Questions related to Neurobiology
The question explores how animals exhibit and recognize emotions and investigates their role in their social interactions and overall well-being. Emotions are fundamental aspects of human behaviour and are increasingly recognized as relevant to understanding animal behaviour. By examining the expression and perception of emotions in animals, researchers aim to uncover the underlying mechanisms and evolutionary significance of emotional experiences in non-human species.
This research question delves into how animals display emotions and interpret emotional cues from others. It seeks to identify various emotions' behavioural, physiological, and cognitive indicators across different animal species, such as joy, fear, anger, and social bonding. Through observational studies, experiments, and neurobiological investigations, researchers aim to uncover the neural and physiological mechanisms underlying emotional responses in animals.
Additionally, the question explores the role of emotions in social interactions among animals. Investigating how emotions influence communication, cooperation, dominance hierarchies, mate selection, and conflict resolution provides insights into the adaptive value and evolutionary significance of emotional experiences in animal societies. By understanding the role of emotions in social interactions, researchers can shed light on how emotional dynamics shape and maintain social structures within animal communities.
Furthermore, the question seeks to explore the impact of emotions on an animal's overall well-being. By investigating the connection between emotional states and physiological health, stress responses, reproductive success, and individual fitness, researchers can better understand the importance of emotional well-being for animals. This knowledge can inform conservation efforts, captive animal welfare, and the development of strategies to enhance the overall quality of life for animals in various contexts.
Addressing this research question requires a multidisciplinary approach, combining ethology, neuroscience, psychology, and comparative biology. It has implications for our understanding of animal cognition, emotions, social behaviour, and welfare. Ultimately, unravelling how animals exhibit and recognize emotions and exploring their impact on social interactions and overall well-being can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the emotional lives of animals and the complexities of their social worlds.
AI plays a crucial role in researching neurobiological factors associated with depression by analyzing vast amounts of data, identifying patterns, and assisting in the interpretation of complex biological information. Machine learning algorithms can analyze neuroimaging data, genetic information, and other biomarkers to identify potential indicators of depression. Additionally, AI models contribute to the development of personalized treatment approaches by considering individual variations in neurobiology, ultimately advancing our understanding and treatment of depression.
The question I provided asks for a detailed explanation of the mechanisms and pathways within the gut-brain axis that are affected by psychobiotics. It also seeks to understand how these interactions between psychobiotics and the gut-brain axis ultimately impact aspects of mental health and cognitive function. This question delves into the scientific and technical aspects of the field of psychobiotics, which explores the connection between gut microbiota and mental well-being. Researchers in this field investigate how certain microorganisms, often referred to as psychobiotics, can influence brain function and mental health through the gut-brain axis. A comprehensive answer would require a detailed understanding of microbiology, neurobiology, and their complex interactions.
We have started working with BT88 cell lines. We are using ATCC recommended Neurocult-A proliferation kit with EGF, FGF and Heparin. We started culture on 12th Feb. Please give tips to increase viability.
I will really appreciate it if somebody could share the software. My lab owns the stimulator but when we acquired it we didn't get the software nor the drivers. Grass doesn't exist anymore and "Natus" which is the company that bought it told me that "S88X" is a discontinued product and they do not longer provide support for it.
Its crucial for us to control the device from a PC.
Thanks in advance
On 21-22-23 June 2023, the Milan Medical School of Ambrosiana University promoted an International Conference in streaming, on the subject:
The paradigm change of medicine: the epistemological and scientific basis
of Person-Centered Medicine
This conference is aimed to underscore the urgent need for overcoming Medicine's current wrong and obsolete deterministic-mechanistic-biological paradigm based on the linear causality toward the assumption in Medical Education, Clinics, and Public Health of the right indeterministic person-centered paradigm of human nature, Medicine, medical science, and health.
Call for papers on the following topics:
EPISTEMOLOGY AND MEDICINE, ALLOSTASIS PHYSIOLOGY, EPIGENETICS PSYCHO-NEURO-ENDOCRINE-IMMUNOLOGY, PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, NEUROBIOLOGY, MEDICAL ETHICS, PERSON-CENTERED MEDICINE, PERSON-CENTERED HEALTH, PERSON-CENTERED PSYCHIATRY, MEDICAL EDUCATION, WHO and HEALTH DEFINITION, SOCIAL PSYCHIATRY
If you have an interactionist approach to behavior and affectivity quality, PNEI, neuromodulation, and epigenetics you are welcome.
Deadline: June 10, 2023
Registration and abstract forms on
Rector of Ambrosiana University
Director of the Milan School of Medicine
Why and how is this kind of long-term potentiation (LTP) possible?
Is LTP even needed for all sorts of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation?
Long-term potentiation (LTP which is necessary for synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation) needs repeats and reinforcement of the engrams to be triggered.
However, apparently everybody automatically "absorbs" a lot of information immediately and also permanently, even without needing any extra effort (at least any conscious effort), which seems to be needed for LTP to happen. Everyone seems to have this ability, although it is even stronger in those with better memories.
People simply "learn" many things once; and many of those learned items remain there for a pretty long duration, and in many cases even for the rest of their lives. This seems to happen without any repeats, at least without any apparent or conscious efforts to remember or re-remember those memories. This is the case for a lot of semantic information (especially the information of interest or importance to the person) as well as a large portion of the contents of episodic memory.
Why and how is this kind of LTP possible?
Perhaps attention plays a major role here, e.g., being interesting and important automatically triggers LTP without a further need for repeats.
But such effortless long-term memorization happens also in the case of a lot of semantic information or autobiographical events that are not inherently interesting or significant to the person.
Is LTP even needed for all sorts of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation?
What is this curious non-updatable mega memory? Does it have any scientific terms?
What are its causes and mechanisms?
I have had the honor of witnessing very rare people who have some strange forms of mega memory: They effortlessly, automatically, and immediately memorize many difficult things such as phone numbers or their difficult and comprehensive books, etc. And they retain those easily captured memories for a very very long time (a couple of decades at least), without any smallest effort or reinforcement. Not to mention that they record or remember almost everything else (semantic or episodic) quite easily, and also with a lot of details. Furthermore, they are very very accurate in recalling those items. For example, they can serve as pretty reliable living phone books; or for example, they are extremely awesome at medicine, etc.
But when I am talking about "strange", I don't mean their super-human ability to easily capture such vast amounts of information for such long durations and recall them accurately.
Their super-human ability is of course strange. But the even stranger part of their memory is that once it is captured, it cannot be updated or revised easily. For example, if they misunderstand something the first time, it will take perhaps 10 or 20 attempts over days or weeks for their colleagues to remind them of the mistake and ask them to correct their misunderstanding.
It is like that once their memory is formed the very first time, it is set in stone. It is absorbed very efficiently and strongly, and at the same time, not much prone to future updates.
What is this curious non-updatable mega memory? Does it have any scientific terms?
What are its causes and mechanisms?
Please spread the word: Folding at Home (https://foldingathome.org/) is an extremely powerful supercomputer composed of thousands of home computers around the world. It tries to simulate protein folding to Fight diseases. We can increase its power even further by simply running its small program on our computers and donating the spare (already unused and wasted) capacity of our computers to their supercomputation.
After all, a great part of our work (which is surfing the web, writing texts and stuff, communicating, etc.) never needs more than a tiny percent of the huge capacity of our modern CPUs and GPUs. So it would be very helpful if we could donate the rest of their capacity [that is currently going to waste] to such "distributed supercomputer" projects and help find cures for diseases.
The program runs at a very low priority in the background and uses some of the capacity of our computers. By default, it is set to use the least amount of EXCESS (already wasted) computational power. It is very easy to use. But if someone is interested in tweaking it, it can be configured too via both simple and advanced modes. For example, the program can be set to run only when the computer is idle (as the default mode) or even while working. It can be configured to work intensively or very mildly (as the default mode). The CPU or GPU can each be disabled or set to work only when the operating system is idle, independent of the other.
Please spread the word; for example, start by sharing this very post with your contacts.
Also give them feedback and suggestions to improve their software. Or directly contribute to their project.
Folding at Home: https://foldingathome.org/
Folding at Home's Forum: https://foldingforum.org/index.php
Folding at Home's GitHub: https://github.com/FoldingAtHome
Additionally, see other distributed supercomputers used for fighting disease:
Rosetta at Home: https://boinc.bakerlab.org/
I am writing a literature review and the crossroads of psychology and neurobiology. I am looking for a practical free online database which lists the upstream and downstream effectors related to for instance a given molecule (e.g., BDNF) given as a search term.
What do you use ?
Thank you in advance for your reply !
How do you research and bring work together?
You may use the technique of consilience without knowing it.
Read this definition and then let me know how you use consilience in your work.
In science and history, consilience (also convergence of evidence or concordance of evidence) is the principle that evidence from independent, unrelated sources can "converge" on strong conclusions. That is, when multiple sources of evidence are in agreement, the conclusion can be very strong even when none of the individual sources of evidence is significantly so on its own. Most established scientific knowledge is supported by a convergence of evidence: if not, the evidence is comparatively weak, and there will not likely be a strong scientific consensus.
The principle is based on the unity of knowledge; measuring the same result by several different methods should lead to the same answer. For example, it should not matter whether one measures distances within the Giza pyramid complex by laser rangefinding, by satellite imaging, or with a meter stick – in all three cases, the answer should be approximately the same. For the same reason, different dating methods in geochronology should concur, a result in chemistry should not contradict a result in geology, etc.
The word consilience was originally coined as the phrase "consilience of inductions" by William Whewell (consilience refers to a "jumping together" of knowledge). The word comes from Latin com- "together" and -siliens "jumping" (as in resilience).
I am interested in Neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Dementia, and I would like to study the disease basic neurobiology. This will be a helping hand for me to study Dementia well.
Recommendations could be Books, Articles, Lectures, Animated videos..etc
Thanks in advance!
lately, I've been thinking about whether or not mycelium can be used to link two brains or a set of neurons together. Mycelium is already known to be able to pass nutrients as well as electrical signals across the ground floor, so I theorize that it could be used to link neurons together or possibly even two brains. interested in what others have to think!
We’ve started to work with this cell line, and it is driving us crazy. We are unable to making them attach to the plate and when we do, we see a huge amount of apoptosis and cell death.
The coating is performed with PDL (50 ug/mL) and laminin within a range of 6 to 12 ug/mL. Those parameters are what it’s written in most of the limited bibliography that exist about this cell line, so we are unable to find what’s the problem.
Has anyone experienced the same problem as us? Did you manage to solve it somehow?
The pics are showing how our cultures looks like in bright field microscope from 2 – 5 days after passage approx.
Thank you in advance!
Doctors from UCLA and Yale University are conducting a Survey on Postoperative Practices in Evaluating and Treating Patients with Brain Tumors in North America.
We are asking neurosurgeons, (neuro)psychologists, speech-language therapists, and occupational therapists, physiotherapists, or psychotherapists to participate in the survey.
Our goal is to understand common practices, disseminate standards of care, and gather information on post-operative outcomes in patients with brain tumors. We will publish the results from this survey in an open-access journal.
The survey can be accessed here:
Thank you very much for your help! Please reach out with any questions.
UCLA Dept. of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences
I had a few students help me with a simple but time-consuming task. The data they helped with will be used in a scientific paper. The students are part of the Student Research Program (SRP) at my institution and they received a class credit for their work with me. Should I include these students as co-authors on the manuscript?
I also had a student volunteer help me on the same research project. The student did not get a class credit for their help. Should the student be a co-author on the paper?
Thank you in advance for your opinions/suggestions.
As i know , if we can realize the DNA structure , we can simulate it in computer . then we can try to rebuild it if possible .
so Given the technological progress, is it possible in the future?
Hello there, I am looking for this book to enrich my biological knowledge about the brain. Does anyone have it by any chance?
Also, would you recommend this book over the Kandel's "Principles of Neural Science" to examine the biology of the brain?
Thank you in advance,
I would like to scan calcium-indicator-dye-loaded neurons after fixation, just to know, which cells have been loaded. Fura and Carbodiimide fixation have been reported to retain fluorescence but I prefer paraformaldehyde fixation for several reasons. Is there a single calcium dye, which is not quenched after paraformaldehyde fixation?
I need a stack of black and white .jpeg/.tiff/.jpg/.png images across time of either action potentials, neurons firing, or brain scans (comparing disease and normal brain, disease progression, etc.) that I can colorize and overlay for a project in a data visualization course. It wouldn't be published and only for submission to the instructor.
I am new to genes and genotyping and I need help. I am trying to figure our how AA, AG, and GG genotypes map on to A1 for DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A polymorphism(rs1800497) and Val or MET for COMT Val158Metpolymorphism (rs4680). Where can I find this information presented in a way that a gene-naïve person will understand?
Thank you very much in advance,
Do you know of any applications that help adjust references in a manuscript to a journal's stylesheet? I am familiar with Mendeley but I was wondering whether there is program that does not require prior uploading cited papers (just as Mendeley does).
Thanks a lot!
My team is planning to conduct a modified version of a scientific survey that was published by a different group a few years ago. We are going to significantly modify the survey and use it to investigate a different clinical population. We will, however, keep some of the questions used in the original survey. How should we best approach this without risking plagiarism?
We will say in future publications that will follow our survey that it is a modified version of a different survey. Which of the options below should we also pursuit:
(1) mention that our survey is a modified version of another survey already in the survey itself,
(2) paraphrase the questions that we will borrow from the original survey?
I will greatly appreciate your suggestions.
Let's talk about what is our self else than your memories (if all set of information that we've got is a different type of memories)?
I am trying to send triggers from MATLAB to the BIOPAC stimulator STM200. The aim is to deliver electric shocks to the participant. My STM200 is plugged into the STM100C through the 50 ohm output and the STM100C is placed in between the STP100 and the UIM100. The STP100 is connected to the stimuli presentation computer via a DB-25 ribbon cable.
Does anyone know how to send triggers in order to make the STM200 deliver a shock? I haven’t been able to find any example of code online.
Thank you in advance,
I am planning to introduce a new model in a paper. I have found a few good samples of published papers presenting new models in the area (neurolinguistics).
Are you familiar with any guidelines for research papers that introduce a model?
What are your favorite and/or "gold standard" RNA-seq datasets for neurodegenerative diseases?
I come from the field of computational cancer genomics where there are some datasets that are well-known as "high-quality" ones in cancer. I want to benchmark some of the computational tools I'm currently developing on RNA-seq datasets for neurodegenerative diseases: I want to make sure I can identify known regulators with the tools I am testing. Therefore, I am looking for high-quality RNA-seq datasets for neurodegenerative diseases. Any advice on where to find such datasets?
If so, what solvent did you use? What was the max concentration of cuprizone you used to make the stock solution? I am having trouble replicating a protocol in a paper that made a 1mM cuprizone stock in 50% ethanol, then used the cuprizone on cells at a concentration of 500uM. This just causes a precipitate likely due to the high ethanol concentration (25%)!?
Most of biological and medical investigations choose to involve either male or female (rarely both) subjects to study.
To merely include subjects from one gender (particularly males in rodent models in many studies) and to avoid populations of mixed genders in separate groups is almost a very well-established approach in experimental design of most of the studies in neurosciences, brain and cognitive sciences, cancer research, immunology and behavioral psychology, etc.
Nevertheless, I think that such an approach is often disputatious and may be inaccurate (though statistically solid only for those experimental groups), in that the real world population is not segregated, and research should truly reflect on the statistically unbiased real demographics.
Do you think that to avoid statistically unreliable variances due to biological gender differences in a mixed study (not mixed-gender groups), and thus to choose subjects from only one gender (male or female) would result in biased, unreliable or non-replicable studies?
I'm unfamiliar with the contemporary technology in neurobiology. I'm interested in the possibilities to measure very small energy fluctuations in the brain, the location of the activities is rather unimportant for my purpose. I would be very grateful for any suggestions regarding the relevant literature.
For the analysis of intracranial electrophysiological recording in animals, some tutorials montion that the analysis should be used for stationary signal, so there should be some preprocessing, like prewhitening.
Some tutorials also said some signal could be thought as locally stationary. So I am puzzled, should I use prewhitening, and when should I do this?
Particularly, the analysing procedure is like this: reading the raw data, then do low-pass filter for LFP, then analying power spectrum of LFP, etc. High-pass filter for spike, then spike-sorting, then estimating firing rate, then do some statistic analysis
By the way, I am using Matlab toolbox, like Chronux or Fieldtrip.
Neuro 2A (N2a) is a mouse neural crest-derived cell line that has been extensively used to study neuronal differentiation, axonal growth and signaling pathways. Is it also possible to record action potential from these cells? Any description, idea and suggestion will be appreciated.
Could you imagine to create a video explaining the essential of you publications yourself?
Why would you want to create a video for you publication?
Did you produce these kind of Videos already? If so, how did you do it?
I would like to transduce neuronal and astrogilal primary culture cells from mice or rats with an AAV. Do you know a reliable article that allows to answer to these questions : Should I produce an AAV2/6 ? Should I transduce at DIV6 or DIV2 ?
Are you familiar with any studies on the amount of language switching (code switching, language mixing , or both) on the organization of languages in the brain?
Which medium to use after differentiation of SHSY5Y? I used RA+BDNF and I need to use different treatment for next 2 days. Keep them in the differentiation medium or I can use standard medium for SHSY5Y cell excl. FCS, or they need some supplements?
Are cognitive control and cognitive effort the same thing?
I am confused. In the neuroscientific literature on second language learning, the neural organization of cognitive control and cognitive effort seems to overlap (e.g., the anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal regions). At the same time, I have come across some results that make me think that cognitive control and cognitive effort are not the same thing.
For instance, I have found fMRI studies that reported increased "cognitive effort" (and therefore more widespread fMRI activation) in less proficient speakers of a second language (e.g., Abutalebi et al. 2018). At the same time, several ERP studies have suggested more "cognitive/language control" in highly proficient second language users. For example, Fernandez et al. (2013) have shown that higher second language proficiency was associated with a greater mean N2 amplitude (greater inhibition) on an executive function test. Another example: Rossi et al (2018) concluded that individuals with high second language proficiency require more cognitive/language control for their first language, even before they speak their second language.
I will greatly appreciate your help.
With my best wishes,
Are you familiar with neuroimaging studies or/and do you have any predictions about executive control in implicit/informal versus explicit/formal second language learning? Which type of language learning requires more executive control?
I will greatly appreciate your opinions/suggestions.
All the best,
Corpus callosum is the main bond between the brain’s left and right hemispheres. It is sometimes damaged or cut out because of a disease, this is called split brain, in this case the two halves of brain do not exchange information efficiently. In one experiment a word was flashed briefly to the right field of view of a split brain patient and the patient was asked what he saw and because the input from the right field of view is processed by the left hemisphere which is also responsible for verbal processing the patient’s answer matched the word, next the word was flashed to his left field of view and the experiment was repeated and the patient said that he did not see anything but when he was asked to draw a picture with his left hand he drew a picture of the word. The question is are there some stimuli in our environment that we can’t sense but affect our decisions? In other words do we decide or our behavior may be a reaction to the things that we are not aware of?
We are a team including Epidemiologists, Physicians, Biologists (MSC and PhD), Well-known supervisors from Iran, United States and India and we are writing a lot of articles in these countries.
Now, we need more authors in our team. Motivated, active, Smart and clever authors from everywhere in the world.
Currently we want to form a team and write a new review article in Neuroscience (Especially on Impacts of Nutrients on Brain developments).
Kindly send your request by E-mail or direct message on RG.
Do not hesitate to ask any question.
Best of Luck
We want to characterise some brain regions in an insect using an anti-synapsin protein. Most protocols use Normal Goat Serum to dilute the antibodies and as a blocking solution, but it seems to be difficult to get here in Mexico. There are alternatives, like BlockAid, a proprietary formula that is better at blocking unspecific binding (according to the manufacturer). The problem is that I haven't found a single paper where BlockAid is used in insects with our antibodies. Has anyone used these solutions? Are they really better? What are the possible drawbacks?
I am trying to design carbonate apatite nanoparticles that might cross the endothelial layer of brain capillary (blood brain barrier-BBB). Thus, an in vitro system would be a better option (easy to understand and faster) to check the permeability of particles before moving to an in vivo model. I am looking for an in vitro BBB system that can be used for this purpose. I have seen the co-culturing systems discussed by many researchers. Are the co-culturing system with the filter available commercially?
In a situation where a myelinated neuron (at any location in the nervous system) gets demyelinated, what are the changes that occur in the neuron. May be there are three phasic changes. Pre-Demyelination changes, Intra-Demyelination changes and Post-Demyelination changes. What are these changes? Can we ennumerate them.
Important: Does any change in the size/length of the neuron occur at any given instant during the process of demyelination?
In several papers I found that testosterone might inhibit oxytocinergic activity in the brain, but no references were given.
For instance, I already read that oxytocin makes the orbitofrontal cortex more active (in some tasks) shifting away the activation from the amygdala, while testosterone does the reverse activating the amygdala and “deactivating” the OFC. But there is no mention on how these hormones interact.
In other papers, I found that testosterone inhibits oxytocin, but no references are given. For example: “we chose female participants in luteal phase because testosterone might interact with endogenous oxytocin”.
So, I’m asking whether this is a general and accepted chemical phenomenon “testosterone over oxytocin”, or rather if this depends on singular cases.
I have TTX citrate ordered from Hello Bio. On using it at 1uM as my working concentration, it didn't show any effect.
How do I test whether the toxin is actually working or not?
I plan to use Cogent for the event-related presentation of my stimuli. The stimuli are short video clips (3 seconds) and I have to decide in which format the videos should be. I can convert them to any format possible. At the moment the videos are in .wmv format, but I heard that this format may not be supported in Cogent. Is this correct? Is there also a video codec specified that is supported in Cogent?
At the moment I cannot retrieve the website of the Wellcome Laboratory of Neurobiology and I do not know why (there is always a error message). For this reason I cannot check the information by myself or download the Cogent toolbox to test it.
Thank you very much for your help!
I recently begin to learn single-unit recording in the primary visual cortex of mouse brain using tungsten electrodes. Sometimes (but not very often), there is significant bleeding during when I try to remove the skull and the meninges, but in all the cases the vessels eventually stopped to bleed. I wish to know how will bleeding affect neurons nearby? Will neurons die because they have less O2 and glucose supplied?
While PC-12 cells are commonly differentiated using nerve growth factor (NGF), I am going to be using PC-12 Adh (the adherent version of PC-12 cells) for a series of experiments involving NGF.
Here are my questions in case you have used NGF on PC-12 Adh cells:
- What media/supplements did you use for maintenance as well as when differentiating the cells?
- Did you find that the cells grew better in certain plates/flasks?
- What markers did you use to confirm differentiation? Neurite growth/length, gene expression, protein levels, etc.?
Thank you for your help!
Hi. Recently I've tried to record field potential in brain slice but failed. I use bipolar or monopolar stimulating electrode. Amp is Axopatch 1-D and headstage is CV-4. Recording was done at I-clamp mode. When the recording electrode containing normal ACSF touched the surface of brain slice, I started current injection but I could not see any responses but stimulus artifact. Would you please give me some advice?
As I had not recorded field potential before, I used brain stem slice (I have many experiences here). Age of mice is around P(postnatal day)3~P9. It is MNTB-LSO synapses at pons level.
Stimulating electrode(bipolar or unipolar) was located at MNTB and recording electrode (3~5 megaohm) was at LSO. The resistance of stimulating electrode was also in the same range of that of recording electrode (in case of unipolar electrode). I also tried bipolar electrode but failed.
LSO cells viewed with high magnification were alive and healthy. In voltage clamp mode, postsynaptic currents were elicited by stimulation at MNTB.
I would like to stimulate my recorded cell (whole-cell, pyramidal cells in hippocampus) with a pulse train of light during 600 ms. In the middle of those pulses of light, I would like to stimulate electrically the axons (0.1 ms, 1 pulse). How can we "superimposed " the two stimulations with clampex 10 ? For now I found how to build the protocole with one stim after the other. But I would like to stimulate electrically while the pulse of light is ON.
My electric stimulator is branched on the Out#0 and the LED is branched on the Out#1 of a Digidata 1500A.
For the axon morphology analysis, I found that it is very difficult to get a clear conclusion with hippocampal neuron culture, because there are lots of varieties exist with hip neuron. I am wondering that whether this is reason people prefer to choosing spinal neuron for their axon morphology study. Just like"Dynamic Localization of G-Actin during Membrane Protrusion in Neuronal Motility" also use Xenopus Spinal Neuron Culture.
I'm trying to image neurons every 15 min for 24 hours. My neurons don't even get past the 6h mark before dying.
I plate my neurons on precoated ibidi chambers and use Dil at 5ul/1ml from 1mM stock with an incubation time of 5 minutes. After labeling, I replenish with fresh media plus some of the old media (growth factors) with added FBS. I've been adding 10% FBS because a neighboring lab found that longterm imaging without FBS of labeled neurons can cause the neurons to die.
The causes of death I'd like to rule out are (1) FBS or (2) Dil concentration/incubation time. Previously I had been imaging via phase contrast with phenol red in my media and that didn't seem to harm the neurons (although this was a 12 hr time lapse).
If anyone can help me out I'd greatly appreciate it!! Thanks!
Looking at neurobiologic justifications and findings in education, for example music education: What can you really tell about this field's research results that has not already be known before?
We have homogenized Taenia crassiceps larvae and are puffing the homogenate onto pyramidal neurons during whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. We need to put the puffer pipette very close to the neurons - ie the neurons move during the puffing - we see obvious depolarization ie 10 - 20 mV worth, that is not blocked by glutamate receptor blockers (kynurenic acid, AP5, CNQX). The pH is roughly between 7 and 8. Osmolarity of the homogenate is 300 ish. Also the K+ concentration within the homogenate is 4 mM and the effect is there when using a caesium internal. Is what we are seeing an artefact? What substances cause neurons to depolarize, what should we be thinking of as causative agents that might be in the homogenate?
Thank you for your kind in advance.
I am cultivating neural stem cells from E14 rat spinal cord and plate them into 100mm dish by dissociating accumax or accutase.
I want to maintain neurospheres, not attaching cells, which might be differentiated over time. That`s why I don`t want to attach neurospheres until I want. I always plate them into 100mm dish that not coated anything for cell culture. The neurospheres are dissociated mechanically by pipetting up and down. and the neurospheres are always fine until 1week I dissociate it.
But, After 1week, I usually dissociated neurospheres into sing cells.
At the same procedure as above, I dissociated it and plate it into 100mm dish again. but, it always initiate to attach at the bottom of plate. There were not a lot of free floating cells as single cells.
I am facing with this problem.. Why do neurospheres start to attach at the bottom of plate? even though all of procedure was same, 2nd passage neurospheres initiate to attach bottom? anyone help me?
I have noticed an increased in the asymmetrical synaptic excitatory junctions to be increased in the diabetic brain but could not find any discussion of this in the literature at present. If you have any information or publications regarding this question please share with me when you have the time.
My hypothesis is that in younger diabetic brains this increase in asymmetrical synaptic excitatory junctions may result in an overuse phenomenon and result in a later or older models in their attentuation and or loss as in accelerated aging in the diabetic brain. Thank you for your time and consideration.
M.R. (Pete) Hayden, MD
I am using ALexa 594 Fluoroscent dye. In acute hippocampal slices from adult rats, I fill the CA1 pyramidal neurons with the dye after getting whole cell configuration. I perform uncaging experiments for over 30 mins and wish to calculate and report the structural changes in the dendritic spines that I am uncaging on. Using 2-photon, I take z-stacks of the dendrite I am uncaging on and also movie of the dendrite. Can someone please tell me the best way/protocol to analyze the sturctural offiline (ImageJ, MATLAB)?
This question is specifically asked within the Project called "Treatment of Melanoma Brain Metastases."
Because neurological tissues as well as many forms of skin malignancies will tend to express at least some significant CB1 and CB2 receptors, perhaps using moderate dosing of a safe agonist like Delta 9-THC may be useful? And consider including evaluation of equivalent to 100-300 mg or oral CBD for humans as well as this is becoming very common among patients.
I work with both brain cancer patients (mostly Glioblastoma) and many breast cancer patients and they had already chosen to integrate cannabis extracts into their therapies. Because CBD and THC cross the BBB, and does not appear toxic to healthy normal cells, it may be reasonable to consider exploring this with research. I do have one interesting patient who reported using these compounds to treat her ER-PR-HER2+ brain metastases with tremendous success in only 3 months. The Herceptin and Perjeta she was on are too large to cross the BBB, so the situation is dire for her otherwise. Best wishes and thank you for your project!
Can you use 4-AP to assess excitability in dendritic FIELD POTENTIAL recordings from medial perforant path to dentate granule cell pathway?
I am trying to assess excitability of MPP-DGC (medial perforant path-dentate granule cell) synapses and have 4-AP available in lab. I am already doing other field experiments animals and therefore cannot do whole-cell yet to answer this question. I was wondering if I could get some prelim data in the mean-time by getting a baseline field recording at MPP-DGG (1 stim, every 30 sec, 100us duration) and then apply 4-AP (100 uM) to assess changes in excitability when Kv channels are blocked.
Just need to know if I am even in the ballpark for assessing excitability at these synapses in each group.
I am already doing separate experiments with picrotoxin and therefore am already looking at inhibitory transmission in this regard.
What is the role Calcium in Neuro-degenerative disease,… especially PD,AD,ALS ect whether its increases or decreases,as there is variant data available in the literature,...such as in Intra-cellular Calcium,Extra-cellular Calcium,Neuronal Calcium, Serum Calcium,Cytosolic Calcium and Mitochondrial Calcium?