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Nature is the system of all phenomena in space and time; the totality of physical reality. It is both a scientific and philosophic concept appearing in all historic eras. (Webster 2d; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
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With the advances in community review and Web3 on the horizon, I've been starting to wonder if the way in which traditional peer-review works is outdated. Have y'all found any systems out there that feel like the future of peer-review?
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That is the matter of reality. We have to face it. In recent years the number of retractions in journals, even top journals has increased.
Even when an article had been retracted many years ago, other authors were or are still citing them as a part of their literature review. For example lets have a look at this paper:
  • "Regression of human metastatic renal cell carcinoma after vaccination with tumor cell–dendritic cell hybrids" published in: Nature Medicine volume 6, pages332–336 (2000).
But in this URL we find the retraction note
Retraction date is sept 2003.
But a Google Scholar search shows, it has been cited 59 times, by different researchers, from 2018 up to now. Now let's ask ourselves where were/are peer reviewers? (in such a case)
After start of Covid 19 a "Paper Rush" began, every one wanted to be the first or among the first ones to have it in his field of teaching, expertise. So now there are a huge number of retracted papers just on Covid 19.
The problem so tense, some researchers addressed it in this article with a term "PAPERDEMIC" to attract concerns
  • "COVID-19 research: pandemic versus “paperdemic”, integrity, values and risks of the “speed science”" DOI 10.1080/20961790.2020.1767754
and then among too many other articles about the problems with peer review, these two articles by the New York Times:
  • "Two Huge Covid-19 Studies Are Retracted After Scientists Sound Alarms"
and this one
"The Pandemic Claims New Victims: Prestigious Medical Journals: Two major study retractions in one month have left researchers wondering if the peer review process is broken"
  • When we follow the cases of retractions in different journals, the role of whistleblowers is great. Now they have become gatekeepers of science . So it is a kind of "Post peer review" that is of great help. I firmly believe peer review in scientific research is gatekeeper of our health, life, nature, future and other good things, but we need new methods, as far as I have been thinking about and testing, post peer review could be a valuable option. Let me quote a sentence from the above mentioned article. "The truth is that the “scientific research has changed the world” but now, and more than ever, “it needs to change itself” (Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, 2020) DOI: 10.1080/20961790.2020.1767754
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In the context of accelerating the development of industry, global production, exploitation of raw materials, pollutants and waste emissions, increasing greenhouse gas emissions, accelerating the global warming process, protection of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, nature protection and biodiversity is one of the main challenges of the 21st century.
In view of the above, what do you think are the most effective methods, technologies, instruments for nature protection, natural ecosystems and biodiversity currently?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Maintain cleanliness to prevent pollution, use clean energy as much as possible, take care of natural plants and trees and increase them, and reduce overfishing of animals, birds and fish.
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In recent days everyone is eating unhealthy foods that contain harmful chemical residues. It should be changed.
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Natural Farming help to conserve the soil and other microorganism. Healthy soil free from chemical pesticide will help to produce high yielding crops in future. Natural Farming means maintenance of the earth.
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Farmers have started using chemical fertilizers and pesticides to get more yield from crops, now it is used in high doses. Hence it should be controlled with alternate methods.
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I do agree with Prof Dr Medhat Elsahookie.
Furthermore, overuse of these chemicals causes Release the warming gases especially from those contained halogens groups.
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While Nature Scientific Reports (NSR) is obviously not as rigorous as most of the other Nature journals, is it widely considered a reputable journal? I have heard that some institutions discourage publishing there because they are more profit-driven and less scientifically rigorous. Just curious as to what the general opinion is about this journal.
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In my opinion, we should stop evaluating scientific quality based on the journal where it was published or based on IF. Scientific reports and most other open-access journals report on good science but also publish low-quality studies. But this we see also in journals considered to be high-impact, like Nature etc. High-impact journals often follow the main-stream, while journals like scientifc reports are also open to unconventional ideas and studies, which makes them valuable.
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Dear collogues,
May I ask, What are the best natural herbs for obesity management?
Thanks
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How to get your article published in Nature or Science?
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Hey,
currently I am writing an article using the Nature citation style. However, I have a question on how to cite the same book multiple times (e.g. different chapters/pages of it).
I contacted their author support, but did not receive a reply.
Can I use the same superscript for different page numbers (corresponding to different references in the book) for in-text citations and use one reference to the book in the bibliography? This would complicate giving page numbers. Or does each citation (and thus page number) require an own superscript/entry in the bibliography? This in turn would unfortunately lead to a (in my opinion) unnecessarily long reference list. Apparently, giving page numbers is not required for the Nature citation style, but (for an unknown article), I find it cumbersome to read an entire book just for the sake of finding a potentially small piece of information that has been referred to.
I'm curious how you solved this issue.
Kind regards
Philipp
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It is important to cite the original source when using an idea, quotation, data, image, etc. that is not your own. Failing to cite your sources constitutes plagiarism. The Council of Science Editors (CSE) style is a standard citation style used across many disciplines in the physical and life sciences. The CSE style encompasses three distinct systems: • Name-Year: In-text citations appear in brackets, and consist of the author(s) last name, as well as the document’s year of publication (e.g. Smith 2008). The end reference list appears in alphabetical order by author last name. • Citation-Sequence: A superscript number (e.g. 1 ) is assigned to a document the first time it appears in the text, and the same number is used whenever that work is cited. The references in the reference list are listed numerically in the order in which they first appeared in the text. • Citation-Name: All references in the reference list are organized alphabetically by author last name, and assigned a number according to their order in the list. This number is then inserted in the text in superscript font (e.g. 1 ) wherever the work is cited.
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Hi everyone,
I am about to define an experiment where we want to investigate 10 - 20 de novo small proteins. We are mainly interested in affinity but also want to show that proteins are folding properly. For that we are thinking about using circular dichroism. I am having seconds thoughts though if this is the right method in the long run. When it comes to publishing, I have the gut feeling that reviewers might ask for a crystal structure of the protein or even the complex. I am working on getting an impression myself by reading nature and science papers but I would like to get to know your advice and experience concerning the matter. What methods are best suited to give our research credibility that might be expected in high impact journals?
cheers
Martin
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If your protein fulfills a measurable function (e.g., enzymatic activity), then you can take the presence of that activity as proof of folding. To measure the stability of that structure, I'd try differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which measures the change in heat capacity during (un)folding. Integration then gives the average change of enthalpy ΔH between two temperatures. Proteins unfold (and ideally refold) cooperatively over a narrow temperature or [denaturant] range.
If you have several related proteins, you can use the protein engineering method (10.1351/pac199163020187) to associate ΔΔG with sequence changes.
It is also possible to plot the rates of (un)folding as function of temperature and/or [denaturant] (chevron-plot, 10.1016/j.ymeth.2004.03.013), stopped-flow CD would be nice for that.
A transverse [denaturant] gradient can be used to measure unfolding by electrophoresis (10.1016/0022-2836(79)90279-1), amide deuterium exchange is used to measure their accessibility by ESI-MS or NMR. Some bound fluorescent dyes (e.g., ANS) change their intensity during unfolding, sometimes this can be done also with intrinsic Trp residues.
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Hello fellow researchers,
for my final thesis I want to examine if sustainability is a new status symbol and if yes, how strong it is and it's differences to luxury goods (and also if a luxury good is not "green" does this circumstance reduce it's symbolic power?).
Unfortunenately, I cannot find any studies in the past that examine status symbolism. More precisely, I need a scale or a model that measuers status perception or status symbolism (of any obejct).
Does someone has an idea where I can find such scale/model, or can someone post a study that uses or developed such scale/model?
I am thankful for every help.
Greetings from Germany :)
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Some countries derive a large income from tourism. However, it is necessary to protect the natural environment visited by tourists, including natural ecosystems and local, often unique in global biodiversity. Therefore, part of tourism revenues is spent on protecting the visited natural biological environments. Therefore, techniques for nature conservation and natural ecosystems should be constantly improved.
New information technologies should be used to analyze the state of natural environments. New information technologies typical of the current technological revolution Industry 4.0 is increasingly used to promote tourism and marketing in individual countries.
More frequently, social media portals are used to globally promote tourism in individual countries. The same technologies should also be increasingly used to promote the protection of nature, natural ecosystems and biodiversity.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question:
How should tourism with environmental protection be developed?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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In the case of tourism, sustainability means the wise use, development and protection of the natural, cultural and built environmental elements, as a result of which the interests and expectations of the participants in tourism are met at the same time, they benefit from the economic benefits at the same time. Sustainability in the field of tourism can be promoted by building a Regional Tourism Destination Management (TDM) system. This bottom-up management, created with the help of the public and private sectors, with its own resources and trained professionals, can manage the whole process of tourism. Understanding the destination management model is the key to creating sustainable tourism. However, without maintaining the environment at the heart of the model at the municipal level, the entire system may operate uncertainly, so it is necessary to establish a local destination management for environmental protection.
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What type of condensed matter physics paper have a great potential to be accepted in Nature?
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The microscopy mechanics of superconductivity in Sr2Ru04, Prof. Abdolazim Hasseli
Best Regards.
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According to Kirill Dmitriev, head of Russia’s Direct Investment Fund that bankrolled the effort, a vaccine developed by the Gamaleya research institute in Moscow may be approved in days, before scientists complete what’s called a Phase 3 study. That final-stage study, usually involving tens of thousands of people, is the only way to prove if an experimental vaccine is safe and really works.
Scientists worldwide are sounding the alarm that the headlong rush could backfire.
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In phase 3 trial Russian vaccine "Sputnik V" has been found safe and effective against COVID-19.
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What would land a neuroscience paper in Nature Neuroscience? What is the minimum a paper should have to pass the editorial scrutiny in Nature Neuroscience or the journals around the same cadre? May be a list of things and at the same time explanation of each point would work.
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Hi there,
Basically you need an important topic (most of the articles in Nat.Neurosci. are disease-related) and various, extremely good methods (often collaboration with specialized labs for EM, imaging, electrophysiology, ...).
Moreover, you should be working in a renowned lab, since the reputation of your PI will greatly influence if your paper has a chance to be accepted.
Also, you should think, how the journal would benefit from your paper:
For example, the neurocience community can greatly benefit from a ressource such as a proteomic or transcriptomic database, and such a paper would get a large number of citations, which is also beneficial of the journal.
Eventually, you will still need a good amount of luck to get accepted. ;-)
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There is always a dynamic balance in nature, be it homeostasis in local ecosystem to the grand scale of global homeostasis. Human is interfering with the working of nature and tending to destabilizing the feedback systems. Still it can maintain the balance and resistance and resilience stability within limits. By to what extent? We have now some  estimates of certain tipping points. Does it tell the whole story? Does it take into account all the aspects of nature's structural integrity and functional diversity and stability?
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each one depend on the other
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Everyone knows, the fast changing climatic condition with altered physical factors due to various anthropologic activities. Humans are unable to handle the issue of climate change due to growing needs and population. So, how nature will resolve the issue of climate change without human interference?
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If greenhouse gas emissions continue to grow in the coming years, the global warming process will accelerate and become an irreversible process in the next several dozen years. Therefore, climate change can be so great that nature will not solve the problem either. Forest fires, droughts, and weather anomalies will intensify. The biodiversity of natural ecosystems will quickly decline, it will be impoverished in terms of the composition of flora, fauna, fungi and microorganisms, and in terms of the genetic composition of the planet Earth's biosphere. Nature will not stop these unfavorable processes of climate change, but will be subject to these processes. So nature, preserving the biodiversity of natural ecosystems, can be helped primarily by people who, by implementing the principles of sustainable development, social environmental (ecological) responsibility, pro-ecological reforms of implementing eco-innovations in economic processes, etc., and other pro-ecological transformation of the traditional brown economy into a sustainable green economy / circular economy can save the biosphere of planet Earth from the climate crisis. If it's not too late, of course. But no matter how much time is left for the implementation of this pro-ecological action plan, it must be implemented urgently.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Prime Minister Boris Johnson's 10 point plan for industrial revolution and create 250,000 green jobs via 12billion£ investment.
Looks interesting, however, I would argue that with increased emphasis on hydrogen and nuclear (both requiring water - electrolysis & cooling respectively) there is a serious need to safeguard water availability, maintain purity levels, and its usable temperatures (nuclear exhaust waters to fish ponds etc. )
Are we moving in the right direction !!
Comments welcome.
Regards
Waqas
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The fundamental objects for the life of humans are the sweet water, energy , air and soil.
So, you can not priorities any one!
Best wishes
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At present all the world is experiencing weather extremes due to the impact of the climate change. Who is responsible for those consequences of extreme weather in all over the world? finally who is ready to face all these effects by Govt./People? Why all the Govts are not focusing on immediate controlling strategies? Not identifying causative factors in the world? How long will take time to clear our world environment? Why all the Govts not strictly controlling in the ground level before effluents entering into the environment? Why effluents are not treating/estimating properly? How it becomes more dangerous to human life and environment in all over the world?
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Climate change is everyone's responsibility. Everyone at their own level must do what is necessary. International institutions, governments, civil societies, associations, peoples, ... etc. must unite and fight against climate change. The earth is threatened, and the human being is in danger of disappearing? All together to fight against climate change, whatever the country, religion, ... and differences ... The land belongs to us… but we also belong to it! Professor Emeritus Ahmed KETTAB
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Why govt blindly giving permissions to industries establishment without considering environmental impacts and it's side effects? Due to these blunder mistakes only now a days all we facing serious climate crisis.They have their own reasons for allowing industries in the world. But all should first consider environmental issues. Governments only priority is economical development further creating employment to the job seekers in the country, but not focusing on associated environmental impacts by the industries. Governments are giving more relaxations in the processes of new industries establishment to attract more in future to strengthening economically more stronger in all over the world. In this relaxing government rules environmental protection is missing and taking very light.Hence here am requesting all the governments should adhere, consider and implement all the environmental safety rules in safeguarding our environment at least now onward.
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You are absolutely correct Amarendra Pamarthi. Many laws were created to protect the environment at national and international levels including UN convention on environment. But these laws or protocols were violated because of the political and financial gains. Take a look at oil spillage in oceans and the local communities, it is completely destroying the ecosystem.
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I'm currently developing a project looking at instances of cultural and symbolic violence towards nature, whether this creates/contributes to stigma, and how it compares to, or causes, physical violence (i.e farming of livestock, crushing insects due to fear). Particularly interested in snakes and spiders as used to symbolise an evil, violent, or manipulative trait in a human, or other sentient antagonistic force in a piece of fiction.
Seeking to answer questions such as:
Is our use of certain creatures to represent these things in any way unethical?
What does symbolic violence towards 'strange' creatures indicate about our tendencies to do this with differential prejudice towards humans? And is challenging symbolic violence towards living creatures necessary on all levels to combat it between human groups?
So, does anyone have recommendations for reading on this? And, are there any available studies analysing the impact of nature representation on societal approach to specific animals?
Thanks,
Connor
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Interesting that in the film based on Hermann Hesse's novel, Siddhartha, it is a cobra which kills Siddhartha's beloved wife, though snakes were considered holy and wise in some versions of theology. Also interesting is that the Rod of Asclepius- Ράβδος του Ασκληπιού - emblem of healing for medicine is a snake (not to be confused with the caduceus which also has a positive connotation as the staff of Hermes). The myth of Tiresias has him changing genders when he strikes and wounds snakes as they are mating, and then switches back with the when he witnesses them again seven years later-- all this leading to him being blinded by Hera when he reports on which gender more enjoys sexual pleasure. Snakes were autochthonous- "sprung from the earth" - much as Athena sprang from Zeus's thigh. They had wisdom. Obviously also snakes and dragons as well as rats are somewhat revered or at least respected in Chinese astrology, since all 3 creatures have zodiacal years. The moral of all this may be that it is an ill wind that blows no good and that, as with humans, there are powerfully positive and negative individuals in all species. Cross-cultural influences shared by ancient Hindu, Greek and Egyptian mythology (Hermes Trismegistus) may have many antecedents in earlier Mesopotamian mythology as well- the caduceus may have originated with the Sumerian god Ningishzida, god of the underworld and the autochthonous vegetation which sprang.therefrom. By the way, lest anyone be under the delusion that I knew all this before I started writing, I owe huge thanks to Wikipedia for all but Hesse's novel and the myth of Tiresias. I confused the caduceus with the rod of Ascepius like many others in the USA, including health organizations who use the caduceus with its two snakes rather than the rod with its single snake and is entwined around a more primitive staff.
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The de facto slogan of modern industrial man is "Heat, beat and treat" or "take, make and throw". But Mother Nature do everything in the other way, following the sustainability principles. We can borrow the ideas, be inspired and emulated by her, can collect the pearls of wisdom and reflect them in our life - in all spheres, personal, social, industrial.
Please elucidate the master principles of Nature and her "trade secrets" and discuss how we can adopt and adapt them in our sustainability journey.
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Agreed. Keep Mother Nature clean and happy, from the air to the sea and of course the land. Then in turn, we live Happily.
"Live, Love & Learn. Keeping Mother Happy makes Life Happy."
- Roots -
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It is heard that the case of coronavirus is a war that humanity gives for its survival. But who the enemy is? Average people think that now we are dealing with a coronavirus, yesterday with weather instability, the day before with wildfires, constantly with harmful insects/bacteria/... . In other words Nature is our enemy that we HAVE to change according to our will/"needs".
Do we seriously believe that humans could have any chance to "win" in such an irrational "war"?
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In my opinion, 'Nature' is what created us in the first place. If our body forgets to function naturally for even a short time, we develop so many problems. Infact, we are moving miracles of nature. Living in ways that are way different from nature, principle of nature or natural world creates problems for not only humans but for all living species. I would clarify it with one example. Lets take COVID-19 virus as an example. If humans were less in number on this planet or they used to live at far distant places as they used to in earlier times, then the spread of this virus would have been slowed down or at least it may have been possible to isolate it in a particular region country or continents of the world. Or, if we used to live in touch/harmony with nature, relying less on medicines, with better immunity (as in some parts of the world) then the mortality rate would have been lesser than it is reported in some of the countries. Nature is working with its defined principles, but we have deviated from them, and we study them with less interest as they do not give us direct monetary benefits or Patents. Even some of the best medical treatments to date are taken from nature, such as vaccines, insulin. Nature never was our enemy, and nor it will be, we need to understand it better to unlearn some of our advancements for our own benefit. Damaging natural environment means damaging Humanity itself. The survival of later is impossible without the former, however, the converse may be possible. A deep thought on these arguments will reveal evidences automatically. Thank you.
May God bless us all with good health.
Dr. Rajkumar Dewani
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An owl bursting through a cloud of bubbles is helping researchers better understand the aerodynamics of flight.
Birds gliding through bubbles reveal aerodynamic trick. Gliding birds use tail to generate extra lift and reduce drag. For more details please refer to the following link:
The approach to human innovation, via emulating nature, is called biomimetic design and has inspired many of our greatest creations – from buildings to bionic cars, here are some of the favourite examples.
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Im looking for a filter that can efficiently and cheaply filter out things like regular city pollution to cigarette smoke for a project I'm doing for my biomimetics class, so I was wondering if there are any animals or plants that have this sort of mechanism in them.
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Hello Sebastian; The common wisdom is that indoor plants filter small particulates out of indoor air. I haven't seen any systematic study of that idea. If you can measure small particulate concentration indoors with and without houseplants. I'd use LOTS of plants to start out. Best of luck with the project. Jim Des Lauriers
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In this discussion I want to share a nice initiative done by WWF Community:
Nature is essential for all the things we need to survive and thrive. But human activity is pushing the natural systems we all rely on to the edge, threatening all life on Earth.
This Friday people around the globe will take part in the ClimateMarches. Next week world leaders are at the UN General Assembly Climate Summit in New York.
Whether you’re able to take part or not, you can still make you Voice heard. Show your leaders that you want to see an ambitious New Deal for Nature and People that protects and restores nature by 2030 – safeguarding at least 30 per cent of natural spaces and sustainably managing the rest, while limiting global warming to 1.5°C.
Add your voice for the planet to support urgent action.
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  1. The symptoms of microwave radiation exposure include fatigue, headaches, heart palpitations, high pitched ringing in the ears, dizziness, disturbed sleep at night, sleepiness in daytime, moodiness, irritability, unsociability, feelings of fear, anxiety, nervous tension, mental depression, memory impairment, pain in muscles, pain in the region of the heart, and breathing difficulties, to name a few.New 5G Cell Towers and Smart Meters to Increase Microwave ...healthimpactnews.com/2017/new-5g-cell-towers-and-smart-meters-to-increase-microwave-radi…Was this helpful?
  2. Microwave ovens ‘fluke’ your heart while they ‘nuke’ your ... https://www.naturalnews.com/2016-12-22-microwave-ovens-fluke-your-heart-while-they...Dec 22, 2016 · This has been studied for decades. The response includes heart palpitations, clumping of red blood cells and fluctuations of the parasympathetic nervous system typical of a “fight-or-flight” response. Dr. Havas also revealed that microwave ovens can lead to blood sugar spikes connected with diabetes. This usually happens when people stand within three feet of the oven while it’s running, like …
  3. Microwave radiation affects the heart: Are the results ... https://magdahavas.com/microwave-radiation-affects-the-heart-are-the-results-real-or...January 7, 2012. In 2010, we published a paper that showed radiation from a cordless phone at 2.4 GHz affects the heart. Click here for a copy of that publication.. We heard from many people who acknowledged that they experience heart palpitations in certain environments and are unable to use mobile phones and be near cell phone antennas and Wi-Fi routers.
  4. Study Proves Microwave Radiation Directly Affects Your ... https://dailyhealthpost.com/microwave-ovenJan 02, 2017 · The human heart is also an electrical device that naturally maintains the appropriate rhythm. Microwave radiation has the same effect on the real organ as it does on the plastic implant. Examining Microwave Radiation. Dr. Magda Havas of Trent University in Ontario has conducted several studies on the effects of microwave radiation in the human ...
  5. Microwave radiation exposure, irregular heart beat and more www.afibbers.org/forum/read.php?9,155142,155152Apr 02, 2017 · We often don’t think about the fact that microwave radiation from microwave ovens (and cell phones) can cause heart palpitations, irregular heart rates and cause chest pressure and pain and can cause low or high blood pressure.
  6. #024: Microwave Radiation Affects the Heart – Dr. Magda ... https://magdahavas.com/pick-of-the-week-24-microwave-radiaBut the human heart comes without a shield. So it is not only the child or adult with a pace maker that needs to be careful about their exposure to microwaves, all of us need to be aware that this radiation may affect the heart. This concept is supported by the early research on microwave radiation.
  7. Study: Microwaves Cause Heart Disease - News Punch https://newspunch.com/study-microwaves-cause-heart-diseaseThe response includes heart palpitations, clumping of red blood cells and fluctuations of the parasympathetic nervous system typical of a “fight-or-flight” response. Dr. Havas also revealed that microwave ovens can lead to blood sugar spikes connected with diabetes.
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How do you perceive change?
Are we (human race and civilization) changing?
Are other organisms (plant and animal) also changing?
Is the earth changing?
Is climate changing?
Shall we afraid of change or Shall we embrace it
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Dear
Hassan Izzeddin Sarsak
Nazia Asad Hazim Al Dilaimy Muhammad Zubair Sara Thamer Hadi Nirmala S.V.S.G
Nour Shakir
Jaydip Datta Ilhami Unluoglu All for your valuable inputs
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At the end of life cycle, why we go towards our starting point.
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Its universal truth that every thing goes toward stability. At child hood or younger age, the human is so energetic that they may happy to revolve around the circle but with low or less bound. At elder age they have less energy, so they comes near to universal nucleus for stability.
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Dear researchers,
The surfactants are extracted from the nature are more useful. Can any one introduce an available cheap (herbal) surfactant to produce water/oil emulsion?
Thank you so much.
Regards
Foroogh
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Companies peddling "natural" surfactants are deceiving the consumer. If you read the ingredients, you'll usually see phrases such as "naturally derived" or "plant source derived". Well, EVERYTHING is naturally derived. Oil (fossil) is natural.
Consider this statement:
"Sulfosuccinate is produced by reacting coconut-oil derived ethoxylated lauryl alcohol with sulfosuccinic acid which is made from maleic anhydride followed by addition of sodium bisulfite."
"Coconut-oil derived" - must be healthy and safe, right. Well, what's the industrial chemical process to synthesize the alcohol? Where does sodium bisulfite come from? Not from a tree.
Maleic anhydride? Made from benzene (highly carcinogenic and comes from oil).
There are very few naturally occurring surfactants (i.e., not derived) that come anywhere close to being useful for cleaning.
If someone is selling a "natural" surfactant and it is inexpensive, most likely it uses industrial ingredients.
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Dear Respectful Researchers,
Here come several "strange" and probably unique questions about deep space detection which is motivated by an important recent scientific discovery and publication (in the journal Nature) about Fast Radio Bursts, "A second source of repeating fast radio bursts" as referring to these links as follows:
Researchers at UBC, Canada, have discovered the second so-called “repeating fast radio burst” (FRB) recorded six times coming from the same location, 1.5 billion light-years away. It seems that, CHIME was able to record some of the bursts as low as 400 MHz. My quick and first question is, can we statistically exclude its origin from the extraterrestrial (ET) civilizations?
Here come my rudimentary thoughts and reasoning as an electronics/telecommunications engineer, just out of strong curiosity.
I’ve conducted some quick and simplistic calculation of the link budget from communication perspective. Assume that the 400 MHz radio signals (assuming constant without shifting although actually not) do not significantly suffer from planets/galaxies introduced (all types of) attenuation and are thus deemed in an ideal free-space propagation model.
1.5 billion light-years distance is equal to around 1.419e22 kilometers, which will introduce a Free Space Path Loss (FSPL) of 537.5 dB at 400 MHz. On the other hand, assume that the receiver at ground station is able to achieve an ultra-low sensitivity of -160 dBm thanks to very large high gain phased array antennas, which also means the power at the origin (output) is at least 377.5 dBm, or 5.62e33 Watts (56.2 Decillion Watts).
On the other hand, the Sun releases an estimated 384.6 Yotta Watts (3.846e26) of Energy [1], the power output of all power plants of the world in 2008 is only 2.31e12 Watts. Therefore, we may be talking about an Energy (1.5 billion light year away) equivalent to at least 14.6 millions times the Sun !
This comparison makes one feel that this energy resource can be hardly from an ET civilization, unless it is from the so-called Type-III civilization categorized in the Kardashev Scale [3]. Could it be ?
Another thing I am concerned with and would like to ask is, what could the "super-macro galaxy-level" propagation channel models look like? Would there be some multi-path fading effects? Would there be some time delay/frequency shifting among different bursts, and in the order of months/years?
Thanks for your correction, discussion, and suggestions.
References
Yours Sincerely,
Yiming Huo (Jimmy), Ph.D.,
Jan. 12, 2019
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Dear Yiming,
It is good that one think about what is happening in the our surrounding universe.
The freuency of 400 MHz lies in the UHF range. When the stars radiates electromagnetic radiations normally they radiate blackbody spectrum. Since the temperature of the star is very large so, it radiates only a small radiation of its power in this frequency. This means that the power you estimated may be much less than the real value. This points out a very huge star which may be even much much greater than the sun. So, it will be even very less probable to be due to activity of other creatures.
Best wishes
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I have recently checked the research records (on ORCID, Scopus and Scholar) of Nature editors, I have also conducted web searches to trace their academic background, and I found that the majority of the editors (especially the Physics editors) have very very poor research records. One editor has h-index of 3 for "news/opinions" published in nature only. Many of them has no specialized scientific peer-reviewed publications of their own! Some of the physics editors have not published a single paper from their PhD, not even a conference paper!
I wonder why this is the level of editors in nature! I also wonder how these editors understand the level of work submitted in Nature to select which manuscripts to send to peer-review or to reject right away! This is very confusing because I though Nature is the most well-established refereed journal in the world.
I would like to hear your opinions about that, and if there's any editor from Nature to kindly show us how this constitutes good peer-review environment, please do!
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Nature journals function differently to many others with respect to their editorial staff. The editors of Nature are full time administrators - they will make an initial assessment before assigning an article for peer review. Though most of the editors have scientific training it’s just too big a job to be a researcher and editor for a journal like Nature, whereas other journals have editors who are also full time researchers and academics. As such many Nature Editors have stronger backgrounds in publishing than science. The scientific rigour is provided by the peer reviewers. For ‘Nature’ specifically, articles may be sound science but will be rejected if they don’t make a substantial leap forward for a given field. This doesn’t go for all the Springer Nature journals though, e.g. Scientific Reports.
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Will ecological innovations protect the Earth's nature from the progressive devastation of natural environments and increasing environmental pollution?
If the pace of devastation and pollution of the natural environment continues to increase, the nature of Earth and humanity may be threatened with grave dangers on the scale of several decades.
Some researchers suggest the possibility of a total annihilation of most species of flora and fauna on Earth in the 21st century.
Will humanity manage to develop and implement new ecological innovations as part of renewable sources of energy, green economy, restoring balance in natural ecosystems to prevent the growing risk of global annihilation?
If the majority of species of flora and fauna come to this destruction, it may be comparable to the cataclysm of dinosaur destruction that occurred on Earth millions of years ago.
But then it was a random cosmic accident because then the comet hit Earth, which caused global cataclysms that lasted for months.
This random case in space happens once in many millions of years.
However, the destruction of a large part of the biosphere, ecosystems, species of flora and fauna on Earth, which humans can lead to, is not a random event.
Unless we assume that the creation of an intelligent thinking being on one of the millions of planets is a kind of cosmic random event, then this whole analysis changes its interpretation.
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Most so called ecological innovations are merely insidious stages aimed at destroying the components of the environment. This, therefore, will not lead to the maintenance of the pristine environment Homo sapiens inherited. There is, therefore, no nexus between ecological innovations and protection of the Earth's nature from the progressive devastation of natural environments.
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If we put restraint in resource exploitation/use and consumerism from personal to industrial level and local to global scale we will be able to shrink our ecological footprint and can be able to manage natural resource crunch and pollution problem and would be able to live sustainably. Let's take a pledge to tread lightly on  the Earth and mother Nature.
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it would be nice, if we could create a world, where small is beautiful, but reality is often different. This would be great mainly for social considerations of small countries, who have increasing difficulties to cope with globalization. Not sure, if small economies / small production is environmentally more friendly. Modern factories that have huge outputs often have low environmental impacts per produced item, meaning there is also something like environmental economies of scale, even in China…..
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Does anyone have or suggest measure for educators' (teachers, adminstarators) perception of outdoor learning (nature-based, outdoor activities) in early and primary education? Thanks in advance.
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Look to some of the exceptional Outdoors Education departments in Australia.  The measures you are looking for though in this field tend to be qualitative, ethnographic even.  It may be more about exploring the processes some of these scholars develop to get a phenomenological feel for individual constructs of identity, purpose, role, change, etc. - than about seeking ready made and transferable tools.  
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State the reasons in the case of  non crop plants, which is a timber yielding one?
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Generally speaking, it can be said that the dioecy does not give rise to any limitation. This will depend on the pollination system. If the species is anemogamous, there is no restriction on reproduction. On the other hand, if the species is entomogamous or ornithogamous, the dioecy will represent a handicap if there is any problem with the pollinating agent. In this case, the dioecy is unfavorable compared to the monoecy.
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This question has sparked up debates in my areas. So, I will love to know what each RG member thinks about it?
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What is the Purpose of Human in this Physical World?
In my personal opinion, the purpose is depending on whether we are only focusing on this physical world or we also broaden our horizon to include what will happen after we have died in this physical world.  We know that we human beings need to go through the human life cycle including: birth, growth, sickness & death.  Some people believe there is no other chapter of life after we were dead - just like the lighted candle being put off & nothing can be done.  Some believe there is reincarnation.  Some believe there is another world either heaven or hell is awaiting us etc.  If there is a new chapter of life after our physical death, then how we plan / don't plan for the new chapter might influence the purpose of our lives in this physical world.  As the saying goes - if we fail to plan, we plan to fail. 
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How does pollen-pistil incompatibility and geographic barriers between plant species in a family favors / disfavor horizontal gene transfer ?  
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Well, without pollen-pistil incompatibility, there would not be distinct kinds of plants. The issue is not favouring or disfavouring gene transfer, it's a matter of preserving species and their distinct genotypes :)
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It is also the responsibility of law enforcement to seek out and identify potential victims through awareness initiatives and investigations.
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Mr. Kumar: I'm just going to jump in to support Marcel on this question, and to add some additional thoughts.
Your question: How does law enforcement learn of potential cases to investigate" is dependent upon the jurisdiction, the scope or remit of the law enforcement agency, their relationship with the community and NGO's as well as the scope of their ancillary investigations.
I will provide you some examples that I'm familiar with.
Drug trafficking investigations.  Having identified frontline dealers, Drug Officers undertake wiretap and surveillance operations to move "up=stream", during observations on the target at a motel, they notice large numbers of young women and middle aged males moving in and out of the same rooms. The investigation moves from just drugs, to drugs and human trafficking.  Following awareness of the crime, the investigative team moves into the reactive/intelligence model that Marcel has detailed above.
Money laundering and fraud: A series of banks have been defrauded in the region, all the suspects are young women who come into the bank with a relative (cousin) who help them apply for a bank account and credit card.  Large amounts of purchases are made and the "suspect" disappears. Bank video shows that the accompanying male is the same person for a number of "suspects". Fraud investigators along with Surveillance officers identify the target, who is using trafficking victims as fraud "fronts" as well.  The money laundering and fraud investigation moves to include human trafficking. Another reactive/intelligence led example.
Labour dispute: A member of the public witnesses an assault on a male office cleaner in a building and police attend. The victim is evasive, the assault suspect reports that it was just a disagreement in the workplace.  Officers concerns are raised and they ask detectives to attend.  The victim has limited English language skills, so an interpreter is brought in.  The victim doesn't have any identification documentation, can't provide details about their abode, their arrival, their employment agreement.  Additional workers are interviewed and a pattern starts to emerge.  The assault suspect and "company" owners are brought in for investigation. This falls into the reactive investigative model.
Sex Trafficking/Forced Prostitution:  Organized Crime investigators have been made aware of a criminal enterprise that is utilizing trafficking victims through a "Strip" club and local hotel.  Undercover officers are gathering evidence, but have identified trafficking victims that look like that have been violently assaulted.  Members of the criminal organization have a history of violence, and investigators are concerned that the months of surveillance required to gather sufficient evidence may result in serious harm to the victims.  The investigative team contacts the municipal licencing office, the national tax enforcement agency, and the regional labour regulatory agency and the liquor regulatory agency. All of these agencies are coordinated with the police investigations and undertake an immediate series of investigations on the location, resulting in a suspension of the liquor service permit, a suspension of the business licence, and labour "cease and desist" order.  As a result, the criminal organization is disrupted, investigators and NGO's work with victims to secure their recovery and the business is closed.  However, insufficient evidence is gathered to criminally prosecute the suspects, however, they are subject to a series of fines from other agencies and their business enterprise is closed.  This is an example of the disruptive investigative model.
While these are some examples that I've seen, human trafficking investigations can stem from a broad range of occurrences; simple assaults, labour disputes, frauds, domestic violence, overdose, weapons offences, drug trafficking, etc.  In some jurisdictions, human trafficking awareness has escalated to the point where citizens may see the signs of trafficking in an interpersonal interaction and notify the police; in some cases that victim has reached the point where they are willing to report it to the police; and yet in others, the police uncover the crime through the investigation of another offence.
I hope that has some value in your inquiry.
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I have some individual interest to understand a little bit more these two phenomena, because the apparent mathematical similarities between them, and because some particularities, too. The overview to direct possible concerned researchers to solve this question can be seen in the attached link. Thanks for you interest.
Deleted research item The research item mentioned here has been deleted
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This is better explained here
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Why is tobacco rattle virus a choice in agroinfection. In spite of the virus being of bipartite RNA nature the gene of interest is introduced only in one of the RNA before agroinfection. why so?
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RNA-1 is capable of independent replication and systemic spread in plants, the others are not required and that is the reason only RNA-1 is introduced for agroinfection of plant hosts.
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im basically looking for the biggest adherent cells i can find...
perhaps most importantly, a cell line that naturally assumes a larger profile in three-dimensionality on tc dishes
thank you so much for whatever thoughts you might have!
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I've been looking as well. Largest found so far is A549. Fig S1 (attached) from the paper below shows them to be ~50um across. 
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I am measuring seasonal peaks in the occurrence of a natural phenomenon. Some areas show a single peak in activity each year. Others have two peaks separated by a trough. I am looking for a way to quantify the degree to which a distribution is bi-modal.
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Here is a link to some software, developed by Charles A. Bouman at Purdue, which may do the trick.  It uses the EM algorithm: https://engineering.purdue.edu/~bouman/software/cluster/
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Dear Scientists, I want to use the data of the velocity of climate change (Scott, et al., 2009), but I could not find the shapefiles. 
If you konw, please tell me, thanks for your help! Best regards.
Reference: Loarie S R, Duffy P B, Hamilton H, et al., 2009. The velocity of climate change[J]. Nature, 462(7276):1052.
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This question was solved! A generous scientist shared the two shapefiles with me.
If anbody need this, you can send a E-mail to me, I'd like to share it.
Yours,
Runxi.
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I have seen two equations for calculating the pore width. Eo is characteristic energy obtained from DR isotherm
L = 10.8 / (E0 – 11.4) nm 
L = 6.6-1.79 ln E0 
Different pore width will be obtained By using these two equation. My material is microporous in nature because it gave Type 1 isotherm behavior. So which equation is suited for finding the pore width of microporous materials?
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I would like to conduct interviews on the the financiarisation of nature. Please let me know if you know anything about this subject and agree to help me
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Is it  research conducted through interview method.
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Ecosystems are outstanding examples of sustainable systems. We can borrow sustainability principles (I personally regard those principles as "sustainability mantra") from Mother Nature. They are (1) Reliance of clean & renewable energy (solar capital): No energy crisis or dirty play with pollution!, (2) Material (nutrient) cycling: No material crisis though living in a finite world!, (3) Biodiversity: Fountainhead of coexistence, cooperation,resilience, (4) Population control: In-built balance in nature controlled by inter-specific interactions (predator-prey, competitions, etc.), (5) Holism and harmony: Whole is more than the sum of parts! There's no waste, no pollution, no dearth of resources, no energy crunch in nature's world! No excess is anywhere, sufficiency and efficiency reign everywhere! Examples are abound. Adopting and implementing those sustainability principles we humans can guide   our life styles, economic, industrial and developmental activities in order to usher in an environmental and sustainability revolution.
Be a part of this should-be-sustaining discussion and play a role in spreading nature's nature to promote sustainability in all spheres of our life - individual, industrial, social, local, glocal to global.
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Relationship between nature and women.
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An interesting discussion in the following: 
Review of Environmentalism in popular culture: Gender, race, sexuality, and the politics of the natural.
By Scanlan, Stephen J.
Gender & Society, Vol 24(3), Jun 2010, 410-411.
Reviews the book Environmentalism in popular culture: Gender, race, sexuality, and the politics of the natural by Noël Sturgeon (2009). Sturgeon utilizes a "global feminist environmental justice perspective" as the foundation of her analysis. In doing this, she contributes to the development of what she calls "environmental cultural studies," a field that synthesizes various forms of contemporary "radical" environmentalisms (e.g., environmental justice, environmental feminist approaches, and Global South feminist and anticolonialist movements) with the global justice movement. By her own admission, Sturgeon notes that her book is light on solutions and more focused on critique and advocacy for change. Readers may find this a bit frustrating in that while engaging in her dialogue, even the most progressive will discover cases in which they have gotten caught up in a positive environmental message only to have missed the broader social injustices being portrayed, and they may want ideas and direction. In sum, Sturgeon presents a solid critique of mainstream environmental perspectives and how, in being shaped by popular culture, these often unknowingly reinforce injustice in its many forms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Environmentalism, feminism, and gender.
By Smith, D. Clayton
Sociological Inquiry, Vol 71(3), 2001, 314-334.
Although social scientists have written much recently about environmentalism, feminism, and gender, insufficient systematic examination of their interrelations has been done. The lack of adequate research on links among these three concepts limits their usefulness for both grassroots mobilization efforts and general theory development. The present exploratory study surveys a college student sample (N=393) clarifying the relationships between liberal environmentalism, gender, and feminism. Relationship between feminism and attitudes toward human use of the environment and between gender and environmental regulation are found suppressed by a relationship between feminism and environmentalism. Although tentative, these findings suggest new directions for the study of ecofeminism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Review of Ecofeminism.
By Hallen, Patsy
Women's Studies International Forum, Vol 18(3), May-Jun 1995, 375-376.
Reviews the book, Ecofeminism by Maria Mies, and Vandana Shiva (1993). Ecofeminism is essential for the 21st century. This book brings together two brilliant women, Maria Mies and Vandana Shiva, in a unique North-South partnership. In addition, it integrates two of the most powerful movements of the late 20th century: feminism and environmentalism. It represents a major contribution to our future because it illuminates how the twin dominations of women and nature are intimately linked and mutually reinforcing, and it concretely illustrates how to transform this compulsion to dominate into life-producing and life-sustaining work. The book's main thesis is that the ultimate ecological crisis is the colonisation of regenerative sources of the renewal of life, from seeds to women's bodies. It cogently shows how the patriarchal system cripples both women and nature and how we need to overcome our need to dominate, control, and colonise if we are to become ecologically sane. The book also critiques prevailing economic orthodoxies where the disease (growth of capital and the impoverishment of the environment and women) is offered as the cure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Rethinking environmental choices: The intersection of feminism and the environmental movement: or What is feminist about the feminist perspective and the environment?
By No authorship indicated
American Behavioral Scientist, Vol 37(8), Aug 1994, 1090-1103.
Explores several questions on the intersection of feminism and the environmental movement, or a new kind of environmentalism. It discusses the questions of what is the feminist perspective of the environment, what is not already present in an environmental movement that seeks to reconnect nature and humans in a way that has not been done in the past, and what is the traditional environmentalist approach or movement that seems to have omitted something or had a different orientation than the feminist vision. Two different approaches to environmental issues and concerns are discussed: theoretical perspectives and a practical approach about a particular environmental issue and the way in which women have been active. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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Mother Nature has the awesome R&D laboratory of her own. She has invented time-tested and trusted algorithms, optimized structures, designs, processes, tools, techniques, means and measures that humans can only try to emulate and imitate, but hardly reach that level of optimization. Living organisms are all unique by some way or other, the structures of cellular organization, the architecture of biogenic structures and substances generate wonder! The lotus's surface, bee hive, spiders silk, jet propulsion in cuttle fish, biological batteries, bioluminescence, aerodynamics, hydrostatics, ultrasonics, are few among thousands of awe-inspiring things! Beyond individual levels some ecosystems also present before us exquisite examples of efficiency, sufficiency, resilience and innovation. Mother Nature naturally can be our "model, measure and mentor" in creating new inventions and solving problems that humanity is facing and struggling with. I invite some interesting and illuminating discussions that will be expected to last long...........
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I cannot agree less with you. Nature has been like the furnace that produces algorithms and systems tested well with the heat of time. Even today, most of the systems developed are inspired directly from nature itself. Take the sonar technology from bats, the concept of a streamlined body from birds, neural networks from the very structure of our brains, and much more. We have always been inspired by nature and still seek. Nature has always been like the library of ideas where people go for ideas and inspiration, be it Leonardo Da Vinci or Vincent Van Gogh.
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Hello, I have an issue on how to analyze my data and would love some help !
Here is the experiment :
- I have brain extracts from 10 different mice
- I have two drugs, one which is the natural drug and the other is the same drug with a modification. I want to verify if the metabolism of the modified drug is different from the metabolism of the natural drug.
- I incubate each of the 10 samples with equal concentrations of either
(1) the natural drug, which is the reference (tube 1)
(2) the modified drug (tube 2)
And I quantify metabolites with mass spectrometry. So in the end I have 10 datapoints for the natural drug and 10 datapoints for the modified drug, with the same 10 samples. My problem is how to compare those 2 conditions ?
The brain extracts have a lot of intrinsic variability in their ability to metabolize drugs. Therefore if I directly compare the mean of both groups, there is no significant difference both because the difference (if real) is not so big and because the standard error is huge.
Mean natural drug = 332, SEM = 190 !
Mean modified drug = 306, SEM = 184 !
I think it makes more sense to use each sample as its own control. If I divide the value for the modified drug by the value for the natural drug, I get a mean % of control of 76% with a SEM of 10%. So I think there might actually be a difference between the two drugs. But how can I test for statistical difference ? If I express both groups as % of control, obviously all values of the control group are gonna be 100% and the SEM will be zero, so this doesn't seem right... 
Basically, what would be the best way to analyze this data ? Thank you for any help !
Ivan
PS for reference, here are the data :
S1 - 185 (natural) / 186 (modified) / (100% of natural)
S2 - 388 (natural) / 416 (modified) / (107% of natural)
S3 - 65 (natural) / 41 (modified) / (64% of natural)
S4 - 133 (natural) / 116 (modified) / (87% of natural)
S5 - 156 (natural) / 121 (modified) / (77% of natural)
S6 - 63 (natural) / 49 (modified) / (78% of natural)
S7 - 2019 (natural) / 1933 (modified) / (96% of natural)
S8 - 29 (natural) / 31 (modified) / (106% of natural)
S9 - 161 (natural) / 88 (modified) / (54% of natural)
S10 - 118 (natural) / 83 (modified) / (71% of natural)
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Formal tests of assumptions of other tests are nonsense. The result is not helpful. If Shapiro-Wilk (for instance) is not significant, you don't know anything, so it could be that the assumption of normality is not justified but the Shapiro-test simply did not "see" is. If the test is significant, you just know that you have enough data to demonstrate some kind of deviation from normality, but not if this deviation is of any relevance for the subsequent test.
Assumptions are based on an understanding of the data, not on what tests say. With a bit experience, looking at diagnostic plots of the residuals can give a hint if there are possibly relevant deviations from normality.
To the logs: I use the natural logarithm, maybe you used a different base (e.g. log10)?
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"Laws in nature are relative to consistency / constant-ness of behaviour in matters. Till the time behaviour of a particle remains alike the observation present a specific patterns and perceiver will observe same ranges of results to find out a permanent law. As the behaviour changes, by observer point of view the law automatically get change on perceiving abilities. Laws are based on nature of events, not the supreme as constant. Usually laws are just comprised on the observation of specific & repeated behaviour, the needs of structural composition & operational demands are superior to past fixed laws as new knowledge if get proven over observation then replace older. Same rule get apply on All Natural & Social Sciences and Arts as well. The laws are relative to behaviour of entity, laws are not relative to observer’s perception as permanent fixed entity. A creative consciousness has ability to bring desired change in to Natural laws......."
What you suggests and see this matter, specifically with reference to AI ?
Thanks
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You are actually asking for the possibility or probability, if attaining or applying higher human consciousness qualifies to alter the reality of natural and social life. Concerning science, the collected puzzle pieces are not conclusive (e.g. thermodynamics, evolution and cybernetics are contradictory edifices); science to enhance economic productivity can definitely not accomplish this task of creative conscoiusness. The human intention to maximize profit via knowledge accumulation and automation will lead to further destruction of divine creation, i.e. the human learning curve and the tech-know-logical learning curve are statistically not equal. The universe does not run on profit and it is not a computer; the computer is a human creation to delegate routine labor  to machines. The whole thing (connecting to eternal lawby behavioral principles) depends on human Intention, i.e. destructive consciousness can definitely alter the 'reality' on this planet. Empirically and historically, the data support the negative version of your quest. Personally, I do believe that redemption of humanity is possible (intentional change of mass behavior in the human population); as a social scientist, however, I have to tell you that the data point into another intentional direction of deeds. Consequently, let us pray for the creative direction of conscious human action by submitting to eternal law.
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genome size of calamus
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Recently Halyomorpha halys (BMSB) became one of the major pest in Georgia for nut-trees. As this pest is almost polyphagous, this can be very dangerous for many other agricultural plants too. Therefore I would like to search and know little bit more what is done for this pest control in other countries.
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Ask my colleague Tim Haye (t.haye@cabi.org). He is working on biocontrol using natural enemies in Europe.
Marc
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I am seeking info about invasiveness of Tetraclinis articulata (syn. Callitris quadrivalvis).
I am aware of Rourke (1991) and Richardson & Rejmánek (2004) references.
Has anyone reliable info (local reports, notes) suggesting this tree established and became naturalized beyond its natural range?
Thanks
Thank you,
Jean-Marc
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hi
I could find out some information about Tetraclinis articulata invasiveness. Just follow papers and link that I am sending herewith as an attachments 
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We are planning to make a natural alternative to synthetic or commercially-available absorbing polymers.
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If a polymeric material swells in a solvent it is cross-linked, if it is solved, it is not. If you want to make an absorbing polymer for oil you must test with toluene or a similar solvent. If you want to make an absorbing polymer for hydrophilic medium you must take water or methanol.
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As shown in the attached file, there is a difference between these methods. Could anyone explain why?
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Dear Dr. Zekri
the difference is due to the different conditions that you are considering.
The example of FLAC, in fact, refers to the application of the weight force and the solution is about the elastic oscillation of the element volume, while the theoretical solution: f = Vs/4H, is the first fundamental frequency of the elastic response under simple shear condition.
I hope that I have been useful to you,
Regards.
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Human intervention on the Planet Earth has become a domineering activity since 1750 CE. Fuels and minerals are depleting fast. The planet is populating at a faster rate at the cost of other species. Does global warming paradigm the need to be situated in the larger context of Universe? The history of nature needs more emphasis than the history of science, as latter has turned instrumentalist rather than integrative for understanding human activity on a larger canvass. Are we subverting our future for present proclivities?
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New book:
Dear Walter. I haven't seen you here for a while.  I found a new book on this topic (See below).  I made a search in Researcg Gate on everything related to Anthropocene, and you can access by clicking this: https://www.researchgate.net/search.Search.html?type=question&query=anthropocene
Title:NEW EARTH POLITICS: ESSAYS FROM THE ANTHROPOCENE
Editor:SIMON NICHOLSON
Publisher:MIT PRESS Place of Publication:CAMBRIDGE
Pub Year:2016 ISBN:9780262034364 Country Of Origin:US
Binding:Cloth Pagination:442 P.
Series Title:EARTH SYSTEM GOVERNANCE.
Series Type:Unnumbered Series
Series ID:61196 Series Format:Print
Content Level:ADV-AC YBP Select:Research-Recommended
LC Class:GE195.N478 2016
Subject Headings:1. ENVIRONMENTALISM--POL. ASPECTS. 2. HUMAN ECOLOGY--POL. ASPECTS.
YBP Interdisciplinary Topics:Environmental; Political; Public Policy
Approval Note:ED: AMERICAN UNIVERSITY. COLLECTION OF NEW ESSAYS ON GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLITICS.
Format:Collection/New
Faculty Affiliation:American University (DC)
Language:English LCCN:2015038403
US List:68.00 USD US Status:Orders accepted
Also Available From: YBP MARKETPLACE
Handled On Approval YBP-US:4/13/2016 Last Received YBP-US:4/7/2016
UK List:46.95 GBP UK Status:Orders accepted
Est. US Net:52.36 USD
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Which method would you recommend to determine oxyfluorfen in natural waters?: GC or HPLC? I have seen both types of methods in the literature.
And what method would you recommend to preconcentrate the sample?
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Thank you all for your answers.
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Researches proved that forest naturalness has influence on human wellbeing. Since people's sense of place is an important part of the overall human wellbeing, I would like to know is there a relationship between forest naturalness and sense of place. Please kindly suggest me the relevant references.   
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Although forests do support predators that can be a threat to humans, I respectfully disagree with the view that humans cleared forests because of danger. Prehistoric and present day aboriginal people clear forests to increase the amount of primary productivity that can be directly beneficial to local human communities. Indeed, there remain human communities in undeveloped areas that do quite well in a matrix of forest with openings to promote certain products or harvestable game.
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There have been three suspended questions in present classical set theory ever since:
1, the definition of set------should the definition of set concern the nature of elements inside the set? How we distinguish different sets(Such as Odd Number Set and Natural Number Set)?  Will the nature of elements inside the set decide the existing state of the set as well as its relationship with other set?
But, it is “the different natures of the elements in real number set and natural number set” that make Cantor proved the different cardinalities between the two sets.
2, how to judge whether a set belongs to “potential infinite set” or “actual infinite set” or both “potential infinite set” and “actual infinite set”? What kind of nature do the elements have inside “potential infinite set” or “actual infinite set” or both “potential infinite set” and “actual infinite set”?
3, can we have many different bijection proofs with different result between two infinite sets? If we can, what conclusion should people choose in front of two opposite results, why?
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1. You can understand the nature of elements of a set by its definition only. For example. collection of boys in a class is a set. So, here the nature of the set is that its elements are all boys. To distinguish sets, we have to understand the nature of elements. In even number set all elements are even, that means divisible by 2, whereas in odd number set elements are not divisible by 2.
2. I am not sure about it, but if you consider both infinity as the meaning of unbounded, none of our existing theory would fail. If any of our theory would fail due to this fact, human will think of new base or new definition. Necessity is the mother of invention. I think there is no necessity so far. (may be I am wrong)
3. The nature of infinite set is that it can have bijective map with its own subset. So, there is no harm in it. Also, they are not contradicting anything, as you have not provided any bijective map between N and Q, that map is not a bijective map between N and Q, instead it is a map between N and a subset of Q. Also, I would like to add one more point, if there are more than one bijection, they wont produce any opposite results at all. By seeing this point, I remember a joke. A school kid come and say to her mom that maths teacher is wrong, because yesterday she said 4+5=9, and then 6 + 3 = 9. Today she says that 7+2=9. If you consider "opposite results" with this you will definitely feel the argument is not correct.
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Natural Languange Processing, World Knowledge, WordNet, Natural Language Understanding, Semantic, Lexical-Semantic Relation, Latent Semantic Analysis, Information Extraction, Extraction
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The Term Document matrix {X} has decomposed using SVD as follows:
{X}={W}{S}{P}'
After this these decomposed matrices have been reduced and the product of these reduced matrices has been calculated as {X`}. Then the similarity between two terms have been calculated using correlation between the vectors of terms from this matrix.
I have a question: Can we calculate term similarity only from {W} matrix after reduction? Is {W} matrix also give similar type of relation between terms as {X}?
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In general, light is produced for household purpose with bulb, CFL, tube, LED etc from electrical power. There is a big portion of world that lives in dark after sun sets. These people do not want electrical power, they want light first.
Is it possible to create a pollution free light without electric power and without burning something. Light that is sufficient to illuminate a 12 x 12 feet hut without an electricity connection. Light that is very very cheap (not more than $1 per week and 8 hours per day)….Don’t tell solar or known things….suggest something wild…some new idea….innovative…no power only light….Just for the sake of discussion….
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In truth, Naveen asked:
"Is it possible to create a pollution free light without electric power and without burning something."
So the fire idea is out, for two reasons: it pollutes and it burns.
The not-so-original answer might be what's generally referred to as "energy harvesting," but then it might still violate the premise, if that harvested energy is used to generate electricity. Still, in principle, not much pollution there.
So a better answer is phosphorescence, where the material absorbs light when there's ambient light around it (during the day), and then slowly releases that light when the environment goes dark.
Bioluminscence might be another possibility, except that technically, it does pollute. After all, these organisms emit CO2, and to create lots of light, lots of CO2.
We need a material that has properties similar to phosphorescence, but that does not depend on strictly storing light. Something that can use other forms of energy and convert it to E = hv photons (that's nu, not vee). For instance:
Chemiluminescence.
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It is intended to know the pros and cons of various methods.
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Probably quantitative semantic relies on coherence, Checking Yair Wand literature can be useful to start the search for relation analysis, http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=331989&dl=ACM&coll=DL&CFID=559605896&CFTOKEN=48889313
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Is there any (semi-)automated tool/approach available that generate use case specification from natural language software requirements?
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@OSCAR Medina: Thanks for the reply. I am really interested to read your papers. Is it available in English language? Please send. 
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I'm writing a report on a study where i am both researcher and participant.Thus, I am in need in several prior researches. Any information would be appreciated.
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There are a lot of researches on this topic.
I would suggest to start checking the work of the main authors in the field: Stephen and Rachel Kaplan, Hartig, Staats, Roger Ulrich, Korpela
Have a nice work!
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I can't find any reference range for exchangeable N. Can you suggest a reference?    
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Dear Dr. Tang,
The parameters you mentioned are mostly variable, and the exact values depends on soil types and sampling occasions. Maybe you can find some clues in the Journals of Field Crops Research and Advances in Agronomy. I'm not sure you can read in Chinese, if so, please let me know, and I could send you some literatures and mannuals. Good Luck!
Cheers,
Ping
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What software models a mathematical function for a natural phenomenon taking into consideration some given restrictions?
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There are many methods that are designed in  softwares to  model mathematical functions for a natural phenomenon with given boundary restrictions. See the following article entitled:"Modeling Biology Spanning Different Scales: An Open Challenge" by
Filippo Castiglione et. al. In this article, it is coming nowadays more clear that in order to obtain a unified description of the different mechanisms governing the behavior and causality relations among the various parts of a living system, the development of comprehensive computational and mathematical models at different space and time scales is required. This is one of the most formidable challenges of modern biology characterized by the availability of huge amount of high throughput measurements. In this paper we draw attention to the importance of multiscale modeling in the framework of studies of biological systems in general and of the immune system in particular. See the full article at the link:
I hope this helps.
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Rare Earth Elements, Charges, Shells,
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Lanthanides usually have 3+ oxidation states, but others may occur. These are 2+ and 4+. The 2+ state is also stable for Sm, Eu, and Yb, and the 4+state is also stable for Ce, Pr and Tb. See also G.R. Choppin and E.N. Rizkalla, Solution Chemistry of Actinides and Lanthanides. In: Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of the Rare Earths, Vol 18, Chapter 128, pp 561 and 562.  
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Some factors such as distance to road and to facilities are influential in price of land. Can anyone tell me what are environmental factors that can affect the price of land?
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Dear Mohammad ,
As natural factors I mention: topography, distance of flooding areas and proximity of green areas.
As urban factors: the presence of infrastructures, services and residential use of high income.
 Best Regards,
Vanessa
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As opposed to mathematics being an invention, what evidence would convince us that mathematics is there already in Nature?
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Has anyone pointed out that nature itself is an intellectual construct?  Not all cultures have had the ancient Greek concept of phýsis, Latin natura, English nature. Therefore, if "nature" is one intellectual manipulation of reality, "mathematics" is yet another.  The relationship between the two should hardly be surprising, since both are mental "inventions." Manipulate reality a bit, and you get nature. Manipulate it a little bit more, and you get a mathematical nature.  
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I am looking at the intensity of natural events, both climatic and geologic, that are predicted to intensify due to climate change. My main interest is the increase in the number and intensity of hurricanes.
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Hi there Nicole,
Maybe this give some clues to answers on your question. I narrowed down the term 'Climate Change' to precipitation and storm frequency and intensity, as well as sea level rise. As a matter of fact 'Climate Change' can only be quantified when climate variables are measured and interpreted right? There are several sources reporting on precipitation as well as storm frequency and intensity over time. And recently a report has been released by the European Environmental Agency (EEA) on sea level rise. Here we go Nicole with some of the headlines.
US meteorological observations have shown an increase in total annual precipitation throughout the United States. Analysis of meteorological data suggests this change in precipitation can be associated with an increase in extreme storm events. The Great Lakes, the Southwest, and Midwestern United States have experienced the largest increase in extreme storm events over the last century (Mortsch et al., 2003). Water resource managers in these regions are faced with additional challenges pertaining to water treatment. And let's not forget the floodings of New Orleans and later on the hurricane hit on New-York neither.
In Europe at the other side of the 'Mill pond', Belgium and Denmark report changes in in storm intensity. – In Belgium, climate change models forecast an increase in extreme precipitation events throughout the country. However, due to natural variability and Belgium’s small size, climate change models display a wide range of uncertainty in projecting the frequency of future extreme events. Projections range from a trivial increase in the number of extreme events to a much more significant increase. Denmark forecasts to experience an increase in annual precipitation, but fewer total rain events. Consequently, Denmark is expected to experience an increase in the frequency of extreme storm events throughout the 21st century. (European Environmental Agency 2007).
Last but not least the 2014 European Environmental Agency, Global and European sea-level rise (CLIM 012) Assessment Report gives you the sea level rise at European coastlines and data of global mean sea level rise as well. Please read at the following link:
At the emission front, recently report has been released by the IPCC. It states that CO2 emissions in the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries show a trend to increase further quite significantly in the first half of 2014. Industrialization and economic growth boosts with the increased injection of even more fossil energy (re)sources, especially in China, which besides increasing its import of oil and gas from Russia recently, will in a few years become the first economic power on the globe. Its Economy is second in size now after the US, but jumped over Japan a year ago. And its economic growth is still soaring at a percentage of about 5 % annually. In Europe these figures are a 'hot' dream ;-)
There ya go Nicole. Business as usual in the BRIC countries it seems, except for the Climate of this planet, where we as humanity are assumed to survive on the longer term. Question is that we don't know when we will pass the point of no return. Any ideas? It seems that there is no end in sight anyhow in the increasing rate of CO2 emissions globally. So, brace yourself in a concrete bunker or move to a very seaworthy yacht. depends on where you live.
Cheers,
Frank
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Microorganisms are present everywhere, in soil, water, and air. Are buildings and monuments (old or new) acting as habitat or living worlds of different microorganisms? How do they get their food and how do they survive? As soil and water carries various nutrients that support microbial growth, are building structures also providing nutrients/ food for microbial growth? If yes, how?
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Kunal--You have some good answers. I'll add another one. Various species of algae, fungi (like Aureobasidium) and bacteria colonize surfaces of stone. There's not a lot understood about the interactions but it is believed that the microbes establish a sustainable microcosm. Acids produced by the microbes may slowly degrade the stone (especially limestone).
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The word "pattern" in everyday parlance often means something typical that can be repeated, something characteristically capable of repetition into similar copies (Ulf Grenander, Elements of Pattern Theory, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1996, p. 94). For example, in nature one can observe myriads of patterns in plant leaves or in beehives or in branches of trees or in the honeycomb-like shapes in dragonfly wings. Again, for example, in nature definite patterns can be observed in the daily life of animals: waking at sunrise time, finding water, hunting for food, socializing, and going to sleep at sunset time. In each case, there are observable patterns. So then the question arises as to whether the patterns in human geometric designs simply reflect patterns found in nature. Or whether patterns in human designs are somehow different in noticeable ways.
For an example of a human geometric pattern, consider a pattern in a Penrose tiling. A penrose tiling (inspired by Roger Penrose) is a non-periodic tiling generated by an aperiodic set of prototiles. For a sample Penrose tiling, see the attached image. A Penrose pattern is self-similar, so the same patterns are repeated in larger and larger scales. Such patterns, introduced by the British physicist and cosmologist, are examples of periodic tilings. M.C. Escher, the Dutch artist, is famous for pictures of periodic tilings with shapes that resemble living things.
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The notion of space in mathematics.
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The question might be apparently simple, but I could not google a single satisfactory answer. I would like to develop a device for picking a number of small stones from the ground without human bend.
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Yes, you can design such mechanical system.
Currently in industry a lot of pick and place operations robots are in operation that perform the same task.
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Researchers from the Cavendish Laboratories, University of Cambridge, mimicked a self-cleaning film on Mott’s eyes and combined it with titan-dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 nanocrystals), which seems increasing significantly effectiveness and sealing of surfaces, including different materials, (e.g.glass).
This may lead to a revolution sealing surfaces in many aspects of industry, as well as medical devices and surgical instruments.
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I can propose you the attached simple and effective technology.