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Neuroimaging - Science topic

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Publications related to Neuroimaging (10,000)
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Background: Acute ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and mortality globally, with increasing incidence in Africa, as the continent is already burdened with infectious diseases. Rapid diagnosis and efficient treatment are crucial, as even a slight delay to reperfuse the brain significantly affects the recovery outcome. Neuroi...
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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common, progressive, and currently incurable neurodegenerative movement disorder. The diagnosis of PD is challenging, especially in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism and in early PD detection. Due to the advantages of machine learning such as learning complex data patterns and making inferences for individuals...
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Schizophrenia, a debilitating disorder with typical manifestation of clinical symptoms in early adulthood, is characterized by cognitive impairments in executive processes such as in working memory (WM). However, there is a rare case of individuals with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) starting before their 18th birthday, while WM and its neural sub...
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Military psychiatry, a new subcategory of psychiatry, has become an invaluable, intangible effect of the war. In this review, we begin by examining related military research, summarizing the related epidemiological data, neuropathology, and the research achievements of diagnosis and treatment technology, and discussing its comorbidity and sequelae....
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Although the potential role of superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) in intellectual deficits and treatment response (TR) in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) has been previously described, little is known about the white-matter (WM) integrity of SLF subcomponents (SLF I, II, III, and arcuate fasciculus) and their particular relationships with the...
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Background: Sports-related concussion (SRC) is common in collision sport athletes. There is growing evidence that repetitive SRC can have serious neurological consequences, particularly when the repetitive injuries occur when the brain has yet to fully recover from the initial injury. Hence, there is a need to identify biomarkers that are capable...
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Background The concomitant role of the Central Executive, the Saliency and the Social Cognition networks in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in demanding ecological tasks remains unanswered. We addressed this question using a novel task-based fMRI virtual-reality task mimicking a challenging daily-life chore that may present some difficulties to indi...
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The cerebellum’s anatomical and functional organization and network interactions between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures are dynamic across the lifespan. Executive, emotional and social (EES) functions have likewise evolved during human development from contributing to primitive behaviors during infancy and childho...
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Background A congenital melanocytic naevus (CMN) is a rare skin condition that can be associated with abnormalities of the central nervous system (CNS). These anomalies can sometimes cause severe complications, and rarely death. Adequate information about aetiology and management is therefore crucial. To identify how to monitor patients with CMN, w...
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Background Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) composes an uncommon subtype of stroke caused by thrombotic occlusion of the cerebral venous system and tends to occur in hypercoagulable states. Albeit exceedingly rare, autoimmune hyperthyroidism and COVID-19 has been implicated as rare risk factors for CVST. As both conditions are capable of ind...
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Background Down syndrome regression disorder is a symptom cluster consisting of neuropsychiatric regression without cause. This study evaluated the incidence of neurodiagnostic abnormalities in individuals with Down syndrome regression disorder and determined if abnormalities are indicative of responses to therapeutic intervention. Methods A retro...
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Background Variable neuroimaging findings have been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In addition to respiratory symptoms, many neurologic manifestations of COVID-19 are increasingly reported and variable neuroimaging findings have been observed in patients with COVID-19. Our aim was to describe findings observed in hos...
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The relationship between pain and depression is thought to be bidirectional and the underlying neurobiology ‘shared’ between the two conditions. However, these claims are often based on qualitative comparisons of brain regions implicated in pain or depression, while focused quantitative studies of the neurobiology of pain-depression comorbidity are...
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Neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between the intensity of chronic low back pain intensity and structural and functional brain alterations. However, chronic pain results from the coordination and dynamics among several brain networks that comprise the dynamic pain connectome. Here, we use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
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A wide variety of model systems and experimental techniques can provide insight into the structure and function of the human brain in typical development and in neurodevelopmental disorders. Unfortunately, this work, whether based on manipulation of animal models or observational and correlational methods in humans, has a high attrition rate in tra...
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Reconstructing cortical surfaces from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a prerequisite for surface-based functional and anatomical image analyses. Conventional algorithms for cortical surface reconstruction are computationally inefficient and typically take several hours for each subject, causing a bottleneck in applications when a fas...
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Background Increased total tau (t-tau) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a key characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and is considered to result from neurodegeneration. T-tau levels, however, can be increased in very early disease stages, when neurodegeneration is limited, and can be normal in advanced disease stages. This suggests that t-tau le...
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Several preclinical and clinical lines of evidence suggest a role of neuroinflammation in migraine. Neuroimaging offers the possibility to investigate and localize neuroinflammation in vivo in patients with migraine, and to characterize specific inflammatory constituents, such as vascular permeability, and macrophage or microglia activity. Despite...
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Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Although many reports have detailed a range of neurological symptoms in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, studies of neuro-ophthalmological manifestations are still scarce. Case presentation We report a 9-year-o...
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We herein present a case of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) with secondary optic pathway denervation atrophy, which was initially labeled as normal tension glaucoma. However, given the discordant clinical and ophthalmologic findings, brain magnetic resonance imaging was requested which proved PVL to be the underlying process to the patient's dec...
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Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a hereditary microangiopathy characterized by a genetic predisposition to small arteries of the brain. It is produced by a mutation in the NOTCH3 gene and concerns adults. The symptomatology is diversified including migraines with or without aura...
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Can we trust our eyes? Until recently, we rarely had to question whether what we see is indeed what exists, but this is changing. Artificial neural networks can now generate realistic images that challenge our perception of what is real. This new reality can have significant implications for cybersecurity, counterfeiting, fake news, and border secu...
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Biomedical Image process is a growing and demanding field. It contains of the many differing types of imaging ways likes CT scans, X-Ray and MRI. These techniques enable North American nation to spot even the littlest abnormalities within the physical body. The first goal of medical imaging is to extract meaningful and correct information from thes...
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Sampling the insulo‐opercular region with invasive recordings is crucial given the importance of this region in epileptic networks and a variety of electroclinical presentations. However, implantation of the insulo‐opercular region via stereoelectroencephalography (sEEG) is considered technically challenging given complex vascular and gray matter r...
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Emotional processing deficits are key features in major depressive disorder (MDD). Neuroimaging studies indicate that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays a pivotal role in both depressive symptoms and emotional processing. Recently, transcranial Direct Current Stimulations (tDCS) applied over the DLPFCs have held the promise to allevia...
Preprint
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Scientists often use observational time series data to study complex natural processes, from climate change to civil conflict to brain activity. But regression analyses of these data often assume simplistic dynamics. Recent advances in deep learning have yielded startling improvements to the performance of models of complex processes, from speech c...
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Electric source imaging (ESI) estimates the cortical generator of the electroencephalography (EEG) signals recorded with scalp electrodes. ESI has gained increasing interest for the presurgical evaluation of patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. In spite of a standardised analysis pipeline, several aspects tailored to the individual patient...
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Background Across behavioral studies, autistic individuals show greater variability than typically developing individuals. However, it remains unknown to what extent this variability arises from heterogeneity across individuals, or from unreliability within individuals. Here, we focus on eye tracking, which provides rich dependent measures that hav...
Preprint
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Childhood mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is associated with elevated risk of developing social problems, which may be underpinned by changes in the structural developmental trajectory of the social brain, a network of cortical regions supporting social cognition and behavior. However, limited sample sizes and cross-sectional designs generally u...
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Skull stripping has an important in neuroimaging workflow. Skull stripping is a time-consuming process in the Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For this reason, skull stripping and brain segmentation are aimed in this study. For the this purpose, the U-NET architecture design, which is one of the frequently used models in the field of medical image...
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Exposure to early life stress (ELS) is associated with a variety of detrimental psychological and neurodevelopmental effects. Importantly, ELS has been associated with regional alterations and aberrant connectivity in the structure and functioning of brain regions involved in emotion processing and self-regulation, creating vulnerability to mental...
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The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of chemotherapy on brain functional resting-state signal variability and cognitive function in older long-term survivors of breast cancer. This prospective longitudinal study enrolled women age ≥ 65 years of age who were breast cancer survivors after exposure to chemotherapy (CH), age-matched survi...
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Modelling population reference curves or normative modelling is increasingly used with the advent of large neuroimaging studies. In this paper we assess the performance of fitting methods from the perspective of clinical applications and investigate the influence of the sample size. Further, we evaluate linear and nonlinear models for percentile cu...
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Background: Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) are a group of relatively rare disorders in which neurological manifestations, including ischemic stroke, are common. The hypothesized pathophysiological mechanisms are hypercoagulability, cardioembolism (mainly mediated by myocardial involvement) and damage to the endothelium. A variable ischemic patte...
Preprint
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Speech comprehension is a complex process that draws on humans abilities to extract lexical information, parse syntax, and form semantic understanding. These sub-processes have traditionally been studied using separate neuroimaging experiments that attempt to isolate specific effects of interest. More recently it has become possible to study all st...
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The link between brain structural connectivity and schizotypy was explored in two healthy-participant cohorts, collected at two different neuroimaging centres, comprising 140 and 115 participants respectively. The participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), through which their schizotypy scores were calculated. Diffusion...
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The mind has puzzled humans for centuries, and its disorders, such as psychoses, have caused tremendous difficulties. However, relatively recent biotechnological breakthroughs, such as DNA technology and neuroimaging, have empowered scientists to explore the more fundamental aspects of psychosis. From searching for psychosis-causing genes to imagin...
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The number of studies published on postnatal microcephaly in children with Congenital Zika Syndrome is small, clinical presentations vary and aspects of the evolution of these children remain unclarified. The present case series examined clinical characteristics and assessed the growth velocity of the head circumference, weight and height Z-scores...
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As a part of self-consciousness, sense of agency (SoA) refers to our sensation that we initiate actions that lead to ensuing perceptual consequences. Previous neuroimaging studies manipulated voluntary actions to create differential levels of SoA, and found that the SoA network largely overlaps with the sensorimotor network. It is thus unclear whet...
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Skill retention is important for motor rehabilitation outcomes. Recent work has demonstrated that delayed visuospatial memory performance may predict motor skill retention in older and neuropathological populations. White matter integrity between parietal and frontal cortices may explain variance in upper-extremity motor learning tasks and visuospa...
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Multivariate autoregressive models [MAR] allows estimating effective brain connectivity by considering both power and phase fluctuations of the signals involved. A MAR models brain activity in one region as a linear combination of past activations in all other regions. A Hidden Markov model, HMM, whose states’ emisions are drawn from state-specific...
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Introduction There are several diseases recognized as variants of MS: post-infectious acute disseminated encephalitis, multiple sclerosis (MS), Rasmussen leukoencephalitis and Schilder's leukoencephalitis and related, but separate neuroimmune condition – Neuromyelitis Devic’s. In Kazakhstan diagnosis of such diseases was rare and immune modified tr...
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Mitochondrial DNA variants have previously associated with disease, but the underlying mechanisms have been largely elusive. Here, we report that mitochondrial SNP rs2853499 associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), neuroimaging, and transcriptomics. We mapped rs2853499 to a novel mitochondrial small open reading frame called SHMOOSE with microprot...
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Background and purpose Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a group of microvascular occlusive disorders that presents with neurological involvement in up to 87% of the cases. Although the central nervous system (CNS) is an important target organ in TMA, the role of neurological manifestations in the disease clinical course is not well established....
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Assessment of image quality is very important for image processing applications. Quality assessment is related to the difference between the original image and de-noised image. In general, medical images are assessed qualitatively by radiologists to diagnose the disease, which are purely subjective evaluations. To quantitatively measure the quality...
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Over the long run, STEM fields had been perceived as dominant by males, despite that numerous studies have shown that female students do not underperform their male classmates in mathematics and science. In this review, we discuss whether and how sex/gender shows specificity in arithmetic processing using a cognitive neuroscience approach not only...
Preprint
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Obesity negatively impacts multiple bodily systems, including the central nervous system. Retrospective studies that estimated chronological age from neuroimaging have found accelerated brain aging in obesity, but it is unclear how this estimation would be affected by lifestyle intervention. In a sub-study of 102 participants of the DIRECT-PLUS (di...
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Introduction: The one of the actual pediatric neurosurgery problems remains the optimal strategy selection for treatment of occult tethered cord syndrome (TCS), which presents no neuroimaging signs of spinal cord tethering in spite of clinical manifestation and characteristic of TCS. Objective: to define the specific aspects of the TCS diagnostics...
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Mental arithmetic is a complex skill of great importance for later academic and life success. Many neuroimaging studies and several meta-analyses have aimed to identify the neural correlates of mental arithmetic. Previous meta-analyses of arithmetic grouped all problem types into a single meta-analytic map, despite evidence suggesting that differen...
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Background and Objectives The glymphatic system is a whole-brain perivascular network, which promotes CSF/interstitial fluid exchange. Alterations to this system may play a pivotal role in amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation. However, its involvement in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the changes in noni...
Preprint
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Background: The intrinsic neural timescale in a local brain area has been specialized, and the sensory and prefrontal areas have shorter and longer timescales, respectively. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder that also exhibits with abnormal neural activity in sensorimotor, visual, and cognitive-related areas. However,...
Preprint
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The same visual input can serve as the target of perception or as a trigger for memory retrieval depending on whether cognitive processing is externally oriented (perception) or internally oriented (memory retrieval). While numerous human neuroimaging studies have characterized how visual stimuli are differentially processed during perception versu...
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Neuroimaging of certain pathologies requires both multi-parametric qualitative and quantitative imaging. The role of the quantitative MRI (qMRI) is well accepted but suffers from long acquisition times leading to patient discomfort, especially in geriatric and pediatric patients. Previous studies show that synthetic MRI can be used in order to redu...
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Background: This work aims to describe the clinico-radiological phenotype of UBTF c.628G>A (p.Glu210Lys) pathogenic variant-related neurodegeneration in childhood. Methods: We describe the progress of clinical and neuroimaging features in a male individual who had childhood-onset neuroregression and carried the heterozygous UBTF c.628G>A (p.Glu2...
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Detecting and visualizing edges is important in several neuroimaging and medical imaging applications. For example, it is common to use edge maps to ensure the automatic alignment of low-resolution functional MRI images to match a high-resolution structural image has been successful. Specifically, software toolboxes like FSL and AFNI generate volum...
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Diversity of participants in biomedical research with respect to race, ethnicity, and biological sex is crucial, particularly given differences in disease prevalence, recovery, and survival rates between demographic groups. The objective of this systematic review was to report on the demographics of neuroimaging studies using magnetic resonance ima...