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Natural Resource Management - Science topic

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I am trying to remove phosphate from wastewater sample and also recover them. Is there any material that only absorb phosphate from water? Therefore, which natural material should be appropriate to use as absorbent?
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Tamjid Us Sakib depends on the type of technology selection and project
microlage is preferred in case of biological and if you have space and time with low cost investment however if you go via chemical route there are many like activated carbon, haaluminum sulphate or few other sales can also be used
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I finished my Ph.D. in 2020, majoring in Biology and environmental science, at the University of Helsinki. I wish to do a postdoc by applying for the podoco grant. You can find more information about podoco - www.podoco.fi/companies/
To apply for the podoco grant, I need to collaborate with an organization or a company and prepare a project plan that is beneficial for that organization. I am asking your help to provide names of companies and non -governmental organizations in Finland working within the area of food and sustainability issues, circular economy, natural resource management, environment, and climate change. Looking forward to getting your advice. Thanks in advance.
Sincerely-Mohammad Mozumder,PhD
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Have you tried local institutes or universities?
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Dear all,
I started a project to study local natural resource management systems. One of the aims is to measure the readiness of indigenous peoples' institutions. I need some input and suggestions on suitable variables and methods.
Thank You
Thomas
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First, the ways in which indigenous people interact with natural resources and the extent of their utilization of natural resources need to be analyzed using ANOVA statistical analysis. These outputs needs to be elaborated to evaluate the necessity of measuring the readiness from indigenous people. Hope this answer helps.
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I want to know how to assign score to different variables and what is the basis for giving score for assessment ot intengible benefits. 
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Thank you Mario Zenteno Claros for your valuable suggestion and sharing link.
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The ambiguity around prospective environmental hazards has often been invoked as a justification for not taking action to protect the environment. However, having concrete evidence of an environmental threat before the damage happens is not always achievable.
Council, I. U. C. N. (2007). Guidelines for applying the precautionary principle to biodiversity conservation and natural resource management.
In this case,
  1. How the red data list helps to response to this uncertainty?
  2. How to use it as a precautionary measure?
  3. How it support to natural rescuers management?
Your valuable response is highly appreciated.
Thank you.
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There is a great work with teme: "Red List of Baltic Sea underwater biotopes, habitats and biotope complexes", where the authors have explained and showed a way how to use red data list as a precautionary principle in natural resources management.
Published by:
HELCOM
Katajanokanlaituri 6 B
FI-00160 Helsinki
Finland
Quote: "A Red List is the outcome of a threat assessment using quantitative Red List criteria to identify the risk of collapse for biotopes, or the extinction of species.
The ten biotope complexes were all red-listed - eutrophication is thought to have affected most of the complexes in an adverse way. Construction has affected the ‘Estuaries’ to an extent where only very few estuaries retain the natural function causing the complex to be listed as CR: C1. The rare biotope complex ‘Submarine structures made by leaking gas’ is believed to be threatened in the future by tourism activities such as scuba diving."
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What exactly is a 'growth factor'? Are there existing growth factors for tropical species?
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If I do not know the annual rings, how to calculate
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I would appreciate to be directed to studies that investigated this subject-matter. Also, those who are experts in this field can help me.
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Sorry, in english:
Assessing the impacts of sustainable development projects in the Amazon: The DURAMAZ experiment - March 2013 - Sustainability Science 8(2):199-212 -DOI: 10.1007/s11625-013-0200-1
and
The DURAMAZ indicator system: A cross-disciplinary comparative tool for assessing ecological and social changes in the Amazon -June 2013
Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 368(1619):20120475 - DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2012.0475
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In your opinion, what will be the attitude of human to the natural resources management (environment, water resources, soil resources, etc.) after the COVID-19 era?
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Our priority should be on the preservation and conservation of soil/land and environmental resources in relation to each ecological zone. The focus should be on the development of those resources in our environment based on comparative advantage. In view of what has happened globally and Africa in particular, we should focus seriously on development of our local resources using local content with sound and vigorous research instead of depending on mono economy through crude oil exploration without alternative source(s) of income/IGR/GDP. Our emphasis in Africa now is to develop large scale agriculture with full sense of environmental conservation to avoid future economic recession.
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Watershed is new paradigm shift in natural resource management for growth, development and eco restoration. Needs policy, techno innovations and expert support for improvement of livelihood of the farming community. Therefore, it required to draw a pathway for getting success in it.
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The plan or path should recognize one approach does not necessarily fit every circumstance. Some landscapes are more resilient than others. Some farming communities are open to conservation, while others need some approach from education, convincing, technical help, economic support through conservation easements, payments or tax credits, and in some cases policy and legal requirements. A good part of my career was directed at addressing impacts of excessive erosion and gullying from agricultural practices that left landscapes unproductive (eg, book - The Lands No One Wanted). The US NRCS and USFS are among agencies that have used varying means to help assess and address watershed issues and opportunities for improvement from agricultural and forestry practices. Getting to situations where farming and/or forestry livelihoods can become efficient enough or have funding supports to allow for some portion of the lands and investments be used for conservation, such as forested or grassed stream buffer zones, or low or no till approaches on erodible or low fertility lands. Certain benefits of stream buffers for hunting, fishing, water quality (downstream reservoirs, habitats, community or urban water supplies and treatment costs, etc), scenery, and other eco-functions have economic value that is sometimes difficult to determine as well as return benefits to the farmer for installing or incorporating best management practices of conservation on those lands. In some instances, an ounce of prevention is much more desireable when faced with a pound of cure.
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Hi guys, I am working on a research project that involves developing a sustainable land management strategy for a public sector organisation. I need good literature on the subject matter, any recommendations?
Thanks.
Malakia
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Please go through the following PDF attachments.
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I am going to send my survey to landowners in Oklahoma. I need to subset my list of respondents as I have more numbers of people that total number of survey I am going to send for my research. I am not going to select stratified sampling method or multistage sampling method as I don't have enough population in my list to do so. I might be using simple random sampling method. What is the recent trend of simple random sampling method to sub-set number of respondents from a bigger sample space?
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I used tidyverse package in R to sample required number and let R do random sampling instead of worrying how I should do. This gives one subset out of several subsets using combination. R Code provided below writes resulting data into .csv file.:
write.csv(
# # sample_n (
# # tbl = select(
# # read_csv(
# # "<path>/file.csv"
# # ),
# # 'Var 1',
# # 'Var 2',
# # 'Var 3',
# # 'Var 4',
# # ),
# # size = 2500,
# # replace = FALSE,
# # weight = NULL,
# # .env = NULL,
# # ... = NULL
# # ),
# # file = "output.csv"
# # )
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I am Onkar Dilip Gawali. Stud.ying in Msc.Forestry in Natural Resource Management in Dapoli.
i am confuse about my research topic so i want your help to select my research topic.
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Forest hydrology is also an important aspect in Kokan region other than conventional watershed management studies will be suitable topics. You review first what aspects of forestry/ agroforestry in NRM are relevant in Kokan region.Your degree is M.Sc. forestry specilasation in NRM so choose accordingly.
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A natural resource management takes place on several ecological econonic ecological strand.
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HELLO
THANK YOU MUCH DISCUSSION ENOUGH IMPORATNT BRAVO FOR ALL PARTICIPANTS
A natural resource is described as non-renewable or exhaustible when its speed of destruction exceeds, largely or not, its speed of creation.
On the contrary, we speak of a renewable resource when their production is possible over a short period of time.
Renewable energy is energy that enjoys natural and rapid renewal, unlike non-renewable energies that are available in limited quantities.
But the question that arises.
What's stopping us from using renewable energy sources? The main reason is that, until recently, the production costs of these energies were much higher than those of fossil fuels. In addition, renewable energy sources are not constant: imagine, for example, that the wind suddenly falls or that clouds cover the sun. Optimal exploitation of these sources would also require the construction of facilities in remote areas, whose connection to the main network would be both expensive and difficult. However, the situation is changing rapidly. Policies put in place have increased the demand for renewable energy sources worldwide, leading to a rapid reduction in their production costs. Given the increase in the price of gas and oil in recent years and the initiatives taken by governments, there is no doubt that renewable energy sources have a bright future ahead of them.
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am under graduate student of natural resource management .and i want to refer it as A GUIDE FOR MY term paper of land resource
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You might have a look at my papers, especially if you are interested in forest or water management; or on the concept of sustainability.
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Assess the state of conservation of natural resources and drivers to guide decision-making;
Analyze the conservation gaps of protected area systems in relation to their capacity to protect biodiversity and carbon stocks;
Propose participatory natural resource management tools adapted to socio-economic contexts
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Hi,
It may also be worth mentioning that in addition to the already stated responses, environmental subsidiarity should be considered in any reconciliation intervention between biodiversity conservation and sustainable utilization of natural resources in Africa.
Best wishes
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Dear colleague, Could you suggest free and fast journal focus on natural resource management?
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You could try Elsevier’s Environmental Development. It is free and aims to be fast. But speed depends on the timely submission of reviewer responses.
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Dear prominent research community,
I am doing a research on Co-management (CM) approach to natural resource management. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) endorsed the view that all social actors - supposedly are the government and community and others - could come to a situation where they can achieve a fair share of benefits from managing resources, mostly through negotiation.
I am reading quite a handful of articles to see if this approach has been successful in any region of the worlds, particularly where there is some maritime protected areas. But have not found much solid evidence.
If anyone could shed some lights for me or provide some articles to read, I would be much appreciated.
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Co-management is not just one standard arrangement of management-sharing. It is a spectrum of different levels of responsibility on the part of the parties to the co-management. At one end you have the government agency/agencies with the legal responsibility for the management holding nearly all the management control, and the non-government partner(s) being merely consulted on management. At the other it would be the non-government partner(s) holding nearly all the control (e.g. through "native title" legislation), with the government partner perhaps just "ticking the boxes" to indicate that all necessary things have been done. They type of co-management arrangement plays a big role in determining whether or not co-management will work in a particular situation.
Further, there are a whole lot of other factors that play a role in determining whether co-management will work, including: the number of stakeholders involved; the relationships among the stakeholders (cooperative, antagonistic, collegiate, etc.); the capacity of the stakeholders to manage (knowledge, experience, practical expertise, available necessary technology and other resources, etc.); and so on.
There is no simple yes/no answer to such an open question. In reality, "it all depends".
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In conducting a security management related research, there is a blurry distinction with criminology or conflict management research. The theoretical framework one can choose from are in fact the same. While defending my proposal recently, i was advised to move away from conflict to security management in terms of not only the tone but the theories. i did revisit my notes and could get much deviation.
It gets even more tricky when a researcher wants to fold in an environmental/economic approach to security management research. Mostly the theoretical framework will shift from the traditional crime theories to environmental/economic theories. This might cause trouble with examiners who might view it as lacking in terms of security management orientation.
It is my take that despite the approach and the theories thereof, security management is inherent in a wide range of disciplines and thus one should not be bogged down in tunnel-vision of crime theories. So long as the relationship can be brought out clearly through other theories relevant to the setting(economic/environmental) then it should be understandable.
Sage advice needed here.
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Thank you very much Jośe Luis Domínguez Figueirido
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As a geographer/geomorphologist with interest in nature (karst) protection, I'm dealing with one Natura 2000 site in Croatia under heavy pollution pressure. It is a sinking river in contact karst area exposed to pollution from nearby dump site and sewerage - consequences: pollution of river (destruction of water fauna), its ponor and underground stream possibly up to the distant karst springs. One of the basic problems is in bad delineation of borders not including larger catchment area (small city, suburban area with important percentage of arable land - a lot of anthropogenic pressure) but only small part of river bed. So it is completely inefficient because it does not prevent or reduce the pressure on the protected water habitat of interest. Second problem is that most of Natura 2000 sites in Croatia are poorly managed or not managed at all (no management plans), with badly determined borders/areas drawn without enough scientific fundamentals so their efficiency is questionable in many cases.
I'm searching for any updates on this topic - newer articles with examples. I'm interested in various habitats, not only karst and water, but all good examples of bad decisions in delineating Natura sites and repercussions to habitats, flora & fauna.
Maybe we can start some collaboration in this topic...
Thank you.
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Hi.
In my opinion, Natura 2000 network has a great importance in the Canary Islands. There are some areas not protected by local laws in 1994 ("Red de Espacios Naturales de Canarias"), but they have been designed as Natura 2000 protected areas, so (at least for the moment) were saved from any important threat. In any case, it's true that some Natura 2000 protected sites are under different types of threats, like new tourist complexes in the surroundings, increasing human presence, alien predators of local fauna (mainly cats and rats), invasive alien plants, etc. One of the main problems in the management of such areas is the low degree of surveillance or wardening inside them, mainly in coastal sites (the situation is much better in the forests), as we have an important proportion of our territory under legal protection and is necessary to have more people working in the protected areas.
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Unitary, federal and other kinds of goverment forms may influence the participation of local communities in the process of designing, implementing, and enforcing rules.
So, if federal goverments acknowledge better the particular features of the resources, is in these contries the resource management more eficient than in unitary states?
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The history and traditions of a country have the potential to greatly influence the direction governments take in terms of resource management. Fiji is an excellent example, and there is a nice case study to be found here:
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I am searching for a list of new research topics in the field of natural resource management
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From me, climate resilient agriculture is also emerging issue in this field.
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The Pakistan-Arabia Dust Cloud seems to be more powerful than a Category-5 cyclone like GONU, that you can see at http://www.ecoseeds.com/GONU.html, http://www.ecoseeds.com/newGONU.html and http://www.ecoseeds.com/GONU3.html.  Anyone else looking at these interactions?
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We already analyzed both dust more in
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The mountain of TaraGat was famous for dens forest cover. With the passage of time tree cutting was accelerated. Before merger of Swat, Dir and Chitral states, Malakand was part of Federally Administered
Tribal Area (FATA). During that time all mountainous areas were communal land and forest resources were under the control of local land owners. After merger of the three states in to Pakistan (1969-70), the status of Malakand changed from FATA to PATA (provincial administered tribal area). The ownership of forest resource changed and came under the control of Government. In this way large scale deforestation
started. Till 1980 the mountain of TaraGat was completely cleared. During 2000-02, forest department was with a sincere attempt to decorate the mountain with trees and was successful. For this purpose
the mountain was banned for five year. When the banned was lifted, one person claimed ownership and cleared a small part of the newly planted forest. With this a conflict aroused and the whole community started trees cutting. The forest was cleared within few days time
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Without doubt , communities must be made responsible for managing common lands converted into forests or grasslands or silvi - pastures . However continous motivation and capacity building of communities are requred before excuting any such programme. I have seen that in Bikaner district of Rajasthan , India where a huge moving sand dune was on the verge of engulfing whole village . Local folk were sensitized effectively to go for vegetative sand dunecstabilization programme and villagers did all the required activities for sand sune stabilizaton themselves . Today that dune is well stabilized , trees and grasses are flurishing like any thing , villagers have set definite rules to protect the vegetation of the said dune. Only grasses are taken by villagers though cut & carry System under a controlled regime .Now said village is completely safe since last 20 years .
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Land degradation is occurring in almost all terrestrial biomes and agro-ecologies, in both low and high income countries. However, its impact is especially severe on the livelihoods of the poor who heavily depend on natural resources. Despite the severe impact of land degradation on the poor and the crucial role that land plays in human welfare and development, investments in sustainable land management (SLM) are low, especially in developing countries.
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In spite of growing body of literature in recent years, the ecosystem services approach is not widely understood by policymakers, the general public and the private sector. While the approach is a promising contribution to providing for common good outcomes from the management of natural resources, much needs to be done to ensure that it achieves the dual purposes of maintaining and enhancing the supply of different services and improving the livelihoods of the rural poor in developing countries.....
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Whenever resources are used, somebody pays for them. In so far as the beneficiaries do not pay for them, people who have not benefited pay instead. Fairness obviously improves if the beneficiaries pay. The polluter-pays principle has therefore been adopted as an international norm, by OECD in the first instance (The UN tried unsuccessfully to get it called more accurately 'the user-pays principle').
The answer to your question is 'yes, of course'.
The challenges are firstly to identify the beneficiaries correctly and secondly to find ways of ensuring that they cannot escape paying.
see my Fair Principles for Sustainable Development: Essays on Environmental Policy in Developing Countries, editor and author of one chapter, Aldershot, Edward Elgar, 1993
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The attainment of sustainability requires adherence to some important aspects like human welfare, natural resource management, economic development, food and energy security and environmental sustainability. How Green Chemistry can address these concerns for a sustainable future of the planet Earth.
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The entire idea behind Green Chemistry is to be sustainable.  If it is called Green and it has no sustainability to the work then it is just a title and not really green..  I am a green building consultant and I see this in the green movement in building.  Every builder is now saying they are green yet they can not even define what is meant by the term.
This is unfortunate but the way of a capitalistic society.  If there is money to be made in the claim then the companies will claim what ever gets them to more profit.
We need to stop talking about how "Green" things are and start talking about how much better it is to be sustainable.  The term Green has been abused so much that most people think it is not real anymore.  I for the most part in my chemical research and in my green consulting talk about not just green but doing the right thing for our children and making a better decision today for a better tomorrow.  
I tell people that I refuse to make a decision today that in any way will jeopardize the lives of my children or make them clean up something that I have promoted.
Green is a movement to do better for the future and future generations and to stop being self centered and asses.  I am not perfect but if we all will just do what is possible we could change the world over night.
Green chemistry has to be the way we move to the future.  It must be more them just the word it must be real.
George   
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My field sample plots are 30x30m square and I have to measure canopy coverage along with other field data. Ho can I use GRS densiometer or Spherical densiometer to measure the canopy coverage of my sample plot with less error of estimation. 
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Spherical densiometer (SD) may be the helpful equipment for canopy coverage. 
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we want to estimate gross primary production in Caspian Hyrcanian Mixed Forests using MODIS products, Unfortunately measurements not available. can we estimate gross primary production without measurements and eddy covariance data?
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Perhaps  you could estimate GPP by adding standing biomass (NPP), which can be derived from remote sensing data and growth models, to respiration, which can be estimated from forest carbon dynamics models. 
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Sudden Oak currently is important issue in forests of Iran. I want detect this issue using SAR data.
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Yes, you can do with the help of GIS together. 
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It is more and more clear that the solutions for a sustainable human development and also for a mitigation and adaptation to climate change have to follow a territorial strategy ( a territory as a landscape with people, thus a social process). The Millennium Ecosystem Approach in the proposed scenarios for 2050, shows that the adaptive mosaic development strategy, is the one that better supply the population with ecosystem services. In that sense a climate smart territory has to be managed in a way that contributes to sustainable human development and to climate change mitigation and adaptation.
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The paradigm of integrating territorial, value chains and livelihoods, as sure pathways to sustainable development based on approach for food, nutritional, health and livelihood security through climate smart territorial concept.
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I strikes me as rather bizarre that despite all the hype around the Round Table on Sustainable Palm Oil, there do not seem to be studies that actually show what the environmental benefits of certification are. Or am I missing something?
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There's very few, if any, environmental protections in the RSPO guidelines, certainly not ones that protect forests.  In any case, they cover only a small fraction of oil palm production.   In the attached paper, we were not able to find any way to identify where oil-palm caused deforestation was impacted by the guidelines.  
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To what extent can informal institutions either enhance or impair natural resource rule enforcement? Do they always promote natural resource governance? or can they also impair rule enforcement? Is it a double-edged sword? What are the various conceptualizations of informal institutions as pertains to the natural resource governance context?
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You may have a look on this attached paper.
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I would detect fire, insect and deforestation (logging and building) disturbance using SAR backscatter and Optical data for Hyrcnian forest in the Iran.
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Dear Lzadi,
most of Fire scar detection in l using RADARSAT-1 and ERS-2 SAR data . multi-temporal RADARSAT-1 and ERS-2 SAR data has been conducted on a fire-disturbed. If you find the event of  monitoring the climet from space which conducted by EAS.
Go with the attachment
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How effective are bioclimatic models in projecting vegetative species diversity changes? What algorithms are used to reduce effect of other environmental factors?
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Hi Lazarus,
Please see: Austral Ecology (2010) 35, 374–391 and An Overview of Vegetation Models for Climate Change Impacts, US Forest Service, both online.
I hope this helps!
Andrew :-)
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As public agencies mostly want to partner with local people or other community actors for joint projects or collaborative activities, what practical steps conveners or agencies need to win local people trust? what will make them buy into this idea of partnership? I found the article below more useful, any other suggestions?
Rising to the challenge: A framework for optimising value in collaborative natural resource governance. Forest Policy and Economics, 67, 20-29.
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Listening is the most important thing outsiders can do. Then, ask clarifying questions-- people on the ground know a great deal.   
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Foliar nutrition is becoming popular in the last decade, various products are available in the market (even customized foliar nutrition products), which have been reported to increase yields as well heled in bio-fortification. If we apply micronutrients in the soil, it is most of the time overdose as well the uptake efficiency is very low, the question comes that can foliar micro-nutrition completely substitute for basal (or soil) application?
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Big No Dr Kalra....
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I have exclosures (9 years and 2 years) in a dry forest and I found lower soil bulk density and higher C, N and OM contents outside the exclosures, in relation to the excluded areas.
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Dear Andres,
The observations made are correct and can be explained scientifically. Bulk density of soil is defined as the soil mass per unit volume. Due to trampling of grazing cattle, soil inside the exclosures got compacted (volume reduced) and thereby bulk density of the soil inside the exclosures increased. On the other hand, undisturbed soil outside had relatively lower bulk density.
Then due to continuous addition of cattle dung/ excreta and urine over a long period, soil inside the exclosures get enriched with C, N and Organic Matter, compared to the soil outside.
I hope you are convinced with the scientific explanation of the observed changes in soil.
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We have severe invasion of Rubis ulmifolius in forests of the mountainous area in the San Luis province, central Argentina. Does anybody have any information about biological control as an alternative to rule this species?
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That's also a main issue here in Portugal, mainly in agricultural fields but also in forests. Based in its stomach contents, blackberry is one of the plant species that goats prefer to eat (project "Extensity", LIFE03 ENV/P/505).
The best method could be the use of a mix of pasture species with different grazing strategies (e.g.: pigs, sheep and goats). Goats and sheep work well together. Goats browse and sheep graze. Pigs could be used to destroy stumps and to dig and turn over the soil. If grass seed is added, pigs will till it in.
Regards
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I have been asked to write a book chapter on Islam and the environment. I plan on offering a 2 brief qualitative brief case studies; 1) on the 2006 Somalia Islamic Courts Union (if I can find enough sources) and 2) the participation and role of the OIC-member states in the 2015 Paris COP21 conference (which I am sure I will be able to find enough sources for).
I would welcome a couple good short references to Islamic sources on the environment during Islam's 'Golden Age' Period (approx. 750- until the sack of Baghdad in 1258 CE). I would like to write perhaps 1 or 2 minor paragraphs on this for my introductory section-- a couple nice zinger quotes from someone like Al-Farabi or Ibn Rushd (or someone a bit more obscure) would be welcomed.
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Maybe, this could be helpful:
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Water use measurements for rice, specifically under lowland /flooded/ submerged condition, are difficult. Terms like reference evapo-transpiration, consumptive water use, actual ET, crop coefficients are reported for rice crop, but the component of water balance in most of the crop models is relatively weak, need to be strengthened. There is a need of good field experiments to be used for this purpose, regards
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Thanks Dr Abhishek for nice information regards
naveen kalra
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Do you have any environment impact assestment practice?
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yes i have good experience on environmental impact assessment especially on water supply projects, waste water treatment and hydro power projects 
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Can anyone recommend me articles about paradigm changes in natural resource management?
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Here is a relatively new paper on a holistic concept that provided a paradigm change in the whole environmental discussion during the recent 20+ years.
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My Focus is on Aid Harmonization and NGO Coordination at local and national level for disaster recovery.
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Hi,
I have developed an indicators based assessment framework for evaluating quality of governance of stakeholder participation in decision-making within development projects, and more broadly.
Please visit my profile, and papers.
you are welcome to contact me,
Tim
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The contamination plumes in question are on the Hanford Site, situated along the banks of the longest continually flowing stretch of the Columbia River. The Hanford Site has unique terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that are home to forty species of mammals, over two hundred species of birds, and a large variety of amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates. The adjacent Columbia River supports a number of economically and culturally important fish species including the Chinook salmon, coho salmon, steelhead (a federally-listed threatened species), white sturgeon and Pacific lamprey.  
Ongoing and planned cleanup work at Hanford is expected to address, but not be limited to, more than 50 million gallons of high-level liquid waste in 177 underground storage tanks, 2,300 tons of spent nuclear fuel, 12 tons of plutonium in various forms, approximately 25 million cubic feet of buried or stored solid waste, and approximately 270 billion gallons of groundwater contaminated above drinking water standards, all occurring over an area of approximately 80 square miles, more than 1,700 waste sites, and approximately 500 contaminated facilities.  (This information came from http://www.hanfordnrda.org/background-information/)
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I would begin with costs of individual site assessment, assess urgency of action as to both hazard and how secure is each site, are pollutants contained or not, clean-up, costs of remediation, costs of water treatment systems or alternate sources of water, costs of data collection, analysis, assessment, EIS if needed, treatment planning, monitoring, reporting, public or individual health issues, loss of crops and damages relative to punitive claims for deceit, failure to meet responsibilities, laws or regulations.  If there were any performance bonds of companies involved (which there should have been), I would go after those funds and as well as fines against companies for neglect and fraudulent actions.    I would try to integrate findings, so these type damages are prevented, minimized and mitigated as possible for future actions through better standards, controls, etc. Add in funds for court, legal costs, potential for damage suites.  It may be difficult to get an accurate figure. 
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Can somebody direct me to a link of possible collaborative research related to natural resource management (karst land management).
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Dear Wilbert,
Contact the International Union of Conservation of Nature  (IUCN)
You can contact more precisely Mrs Jay ANDERSON at : caveskarst.iucn@gmail.com
With my best regards
Prof. Bachir ACHOUR
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I'm making a thesis about Marine protected areas and how effective they are at preserving coral reefs. What would be good factors to consider regarding the health of the reef and the overall health of the ecosystem?
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Gabriel,
The following web site just became available, it's a great source of information on many aspects on MPAs.
Tom
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A clear understanding of market-based policy instruments in natural resources management is essential. 
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Definitely,I too strongly agree withProf B.Achour 
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What are factors important for the success of community based natural resource management strategies?
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Embarking on an exclusive CBNRM may be problematic; in contemporary times, scholars and practitioners argue for a collaboration between community actors, state actors and NGOs to prudently create value for people and environment. Embarking on this requires some key social and technical processes. kindly follow the article below
Yeboah-Assiamah, E., Muller, K., & Domfeh, K. A. (2016). Rising to the challenge: A framework for optimising value in collaborative natural resource governance. Forest Policy and Economics, 67, 20-29.
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Hello everyone,
We planned to deploy some pH loggers in the field (mangrove ecosystem)  for couple of weeks.
I am wondering if anybody knows about an effective (within reasonable price) pH logger (Brand/model) that can be putted in those kind of harsh environment. 
Thanks.
Cheers
Hadayet
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Dear William,
 Looks like a good one ! I could certainly think about it.Thank you very much.
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Dears
I am working on EIA methods in natural resource management. I was wondering does anybody can direct me to find some of latest article in this area
any help would be appreciated
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I have faced with insufficient information, written in English, for my current research. Anyone in our network aware of recent publication either book or journal article about natural resource management particularly protected area management (social aspect ), and forest management in Thailand is asked to share his/her information with me. Your cooperation is appreciated in advance. 
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Hi Ghulam,
I am attaching three papers here by Peluso and Vandergeest that present analyses of the Thai forest estate from a political ecology perspective (follow others who have cited them to find more recent work). I have also published a couple of papers on social aspects of Lao protected areas, which you may find relevant (though not Thai), these are also attached. I have worked for several years with WWF-Greater Mekong and would be happy to connect you to WWF-Thailand protected area managers, who may be able to help.
Best regards,
Micah
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For proper management of river ecosystem how ecological flow is important and by which method it can be calculated for particular river?
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Dear Mr. Nagar,
        Based on my experience in assessing e-flow in respect of hydro-electricity project clearance from MoEF, I attach the required write-up for your use. Best method of e-flow assessment at present is to follow MIKE 11 tool.
 Environmental Flows
Riverine ecosystems are among the most impacted ecosystems worldwide. Human activities, such as the construction of dikes, dams, barrages and weirs, the straightening and deepening of river channels, the conversion of floodplains to agricultural land, water abstraction, water transfer and pollution; etc., have heavily modified most large lowland rivers. As a result, a large number of fish species became threatened or endangered and the fish productivity of most riverine ecosystems has declined. This is all the more troubling since, large lowland rivers support a significant proportion of the world’s fish diversity and their fisheries provide a major source of food, employment and income to society. Until now, the flow regimes of most large lowland rivers have been heavily manipulated to serve the needs of society. To balance the interests of different stakeholder groups, many countries have implemented water resources management plans. Water policy decisions are typically made with little or no consideration of fish conservation and fisheries, despite a high public perception of fish. The reason is not only the relative lower socioeconomic importance of fisheries compared to ecosystem services such as flood protection and navigation. Whereas the optimal flow regime for navigation, agriculture and flood protection (in terms of magnitude, timing and duration of flow events) is comparably easy to determine, the consequences for fish diversity and fisheries are much more difficult to quantify.
Environmental flow refers to the water considered sufficient for protecting the structure and function of an ecosystem and its dependent species. Environmental flows are required to be maintained through a river reach for sustaining its ecosystem and dependent species. It means enough water is to be released in the downstream of the river system after utilizing the water for the development projects in order to ensure downstream environmental, social and economic benefits. Realizing its importance, several countries have made ensuring environmental flows mandatory. For example, The Mekong River Agreement, 1995; South Africa’s National Water Act, 1998 and the Swiss Water Protection Act, 108. These legislations attempt to ensure required minimum flow in the river system to sustain ecosystem services. A wide range of environmental flow methodologies (EFMs) have been developed to determine flow thresholds for various objectives such as the preservation of natural conditions, the maintenance or restoration of ecological integrity and cultural and recreational values. Most of these methods were developed primarily to protect endangered fish species and to maintain fisheries resources in human-modified rivers. Until now, these methodologies have been mostly applied to small upland rivers and headwater streams. Although a growing body of literature summarizes the status of available EFMs the question remains whether or not these EFMs are suitable to protect fish diversity and fisheries resources in regulated large lowland rivers.
 Methodologies for estimation of environmental flows worldwide
Most currently available EFMs can be grouped in four main categories:
1. Hydrological methods
2. Hydraulic rating
3. Habitat simulation methods
4. Holistic methodologies.
In European countries, hydrological and habitat simulation are the prevailing methods, while some developing countries and countries with newer environmental legislation have focused on holistic methods. Hydrological methods rely primarily on flow measures and indices, which are drawn from historical time series data on annual or daily mean flow. Still widely used is the Tennant method (also known as Montana method), which relates the ratio between river discharge and fish habitat availability to certain percentages of annual flows to meet predefined requirements (Tennant, 1976). The Tennant method assumes similarity of aquatic habitats when carrying the same proportion of average flow but rarely considered the effective habitat quality at varying flows. The method lists eight categories of in-stream flow that range from maximum to severe degradation. Below the threshold of 10% mean flow, the environmental conditions for fish are judged to be degraded, whereas 50% provides for excellent conditions in terms of stream width, water depth and velocity. While the Tennant method does not explicitly consider duration or the timing of flow events, some extensions integrate flow duration and frequencies. Other hydrological methods include duration percentiles or single flow indices that are usually generated from historical stream flow databases. One example is the widely used 7Q10, which is defined as the ‘seven-day, consecutive low flow with a ten-year return frequency; the lowest stream flow for seven consecutive days that would be expected to occur once in ten years’ (United States Environmental Protection Agency) or similar discharge indices. 
 Hydraulic rating considers the channel morphology of a given river and calculates acceptable flows by relating river discharge with a variety of hydraulic characteristics such as water depth, velocity or wetted perimeter. These methods rely on transects measured across a river section comprising habitat factors that are assumed to be limiting factors for target biota. The wetted perimeter method considers the variation in wetted perimeter or river width with water discharge. Plotting the wetted perimeter against discharge shows a breakpoint where a comparable small decrease in discharge results in a comparably larger decrease in wetted perimeter. This breakpoint is used as a minimum in-stream flow recommendation. The widely used habitat simulation methods are sophisticated extensions of hydraulic rating methods within a framework addressing many ecological components of riverine ecosystems (IFIM, In-stream Flow Incremental Methodology, Bovee, 1982). Within the context of IFIM, a broad range of modelling tools such as PHABSIM aim to predict how physical habitat conditions (i.e. water depth, velocity, cover, substrata) change with discharge. Typically, detailed hydrological and hydraulic data for a grid of cells in a river stretch are compared with the habitat suitability of a target species. The habitat suitability is expressed as a habitat suitability curve (e.g. suitability index curve, probability of use or preference curve), often seasonally defined, which specifies the assumed seasonal requirements of different species, life stages or habitat guilds. The curves depict the relationship of target organism’s response to a gradual changing habitat variable scaling from unsuitable to suitable, which are usually obtained from existing data or field measurements. By comparing the curves with the predicted habitat area at various flows, the minimum flow thresholds can be defined in a way so that the discharge provides optimal habitat conditions, retains a percentage of habitats at average flow or provides a minimum amount of habitat area. Most commonly, the flow threshold is set at the breakpoint in the habitat/flow curve where proportionally more habitat is lost with decreasing flow than is gained with increasing flow. The commonly used output of, for example PHABSIM quantifies the suitability of a location for a target species in terms of a weighted usable area (WUA; expressed as, e.g. m2 1000m stream length1). More advanced software tools such as 2D and 3D models achieve greater hydraulic representation. Other models allow for inclusion of water quality, temperature and other biological factors such as prey densities, energy allocation and behavioral components. The complexity of current models is growing and there are many approaches to establish statistical techniques that improve the predictability of species abundance on the basis of biotic and abiotic variables. The growing recognition that rivers are closely connected to their watersheds has led to the realization that protecting and rehabilitating riverine ecosystems requires sensitivity, not only to the key hydrological, biological and ecological, but also to the economic and social aspects of a riverine ecosystem. Assuming that a natural flow system will maintain the ecological function of a riverine ecosystem, so-called holistic methodologies will define the critical environmental flows of an entire riverine ecosystem rather than focusing on the needs of a single species.
Holistic methods rely less on modelling and more on multidisciplinary panels covering biophysical disciplines such as hydrology, geomorphology, sedimentology, water chemistry, botany and zoology. Advanced methodologies such as DRIFT (Downstream Response to Intended Flow Transformations Methodology, King et al., 2003) consist of different modules that integrate biophysical, and economic and social factors and aim at participating stakeholder groups. Within the biophysical module, various EFMs such as habitat-modelling tools can also be implemented. The growing recognition that rivers are closely connected to their watersheds has led to the realization that protecting and rehabilitating riverine ecosystems requires sensitivity not only to the key hydrological, biological and ecological, but also to the economic and social aspects of a riverine ecosystem. Assuming that a natural flow system will maintain the ecological function of a riverine ecosystem so-called holistic methodologies will define the critical environmental flows of an entire riverine ecosystem rather than focusing on the needs of a single species. Holistic methods rely less on modelling and more on multidisciplinary panels covering biophysical disciplines such as hydrology, geomorphology, sedimentology, water chemistry, botany and zoology. Advanced methodologies such as DRIFT consist of different modules that integrate biophysical, and economic and social factors and aim at participating stakeholder groups. Within the biophysical module, various EFMs such as habitat-modelling tools can also be implemented.
 Analysis of Environmental flows
Mostly, to maintain specific river classes, the E-flows are estimated world-wide at monthly time-scale using the Flow-Duration curve analysis. For this, generally, a minimum of 25 years river discharge time series data is used. It is the management and planning authority, who decides the quantity of E-flow to be released to maintain a particular environmental management class (EMC) of the river. A river may be classified into six environmental management classes of A, B, C, D, E, and F depending on the following flow.
modification category (Kleynhans, 1996). The more pristine is the desired management class, the higher is the E-flow requirement.
 Class A (Natural): Pristine river condition or minor modification of in-stream and riparian habitat.
 Class B (Slightly modified): Largely intact biodiversity and habitats in the river despite water resources development and/or basin modifications
 Class C (Moderately modified): The river habitats and dynamics of the biota have been disturbed, but the basic ecosystem functions are still intact. Some sensitive species are lost/or reduced in extent; however, the alien species are present.
 Class D (Largely modified): There is large changes in the river natural habitats, biota and basic ecosystem functions with a clearly lower than expected species richness. A clearly lower than expected species richness.
 Class E (Seriously modified): Habitat diversity and availability have declined. A strikingly lower than expected species richness. Alien species invaded the ecosystem.
 Class F (Critically modified): Modifications have reached a critical level and ecosystem has been completely modified with almost total loss of natural habitat and biota. This river status is not acceptable at all.
Hence, the E-flow should be released from the dam so that it can maintain the EMC-B condition, which should not be less than the EMC-C condition in worst case.
Flow-Duration Curve (FDC) Method
The flow-duration curve is the plot between the percentages of time that flow in a stream is likely to equal or exceed some specified value of interest. The basic time unit used in preparing a flow-duration curve will greatly affect the nature of the curve. For most studies, mean daily discharges are used. These will give a steep curve. When the mean flow over a long period is used (such as mean monthly flow), the resulting curve will be flatter due to normalization of short-term peaks by averaging with intervening smaller flows during a month. The extreme discharge values are averaged out more and more, as the time period gets larger (e.g., for a flow duration-curve based on annual flows at a long-record station). The shape of a flow-duration curve in its upper and lower regions is particularly significant in evaluating the river and basin characteristics. The shape of the curve in the high-flow region indicates the type of flood regime the river basin is likely to have; whereas, the shape of the low-flow region characterizes the ability of the river basin to sustain low flows during dry seasons. A very steep curve (high flows for short periods) would be expected due to rainfall in small watersheds, as the watershed behave non-linearly to the rainfall-runoff transformation process. The floods due to snowmelt, which last for several days, or regulation of floods with reservoir storage, will generally result in a much flatter curve near the upper limit. In the low-flow region, an intermittent stream would exhibit periods of no flow; whereas, a very flat curve indicates that moderate flows are sustained throughout the year due to natural or artificial stream flow regulation, or due to a large groundwater capacity which sustains the base flow to the stream.
In this study, the available 10-daily averaged observed discharge time series in a particular month for different years are ranked using the Weibull plotting position method. The flow-duration curve for that specific month is represented by a table of flow values (percentiles) covering the entire range of probabilities of occurrence corresponding to 17 fixed percentage points: 0.01, 0.1, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 95, 99, 99.9, and 99.99%. These percentage points ensure that the entire range of flows is adequately accounted for. The flow-duration curve developed using the historical data is termed as the reference class. For estimating the Environmental Flow (E-flow) requirement for different categories of EMC, the flow duration curve is shifted by one step, two steps, three steps, and four steps for EMC-A, EMC-B, EMC-C, and EMC-D, respectively. The E-flow is computed based on the 90% dependable flow of this FDC for different EMCs. The E-flow thus computed for different months is routed along the river reached downstream by using the MIKE 11 Hydrodynamic Model (DHI-Water & Environment, 2012) to simulate the spatial distribution of discharge, flow depth, and flow velocity at different sections of the river downstream under no lateral flow condition.
Habitat Simulation Method
The main issue with the FDC method is a limited justification of the permissible FDC shifts per EMC. The currently accepted step of a shift (one FDC table point per class) is based on limited calibration of the proposed method. It is very difficult to evaluate the results when there are no ecological data available to confirm or deny the suitability of the estimated EF. It is, in principle, possible to collect some limited hydraulic information for rivers and examine the characteristics of the available habitat (water depth, wetted area and velocity, for example) under different flow conditions (natural and FDC shifting method recommendations). This is not, however, a real substitute for scientific information on the relationships between ecological characteristics and flow.
Keeping this in view, a further assessment is to be carried out using habitat simulation and hydraulic modelling. Habitat requirements have to be established in different seasons for baseline data collected .
From baseline data, habitat requirement are to be established to protect fishes in the river limbs. Dependency of the local population on rivers for other needs e.g. domestic requirement, irrigation, navigation, commercial fisheries. is not there.
Flow modeling has to be carried out for different release scenarios in different seasons using Mike11. Flow simulations generally to be carried out for 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 100% releases of the average discharge in 90% dependable year of the flow series. Annual series may be further divided into Monsoon, Lean and pre & post monsoon period. Flow release recommendations are to be made using this approach to ensure habitat requirements are met with throughout the year.
MIKE 11 Hydrodynamic Model
The MIKE11 hydrodynamic model (DHI-Water & Environment, 2012) is widely used world-wide to model the 1-D flood wave movement in rivers under steady and unsteady flow conditions. This model solves the de Saint-Venant equations of continuity and momentum using six-point Abbot numerical scheme. The Saint-Venant equations of continuity and momentum are to be followed.
 The MIKE11 model uses the E-flow as the upstream boundary condition, which is then routed along the river downstream to estimate the discharge, flow depth and velocity at different sections of the river reach at different time levels. MIKE11 is accepted by US Federal Emergency Management Agency for use in the National Flood Insurance Program.
  Comments
The Report on Estimation of Environment Flows Requirement for tropical rivers like India typically may include the following;
 Baseline Data, broadly given below, may be elaborated.
 Secondary sources based on literature covering fish fauna of rivers rivers
 Primary sources – Based on sampling and analysis covering physico-chemical and biological characteristics
 ·         Physico–chemical Characteristics (water and sediment)                                                     
·         Periphyton, Phytoplankton and zooplankton                                                                     ·         Macro-Invertebrates (benthic) Fish Fauna
 ·         Fish species sampled during different seasons
·         Catch Per Unit Effort
·         Size/s of fish caught during sampling in different season
·         Habitat Characteristics of sites where sampling was conducted like substrate, river depth, flow velocity, etc.
 The data from the seasonal sampling on water quality and biological features (phytoplankton, zooplankton, macro-benthos, fishes, etc) are to be included in the report along with discussion on seasonal trend in parameters and correlation, if any, between water quality and biological parameters of key species.
 Establishing habitat requirement based on Ecological and Social needs in different seasons – Lean (Winter), Monsoon, pre and post monsoon, i.e., Flow Depth, Width, Velocity, Turbidity, Flood Peaks, Intermittent Wetting of Riparian vegetation during high flows, etc. needs to be elaborated in a report.
 Meeting of habitat requirement through environment flow may also be elaborated in a report.
 ·        
·                                                                                
·         Spills from dam during monsoon to be assessed
·         
Hydrology
MIKE 11 has been used for hydro-dynamic modelling and several runs for different discharges must  be made with number of inputs .
 Maximum number of river cross-sections on river limbs need to be used for modelling (at least 9-10 sections on each limb). The use of data for several sections would facilitate assessment of critical stretch.
 . The entire river reach needs to be represented in the model set up using all the cross sections provided.
             The model output should include flow depth, velocity of flow and top flow width at each cross section of the study reach for 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 40%, 50% & 100% flow of the average of leanest 4 months, 4 monsoon months & other 4 months in 90% dependable year.
 The flow simulation results, viz., depth of flow, velocity and top flow width of all the three seasons need to be correlated with the respective riverine fauna to estimate the environmental flow requirements.
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I am interested to study the current devastation to the rainforest and  water catchment areas, and its correlation with the aggravated flooding pattern of recent years in Kelantan. I would like to also explore the socio-economical factors and the associated challenges in the management of natural resources in Kelantan. 
Besides this, are there any other relevant knowledge gap worth exploring in Malaysia? Probably in some other location?
Your feedback are very much appreciated.
Thank you.
Mathini
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Thank you for your input, William. I agree with you that the gap is actually on knowledge transfer instead of on the knowledge itself. Great insight! And yes, I do find forest hydrology very interesting.
Thank you again and have a great day!
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NPP for forestry system as a function of abiotic/biotic components is important for interpreting LUCC and CC effects
Partitioning behaviour, canopy density, leaf fall, dependence upon climatic factors is important
simple approach to use for different forestry systems is needed
similar thing is true for agro-forestry systems too
regards
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Net Primary Productivity, NPP, is a technical concept very difficult to apply in the field at the forest ecosystem scale. It is the difference between net photosyntesis minus respiration. A good approximation is to evaluate the biomass balance equation: Inputs (Ingrowth, recruitment, regeneration) minus outputs (mortality, harvesting) plus minus changes in growth. Changes in growth are more or less approximated by using or fitting growth and yield models. The time scale is important; for very short time scales (less than 5 years assumption that inputs and outputs are equal can be made) and the model coalesces into the growth of the forest in this period of time. For larger time scales make sure you have the right dates of tree ingrowth and recruitment as well as mortality and harvesting becausethe modelis very sensitive to these dates. One good assumption is to evaluate ingrowth, recruitment, mortality andharvesting at the middle of the time period.
Hope this explanation address properly the evaluation of NPP.
Best WIshes and Kind Regards
Sincerely
Jose Navar, Ph.D Oklahoma State University 
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Water use efficiency is not conservative, as it varies under differential inputs as well biotic/abiotic stresses, but normally we describe WUE under potentially grown condition, in a way to assess the total water needs of crops/cropping systems. 
our interest always lies in knowing WUE for crops/important cultivars/cropping system in terms of evapo-transpiration, ET + drainage (in case of rice), conjunctive water use (in terms of use of poor quality waters) or applied water.
Within our RG group, there are eminent water management experts, and the question is of collation of these imp efficiency factors in order to management our resource inputs.
regards
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Naveen,  although it is written for corn and soybean systems, we have a recent publication on systems WUE here: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13101/full and available on my profile page.  Our definition takes into account ET, drainage, and runoff.  Hope it helps!
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I am carrying out a review on valuation of ecosystem-based adaptation (EBA). The search mechanisms are returning hardly any examples. Do you know of papers on the subject? Alternatively, I am also looking for experiences of valuation of climate protection.
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Please follow the methodology of the paper in the link
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We want to explore the reasons behind the floristic patterns of epiphytes in the two different forest types (intensively managed and rarely managed), which will help to understand and forecast changes in canopy diversity following human activities, and to manage and restore the canopy communities in a time of rapidly changing climate.
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The natural plant are life in harmony with their area and in this global change of climate Ithink that they will be more adapted in moiture areas but really it will be more catastrophic for the new "Dry land" but we can be sûr that many species will go and the resistant ones will prosper .....
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Does anybody know concrete experiences(experiments) of adjustment between the exploitation of the natural resources of a local territory and the fundamental needs of the population of this territory ( food... )?
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You should also consider the work done by Mexico's Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. They have published several papers and books pertinent to your question, and you can find then online at www.conabio.gob.mx. And of course, yhere is the research done for decades by Eleanor Ostrom and her colleages.
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I am organizing an international conference on this topic at Concordia University -- Montreal Canada in October and will soon open a call for participants. There will be a series of post-conference publications
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Try to get in touch with BGCI https://www.bgci.org/
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Part of the trunk with a limit diameter is used for boards from wood chips and the rest of trunk is chopped for bio-energy (same with branches). Who knows publications about types (assortments) of wood trunk from SRF?
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I send you the following references:
1. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 2: SRF produced from construction and demolition waste
Waste Management, Volume 34, Issue 11, Pages 2163-2170
Muhammad Nasrullah, Pasi Vainikka, Janne Hannula, Markku Hurme, Janne Kärki
2. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidised bed reactor
Waste Management, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 1176-1183
S.T. Wagland, P. Kilgallon, R. Coveney, A. Garg, R. Smith, P.J. Longhurst, S.J.T. Pollard, N. Simms
3. Comparing hybrid Populus clones for SRF across northern Italy after two biennial rotations: Survival, growth and yield
Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 1524-1532
Pierluigi Paris, Leonardo Mareschi, Maurizio Sabatti, Andrea Pisanelli, Alfredo Ecosse, Fabrizio Nardin, Giuseppe Scarascia-Mugnozza
4. Techno-economic performance analysis of energy production from biomass at different scales in the UK context
Chemical Engineering Journal, Volume 171, Issue 3, Pages 986-996
C. Patel, P. Lettieri, S.J.R. Simons, A. Germanà
5. Gasification improvement of a poor quality solid recovered fuel (SRF). Effect of using natural minerals and biomass wastes blends
Fuel, Volume 117, Issue null, Pages 1034-1044
Filomena Pinto, Rui Neto André, Carlos Carolino, Miguel Miranda, Pedro Abelha, Daniel Direito, Nikos Perdikaris, Ioannis Boukis
All are available on ScienceDirect.
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The Monarch is on the brink of extinction in the USA in 2014 due to loss of the wild milkweed plants that it needs to reproduce and survive, from droughts and lack of protection of those habitats from modification by herbicide spraying, tilling or weed invasions. Recent survey estimates that the public in the USA is willing to spend over $4 billion for this effort (http://www.popsci.com/article/science/americans-would-pay-4-billion-save-monarch-butterflies). The question is, are there any groups or individuals starting that process, to purchase the hundreds of thousands of acres that would need to be protected as milkweed-native grassland preserves, then start the process of replanting or restoring the milkweed and native grasslands in a weed-free condition on those protected lands?
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Scientific American letter publish February 2015, link attached https://www.researchgate.net/search.Search.html?type=publication&query=monarch+dremann
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Farming is considered to be the first cause of deforestation in the tropics. Our research team is currently looking for farming solutions that may replace conventional small- and large-scale farming in Brazilian rainforests. Our current assumption is that vertical farming, mainly conceived for urban areas, may be an alternative that has a much smaller impact on the forest because of their small footprint and diffuse spatial distribution (vertical farms scattered around the forest, instead of being clustered), thus drastically reducing deforestation. We are confronted with the following questions:
- Is there any knowledge on how productive vertical farms are in tropical forests?
- What kind of new problems would vertical farms bring for farmers?
- Can current farming products be stacked vertically?
- Can vertical farming be realised with low-tech solutions?
We would highly appreciate any feedback on these questions.
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Nature has created vertical as well as horizontal layers of farming.
In a complex forest Leaf Area Index (LAI) is about 12-14. This means that in one meter square land area you have 14 meter square leaf area. In this forest you have halophytes and sciophytes along with facultative halophytes and facultative sciophytes. These plants have favourable on unfavourable associations. This canopy makes use of solar radiation which has 680 nm wave length and 700 nm wave length.
The multi tiered canopy has capacity to produce biomass 2.5 times more than the mono cultured crop. If the biomass is to be used as raw material for fulfilling human requirements in that case plant species useful to human beings should be selected.
We have got wonderful results on this experiments. If the demand is of food we have hundreds of forest trees having capacity to feed human race. Examples are Madhuka longifolis (Mahua) it gives carbohydrates, Fatty acids and protein to lesser extent; Phoenix sylvestris (Wild date palm) can be perennial source of sucrose fibres and fruits. There are hundreds of tuberous crops (as and under story of forest canopy) which can feed millions of people. It includes different kinds of yams and kudzu. The list is endless and every ecosystem will have its own flora and fauna.
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Man and Environment
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Vedamani, you may refer to the specific examples that have been chronicled in different books as part of movements that people have participated in. This can also be related to the impacts that has brought in different societal elements together and how it has forced the industries to rethink about the environment-people connection. The latest in this case resulted in how Supreme Court granted relief to the locals and adivasis to be the rightful stakeholders in mining activities in Odhisa and HP, that was planned by state governments to be used for bauxite mining, So, I guess, the question can be exploded into a series of questions that would involve seeking answers on the socio-political-economic impacts and role of judicial activism to support it.  
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We are performing a monitoring of plant data in a natural park near a city, gathering data on about 100 linear transect. We need a quick way to collect the presence/absenceof species and their abundance along the transect.
Has anyone developed something or can suggest me an availble app to work on?Thank you for ideas and suggestions.
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Depending on exactly how you plan on collecting and organizing your data, you could create a Google Form and share it with your data collectors. Data is put straight into a Google Sheets spreadsheet for you, which can be exported to Excel if needed.
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Since the 90s there has been a growing literature about the socioeconomic effects of natural resources exploitation in developing countries. The mainstream view is that it usually harms growth (see Dutch disease approach), prompts corruption (see rentier-state approach) and even conflict (see the Collier-Hoeffler approach). There are alternative views to that, stating that in the long-run it doesn't harm (see Di John's works) and sometimes natural resources are 'red herrings' (see Brunschweiler and Bulte works). There is yet another view, in which natural resources can help to boost economic transformation. This view is put forward by several works of Morris and Kaplinsky. Which proxies would you use to test the contribution to economic transformation of natural resources exploitation in a specific country or region? I am particularly interested in Africa.
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The traditional view is to place natural resources on the input side of a production function and measure its contribution to output and standard of living and general welfare gains. But your use of the term "exploitation" brings skepticism to that view. It requires one to address how natural resources are transformed into capital goods for producing more capital goods for future growth and consumption goods for people’s standard of living. This view tends to split ideologies into orthodox models that use only technical relationships of production such as productivity of capital, productivity of labor, capital-labor ratio etc.,  and Marxian models that uses departments.
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Does anyone know where I can find information/data documenting the loss of native Floridian ecosystems, including mangrove islands, wetlands (marshes and swamps), pine flatwoods (both long leaf pine with wire grass and slash pine with palmetto), temperate hardwood forest and mesic hammocks.  thanks!  
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There are a variety of sources at different scales geographically with varying accuracy to answer your question. If you want statewide estimates I recommend Myers an Ewel Ecosystems of Florida. I have work on this for the Charlotte Harbor portion of southwest Florida. The ecosystems section of the South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan is a good location for information for the area south and flanking lake Okeechobee inlcuding the Everglades, Big Cypress and the Keys  See http://www.fws.gov/verobeach/ListedSpeciesMSRP.html .
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Can some one recommend studies where countermeasures against invasive alien plants have failed. An ideal study would give a detailed account of the "ecologically based control strategy" and why it failed to eradicate the targeted invader. It would also recommend and probably test new control strategies.
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Hello Nelson.
The attached study used an ecologically based control strategy to try to reduce recolonization by an invasive grass after it had been removed by hand and herbicide. We tried to increase competition from native plants by re-establishing native species, in a semi-arid environment. The efforts largely failed, probably due to particularly low rainfall reducing seedling establishment.
Whatever typically limits seedling establishment in your ecosystem, a recommendation is to increase your chances of hitting a good year for establishment by seeding or planting in several years.
Also, watch out for strategies that may actually favour the invasive species or damage established native plants. We found that planting seedlings increased invasive seedling emergence and increased native forb mortality, probably due to the increased soil disturbance that is inevitable when you plant out.
Persistence is important. Best of luck to you.
steve woods
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I have trouble finding a text with a more or less precise definition of what is to be understood as environmental peacebuilding. I found that scholars are often either working with the term environmental peacemaking or just use the term environmental peacebuilding without defining it or explaining how it differs from other concepts such as environmental peacemaking. 
Text suggestion would be wonderful and much appreciated.
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Dear Maria:
According to the Institute of Environmental Law, United Nations Environment Programme, McGill University, the construction of Environmental peace integrates the management of natural resources in conflict prevention, mitigation, resolution and recovery to build resilience in communities affected by conflict. This is because the majority of armed conflicts occur in developing countries, where people depend substantially on natural resources for subsistence agriculture and livelihoods.
Natural resources are often intertwined with the narrative of conflict, with complaints about natural resources and their revenues that contribute to the emergence of conflicts, revenues from natural resources to fund conflict and combatants targeting natural resources and the environment. And the peace after conflicts related to the resources is fragile: countries with conflicts over the last resources are more likely to relapse, and to do it twice as fast.
Natural resources are one of the most important resources of a country to peace building. Land, forests, minerals, oil, water and other resources are the basis for the reconstruction of livelihoods and national economies.
My reading suggestions are: Harari, Nicole and Roseman, Jesse, Environmental Peacebuilding Theory and Practice: a case study of the Good Water Neighbors project and in depth analysis of the Wadi Fukin / Tzur Hadassah communities. (Amman, Bethlehem and Tel Aviv, 2008  http://foeme.org/uploads/publications_publ93_1.pdf )
Hope this helps.
Andréa
Obs.: 
The diagram below shows a conceptual view of the elements of environmental peacebuilding.
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Estuaries are the place known to be one of the most productive ecosystem in the earth thus act as heaven for many different aquatic organisms. As estuaries has open connection to the sea, bulk amount of silts coming with river run-off are deposited, result reducing the depth. How can we manage heavy siltation at the mouth of estuary?
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Mohammad,
I can offer guidance as follows:
1) The first step is to determine the causes of the siltation;
2) Does siltation relate to increased supply of sediment either from the river or from seaward? Can the source(s) be identified? Is it likely to be an episodic event such as a response to storm river discharge or storm waves? or a change in land use upstream? Has the river discharge increased for any reason? Has there been rapid erosion of a neighboring shoreline?
3) Could the siltation be caused by changes in the tidal flow regime of the estuary? Anything that reduces the tidal exchange with the sea (tidal prism) could result in shoaling of the estuary inlet. With reduced tidal flows, waves from seaward can drive sediments in to the inlet and lower estuary. Land reclamation around the estuarine margins could induce this effect. Has the inlet channel widened recently perhaps by shoreline or mudflat retreat or maybe even by dredging? As the channel widens its effect on concentrating tidal flows is reduced and as flow velocities reduce there is greater potential for sedimentation;
4) When the cause(s) of siltation is understood then the decision becomes either: (i) whether to manage the causes by attempting to manage the sediment inputs or the tidal flow regime, or (ii) whether to manage or the symptoms perhaps by inlet training using jetties or by maintenance dredging of channels;
5) Finally, there is the option of adapting to the altered siltation regime by adjusting land uses and undertaking management of sensitive habitats.
For detailed information and examples I would recommend undertaking internet and literature searches using terms such as "estuarine siltation" or "inlet siltation" Addition of the word "problems" to either search is useful too.
I wish you success with your research.
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Land conflict effects land use (and deforestation in Brazil).  Can anyone give me good examples of places where contention between groups (e.g., mechanized interests and subsistence farmers) is leading to loss of native wildlands (forests, savannas, etc.).  I wish to generalize my research to a broader, possibly global, perspective.
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Land conflicts are taking place primarily because unequal distribution of it and secondly because of unscientific use of it. Thirdly in the name of development also land of the dependents being acquired by the state- corporate-builder nexus in many Asian countries including India.  
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what is the most productive type of material for reproduction in biomass production? generally is used for poplar SRF - cuttings, seedlings and sits (rods). Thanks.
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I can recommend you key publication on Black locust in-vitro propagation: Micropropagation of black locust (robinia pseudoacacia l.) J. Zhang, Y. Liu and H. Wang
We are also preparing paper on our experience with Robinia.
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Is anyone aware of survey data which looks to understand the link between attitudes on environmental issues and attitudes towards women? I am also curious about whether those who feel that caring for the environment is decidedly feminine are more/less inclined to support environmental initiatives. Any help would be appreciated!
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