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It is widely believed that humorous environments help students' learning by relaxing them and easing their stress. However, I would like to know whether laughter really , physically affects brain functions during learning/focusing/ memorizing etc.
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The children in this PowerPoint about "Humor and Education" are laughing while they are learning. Also check out the second PowerPoint about laughter as it relates to creativity:
International Society for Humor Studies: http://www.humorstudies.org/ .
Alleen and Don Nilsen’s The Language of Humor (Cambridge University Press, 2019) is now available. We have developed a PowerPoint to accompany each of the twenty-five chapters of the book as follows:
Chapter 1: Introduction & Humor Theories Chapter 2: Humor in Anthropology & Ethnic Studies Chapter 3: Humor in Art Chapter 4: Humor in Business Chapter 5: Humor in Computer Science Chapter 6: Humor in Education Chapter 7: Humor in Gender Studies Chapter 8a: Humor in Geography I (International Humor: Books, Conferences and Organizations) Chapter 8b: Humor in Geography II (International Humor: Examples and Discussion) Chapter 9: Humor in Gerontology Chapter 10: Humor in History Chapter 11: Humor in Journalism Chapter 12: Humor in Law Chapter 13: Humor in Linguistics Chapter 14: Humor in Literature Chapter 15: Humor in Medicine and Health Chapter 16: Humor in Music Chapter 17: Humor in Names and Naming Chapter 18: Humor in the Performing Arts Chapter 19: Humor in Philosophy Chapter 20: Humor in Physical Education Chapter 21: Humor in Politics Chapter 22: Humor in Psychology Chapter 23: Humor in Religion Chapter 24: Humor in Rhetoric and Composition Chapter 25: Humor in Sociology We’re sending you a PowerPoint indicating how humor is important to your particular discipline. Please let us know if you would like to receive any of our other humor-related PowerPoints (see above). Thanks. Don and Alleen Nilsen don.nilsen@asu.edu alleen.nilsen@asu.edu .
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All tests and imaging show patient is healthy and has no visible abnormalities. Patient has headaches once a week that are triggered by vaso-dilation type stimuli (i.e hot weather, sugar, foods with nitric oxide). Patient's headaches are mitigated by vaso-constrictive stimuli (i.e. antihistamines, caffeine) but the headaches still contribute to lower quality of life when headache occurs.
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You mentioned that the patient is aware that certain stimuli cause the headaches. Keeping a detailed food journal for a month would be a good place to start, since additives such as MSG can trigger headaches like these; then the patient can try to avoid those foods. I would also look into bodywork such as chiropractic, osteopathy or craniosacral therapy to improve overall blood flow and correct any subluxations in the cervical area. Do they have a history of head or neck injury (TBI, concussion, whiplash, MVA, etc.)? Finally, did you already check reverse T3 against free T3 or do a cortisol saliva panel? If caffeine mitigates the headaches, that makes me wonder what is happening with the patient's adrenal glands. If adrenal fatigue is present, that could make the person more susceptible to whatever the triggers are.
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I am looking for any correct answer, please don't hesitate to contact me.
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Hi Pooriya,
I think this is a vague statement to say the least. It will be easier to answer if you would give easier to add some context (citation). Misfiring can could be produced through an experimental intervention in a pathological state and would be simply translated to not firing correctly. In other words, action potentials of the neurons are not generated as they normally would. Again what that means depends on the context, because the citation could refer to direct spike timing or encoding of information or many other parameters.
Hope this helps a little bit.
Julian
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Is it possible to extend the definition of a kind of consciousness for plants, fungi and bacteria?
I am looking for any logical answer, please don't hesitate to contact me.
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Plants are responsive to external stimulation, though their system and response is different from animals.
Touch the "Touch me not" plant, you can observe their quick effects. The carnivorous plants like Venus fly trap can capture and digest flies.
Many works of famous scientist Prof. Jagadish Chandra Bose are there on that topic.
I think plants have also consciousness, though of different types.Same can be said about bacteria etc. lower species.
Thanks.
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How does Epigenetics impact on Habit Formation or Stoppage of an Addiction?
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Actually, epigenetic modifications can influence every aspect of our body and our life. As you might know, epigenetic modifications alter gene expression with leaving any scar in the genome itself. Various environmental factors including different radiations, nutrients, polutions, and, in my opinion, even brain waves could alter gene expression epigenetically. Also, we know that all human traits and features directly or indirectly relate to our genome and the expression level of genes. Though some of these epigenetic modifications are removed after their stimulating origin is stopped, some of the epigenetic modifications are not erased and are maintained through mitosis and even miosis. Just Google "epigenetic bookmarking" to find a vast amount of information regarding the transfer of epigenetic modifications and tags through generations. Altogether, since all our traits including our habits and addictions are somehow associated with our gene expression patterns, it is clear that epigenetic modification could impact on habit formation or addiction stoppage. I hope I could help.
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Is there any difference between "Resting state", "Spontaneous activity of the brain" and "Default mode network"?
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Dear Frederico,
"Resting state" is basically the state of not doing any specified task and not seeing any experimental stimuli. This is in contrast to most neuroscience experiments where the participant perceives stimuli or responds to them.
"Spontaneous activity" (also sometimes called "intrinsic activity") is the brain's activity which is not related to external factors/stimuli or to responses to them. When the participant is at resting-state, all of the activity you see using neuroimaging is "spontaneous activity". This term is also sometimes used during experimental tasks where you can separate activity that is related to the stimuli from "background" activity which is not related to the stimuli, and is therefore spontaneous/intrinsic.
The "default mode network" is a specific set of brain regions (usually including the angular gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, and medial prefrontal cortex) which have coordinated activity during both resting-state and task performance. This network is thought to deal with introspection, memory and other "inner" processes, in contrast to other regions responding to the environment and what happens in it. So when giving a stimulus to a subject that he/she has to respond to, the default-mode network will usually be less active, compared to during the resting-state. The default-mode network is one of the so-called "resting-state networks", along with many other sets of different regions (the visual network, the sensorimotor network, the dorsal attention network, and others).
I hope this helps,
cheers
Michael
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there are some theories that we can get required signals by EMG from that organ when it is inuse. so we can design orbits that do that movement in the same situation.by this way perhaps we need less wires and have more beautiful thing!
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Dear Tatiana
sure,thanks for your help.
bests.
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Dear Sir/Ma'am
I want to convert Blood perfusion unit (BPU) measured by ADinstrument Laser Doppler Flowmeter (Blood FlowMeter) into Cerebral Blood flow rate in mL/100g/Min.
Is it possible or not. If possible then how ?
Kindly suggest
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I agree.  With Laser Doppler, you also do not know the diameter of the vessels being perfused which makes it very hard to calculate flow.
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In an EEG study, I am trying to compare the brain networks of 3 motor tasks while functional interactions are measured by 3 estimators coherence (Coh), imaginary part of coherence (iCoh) and partial coherence (pCoh). My results show that for task 1, more connections are achieved by Coh (denser network), for task 2 more connections are achieved by iCoh and for task 3 more connections are achieved by pCoh. Regardless of other steps and methodological considerations of this research, is there any explanation for this behavior of connectivity estimators? Is there any reference regarding this issue?   
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Thanks for your answer.
Brain connectivity estimators measure the pattern of interactions (functional/effective) in the brain.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_connectivity_estimators
There are several connectivity estimators and in my question I asked about the behavior of Coh, iCoh and pCoh. Since I am dealing with 3 motor tasks with similar nature, I expected to see for example more connections are obtained by Coh for all 3 tasks compared to the network estimated by iCoh or pCoh. However, I've seen something else as explained above. I couldn't find any reference regarding such issue.    
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Hi, I am searching for a good protocol to measure the Blood brain barrier permeability in mice model without using the Evans blue dye.
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Sodium fluorescein is often used as a smaller molecular weight tracer. It allows you to do a simple fluorescence assay with your brain homogenate to assess extent (or use a microscope if you want to assess visually) rather than evans blue which you have to score. You could also look up sucrose permeability studies and the wet weight/dry weight method of brain edema
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I would like to induce global ischemia in a mice by using chemicals?
Is it possible?
How?
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new born mice pups can be exposed to hyperoxia (75% O2) for a few days. We use p5-12. Once retrieved, the mice suffer an hypoxic shock that lasts a few days.
Also, some models of hypoxia add CoCl2 to drinking water for hypoxia-inducible factors upregulation, but I have no experience with these models.
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Can any one give me a data set of a person's EEG who has experienced the process of death? (About the during of data set we mean it it must include five minutes before and five minute after the event of death).
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Dear Seyed! Please refer to the two articles on the EEG and brain death. Please see important presentation on this topic. Good luck.
Vladimir
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I have a question regarding the use of control as follows:
Although it is quite usual to setup 2 groups of animals (one for experiment, and the other for control), there is some paper/studies comparing between the 2 brain hemispheres (i.e. using one side of the brain as the experimental group while the contra-lateral side used as a control).
I was wondering what would be the advantages of using the other hemisphere as the control? Wouldn't the differences between 2 hemispheres (e.g. the functional differences between 2 brain hemispheres in human) make this control invalid?
If there is a choice between using individual or contra-lateral hemisphere as the control (while the study is not mainly comparing the differences between the cerebral hemispheres), then which way would be the preferred choice?
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I agree that the key issue is the hypothesis being tested.  If you wish to test whether an intervention on one hemisphere causes a measureable change in that hemisphere, then comparing an appropriate untreated or sham-treated animal certainly gets around the problem that your intervention may well (in fact, likely) affect both sides.  If, however, you are studying a naturally-occuring event which is rare (for example, Rasmussen's encephalitis or hemimegencephaly in humans), a comparison of one side versus the other might be the most appropriate (if you were looking at, say, metabloism by PET or white matter volume by MRI).  In such a case, the comparison of one side against the other allows within-subject statistical power, and automatically controls for age, gender, and many genetic factors.
For the situation your question suggests, comparison with another individual brain seems most appropriate.
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In a study of extra-intestinal symptoms in IBS patients we found that thigh pain, muscle and joint pain, and back pain are more frequent in IBS-C than IBS-D and IBS-M. What could be the underlying mechanism for such association?
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Well I have a very simple answer. They sit for hours on persian toilet, As you know this is very difficult and may impose lots of physical stress on thigh and back.
Best.
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Looking for a measure on optimality of neuromotor circuitry. It could be in touch-induced movement using animal models or humans, thanks!
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Damian, Agreed! Thanks for your feedback! I look forward to seeing your work in the future.
The interest in the divergence of time scale... I would term as the challenge to arrive at a cross-scale analysis. Agreed regarding the fractal analysis as a non-literal form of analysis using self-similarity within a heterogenous dataset. But under what conditions do we conduct our measurement? How do we use in vitro models while maintaining behavioral inquiry?
How do we read signal? Do we look at performance or the supply-side, that is, the "allocation of resources" within an organisms motor activity and behavior? On the one hand there is the setup of the measure as listed above. Damian below there is the issue of paying equal attention to the mode of inquiry.
 Marder (2011)  and Marder and Taylor (2011)(http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v14/n2/full/nn.2735.html)
 address how to experimentally pursue what is essentially a system-wide problem. While there is the question what instrumentation will help us to clarify cross-scale analysis. This involves moving from nanoscience platforms (microfluidics) to morphological behavior (e.g. undulatory movement in c. elegans or bending leeches).  Have you seen Kelso' paper on multistability and metastability (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3282307/)? He has something to say about degeneracy. 
Since my posting I have found the standard computational neuroscience literature since Wolpert might benefit from biophysical models as in Stephens et al. (2008)
or 
multi-organ/innervated skin models studied through in vivo assays (body-on-the -chip) at UCF Hybrid Systems Lab.
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Looking forward to your help. 
Pradeep
India 
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I am working with this method, you can contact me. To master this method one needs 2-6 months depending on your fine motoric
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I want to know about this research, but I don't understand how the authors locate the methatoracic ganglion
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You can study locust nervous system in several textbooks like Freeman 1971 Invertebrate anatomy; the CNS is located ventrally. Ganglia are found always at about the same position - so you know their exact location also from looking at the outside (ventral thorax). I attach a pdf with two slides from a neuroanatomy course showing where the metathoracic ganglion lies as seen from the inner side.
Andreas
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Mirror neuron and facial expressions when watching TV.
I would like to ask if there is a benchmark dataset with video samples that is shown in human subjects and induce specific emotions-moods-sentiments (happiness, sadness, anger, etc)?
The purpose of my work is to gather a group of people and monitor their reactions with a face expression software when watching specific videos.
The experiment would look like clockwork orange movie:
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Hi,
If you want to know how the neuron's react while watching a video you can check my work on it.