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Neurophysiology - Science topic

The scientific discipline concerned with the physiology of the nervous system.
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Publications related to Neurophysiology (10,000)
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Article
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Background Maigne’s syndrome is a poorly understood condition that affects the thoracolumbar junction. The symptoms can range from pain in the low back, pelvis, hip, lower abdomen, and groin. These symptoms can have bio-mechanical and neurophysiological attributions due to the complexity of spinal mechanics. Thoraco-lumbar junction (T12-L1) is a tr...
Article
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Psychotic disorders affect 3% of the population at some stage in life, are a leading cause of disability, and impose a great economic burden on society. Major breakthroughs in the genetics of psychosis have not yet been matched by an understanding of its neurobiology. Biomarkers of perception and cognition obtained through non-invasive neurophysiol...
Article
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Background Migraine has complex pathophysiological characteristics and episodic attacks. To decipher the cyclic neurophysiological features of migraine attacks, in this study, we compared neuronal excitability in the brainstem and primary somatosensory (S1) region between migraine phases for 30 consecutive days in two patients with episodic migrain...
Article
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Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a well-established brain stimulation technique to modulate human brain oscillations. However, due to the strong electro-magnetic artifacts induced by the stimulation current, the simultaneous measurement of tACS effects during neurophysiological recordings in humans is challenging. Recently, tr...
Article
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Individuals automatically mimic a wide range of different behaviors, and such mimicking behavior has several social benefits. One of the landmark findings in the literature is that being mimicked increases liking for the mimicker. Research in cognitive neuroscience demonstrated that mentally simulating motor actions is neurophysiologically similar...
Article
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A number of studies point to slow (0.1–2 Hz) brain rhythms as the basis for the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) signal. Slow waves exist in the absence of stimulation, propagate across the cortex, and are strongly modulated by vigilance similar to large portions of the rsfMRI signal. However, it is not clear if slow rhy...
Article
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Sepiolidae (Cephalopoda: Sepiolida) are growing in popularity as model organisms, not least because of their well-studied symbiotic relationship with light producing bacteria. Their easy maintenance and cultivation requirements in captivity have further facilitated their use in a wide range of developmental, anatomical, neurophysiological, behaviou...
Article
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Reaching movements of the arms are accompanied by anticipatory (APM) and compensatory postural motion (CPM) that counteract the resulting perturbations to body stability. Recent research has shown that these postural actions are also observable in the context of imagined arm movements. As motor imagery (MI) shares many neurophysiological and behavi...
Article
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Electrical crosstalk can constrain the performance of multielectrode arrays in electro- and neurophysiology, in terms of both stimulation and recording. This is especially so at high electrode density, desirable for spatiotemporal mapping of bioelectrical signals from multiple cells. Channel interference due to crosstalk is currently only partially...
Article
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Self-motion along linear paths without eye movements creates optic flow that radiates from the direction of travel (heading). Optic flow-sensitive neurons in primate brain area MSTd have been linked to linear heading perception, but the neural basis of more general curvilinear self-motion perception is unknown. The optic flow in this case is more c...
Article
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Individuals regaining reliable day-to-day walking function after incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) report persisting unsteadiness when confronted with walking challenges. However, quantifiable measures of walking capacity lack the sensitivity to reveal underlying impairments of supra-spinal locomotor control. This study investigates the relation...
Article
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This paper proposes an artificial intelligence system that continuously improves over time at event prediction using initially unlabelled data by using self-supervised learning. Time-series data are inherently autocorrelated. By using a detection model to generate weak labels on the fly, which are concurrently used as targets to train a prediction...
Article
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Purpose of Review Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are the most common Functional Neurological Disorder/Conversion Disorder subtype. Significant advances have been made related to diagnosis, neurobiology, and treatment. In this review, we summarize updates in diagnosis and management over the past 3 years. Recent Findings Although evidence...
Article
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Background Empirical findings on the Extraversion – Working memory (WM) correlation don't seem to point to a relation between them, even though this relation is widely expected to emerge due to the neurophysiological underpinnings they seem to share. On previous research, Extraversion was assessed mostly at factor level, excluding the facets. In ca...
Article
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A key goal of cognitive neuroscience is to better understand how dynamic brain activity relates to behavior. Such dynamics, in terms of spatial and temporal patterns of brain activity, are directly measured with neurophysiological methods such as EEG, but can also be indirectly expressed by the body. Autonomic nervous system activity is the best-kn...
Article
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Background and purpose Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy (OIN) implies axonal damage of both small and large sensory nerve fibers. We aimed at comparing the neurophysiological changes occurred after treatment and the capability to recovery based on histological marker of re-innervation GAP-43. Methods 48 patients with cancer were assessed before and...
Article
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Cognitive neuroscience has inspired a number of methodological advances to extract the highest signal-to-noise ratio from neuroimaging data. Popular techniques used to summarize behavioral data include sum-scores and item response theory (IRT). While these techniques can be useful when applied appropriately, item dimensionality and the quality of i...
Article
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The use of multimedia learning is increasing in modern education. On the other hand, it is crucial to design multimedia contents that impose an optimal amount of cognitive load, which leads to efficient learning. Objective assessment of instantaneous cognitive load plays a critical role in educational design quality evaluation. Electroencephalograp...
Article
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Background Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRv) is a rare, debilitating and fatal disease, mostly characterized by progressive axonal peripheral neuropathy. Diagnosis is still challenging and diagnostic delay in non-endemic area is about 3–4 years. The aim of this study was to arrange a clinical and electrophysiological score to select pati...
Article
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Autism Spectrum (AS) is defined primarily by differences in social interactions, with impairments in sensory processing also characterizing the condition. In the search for neurophysiological biomarkers associated with traits relevant to the condition, focusing on sensory processing offers a path that is likely to be translatable across populations...
Article
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Peripersonal space (PPS), the space closely surrounding the body, is typically characterised by enhanced multisensory integration. Neurophysiological and behavioural studies have consistently shown stronger visuo-tactile integration when a visual stimulus is presented close to the tactually stimulate body part in near space (within PPS) than in far...
Article
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Across a broad spectrum of interactions, humans exhibit a prominent tendency to synchronize their movements with one another. Traditionally, this phenomenon has been explained from the perspectives of predictive coding or dynamical systems theory. While these theories diverge with respect to whether individuals hold internal models of each other, t...
Article
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Recording from the human brain at the spatiotemporal resolution of action potentials provides critical insight into mechanisms of higher cognitive functions and neuropsychiatric disease that is challenging to derive from animal models. Here, organic materials and conformable electronics are employed to create an integrated neural interface device c...
Preprint
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To study the neurophysiological basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), clinicians use electroencephalography (EEG) which record neuronal electrical activity on the cortex. The most commonly-used metric in ADHD is the theta-to-beta spectral power ratio (TBR) that is based on a single-channel analysis. However, initial findings for...
Article
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Episodic memory is vulnerable to aging and may be influenced by age-related decline in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. We probed this relation using a novel, minimally invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation marker of brain acetylcholine: short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI). We used neuropsychological testing to construct a composite sco...
Article
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Clinical neurophysiology constructs a wealth of dynamic information pertaining to the integrity and function of both central and peripheral nervous systems. As with many technological fields, there has been an explosion of data in neurophysiology over recent years, and this requires considerable analysis by experts. Computational algorithms and esp...
Article
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Previous studies have reported correlates of bodily self-illusions such as the rubber hand in signatures of rhythmic brain activity. However, individual studies focused on specific variations of the rubber hand paradigm, used different experimental setups to induce this, or used different control conditions to isolate the neurophysiological signatu...
Article
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During verbal communication, interlocutors rely on both linguistic (e.g., words, syntax) and extralinguistic (e.g., voice quality) information. The neural mechanisms of extralinguistic information processing are particularly poorly understood. To address this, we used EEG and recorded event-related brain potentials while participants listened to Ru...
Article
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Rationale Caffeine is the most consumed stimulant worldwide, and there is great interest in understanding its neurophysiological effects. Resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) studies suggest that caffeine enhances arousal, which suppresses the spectral power of alpha frequencies associated with reduced alertness. However, it is unclear whethe...
Poster
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Synopsis: Unexpected external perturbation influences team performance through its coordination ability. Given the existence of brain rhythms synchronization in two individuals cooperating together, this study aimed at testing the effect of a perturbation on the neurophysiological coordination. Forty-two participants (21 dyads) divided in two grou...
Article
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Swedish lexical word accents have been repeatedly said to have a low functional load. Even so, the language has kept these tones ever since they emerged probably over a thousand years ago. This article proposes that the primary function of word accents is for listeners to be able to predict upcoming morphological structures and narrow down the lexi...
Research
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Dear Colleagues, The outbreak of the pandemic of COVID-19 determined unprecedented disruptions in people's daily lives and such a pervasive state of concern and fear. There is complete consensus that the tremendous impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health is an urgent issue to challenge. Previous studies highlighted a worldwide dramatic in...
Article
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This paper proposes a three-step iterative technique for solving nonlinear equations from medical science. We designed the proposed technique by blending the well-known Newton’s method with an existing two-step technique. The method needs only five evaluations per iteration: three for the given function and two for its first derivatives. As a resul...
Article
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Our mind can represent various objects from physical world in an abstract and complex high-dimensional object space, with axes encoding critical features to quickly and accurately recognize objects. Among object features identified in previous neurophysiological and fMRI studies that may serve as the axes, objects’ real-world size is of particular...
Article
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The pupillary response reflects mental effort (or cognitive workload) during cognitive and/or motor tasks including standing postural control. EEG has been shown to be a non-invasive measure to assess the cortical involvement of postural control. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of increasing postural task difficulty on the pu...
Chapter
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Misunderstanding, stigmatization, and fascination abound in western culture concerning the concepts of psychopathy and sociopathy. These concepts are often used interchangeably-and erroneously-to describe violent or aggressive behavior in humans. These concepts tend also to be hurled as insults at individuals assumed to exhibit a lack empathy, impu...
Article
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The prevailing view emphasizes the up-regulation of positive emotions, as they are essential for individuals to expand flexibility of thought, maintain healthy mental state, and nurture harmonious interpersonal relationships. However, an increasing number of studies have found that excessive positive emotions can be maladaptive, both clinically and...
Article
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NeuroIS—the methods and knowledge of neuroscience applied to the information systems (IS) domain—has become an established research field within the IS discipline. A key advantage of NeuroIS is its ability to provide insights into human cognition beyond those obtained using behavioural techniques alone. Nevertheless, in neuroscience, there is renew...
Article
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which affects 1 in 44 children and may cause severe disabilities. Besides socio-communicational difficulties and repetitive behaviors, ASD also presents as atypical sensorimotor function and pain reactivity. While chronic pain is a frequent co-morbidity in autism, pain management in t...
Article
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Objective To describe the urinary tract characteristics of diabetes insipidus (DI) patients with upper urinary tract dilatation (UUTD) using the video-urodynamic recordings (VUDS), UUTD and all urinary tract dysfunction (AUTD) systems, and to summarize the experience in the treatment of DI with UUTD. Methods This retrospective study analyzed clini...
Article
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One to three percent of all cerebral tumours are benign tumours called craniopharyngiomas, which come in two varieties: the childhood type, which affects children between the ages of 5 and 10, and the adult form, which affects patients between the ages of 50 and 60. The initial symptoms include visual, endocrine, hypothalamic, neurological, and neu...
Research Proposal
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The goal of this Special Issue is to collect various methods (neurophysiological, neuroimaging, wearable sensors, sensor-based, robotic, etc.), allowing a quantitative assessment of balance disorders and their rehabilitation strategies. Topic Editors aim to foster the most up-to-date research on this topic and will welcome contributions such as ori...
Article
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The present study aimed to identify behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of dyslexia which could potentially predict reading difficulty. One hundred and three Chinese children with and without dyslexia (Grade 2 or 3, 7- to 11-year-old) completed both verbal and visual working memory (n-back) tasks with concurrent EEG recording. Data of 74 c...
Article
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This paper presents defense-oriented psychoanalytic psychotherapy as a tailored treatment for boys through a neurophysiological hypothesis. Male central nervous system development is reviewed, with a focus on the development of the emotion regulation system. The organizational effects of pre- and post-natal androgens delay central nervous system de...
Article
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Purpose Coronary bypass surgery is emphasized in aetiology of ischemic optic neuropathy. Our aim in this study was to investigate the pattern visual evoked potentials (PVEP) in patients before and after coronary bypass surgery. Methods Thirty-one patients were included in the study. After a full ophthalmological evaluation, PVEP was assesed in the...
Article
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Purpose of Review This paper synthesizes the extensive psychological, psychiatric, and neurophysiological literature on delusions of misidentification (DMI), including the well-known Capgras and Fregoli delusions. Recent Findings By considering DMI from these many angles, this paper illuminates how disturbances in creating and maintaining mental r...
Article
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Introduction: Transient global amnesia (TGA) is defined as a sudden and transient episode of memory loss and accompanied by temporal disorientation. However, the mechanism by which time distortion occurs is not clearly elucidated yet. Methods: Between March 2019 and November 2020, we subjected 30 TGA patients to several time perception tasks and...
Preprint
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Motor lateralization refers to differences in the neural organization of cerebral hemispheres, resulting in different control specializations between the dominant and the non-dominant motor systems. Multiple studies proposed that the dominant hemisphere is specialized for open-loop optimization-like processes. Recently, comparing arm kinematics bet...
Article
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Hypnosis and meditation share phenomenological and neurophysiological features, and their comparison is a topic of growing interest in the scientific literature. In this article, we review a classification of these two kinds of non-ordinary states of consciousness, and discuss the studies that directly compare them. Some findings seem to suggest th...
Article
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Background Persistent pain is a highly prevalent, global cause of disability. Research suggests that many healthcare professionals are not well equipped to manage pain, and this may be attributable at least in part to undergraduate education. The primary aim of this study was to quantify and compare first and final year nursing, midwifery and allie...
Article
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Purpose: There is a lack of research on childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experienced by men, with even less research examin- ing long term neurophysiological repercussions. This study explored the neurophysiology of the brain at rest to examine the influence of CSA on resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) into adulthood. Methods: RSFC was examin...
Article
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Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is characterized by the radiographic presence of a frontal plane curve, with a magnitude greater than 10° (Cobb technique). Diffusion MRI can be employed to assess the cerebral white matter. The aim of this study was to analyze, by means of MRI, the presence of any alteration in the connectivity of cerebral whi...
Article
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Optogenetic silencing allows to reveal the necessity of selected neuronal populations for various neurophysiological functions. These range from synaptic transmission and coordinated neuronal network activity to control of specific behaviors. An ideal single-component optogenetic silencing tool should be switchable between active and inactive state...
Article
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Recent global data indicates a worldwide increase in polydrug use associated with a shift from recreational to productive habits of consumption. Such non-responsible abuse of substances (alcohol, cocaine, heroin, etc.) is likely to lead to addictive disorders that are characterized by various neuropsychopharmacological effects. A main cognitive fun...
Article
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Electrophysiology and neurochemicals such as Ca²⁺, K⁺, and Na⁺ on the cerebral cortex can synergistically reflect the neurophysiological states. Transparent electrodes have been reported to record electrocorticography (ECoG) and image Ca²⁺ on the cerebral cortex surface. However, Ca²⁺ imaging is unable to track extracellular changes correlated with...
Article
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Recent advances in neurophysiological brain network analysis have demonstrated novel potential for diagnosis and prognosis of disorders of consciousness. While most progress has been achieved on the population-sample level, time-economic and easy-to-apply personalized solutions are missing. This prospective controlled study combined EEG recordings,...
Presentation
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Behavioral and neurophysiological study of subject’s personality traits under recognition of sentences about self and others
Article
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Antecedent The event-related potential (ERP) components P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) have been linked to cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. The diagnosis of schizophrenia could be improved by applying machine learning procedures to these objective neurophysiological biomarkers. Several studies have attempted to achieve this go...
Article
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Horizontal and vertical vergence eye movements play a central role in binocular coordination. Neurophysiological studies suggest that cortical and subcortical regions in animals and humans are involved in horizontal vergence. However, little is known about the extent to which the neural mechanism underlying vertical vergence overlaps with that of h...