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# Numbers - Science topic

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One of the central themes in the philosophy of formal sciences (or mathematics) is the debate between realism (sometimes misnamed Platonism) and nominalism (also called "anti-realism"), which has different versions.

In my opinion, what is decisive in this regard is the position adopted on the question of whether objects postulated by the theories of the formal sciences (such as the arithmetic of natural numbers) have some mode of existence independently of the language that we humans use to refer to them; that is, independently of linguistic representations and theories. The affirmative answer assumes that things like numbers or the golden ratio are genuine discoveries, while the negative one understands that numbers are not discoveries but human inventions, they are not entities but mere referents of a language whose postulation has been useful for various purposes.

However, it does not occur to me how an anti-realist or nominalist position can respond to these two realist arguments in philosophy of mathematics: first, if numbers have no existence independently of language, how can one explain the metaphysical difference, which we call numerical, at a time before the existence of humans in which at t0 there was in a certain space-time region what we call two dinosaurs and then at t1 what we call three dinosaurs? That seems to be a real metaphysical difference in the sense in which we use the word "numerical", and it does not even require human language, which suggests that number, quantities, etc., seem to be included in the very idea of an individual entity.

Secondly, if the so-called golden ratio (also represented as the golden number and related to the Fibonacci sequence) is a human invention, how can it be explained that this relationship exists in various manifestations of nature such as the shell of certain mollusks, the florets of sunflowers, waves, the structure of galaxies, the spiral of DNA, etc.?
That seems to be a discovery and not an invention, a genuine mathematical discovery. And if it is, it seems something like a universal of which those examples are particular cases, perhaps in a Platonic-like sense, which seems to suggest that mathematical entities express characteristics of the spatio-temporal world. However, this form of mathematical realism does not seem compatible with the version that maintains that the entities that mathematical theories talk about exist outside of spacetime. That is to say, if mathematical objects bear to physical and natural objects the relationship that the golden ratio bears to those mentioned, then it seems that there must be a true geometry and that, ultimately, mathematical entities are not as far out of space-time as has been suggested. After all, not everything that exists in spacetime has to be material, as the social sciences well know, that refer to norms, values or attitudes that are not.
(I apologize for using a translator. Thank you.)

I extracted the DNA from tissue (25 mg) and made the elution in 100 micro liter of an elution buffer, then made a real time PCR for CMV. Now when calculating the copy number of the viral load, is it calculated as copu number per micro liter or per mg?

hi

I am working on dam and reservoir interacrion and the order of numbers in fluid mass matrix is E-7 which seems very little

aany one that remmember whats th order of numbers in mass matrix for a 120 meter rservoir ?

it is a big help for me

best regard

Dears, please help me.

Could you prove that for any big number N there exists a composite Fermat number F_k such

that F_k > N?

Im supposed to synthesize Ni0.9Co2O4 and Ni0.95Co2O4. I'm gonna use the salts Ni(NO3)2 and Co(NO3)2 but Im confused what the numbers 0.9 and 0.95 next to the nickel means and how to start this calculation.

If corresponding factorials and triangular numbers are added, the results form the sequence of numbers, {2, 5, 12, 34, 135, 741, 5068, 40356, ...}, which I call factoriangular numbers. In the list of the first few factoriangular numbers, I found three Fibonacci numbers: 2, 5 and 34. Aside from these three, are there other Fibonacci numbers in the sequence of factoriangular numbers?

Dear all,

Hello!

How the size of individual cell can be measured by a typical SSC vs FSC graph without using a reference (known size beads or cells)? Although from a typical SSC vs FSC graph, we can find out relative size and complexity of the cells belonging to a particular population, how can we measure the cell size by using the numbers appears on the graph axis and the number below the graph (x1000 or so)?

Thanks

To me, an Erdös number seems like a harmless piece of trivia, akin to having the same astrological sign as some celebrity or sleeping in the same hotel room that a famous person had once slept in. I realize that a network of linked Erdös numbers may have interesting topological properties, but other than that, do they show anything of general significance?

Hi i have 3 PDE5 inhibitor drugs im looking to compare to each other in a systematic review & meta analysis

All 3 drugs have trial results comparing them to placebo ( no head to head trails)

what statistical method would be best to compare all 3 to see which is the most effective ?

thanks

Hi im currently doing a systematic review and meta-analysis for the first time, and i do not entirely understand how to effectively compare 3 PDE5 inhibitor drugs against each other for my data analysis ?

Would you construct a forest plot with all studies from all 3 drugs against placebo and see which had the greatest effect?

Hi I am currently doing a systematic review and meta analysis comparing 3 PDE5 inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, the studies are alll interventio vs placebo, however some

are flexible dosage and some are fixed dosage, how would I incorporate these dosages in a forest plot? Would I pool them all together? Or have two seperate forest plots, one competing fixed dosage and one comparing flexible dosage? Also I second question is would a traditional meta analysis or a network meta analysis Work best for my review? Bare in mind all trails compare against placebo

thanks

Dear everone,

I have a simple question about the definition of doping concentrations.

For example, one presents his/her doping formula for a complex crystal as:

ABmCn:X. Then the author states that the doping concentration of X is 5 %.

My question is:

The percentage (5%) of the doping centration is relative to the number of atoms of the whole formula (ABmCn), or the element it replaced, such as the number m for atom B, assumed that the authors use atomic percentage ?

Hi.

When i do a modal test on any structures.

So, How many can i select number of measurement points?

How can i select locations to put sensors?

And, the end, what does they depend on?

Thank you.

Here a(x) and b(x) satisfy b(x)=a(1/x), c(x) and d(x) satisfy d(x)=c(1/x), where the coefficients of polynomials a(x),b(x),c(x),d(x) belong to F

_{q}. Then how to count the number of solutions (a(x),c(x)) in F_{q.}We know that the number of aftershocks epends on the main shock magnitude.What is the relative number of aftershocks for each magnitude?

if the plant extract gives effect

as much does not isolate the material responsible for this effect??

there is a large number of researches that are limited to the extract only

Imagine n number of samples, in each of which I measure the expression of proteins A and B. The expression is not given as numbers, but rather classified in 4 categories (weak, medium, strong, very strong). What I want to test for is whether the expression of protein A correlates with the expression of B across all samples. What is the correct statistical test for that?

This would allow easy manipulation of plasmids for cloning.

On what basis we can say theoritical plates are more for capillary coloumn

Either crystals or fibrils, spray-drying or freeze-drying or else?

I just need a rough number. Thank you.

Hi,

I am using IBM-SPSS V24. I am experiencing a weird problem. When I copy any variable from 1 data set to another, the copying seems to work fine; but it reduces (and in some variables increases) the number of valid cases. For instance, in the original data set, I have 1028 valid cases. But when I copy it to a new data set the number of cases reduces to 978.

The data set is in this form, i.e., 1=Yes, and 2=0.

Any help in this regard would be highly appreciated.

Thank you.

Mustunsir

The fundamental defects Zeno's Paradox have disclosed are inside mathematics; just see the “debates” in newly discovered modern version of Zeno's Paradox---------Harmonic Series Paradox:

1, Are those Un--->0 items in Harmonic Series infinitesimals?

2, If they are not, what are they and what is infinitesimal?

3, If they are, are they potential infinitesimals or actual infinitesimals, why?

4, if they are potential infinitesimals, how to have numerical cognition to them; if they are actual infinitesimals, how to have numerical cognition to them?

5, what kind of mathematical tool limit theory is? Does it treat “potential infinite related number forms” or “actual infinite related number forms”?

6, Can we produce infinite items each bigger than 1/2, or 100, or 1000000, or 1000000000000000000,…by brackets-placing rule with limit theory from Un--->0 items in Harmonic Series and change Harmonic Series into an infinite series with infinite items each bigger than any positive constants (such as 100000000000000000000000000000)?

Since antiquity, no one in the world with the standard or non-standard or some future new “former languages” within the theatrical frame of present classical “potential infinite--actual infinite” related science and mathematics are unable to answer such questions self-justificationaly!

How bioanalyzer determine the RIN of RNA sample?

Why in some cases the RIN appears as not applicable? What could happened?

I wish to get away from opinion polls and vague expressions such as good or poor. I am looking for a precise job evaluation, preferably using numbers. With this I could than compare one teacher to another and show exactly why they scored differently.

What is the domain and co-domain (range) of the inverse function of arcsin: is it all real numbers or from -1 to 1?

Yes, it is the sin(x), but is x from minus infinite to plus infinite, or just from -pi/2 to pi/2?

Antimicrobial resistance and genes on plasmids

How to quantified the silanol number in Mesoporous material like (SBA-15, MCM-41, SBA-16, KIT-6)?

The hadoop mapreduce based approach is linearly scalable i.e. the time efficiency improves as number of processors increases. What is the theoretical limit for increasing number of processors in a cluster?

Many Academician and researchers think that number, quality and citation does not matter. But another school of thought relates quality of a paper to number of citation. What can be some successful strategies to increase the number of citations?

I would be very grateful if you could direct me to publicly available dataset for clustering and/or classification with/without known class membership. Variables (attributes) should be continuous (no categorical/binary); and number of observation should be greater than number of variables. Number of variables less than 100 would be preferable.

Thanks

Michael

I want to analysis streamflow variation with rainfall in small catchment ( around 150 km^2) . I have 30 yers monthly rainfall data and 10 years monthly streamflow data. These streamflow data are the only avaliable data in this station.there are no other streamflow gauging stations within the catchment.

I want to know how to proceed with these avaliable data? Waht are the method availables?

Someone can recommend me different decisions to reduce the amount of items of a psychological scale

My name is SUsan Smith and I have been identified incorrectly ....could you fix this? I am attached to a number of papers dealing with Telomeres and this has nothing to do with me.

I want to support a qualitative study with some rudimentary number based analysis. My data comprises 10 variables, each having a perceptual range from 1 (least different from ideal) to 7 (most different from ideal). Thanks!

How to i find nusselt number in Ansys fluent.

When i click wall fluxes >> Surface nusselt number ina pipe . the plot shows weird values of surface nusselt number of 1e5 at entrance and 2e4 around developed flow in pipe for air which i know i wrong , please tell me about this.

Thanks

What formula should be used to convert grain size number (G) into the grain size in µm?

Based on some images, it looks like there can be variability in the exact number, but does anyone know of any literature that describes the diversity of neuronal nucleoli and gives exact numbers for how many nucleoli per neuron among different cell types? Thanks!!

The completion of genome sequences from human and mice suggested a regulatory role of space (Chorobiology) in controlling biological phenomena and activities. Consequently fundamental constants of mathematics such as π, the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, should have a role in describing properties and establishing control in biology.

The Greek mathematician Archimedes who found π, developed a rigorous approach to approximating π. Archimedes observed that polygons drawn inside and outside a circle would have perimeters somewhat close to the circumference of the circle.

While π is an infinite number (never ending No), it relates to a symmetric geometrical image, the circle, but intriguingly Archimedes used polygons to measure the circumference of the circle.

What could be the meaning or the role of π in the control of signal transduction? And why π is an infinite number?

I was looking for examples of first order sentences written in the language of fields, true in Q (field of rational numbers) and C (field of complex numbers) but false in R (field of real numbers). I found the following recipe to construct such sentences. Let a be a statement true in C but false in R and let b be a statement true in Q but false in R. Then the statement z = a \/ b is of course true in Q and C, but false in R.

Using this method, I found the following z:=

(Ex x^2 = 2) ---> (Au Ev v^2 = u)

which formulated in english sounds as "If 2 has a square-root in the field, then all elements of the field have square roots in the field." Of course, in Q the premise is false, so the implication is true. In C both premise and conclusion are true, so the implication is true. In R, the premise is true and the conclusion false, so the implication is false. Bingo.

However, this example is just constructed and does not really contain too much mathematical enlightment. Do you know more interesting and more substantial (natural) examples? (from both logic and algebraic point of view)

There are some papers which give the overall complexity of finding all maximum matchings of a Tree/graph.....But I need Number of max matchings, not all the matchings.

Hi everyone,

I need to perform a topic analysis on various corpora of documents and I need a procedure that can be applied to all of these corpora independently in a standard way.

These are the characteristics of the corpora:

- the number of documents in each corpus will hardly be more the 500 and most of the times is around 50;
- documents are generally very shot (from 20 to 200 words most fo the times);
- each corpus is independent and analyses will never be done merging corpora, but only performed within each corpus;
- the language of documents will be homogeneous within each corpus, but it may vary between corpora;
- the number of topics is unknown a priori, and topics will be different in every corpus.

Specifically, I’m looking for a procedure that:

- automatically detects the best number of recurrent topic in each corpus, but that it is also able to take into account that some documents may have “peculiar” topics that are not represented in any other document. These are not of interest and may be seen as a kind of “residuals”. If these peculiar, single-document topics are identified as further topics by the model it is fine too;
- gives for every document a % for all the identified recurrent topics, plus a % that is “residual” from them. Otherwise, also the single-document topics have to be identified and scored in each document.

if I understand the LDA models well, they don’t allow this “residual” part and the sum of the %-score of the topics is always 1. Moreover, they are not good in identifying single-document topics and the result for these “outcast” documents is somehow a uniform score for all the topics, even though none of them is truly present in the document.

Are there other topic analysis models that better fit with my task or I misunderstood the LDA models?

Thank you very much!

Massimiliano

A q-ary necklace of length n is an equivalence class of q-coloured strings of length n under rotation. The number is

N

_{q}(n)=(1/n) \sum_{i|n}\varphi(n/i) q^iFor example q=3, n=3, N

_{3}(3)=11000 000 000

001 100 010

002 200 020

011 101 110

012 201 120

021 102 210

022 202 220

112 211 121

122 212 221

111 111 111

222 222 222

But

**if the first bit must take modulo 2**, then the answer is 4. For example001

002

011

122

Here 210=010, 001=201 , 000=200 and so on. Note: the first bit must take modulo 2.

What is the number of Necklaces in length n and beading of q different colors with the first bit taking modulo 2?

What are the defferences between RAxML and Baysian analysis in term of modeling, how we know the number of replicates in RAxML

When normalized fuzzy weights are multiplying the fuzzy numbers so that the resulting fuzzy numbers go outside the range of possible values for a number. This certainly happen because the sum of the upper-bounds of the fuzzy weights are > 1. What do you suggest to tackle this problem (i.e. to emphasize the resulting fuzzy numbers to be inside the range of possible values)?

Dear Researchers,

I hope this question finds you well.

In the attached LINGO window, I'd like to know the mean of the highlighted number of nonlinear variables.

My model is nonlinear and the non-linearity is in the set of constraints, namely, one binary variable multiplied by continuous variable.

Thank you in advance.

Best Regards,

Mahmoud

i saw in a paper that u(3,1) has one s-boson and three p-boson. i want to get a general reception about all lie algebras. could any one help me please?

I'm looking for the theoretical model !!

Dean flows, microchannels, derivation of analytical solution to dean flows

There are three number line in mathematics:

1. Real Number Line.

2. Imaginary Number Line.

3. Circular Number Line.

1 subset 2 subset 3.

In interval arithmetic, for an interval I= [a, b] we define -I = [-b, -a]. But, it does not satisfy the arithmetic formula like I + J -I = I and more specifically, I - I != [0,0]. It creates a whole lot of problems.

A question comes to mind as how authentic this arithmetic is? Can we call this as something other than arithmetic? Will it be simply another algebraic system which satisfies certain properties?

In this case, when intervals are reduced to singleton sets or numbers by making the end points meet, will it be same as normal arithmetic of numbers?

Can some some source material be linked for reference!

Please can someone give me a reference on the distribution of Pisot numbers on the real line.

Which multilevel inverter topology have least number of switches to generate maximum level?

In the papers given in the links below, we define factoriangular number (Ft

_{n}) as the sum of corresponding factorial and triangular number, that is, Ft_{n}= n! + T_{n}where T_{n}= n(n+1)/2. Notice that Ft_{1}= 2T_{1}= 2 and Ft_{3}= 2T_{3}= 12. Aside from 2 and 12, is there any other factoriangular number that is twice a triangular number?Factoriangular numbers (denoted by Ft

_{n}) are formed by adding corresponding factorials and triangular numbers, that is Ft_{n}= n! + T_{n}, where T_{n}is the nth triangular number. The closed form of the exponential generating function of the sequence of factoriangular numbers can be easily derived from the exponential generating functions of n! and of T_{n}(see the link below). How about the closed form of the ordinary generating function of such sequence?There are many relationships or connections between factorials and triangular numbers that can be found in the literature, both old and new. In a recent study on factoriangular numbers (sums of corresponding factorials and triangular numbers), we unintentionally found that n! = T

_{(n-1)!+n}- T_{(n-1)!}- T_{n}where T_{k}is the kth triangular number. Curious on this, can you help us find older literature that also mentioned the stated relationship between factorials and triangular numbers?I'm currently working on PORTFOLIO Optimization for my research paper. I used GA to solve a multi-objective problem but instead of using binary number as a gene indicator/ chromosome I used real number. Then I normalized it for the weights to be equal to 1. Is it ok to use real numbers instead of binary numbers?

One solution to the Diophantine equation 8n! + (2n + 1)

^{2 }= m^{2 }is n = 6, m = 77. What are the other positive integer solutions to the said equation?There have been three suspended questions in present classical set theory ever since:

1,

**Will the nature of elements inside the set decide the existing state of the set as well as its relationship with other set?***the definition of set------should the definition of set concern the nature of elements inside the set? How we distinguish different sets（Such as Odd Number Set and Natural Number Set）?*

**But, it is**“the different natures of the elements in real number set and natural number set” that make Cantor proved the different cardinalities between the two sets.2,

**What kind of nature do the elements have inside “potential infinite set” or “actual infinite set” or both “potential infinite set” and “actual infinite set”?***how to judge whether a set belongs to “potential infinite set” or “actual infinite set” or both “potential infinite set” and “actual infinite set”?*3, can we have many different bijection proofs with different result between two infinite sets? If we can, what conclusion should people choose

*in front of two opposite results, why?*in conducting meta-analysis

how can i deal with dropouts in clinical trials.

when can i use intention to treat analysis?

what about if the original trial not reporting the cause of dropouts?

for example

in one trial included in meta-analysis

- number of participants randomized: 36

- number of participants evaluated at 1 year: 24 (14 group 1 ; 10 group 2)

appreciate your time and efforts

Let factorials be added to their corresponding triangular numbers resulting to a sequence of numbers {2, 5, 12, 34, 135, 741, ...}, which I call factoriangular numbers in my recent papers. Let T(n) be the nth triangular number. Notice that 741 = 6! + T(6) = T(38). Are there other numbers that are both factoriangular and triangular?

For declaration of a primer to be used for the purpose of barcoding, what is the number of individuals to be screened for that region?

Let the set of all repunits (repeated units) i.e., 1,11,111,... is

**X**.=>

**X = { R**_{n}: n belongs to postive integer }(Repunit of n defined by R

_{n.}1 is R_{!. }11 is R_{2, }etc....)Generally

**X**is not satisfy closed property.- Under what condition or when
**X**satisfy closed property? - For which n, R
_{2n+1}is prime?

In meta-analysis, is there any restrictions on the number of studies to perform subgroup analysis? i.e, what is the minimum number of studies to be included in the subgroup analysis?

I have a sequence of n numbers in a computer game, I want to move m solders randomly based on this sequence. for example

n={1,2,3}

and m=3

we get the following solution:

s1={1}, s2: {2,3}, s3={} or

s1={1,2,3}, s2: {},s3={}, or

s1={3,2,1}, s2: {},s3={}, or

s1={3,2}, s2: {}, s3={1}, or

s1={1}, s2: {2}, s3={3}, or

s1={3}, s2: {2}, s3={1}, or

s1={}, s2: {23}, s3={1}, or ...

for n=3 and m=3 I counted 60 different ways if I was not wrong, what is the formula to find the number of all possible solutions?

HI,

1.I read about stereo tactic radio surgery physics , but i don't understand what is the important different between external beam radio therapy and srs.

except the stereo tactic techniques which is required for fixing skull and narrowing beam which aided to intracranial target volume?

I have many question for example:

I don't know how we can flat this narrow beam in different arc? it is the same procedures which is done in external therapy by filter?

2. In the gamma knife system we need to how many source ? the number of ports is equal the number of source?or more?

Thanks in advance.

In the fuzzy system,once we fix the input variables and corresponding to MFs, are the rules of the fuzzy system been fixed?For example ,threre are 2 input variables and corresponding to 4 MFs in each input. So how many rules in total, 8 or 16? And I have some findings in a paper of ANFIS presented in the picture? I want to know why is that? Thanks a lot!!!

**Regarding type of variables(discrete and continuous) which is the best for for large problem instances:**

**First:**A very large and NP-hard MILP formulation with large number of discrete(binary) variables and small number of continuous variables (and also fewer number of homogeneous constraints).

**Second:**A very large and NP-hard MILP formulation with fewer number of discrete(integer) variables and large number of continuous variables (and also larger number of heterogenous constraints).

**1).**both formulations are equivalent,

**2).**both formulations are not tight,

**3).**degree of complexity of both is very high,

**4).**the problem shoud be solved with exact methods for large instances,

**5).**both expected to be intractable for very large instances.

The question is about monophonic number of graph and relation to dominating set of graph.

We call a certain day 2015-12-1 "H" and another day 2015-12-10 "b", "H" ends at 2015-12-1 but has no beginning; and "b" with a beginning at 2015-12-10 and infinitely going up.

Now the problem is: where did 2015-12-1 and 2015-12-10 came from? In mathematics, those "cuts" are called: infinite, super infinite, super super infinite, super super super infinite, super super super super infinite.

Can we really have such infinite, super infinite, super super infinite, super super super infinite, in our mathematics?

Let q be an odd positive integer, and let N

_{q}denote the number of integers a such that 0 < a < q/4 and gcd(a, q) = 1. How do I see that N_{q}is odd if and only if q is of the form p^{k}with k a positive integer and p a prime congruent to 5 or 7 modulo 8?Can you give me meterials relating natural gas field development? How do I choose the optimal number of wells?

What is the partition of repunit? Is It possible to find the general formula for partition of repunit?

I need these measurement for the diversity analysis of population of vectors

I need publications on method ABN created by Jaime Martinez Montero, thanks a lot

Result: The number of compositions of 2n, say c_1+c_2+...c_k=2n, satisfy that Sum_(i=1..j) c_i <2j for all j=1..k is equal to C(2n-1, n), i.e., the number 2n-1 choose n.

E.g., when n=2, C(3, 2)=3 because we can write 4=1+1+1+1=1+1+2=1+2+1.

Is there an easy way to prove it directly?