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Nuclear Chemistry - Science topic

Nuclear chemistry is the subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties.
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Publications related to Nuclear Chemistry (784)
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Article
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This paper presents the results of the first observation of airborne trace elements using Barbula Indica moss in Hai Phong city, one of the two largest seaport cities in Vietnam. A total of 39 moss samples were collected at 39 different locations in January 2020 in Hai Phong. Neutron activation analysis method was used to analyze the concentration...
Article
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Chemistry is one of the oldest in science. It is a branch of basic science that examines the characteristics of all substances in the universe, interactions with each other and the changes that occur after interactions. It's one of the first natural sciences. Chemical science is a multidisciplinary science. Physics, biology, astronomy, archaeology,...
Article
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Flerovium (Fl, element 114) is the heaviest element chemically studied so far. To date, its interaction with gold was investigated in two gas-solid chromatography experiments, which reported two different types of interaction, however, each based on the level of a few registered atoms only. Whereas noble-gas-like properties were suggested from the...
Article
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Nanocrystalline boehmite material was synthesized using the hydrothermal method. Different annealing temperatures have been used to transform boehmite into different alumina phases to study the effect of different phase transitions on the thermoluminescence properties of alumina. XRD analysis was carried out to investigate the crystal structure of...
Article
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Zirconium alloys are commonly used as a cladding material for fuel elements in nuclear reactors. This application is connected with zirconium alloy’s good resistance to water corrosion and radiation resistance under normal working conditions. In the case of severe accident conditions, the possibly very fast oxidation of zirconium alloys in steam or...
Article
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We propose that several different reactor irradiation times followed by assaying of activity for differential counting periods may be employed for quality control (QC) of neutron activation analysis (NAA) data of biological samples. It is also recommended that three to four reference materials (RMs) of similar matrix but from different agencies suc...
Article
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The protective effect of aromatic compounds in organic radiation chemistry is interesting both in terms of the impact of ionizing radiation on living organisms and the modification of plastics. The article discusses the results of own research on the protective effect in the radiolysis of polypropylene (PP). The main aim of the work was to describe...
Technical Report
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Annual Report 2020/21 of the Working Group of Analytics and Basic Nuclear Chemistry Division of Nuclear Chemistry at the University of Cologne
Article
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Four different grain size fractions (0.2-0.5, 0.5-1, 1-1.8, 1.8-2 mm) of red brick and cement mortar samples at different moisture (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) content relative to the sample mass were subjected to measuring their 222Rn mass exhalation rates using Alpha-Guard radon monitor, PQ 2000 PRO. The results indicated an inverse proportion between...
Article
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Nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry is a branch of chemistry that has high experimental risks, has high research costs, and is subject to certain prejudices. However, it has an extremely important influence on the development of human life. It is particularly important to emphasize the general education of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry with...
Article
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The sheared granite of El Sela represents one of the most promising uranium mineralization in the southern part of the eastern desert, in Egypt. The present work concerned in detailed with El Sela shear zone through ENE-WSW and NNW-SSE trends as a perfect way for ascending hydrothermal solutions and meteoric water that led to leaching of uranium fr...
Article
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Variations in bonding between trivalent lanthanides and actinides is critical for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. The ability to tune bonding and the coordination environment in these trivalent systems is a key factor in identifying a solution for separating lanthanides and actinides. Coordination of 4,4′−bipyridine (4,4′−bpy) and trimethylsilylcy...
Preprint
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The 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activities were investigated in soil samples of Chikkamagaluru district, Karnataka, using γ-ray spectrometry. The average activity of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to vary from 15.2 ± 0.6 to 58 ± 1.2 Bq kg−1, 14 ± 0.6 to 86.2 ± 1.7 Bq kg−1, and 224.5 ± 5.5 to 1650 ± 20.3 Bq kg−1 with a mean value of 36.93 ± 1.0, 51.6 ± 1....
Conference Paper
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Este artigo apresenta uma revisão da literatura sobre válvulas industriais. São abordados aspectos de funcionalidade, categorias de válvulas, principais componentes, aplicação na indústria petroquímica, apresentação de linhas de pesquisa e trabalhos correlatos recentes. Pretende-se apresentar à comunidade acadêmica e industrial detalhes de projetos...
Article
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Controlling the properties of heavy element complexes, such as those containing berkelium, is challenging because relativistic effects, spin-orbit and ligand-field splitting, and complex metal-ligand bonding, all dictate the final electronic states of the molecules. While the first two of these are currently beyond experimental control, covalent M‒...
Article
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Standard methods to assess the durability of vitrified radioactive waste were first developed in the 1980’s and, over the last 40 years, have evolved to yield a range of responses depending on experimental conditions and glass composition. Mechanistic understanding of glass dissolution has progressed in parallel, enhancing our interpretation of the...
Article
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Preorganization is an effective strategy for f-element separation, but the complexity of extractant synthesis hinders large-scale application. Here the authors discuss an alternative strategy induced by in situ self-assembly that borrows principles of multivalent cooperativity from Nature to separate f-elements.
Article
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Fenton or Fenton-like oxidation for treatment of organic radioactive wastes is a promising technology with applications to a range of organic wastes. This review details this process; exploring potential challenges, pitfalls and opportunities for industrial usage with radioactive wastes. The application of this process to real radioactive wastes wi...
Article
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The application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), both in solution and laser ablation (LA) mode, and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in the nuclear material analysis are presented in this paper. The possibility of each technique for the chemical characterization of substances used during TRISO fuel production...
Article
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NaLi 2 PO 4 :Tb 3+ phosphor material was prepared by solid state diffusion method using NaH 2 PO 4 and LiOH. The CW-OSL sensitivity of the material (particle size 100-200 μm) was optimised by 1.2 mol% Tb 3+ doping and annealing and quenching at 800 °C. Correlation between the traps for TL and CW-OSL shows that shallow traps recombine first and the...
Article
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Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that stem cells can promote the regeneration of damaged tissues, but therapeutic protocols need better quality control to confirm the location and number of transplanted cells. This study describes in vivo imaging while assessing reporter gene expression by its binding to a radiolabelled molecule to the r...
Article
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This work presents the first direct measurement of the 93Mo half-life. The measurement is a combination of high-resolution mass spectrometry for the determination of the 93Mo concentration and liquid scintillation counting for determining the specific activity. A 93Mo sample of high purity was obtained from proton irradiated niobium by chemical sep...
Article
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We previously presented the radiolabeled ammonium salt [11C]-dimethyl diphenylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([11C]DMDPA) as a potential novel PET-MPI agent. The current study aimed to increase the clinical applicability of PET-MPI by designing and synthesizing fluorinated ammonium salt derivatives. Four fluorinated DMDPA derivatives and two qu...
Article
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Electrorefining process has been widely used to separate and purify metals, but it is limited by deposition potential of the metal itself. Here we report in-situ anodic precipitation (IAP), a modified electrorefining process, to purify aluminium from contaminants that are more reactive. During IAP, the target metals that are more cathodic than alum...
Article
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The method of pre-irradiation grafting was used with the aid of electron beam (EB) accelerator to accomplish the grafting of polyamide 6 fibers (PA6) with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). The extent to which GMA was grafted on PA6 was found to be markedly influenced by the absorbed dose of radiation and the reaction time of grafting. Trimethylamine (TM...
Research
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This compendium covers text in liquid-liquid extraction for the partial completion of the curriculum of the course “KJM5940 - Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange” at Institute of Chemistry, University of Oslo. The text gives an introduction to the physical and chemical laws governing liquid-liquid extractions, and describes briefly how these laws a...
Article
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Non-intermittent, low-carbon energy from nuclear or biofuels is integral to many strategies to achieve Carbon Budget Reduction targets. However, nuclear plants have high, upfront costs and biodiesel manufacture produces waste glycerol with few secondary uses. Combining these technologies, to precipitate valuable feedstocks from waste glycerol using...
Article
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A new series of nucleosides, moieties, and Schiff bases were synthesized from sulfadimidine. Infrared (IR), ¹ HNMR, ¹³ C NMR, and mass spectrometry techniques and elemental analysis were employed to elucidate the synthesized compounds. The prepared analogues were purified by different chromatographic techniques (preparative TLC and column chromatog...
Article
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papers in nuclear science as indexed in Web of Science database for the period of 10 years (2009 to 2018), with a view to understand India’s growth, geographical distribution of the publications, research communication in core journals, institutional productivity, highly productive scientists. It is noted from the study that India has produced high...
Article
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A new process was developed to recover high specific activity (no carrier added) 99Mo from electron-accelerator irradiated U3O8 or uranyl sulfate targets. The process leverages a novel solvent extraction scheme to recover Mo using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid following uranium and transuranics removal with tri-n-butyl phosphate. An anion-exchan...
Article
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Superheavy elements are ideal for furthering our understanding of relativistic effects and how they affect physicochemical properties of heavy elements. In this comment, the author discusses the role of chemistry in the synthesis of new elements before addressing the future challenges concerning the chemical characterization of superheavy elements.
Article
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The proliferation of plastics in the environment continues at an alarming rate. Plastic particles have been found to be persistent and ubiquitous pollutants in a variety of environments, including sea water, fresh water, soil, and air. In light of this phenomenon, the scientific and medical communities have become increasingly wary of the dangers p...
Article
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Radiation dosimeters displaying conspicuous response of irradiance are highly desirable, owing to the growing demand of monitoring high-energy radiation and environmental exposure. Herein, we present a case of dosimetry based on a discrete nanocluster, [Th6(OH)4(O)4(H2O)6](TPC)8(HCOO)4∙4DMF∙H2O (Th-SINAP-100), by judiciously incorporating heavy Th6...
Article
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Following the Fukushima Daiichi accident, significant efforts from industry and the scientific community have been directed towards the development of alternative nuclear reactor fuels with enhanced accident tolerance. Among the proposed materials for such fuels is a uranium silicide compound (U 3 Si 2 ), which has been selected for its enhanced th...
Article
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We developed a novel method for production of no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) [188, 189, 191Pt]PtIICl4²⁻ from an Ir target material, and then synthesized n.c.a. [*Pt]cis-[PtIICl2(NH3)2] ([*Pt]cisplatin) from [*Pt]PtIICl4²⁻. [*Pt]PtIICl4²⁻ was prepared as a synthetic precursor of n.c.a. *Pt complex by a combination of resin extraction and anion-exchange c...
Conference Paper
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The study was geared by the growing need for teaching methods/strategies that afford the African child the strength to meaningfully learn science in the digital world, not as foreign and/or abstract concepts but as a unit of knowledge that exists around him, within his culture and which applies to his everyday life. The study was in two phases with...
Article
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Radiation driven reactions at mineral/air interfaces are important to the chemistry of the atmosphere, but experimental constraints (e.g. simultaneous irradiation, in situ observation, and environmental control) leave process understanding incomplete. Using a custom atomic force microscope equipped with an integrated X-ray source, transformation of...
Article
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Developing targeted α-therapies has the potential to transform how diseases are treated. In these interventions, targeting vectors are labelled with α-emitting radioisotopes that deliver destructive radiation discretely to diseased cells while simultaneously sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. Widespread implementation requires advances in non-...
Article
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All superheavy elements (SHEs), with atomic numbers (Z) ≥104, have been artificially synthesized one atom at a time and their chemical properties are largely unknown. Because these heavy nuclei have short lifetimes as well as extremely low production rates, chemical experiments need to be carried out on single atoms and have mostly been limited to...
Article
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Superheavy elements are short-lived and only available on a single-atom level, making their chemical properties very challenging to study. Now, through their co-precipitation with samarium, single atoms of rutherfordium have been shown to form hydroxide complexes but not ammine ones.
Poster
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Third National Conference on Radiation Awareness and Detection in Natural Environment (RADNET-III) was scheduled to be held during June 15-17, 2020 at New Tehri, Tehri Garhwal. Due to the pandemic of COVID-19, the conference (RADNET-III) could not be organized on its scheduled time. The organizing committee of Third National Conference on Radiation...
Article
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The transplutonium elements (atomic numbers 95–103) are a group of metals that lie at the edge of the periodic table. As a result, the patterns and trends used to predict and control the physics and chemistry for transition metals, main-group elements and lanthanides are less applicable to transplutonium elements. Furthermore, understanding the pro...
Article
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A simple hands-on model for illustrating the concept of isotope dilution analysis (IDA) has been devised. The model consists of two sets of beads of different sizes, with one set representing atoms of the analyte and the other set representing solvent water molecules. Phase separation is mimicked by sieving the beads, and the results are detected a...
Article
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Over the last three decades, the chemistry of zirconium has facilitated antibody development and the clinical management of disease in the precision medicine era. Scientists have harnessed its reactivity, coordination chemistry, and nuclear chemistry to develop antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals incorporating zirconium-89 (89Zr: t1/2 = 78.4 h, β+:...
Article
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Understanding the biogeochemistry of radionuclides in the environment is essential for effective isolation of nuclear waste in repositories, management of contaminated sites, ensuring long-term protection of our ecosystems, and limiting impacts on human health. Here the authors discuss the extreme complexity of this multidimensional chemistry probl...
Article
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Abstract The metabolism of ceramides is deregulated in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients and is associated with apolipoprotein (APO) APOE4 and amyloid-β pathology. However, how the ceramide metabolism changes over time in AD, in vivo, remains unknown. Distribution and metabolism of [18F]F-HPA-12, a radio-fluorinated version of the cera...
Article
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A novel composite MOF@cotton fibre (HCF) was prepared and characterized by FTIR, SEM, XPS and TGA. The effect of various parameters on the adsorption efficiency, such as the solution pH, contact time, initial U(VI) concentration and temperature, was studied. The maximal sorption capacity (Qm) is 241.28 mg g⁻¹ at pH 3.0 for U(VI) according to the La...
Article
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Removal of ⁹⁹TcO4⁻ from legacy defense nuclear tank waste at Savannah River Site is highly desirable for the purpose of nuclear safety and environmental protection, but currently not achievable given the extreme conditions including high alkalinity, high ionic strength, and strong radiation field. Herein, we present a potential solution to this lon...
Article
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Indoor radon (222 Rn) was surveyed in a total of 141 individual houses and apartments used precalibrated passive PicoRad Detectors. The radon activity in the soil gas around the dwellings was simultaneously measured. The arithmetic mean values of indoor radon concentrations for detached houses, old buildings (up to four-stories), prefabricated bloc...
Presentation
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Introduction to Nuclear Chemistry
Article
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The UK holds the largest inventory, worldwide, of separated plutonium under civil safeguards. Here, the importance of materials degradation in managing this inventory to a safe and secure end point is reviewed, together with recent developments, in the context of storage, reuse and immobilisation and disposal.
Article
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Radionuclide generator systems can routinely provide radionuclides on demand such as 68Ga produced by a 68Ge/68Ga generator without the availability of an on-site accelerator or a research reactor. Thus, in this work nano-SnO2 was used to develop a new 68Ge/68Ga generator which was evaluated over a period of 17 months and 305 elution cycles. The el...
Article
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Most of the highly radioactive spent nuclear fuel (SNF) around the world is destined for final disposal in deep-mined geological repositories. At the end of the fuel’s useful life in a reactor, about 96% of the SNF is still UO2. Thus, the behaviour of UO2 in SNF must be understood and evaluated under the weathering conditions of geologic disposal,...