the coiner is not a celebrity?
· Did a specific term appear in any classified document first?
· Did a specific term appear in non-technical materials first?
· Did a specific term appear in non-text materials first?
· Was a specific English term borrowed from other languages?
· Does a specific English term tend to be the same in most languages?
It seems to me that these questions concern sources, not terminology, whose main problem is its need-oriented nature. As a result, different scholars use different terms for the same thing or similar terms with different meanings. This cannot be avoided and is very common in many disciplines. Regarding sources or paternity, it is often impossible to know for sure who coined something and when it was coined. Especially if the "coiner" is not famous (the famous person is very often a mere propagating agent). However, the main problem is time : the older a term is, the more difficult it is to trace it since written material becomes scarce. The problem is the same with expressions and proverbs, for example "Time is money". In my article on this proverb, I explain why its real coiner was forgotten and replaced in the collective memory with someone more famous (Benjamin Franklin) who, in fact, merely plagiarized a newspaper that contained the saying.
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We’re conducting a project on documenting the wear on a stamp used for countermarking roman coins during the reign of Augustus. The aim is to try and establish an overview of the movements of the Roman Legions XVII, XVIIII and XIX and their commander Quinctilius Varus in 9 AD, before being annihilated in the Battle of the Teutoburger Wald. Does anybody know about the application of high-resolution 3D-Scanning, preferably structured light, on the documentation of coins from any period? For more information (sorry, at the moment in German only) see here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCcYZ1HPFYFW6WLzJecicVDQ and here: http://archaeologie.sachsen.de/5155.htm
Dear Rengert, I did it as byproduct and experiment during 3D documentation of microscopic archaeological wood and charcoal. We use 3D system of Nikon optical microscope, but only with small part of coin surface. It looks nice, but it is too time consuming. We tested also digital microscope: it is optimal and quick way. But again: we tested it as byproduct of depicturing of an archaeobotanical objects.
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