Science topic

Non-Communicable Diseases - Science topic

A non-communicable disease, or NCD, is a medical condition or disease which by definition is non-infectious and non-transmissible between persons.
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I would like to do a study based on this topic and i can't find any questionnaires. I need help with the questionnaire or any study related to this topic.
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I want to develop an questionnaire on Knowledge, attitude s, practice s on non Communicable Diseases. I'm searching previous research questions.
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how is the Effective of Implementation of Policy on Healthy Diet and Physical Activities Related to Control Strategies for Non-Communicable Disease, (provide more link is more welcome, please)
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Kindly check the following RG link:
In which interventional activities targeting the high-risk population seem to be effective in improving lifestyle behavior, increasing awareness and control of risk factors of the high-risk population.
Also, check the following RG link:
In which it indicates that policymakers in low- and middle-income countries urgently need to develop comprehensive and multi-stakeholder policies to improve dietary quality and physical activity.
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Hello all,
I want to assess the social burden of Major Non-communicable diseases (Diabetes Mellitus) and which instrument will address the societal burden of the diseases.
thanks in advance for the genuine support and advice.
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Dear Israel,
There is a wealth of literature on direct nd indirect costs of diabetes fort he individual and society alike. Two years ago, a good review has been published by Einarson TR, Acs A, Ludwig C, Panton UH (DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2017.12.019 ), but there many more, worth being read, e.g.:
Zhuo X, Zhang P, Hoerger TJ. Lifetime direct medical costs of treating type 2 diabetes and diabetic complications .Am J Prev Med. 2013 Sep;45(3):253-61. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2013.04.017
Walker I et al. The Economic Costs of Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, and Associated Complications in South Asia: A Systematic Review .Value Health Reg Issues. 2018 May;15:12-26. doi: 10.1016/j.vhri.2017.05.003. Epub 2017 Jul 3
Hex N, Bartlett C et al, Estimating the current and future costs of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in the UK, including direct health costs and indirect societal and productivity costs. Diabet Med. 2012 Jul;29(7):855-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03698.x
Finally, there are quite many papers on costs in certain regions….
If you go thru these, I am sure, you find enough papers in the references to get more informations that will allow you estimates for your specific questions,
best
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Please suggest types of literature to look for?
Recommend journals which focuses on these issues.
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Maintaining hygiene, conducting periodic checks, and social distancing
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We still live with great fear about the spreading of communicable diseases (Ex. COVID-19). Existing statistics of last two decades shows that more people have been deceased, due to the non-communicable diseases worldwide. However, we yet pay more attention on the communicable diseases. WHY??
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Hello Fareena, Good question. Do read our paper March 2019 in Science Direct -Medical Hypotheses "Are rises in Electromagnetic Field in the Human environment, interacting with multiple environmental Pollutions, the tripping point for Increases in Neurological Deaths in the Western world ?" Pritchard and Silk June 2019
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If I count the number of risk factors at baseline and then after how many days of lifestyle modification (e.g. Physical Excercise with gamification, smoking stopping aid, etc) what type of instrument should be used because I might get biased data, however, I can check the body fat percentage to validate.
How to ensure adherence to a lifestyle modification program, or in other words how to reduce attrition rates?
I want to do an RCT, not a pre-and post-survey. So in this case how can I blind my outcome assessor?
For a lifestyle modification intervention done in at the LMIC setting, I need a good quality evidence-based program. The mobile reminder doesn't seem to work in LMIC as stated in a systematic review.
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You need to use standardised instruments like for physical activity use IPAQ or if you have budget use pedometer better and use BMI and other body composition analyser like tanita or any other brands. Regarding the intervention period should be 12 weeks and more to see any effects
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Does any one know of a compilation of research work for Biomarkers of various communicable and non-communicable diseases !
Thanks in advance .
Best Regards.
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Various communicable and non-comminicable diseases? In fact you are asking an overview of any possible biomarker.
Good general reviews are:
(about organ injury and sepsis)
(discussing main papers in this field)
regards
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1. What type of literature should I read for writing a successful concept note?
2. Is there any literature which will help me decide a research question/objective for designing a study will be appropriate for the evaluation of community-based primary prevention models for NCDs?
3. For convincing the donor as a student researcher is it better that I narrow down to a specific prevention model such as Mass Health promotion to reduce NCD, e.g. Hypertension.
a) Do you think a base-line survey of knowledge regarding prevention vs end-line survey will be a strong method of evaluation?
b) If I try to do an RCT - which literature will help me find out what community-based primary preventions interventions recent or interesting?
(This is for an assignment)
Thank you
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OK great. Here are two our books that have case studies on NCDs
good luck
Mohamed
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1. Where can you find surveillance data of Non-communicable data of different countries?
2. What types of research/study design are usually done in this case?
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Try WHO global observatory
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The whole world is busy with the research, management, and preventive measures of COVID-19. Obviously non-communicable diseases itself and the sufferers are getting less attention. What could be the impact of it?
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Following
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Non-Communicable diseases are the leading cause of death across the globe.The rising prevalence of NCDs is a cause of concern in almost all regions of the world.Tobacco use, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet are major risk factors associated with the life style disease.What you think Is physical inactivity the biggest life style change responsible for the increasing trends of NCDs in the world?
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Almost certainly. While smoking cessation is very important and could also qualify as a lifestyle choice, shifts in physical activity have been significant with urbanization, including reduced walking (often due to physical insecurity in marginal urban areas), screen time and sedentary occupations. But they have to be understood in the context of rising portion sizes for meals outside the home (also a lifestyle choice), shifts to bulk purchasing of energy-dense foods (an income parameter), and continuous grazing (snacks between meals, which is arguably due to opportunity costs of time, relative prices between nutrient-dense and energy-dense foods, and lifestyle). So there are many variables at play that intersect between dietary composition and lifestyle.
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I want to explore specifically Qualitative research done to explore reasons for NCD / socio economic and behavioral determinants of NCD risk factors / perceptions / practices / barriers in care seeking
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Following.
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The rise in palm oil consumption—a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
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Can you please elaborate your post , a bit more...
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Non communicable disease is one of the major problem in Pacific island countries, how we can control these diseases by promotion of horticultural crops, what steps need to be done
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Thank you @Dr shahidul Islam for your nice suggestion.
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Tribal populations at high altitude provide an interesting epidemiological window to study human evolution and adaptation. Is research in these un-reached areas still less explored thereby limiting our understanding regarding non-communicable diseases? Will research focused on their diet-styles lead us to factors preventing non-communicable diseases?
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I would request RG colleagues working on NCDs to give their valuable inputs.
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There is country wide gap in disease prevalence in terms of communicable diseases and non-communicable diseases. What is the most prevalent cause of mortality in your country?
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Malaria is a big health problem in entire Africa.
Thanks!
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The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG), Target 3.4 states "by 2030 reduce by one-third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) through prevention and treatment, and promote mental health and wellbeing" measured as the unconditional probability of dying between exact ages of 30 to 70 years from any of the major NCDs (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases).
I'm looking for statistical methods for assessing the progress of above mentioned indicator.
I appreciate any suggestion, including the method name and bibliographic references.
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This research paper [1] follows a different approach for measuring progress of indicators.
On the basis of past trends, indicator values were projected using a weighted average of the indicator and annualized rates of change from 1990 to 2016 with weights for each annual rate of change based on out-of-sample validity. There is more detailed information about this method on the paper.
[1] GBD 2016 SDG Collaborators. Measuring progress and projecting attainment on the basis of past trends of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet. 12 Sept 2017: 390; 1423–59. 
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According to the technical note on unconditional probability of dying from exact ages of 30 to 70 years from any of the mayor four NCDs [1], this form of indicator excludes confounding across countries or over time due to differences or changes in mortality rates for other competing causes and to control for differences in population age structure.
I’m looking for the rationale or technical foundations behind the statement that this indicator controls for differences or changes in population age structure, meaning that it is a comparable measure across countries or over time without age adjustment or standardization.
Thanks
Reference:
[1] World Health Organization (2012). Mortality form NCDs. Technical Note April 26, 2012. Available online: http://www.who.int/nmh/events/2012/note_20120426.pdf
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Hello Ramon, thanks for your reply.
This link is only for the note- "http://www.who.int/nmh/events/2012/note_20120426.pdf;" I'd like the entire article /report where from the note comes from and this, "World Health Organization (2012). Mortality form NCDs" which i copy and paste does not yield the report that you refer to, but many many many WHO reports. So I ask for the specific (APA style) reference to get the article.
It is NOT probability, but UNCONDITIONAL probability. This one controls for all the external factors that otherwise affect those rates across time and space.
It's been a long time (I am retired), but I have always loved (excuse the term) statistics and taught a lot of it along with reserach, so I'm sorry that I cannot explain it better. One has to understand probability, formula (s) and how related the concepts of extranneous and confounding factors and controlling for them. Maybe this will help: " 'Unconditional Probability' refers to the likelihood that an event will take place independent of whether any other events take place or any other conditions are present." The formula controls for those, "other events take place or any other conditions are present."
"Conditional probability is the probability of an event occurring given that another event has already occurred is called a conditional probability. The probability that event B occurs, given that event A has already occurred is P(B|A) = P(A and B) / P(A)
Maybe I am not undertanding what you are looking for with, " ...rationale or technical foundations behind the statement. I am thinking of this, "...
unconditional probability of dying from exact ages of 30 to 70 years from any of the mayor four NCDs [1], this form of indicator excludes confounding across countries or over time due to differences or changes in mortality rates for other competing causes and to control for differences in population age structure." as the "rationale" and the statistical formula, as the technical foundations.
Good luck and I hope you can tell me which of the many WHO repots this comes from, so I don't have to /probabaly will not plow through many to find this.
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Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) is a major public health challenges of the present world. We have data on general population regarding but limited data on person with disability. please shear the data that you know.
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Most vital statistics and death statistics are legally obligated for public health purposes. As such usually only communicable diseases that could, theoretically, cause an epidemic are "required reporting" obligations of physicians, coroners, and similar professions.
As noncommunicable diseases become the dominant causes of death after public health successes in the control of communicable diseases, the issue becomes more cloudy.
Often a death certificate accurately documents the organ failure (e.g. acute respiratory arrest)...but the cause of the organ failure is not documented; hence we fail to be able to link the pathology with the organ failure and therefore we cannot attribute mortality to specific non-communicable diseases, such as Alzheimer's Disease. Often, also, a chronic condition and treatment like radiation or chemo therapy, so traumatizes the immune system that death is causes by a secondary organ failure....if the death is attributed to the underlying disease is uncertain at best.
In addition, improvements in treatment and early detection will clearly increase the survival rates of many noncommunicable diseases; yet we have scant documentation of morbidity because most such conditions are not reportable vital statistics.
This applies also to problems like gun violence and assault....how many people are hospitalized by brutality but do not die? In most places we have no idea of what this ratio might be.
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As we are in epidemiological transition from communicable to Non - Communicable diseases, mortality and morbidity due to non- communicable is very high. As these diseases and some other are related to risk factors, hence to tackle these problems, new model Biopsychosocial is very much essential, but it is not popular among the most of the clinician. But this is need of hour that we put stress to prevent non- communicable diseases along with the communicable one.
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Absolutely. If we empoer differnt target audiences to improve healthy lifestyles or adapting and adopting some preventive methods for prevent (accordingly) some diaseases, by using health communivation as a tool of essential health funtions, these target audiences will reduce the risl ok get sick. Or do not beahve unhelthy. Resuming: in coutries wher we can not find health care providers - as it is usaul in some specific african countires, prevention with model to Biopsychosocial model is the tool.
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Am working in the small island state of Nauru with challenges of limited human and material resources but a huge Non-Communicable Disease challenge.
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Most of NCDs are inter-connected; hence, any effort to address NCDs also need to take multisectoral approach, underpinned by evidence-based research. This is not an easy task. Key policy makers need from different branches need to recognize the magnitude of the problem. It may be necessary to present some numbers from cost-benefit analysis. Otherwise, any prevention and treatment effort would be small and will not be sustained in a long-term. 
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If the person suffered with insufficient ventilation, he may develop some metabolic changes. Wether these changes result in  development of non communicable diseases or not. 
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There are many respiratory problems such as Asthma or COPD which are related to  inadequate ventilation.
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I am just interested knowing the link between the neglected/tropical diseases (also this includes the soil transmitted helminths) and Non Communicable Diseases (or chronic diseases). Is there any link ? Any correlates or longitudinal study would be really useful for my reading interest. If there are any studies you are aware of ! I will really glad if you could kindly provide me the link.
Many thanks,
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There are many researchers at the Australian Institute ofTropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, working in this area of research, especially links between helminth infections and diabetes and autoimmune diseases. Here is a link to one of our recent papers in this area.
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Trend of Non- communicable diseases are on rise even in Low and Middle income Countries. Due to nutrition and demographic transition, more and more people are becoming patients of Non- Communicable  diseases. This group of population mostly faces the various serious complications. So the palliative medicine should be the part of the management of the patient of non - Communicable diseases with complications.  
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This is a pretty broad question, since palliative care covers such a wide array of care for so many different conditions. Palliative care is now accepted as the new name for pretty much any symptom relief that doesn't address the underlying condition; for example, controlling symptoms and side effects during curative-intent cancer treatment, like antiemetics during chemotherapy, now fall under the umbrella of palliative care.
The traditional use of the term referred to the time in terminal illnesses when curative treatment was abandoned and only palliative care (pain relief, help with anxiety, nausea, dyspnea, etc.) was offered. It has since been recognized as a much broader type of intervention that can be applied at all stages of care for chronic conditions. The definition of palliative care has expanded greatly.
Palliative care can be pretty minimal, as in outpatient pain medication, or it can be quite extensive, as in a team of experts in symptom management (including mental health practitioners to help with emotional distress) that exists only to see patients, review their unmanaged symptoms, and offer recommendations to improve their quality of life and allow them to continue normal activities as much as possible.
As you note, that would look different in low-resource countries; but even in high-resource settings such as the United States, palliative care is not always optimally implemented for everyone -- there are a lot of patients with well-known chronic diseases (such as end-stage COPD, non-curable cardiomyopathies, or advanced metastatic cancers) who don't get great palliative care even as they near the end of life. Public health workers may want good palliative care available to everyone who needs it, but there are always groups that are underserved, and palliative care is not without controversy. Here, there is always the concern of giving patients too much opioid pain medication that might be diverted for illegal sale (so that the patient who  needs the pain medication doesn't get it), or the concern that patients might fake pain to get prescriptions for such meds and then use it to make money by selling it for recreational use.
The most basic palliative care can be offered anywhere, though, given trustworthy and reliable home caregivers (spouse, adult children, etc.) who can help manage that care  along with a fairly frequent follow-up and teaching from a health care provider. It usually involves health provider availability to the population in need, symptom-management drugs such as medications for pain and nausea, home oxygen for hypoxia and dyspnea, and some mental health resources to help manage anxiety, depression, or grieving that may accompany the chronic illness. The availability of some surgical procedures or radiotherapy to deal with physical issues that can cause tremendous pain would be a plus, but those might be difficult in rural areas due to the patient having to travel long distances to a centralized location with large-scale equipment or setups where these can be done.
Perhaps you can speak to what kind of patient population you're thinking about to elicit more specific answers, along with something on availability of or resource limitations. Are the patients near enough to a health facility where they can be diagnosed with these chronic conditions? Are there satellite clinics in rural areas that can be staffed with nurses? Is there reliable drug dispensing and availability in these locations for opioids and other symptom-management drugs? Can durable medical equipment be obtained for lending? etc.
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Literatutes suggests that burden of NCD risk factors (Hypertension, Diabetes, overweight and abdominal obesity) are significantly higher among the gulf Migrant workers compared to non migrant workers. Gulf migrants were found 2.5 times at higher risk for Hypertension and abdominal obesity compared to non-migrants.
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Dear Shamim, In addition to what have been indicated as risk factors among the migrants for NCDs, the migrants have no control over the types of foods(High calorie, high fat etc.) because of the poverty they faced. Secondly, there is high stress level which could be associated with increased food intake at times. Migrants are also more likely to experience behavioral risk factors including tobacco use, alcohol misuse, physical inactivity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables. Substances use and abuse is also rampant among this segment of population.
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Are there any techniques design to tackle complication that may arise from non-communicable (chronic) diseases during and after a disaster?
If yes, have this been able to change the pattern of morbidity and mortality resulting from chronic diseases like diabetes during or after a disaster?
What are the current pattern of NCDs mortality and morbidity during and after disasters?
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If you are happy to focus down to earthquake then look at the work of Thomas Kuhn and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Population Health - they have done a meta analysis on this question..
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... who out there would prioritize communicable vs noncommunicable disease (trauma being categorized as non communicable disease)? Both require urgent attention in all stages but the transition from acute to chronic health care provision in war and conflict settings seems to be a major gap. 
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WOW! Great responses guys - thanks so much. Great insight. 
Thank you!
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Looking to compare and contrast a few different analytical approaches to examine the associations between single risk factors, clustering of risk factors and multimorbidity in different populations.  Suggestions for both x-sectional and longitudinal approaches would be welcome. 
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The problem is how to define clustering of risk factors - you can use a random combination of a sub-sample of risk factors and repeat it many time to see if there are the robust patterns. As a rule, the risk factors are not independent, even if sometimes they can be regarded as being "independent". I do not recall anything very valuable that has been published about multimorbidity and clusters Iof course I might miss something) except some works of Barabasi team about networks. One paper is Hidalgo et al in Plos Computational Biology "A dynamic network approach for the study of human phenotypes".  I am not aware of any applications of this approach to multimorbidities; I tried to take a look at that in a broader context of multiple symptoms (except morbidities) but cannot give you a reference yet. In general, Based on my personal experience, I am in favor of the network approach rather than "conventional" clustering algorithms (I have never seen anything robust and generalizable outside of one dataset where such algorithms were applied).
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Questionnaire for exercise knowledge
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sorry I do not have the expertise to answer this question.
Regards
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Is there any alternative approach to combat increased incidence of non-communicable disease especially DM and HPT?
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Are there any globally accepted effective approaches to prevent DM and HPT?  Then we go for alternatives. For instance, hypertension in more than 90% of cases is said to be idiopathic. So, developing an approach to preventing such a disease is practically difficult. Is that not? Hence we need to specify which type of DM, and HTP we are  interested in? This question needs to be reformulated, I think.    
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I am attaching here with the details related to Indo- European Call on Health-“Diagnostics and interventions in chronic non-communicable diseases”
Please go through it. If anyone / professor / researcher, interested, can make collaborative proposals.
Semi Conductors Nano structures
metal-insulator transitions
Hybrid magnetic-semiconductor structures & Bio-nanomaterials
I have some experience / research interests in above fields. semi-conductor / magnetic / super-paramagnetic materials are useful in making bio-sensors / diagnostics. .
Also, I am attaching here with my recent achievements in nanotech field for references. http://goo.gl/jAFeCV 
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Epigraph = Perspective AGRO technologies.
(Letter - a request is sent for review to the Company's management, review and influencing the future development on the implementation of emerging technologies.)
Good afternoon, dear and respectable company!
Perspective Agro Industry TEAM ! As basis of future undustries !
To you with a proposal Oleg V. Anokhin, Dr. Of Chemistry scientist from Ukraine. (CV attached)
My suggestion is invited to consider the proposal invented technological cycle of deep processing of natural "factories" type fiber crops. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiber_crop
I invented the process algorithm which yields (get) new natural raw materials for food industry perspective, medicine, new active functional components for them. Link - generally receive much more variety of useful materials, but now on your sector of interest.
With the use of basic knowledge in the areas of: physical chemistry, colloid chemistry of polymers, physical mechanics, organic and inorganic chemistry, quantitative and qualitative analysis, and ... a lot more then = offers innovative technological solution.
To my letter - proposal attached my basic message that (mostly) reveals the essence and the prospect of the invention.
Now, about the benefits and key points on the way to implement such technology as a separate plant or mobile ("flying" shop) processing complex.
As can be seen from the accompanying article, the key point (as required) is the proximity of the use of technology at the time of harvest yields. The spectrum of the interests of my constituents technology is amorphous natural "factories", their liquid phase. In other words, if we have time to "grab" the required components from natural "plant" in the time of harvest ... or they become "wood" is already on the field.
Even if you are working with only one source of raw materials - hardly at all areas (regions) crop ripens at the same time. Maybe this fact and for the better?
Hence the conclusion - I have to look for a high-tech company in the field of nutrition and components to them (!) A company having its other (partner) company that understands the creation of units in the cleaning of crops. Type John Deere, CLAAS, or etc .. That's not all of the requirements. Since the important point is - the proximity to the time of harvest (or near) - that ...., It is desirable to me (us) to be familiar with the companies that develop road tractor with possibilities "pull, pull" big trailers. In our case, it may be part of our preparation plant or facility for receiving raw materials and primary processing. Like Volvo Truck type, Kenworth Truck or etc.
In conclusion, I should add that I propose solutions and technological methods are my personal property. My activity in the search for a suitable partner is connected with the fact that on the territory of my homeland there are many current problems, which do not give me the opportunity to realize proposed. I have no real financial opportunities to fix the complex patent and further implementation of the proposed ideas in the "metal". In addition, my homeland (yet) NO ready to implement such high-tech solutions, while agrarian country.
4/23/2015 Sincerely, Oleg V Anokhin
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Can anybody explain association of Hypertension with High density lipoprotein, I am doing an analysis and the protective association is coming out between low levels of HDL with presence of hypertension. 
What could be the possible explanation, is there any biological plausibility or any other explanation of this phenomenon.
Note: The sample size is adequate, the study is powered statistically and there is no misclassification. Multivariate analysis has also done appropriately with adjusting for potential confounders.
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Adeel are you finding low HDL is associated with low to normal blood pressure? Since high HDL is considered protective of cardiovascular health, this finding is unusual, when considering control variables. Is it possible that persons put on hypertension medications also had low HDL? I do not think there is a biological explanation for low HDL preventing hypertension.
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I have already collected data in context to identify the prevalence of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in a particular region by applying WHO's STEP 2 approach. so I dont have boichemical data in hand.
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Thank you Dr Leischik your attachment was worthy
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We are planning to conduct a NCD risk factor survey in a low resource setting. How to collect data on salt(sodium) in intake in the population based survey? Is there any methods except 24 hour urine collection?
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Would suggest at least the questions recommended by WHO, combined with urine collection.
Section 4: Questionnaire on Knowledge, Attitudes, Behavior toward Dietary Salt
1. Do you add salt to food at the table?
a) never
b) rarely
c) sometimes
d) often
e) always
2. In the food you eat at home salt is added in cooking
a) never
b) rarely
c) sometimes
d) often
e) always
3. How much salt do you think you consume? (READ LIST)
a) Far too much
b) Too much
c) Just the right amount
d) Too little
e) Far too little
f) Don’t Know
g) Refused
4. Do you think that a high salt diet could cause a serious health problem?
a) Yes
b) No
c) Don’t know
d) Refused
5. If Yes in 4 above, what sort of problem?
a) high blood pressure
b) osteoporosis
c) stomach cancer
d) kidney stones
e) none of the above
f) all of the above
g) don’t know
h) refused
6. How important to you is lowering the salt/sodium in your diet?
a) Not at all important
b) Somewhat important
c) Very important
7. Do you do anything on a regular basis to control your salt or sodium intake?
a) Yes
b) No (SKIP to QX)
c) Don’t know
d) Refused
8. If answer is Yes in 7 above, what do you do?
a) Avoid/minimize consumption of processed foods
b) Look at the salt or sodium labels on food
c) Do not add salt at the table
d) Buy low salt alternatives
e) Buy low sodium alternatives
f) Do not add salt when cooking
g) Use spices other than salt when cooking
h) Avoid eating out
i) Other (specify) ________________
The gold standard would be 24-hour urine collection, but depending on your capacity and funding you may instead need to consider spot urine collection.
Ji C, Sykes L, Paul C, Dary O, Legetic B, Campbell NRC, Cappuccio FP. Systematic review of studies comparing 24-hour and spot urine collections for estimating population salt intake. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2012;32(4):307–15. 
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Conventional medicine prides itself on being science-based, and shuns alternative medicine for being "unproven," however, many of the non-communicable diseases have been taken care of successfully by alternative medicine. Conventional medicine is still behind and it will send your health into a downward spiral.
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If people think that alternative medicine is rubbish because it has not undergone bench mark trials than I say, stop eating because true 'alternative medicine' has been around for centuries, is mostly food based and many of our pharmacueticals are based on 'alternative medicines' eg lipator.
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We all know that infectious diseases commonly occur due to unhygienic conditions for which poor people living in rural areas are known for. Similarly, we also know that periodontitis is an infection of periodontal tissues which is known to be associated with a number of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Considering the above two statements, can we say that poverty may be associated with non-communicable diseases (which are commonly known as "diseases of rich" people)?
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Sharifullah Yeah you are right!! you are probably trying to enter into another discussion "bi-directional relationship between poverty and non-communicable diseases" ;0) wink!!
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Non communicable diseases are silent killers and their prevalence is increasing daily in low income countries, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. One of the challenges affecting control of NCD's is unavailability of routine data.
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You can find data on non-communicable disease in World Bank health section in the web page. Try google search and best luck.
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We know that information helps to reduce risky behavior and adopt healthy behavior. But information only is not enough and we need to change the beliefs and prompt action.
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S.M - the classic Social Learning Theory (Cognitive) models are suitable for a range of different approaches and interventions, i.e. Becker's/Bandura's Health Belief/Efficacy model, Prochaska and DiClemente's Revolving Door Model, Azjen and Fishbein's Stages of Change Model, Tone's Health Action Model etc
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Would like to do a research on non-communicable diseases
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Greetings.
Research questions need to be devised with the aim of responding to existing problems in the area concerned. A research question relevant else where might not be important in your setting. It is worthwhile to review the existing data or report in your vicinity, discuss with colleagues and experts in your area to help you come up with a research question/ topic.
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Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are a global public health priority. However, untill recently research and program interventions for NCDs has been neglected by the governments and development partners in most developing countries. We need to develop strategies to prevent and control NCDs globally.
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Likewise in India, Bangladesh is also suffering from the double burden of diseases including infectious diseases and increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The most common NCDs in Bangladesh are:
Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and stroke, mental health, COPD, and Cancers.
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Need to review work on comorbidity of malaria with any non-communicable disease
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There is some evidence (not much) for an increased risk of malaria infection in people with diabetes (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3294394/) and there seems to be a dose effect with increasing blood glucose. Malaria has also been linked with dysglycemia which could be serious for people with diabetes (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0065193).
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NCDs already disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries where nearly 80% of NCD deaths – 29 million – occur. They are the leading causes of death in all regions except Africa, but current projections indicate that by 2020 the largest increases in NCD deaths will occur in Africa.
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I agree with you that the NCDs are emerging as neglected tropical diseases . They contribute to about 50% of mortality in developing countries . Coronary artery disease , Strokes , Cancer , COPD , Chronic Kidney disease & Chronic Liver Disease are some of the important NCDs which occur due to risk factors such Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Lipid disorders , Obesity , Alcohol consumption & smoking . Infrastructure to diagnose these risk factors & treat NCDs are urgently needed . Primary prevention & health care including primary , secondary & tertiary care has to be established in both urban & rural areas . The treatment is expensive & lifelong . The emphasis should be on preventive health & primary care to treat risk factors & prevent complications of NCDs , which are difficult to treat & are very expensive at tertiary care level . This is very essential for the lower middle class & poor patients who cannot afford expensive treatment . Therefore , Guidelines to prevent & treat NCDs are urgently needed which is relevant to each country. In addition , Neglected tropical Infectious diseases should not be ignored .
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Please share your experience about NCD surveillance in your settings.
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It is essential to adopt feasible, cost-effective strategies for identification, prevention and control of non-communicable diseases of major importance at workplace. The traditional methods of health surveillance consist of risks assessment through clinical examination and extensive lab. investigations. This is a very resource-incentive approach requiring onsite facilities and expensive equipment, which may be beyond the reach of informal sector of the industry. The approach can be data-based planning for preventive programs, including health promotion.
Health status questionnaires as a measure of health have been proposed and used for long. The HSQ can be used to evaluate the health status of the population, to provide empirical basis for identifying the population groups with greater health needs and setting priorities. Study reports- the health scores showing statistically significant associations with various health parameters. While the health scores should not be used as a marker of disease conditions (eg: hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, or diabetes mellitus etc), the results of the study may be useful in assisting Occupational Health Service planners in the planning and prioritizing the resources. The findings suggest that the process of generating indices of health status is as useful as the data itself.