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I am trying to value natural capital as an input into a mining investment decision. Does anyone have any ideas how this might be achieved? Or can you provide me with references?
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This is a sort of financial ecosystem services for which you can consult this book
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I want to understand resource allocation over time.
I try to read Environment and natural resources economics book. There is a figure on page 98 and what B in the figure refers to? the marginal cost or net benefit? according to current and future value. here I attached the book.
2. what does the relationship between the discount rate and user cost?
who can help me?
I hope Natural resources economists can help me.
Thank you for your help!!!
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Very important question.
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I am currently trying to estimate the effect of energy crises on food prices. Given the link between energy and food prices, I am inclined to reason that ECM will be best to estimate the relationship between food price and energy price (fuel price). Additionally I would like to include dummy variables in the model to estimate the effects of periods of energy crises on food prices. This I know is simple to do.
Where am confused is, how to model price volatility in the context of an ECM. I am only interested in the direction where fuel price, as well as the structural dummies for energy crises influences not just the determination of food price, but their volatility as well.
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Hello. I hope you are doing well. It seems to me that in this case you can use NARDL midel to check the Asymmetric Impact of price volatility besides the ECM. moreover, to check the causal direction you can apply Toda Yamamato test.
Good luck
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I am going to send my survey to landowners in Oklahoma. I need to subset my list of respondents as I have more numbers of people that total number of survey I am going to send for my research. I am not going to select stratified sampling method or multistage sampling method as I don't have enough population in my list to do so. I might be using simple random sampling method. What is the recent trend of simple random sampling method to sub-set number of respondents from a bigger sample space?
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I used tidyverse package in R to sample required number and let R do random sampling instead of worrying how I should do. This gives one subset out of several subsets using combination. R Code provided below writes resulting data into .csv file.:
write.csv(
# # sample_n (
# # tbl = select(
# # read_csv(
# # "<path>/file.csv"
# # ),
# # 'Var 1',
# # 'Var 2',
# # 'Var 3',
# # 'Var 4',
# # ),
# # size = 2500,
# # replace = FALSE,
# # weight = NULL,
# # .env = NULL,
# # ... = NULL
# # ),
# # file = "output.csv"
# # )
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If we want to study an area of tourist interest for bringing it under the concept of Eco-tourism, what parameters should be selected? Or what aspect we have to study and analyse? What changes are expected to convert tourism in to Eco-tourism?
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Ecotourism can be defined by three core criteria: nature, learning and sustainability. The ecotourist market has been segmented by the nature and learning criteria only. It has been assumed that ecotourists are environmentally concerned and therefore sustainability is a factor in their decision-making. However, little empirical research has confirmed this assumption. This study surveyed 243 respondents participating in an ecotourism experience in Australia. It identified ecotourists according to the nature and learning criteria as per previous segmentation studies. Pro-environmental attitudes were measured as an indication of their support for sustainability. Results revealed no significant differences in pro-environmental attitudes between those identified as ecotourists and those considered non-ecotourists. While demand exists for nature and learning experiences, compliance with the sustainability criterion seems to be no more a factor in ecotourist decision-making than for mainstream tourists. Implications are that market segmentation research should consider all relevant criteria when segmenting a market for a particular product to ensure supply matches demand. However, demand for certain products can be created by innovative marketing practices. This would enable the ecotourism industry to respond to the market's demand for nature and learning, but also influence the behaviour and structure of the market with regard to sustainability.
Narelle Beaumont (2011) The third criterion of ecotourism: are ecotourists more concerned about sustainability than other tourists?, Journal of Ecotourism, 10:2, 135-148, DOI: 10.1080/14724049.2011.555554
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To apply discount rate on natural resource valuation/ecosystem services valuation has become debate among the researchers, many researchers are in the opinion that discount rate should be applied on natural resources valuation.
I want to know,
  1. What is a discount rate and which equation is used for discount rate?
  2. What is the difference between discount rate and interest rate
  3. How to put discount rate on the values of ecosystem services ?
Key words: Economics, valuation, discount rate, discounting, interest rate, ecosystem services, natural resources.
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There is an idea that Sustainability is about intragenerational and intraregional equity. That implies that the discount rate must be the same everywhere, and everywhen.
There are aspects of the ecosystem that can not be replaced by any means, that humans are reliant on. Sunlight, for example - we can't replace it with anything else to do what it does for us. We can substitute it in very small cases, in highly limited ways, but we can't even replace all of the sunlight stored in our food crops, let alone the rest of the solar energy reaching the planet.
Photosynthesis, gravity, biodiversity, weather, etc. are all in the same class of aspects. For all of these (and many more), there must be no discount rate - these are always equally important. I would argue that because these have a discount rate of 0, then all ecological discount rates must be 0 as well. Which means the math that is used by economists doesn't work ecologically.
Instead, one would have to assume that the duration of 'forever' is much, much longer than human timescales, and the difference of beginning a time series in 5 years vs beginning the time series today is insignificant.
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I am trying to collect as much green management indicators as possible to suit my research about green business management in third world countries.
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How can we differentiate resource-based economies (or oil rents countries) from other countries. For example, should I include all countries in the World Bank list of natural resources rents countries? Some countries like Australia has 4.8% of GDP only.
Is there a popular article to adopt in this context? For example, Hoskisson et al., (2000) list of countries is widely used for the list of emerging economies.
Many thanks
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Thank you Mahmoud for your feedback. I think it is more accurate to use natural resources rents from the World Bank because it measures which economies rely most heavily on natural resources revenues such as oil and gas. For example, Singapore fuel exports as % of total merchandise is more than 10%. However, its economy dependence on oil rents is close to zero.
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Has anyone calculated the economics of the reserve provision by wind and solar in the reserve markets?
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In his "Essay on the Principle of Population" published in 1798, Thomas Robert Malthus speculated that human populations grow exponentially whereas the food production grows at an arithmetic rate. According to his theory, it is predicted that in the future there will be a time when humans would have no more resources to survive on ...
Is the Malthusian Theory of Population still valid today?
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When Malthus lived (1766 – 1834) the global population reached its first billion (in 1804). Today we have 7.6 billion. Even when we can find many arguments that this number is far too high for a sustainable situation on our planet there is statistically enough food produced for everybody of these 7.6 billion. Malthus predicted already in 1798 that population will outrun food supply leading to famine, conflicts over resources, etc.
Although since then many famine have happened, not all were the result of insufficient food production, and in all cases it affected poor populations. Most famines of the 20th century had in addition to povery specific situations, such as wars, civil wars, etc. It is very difficult to argue that they were soley the result of crop failures or sharp population growth.
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for the arid regions, the date palm cultivation is one of the most important crop. this cultivation has several benefits on economic, social and environmental plans. for that, my question is the following, why we could not find an many papers especially regarding the technology used????
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Please find  enclosed some excellent work done in India and Pakistan..worth reading literature..
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I am trying to determine the rate of taxation on dividends and capital gains in malaysia.
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thank you
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Agriculture economics
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Thak you so much sir..
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I have a data set of 4100 households of Teknaf Peninsula, the southern part of Bangladesh. My variables are  as follows
Focus Variable: Living inside/outside the forest (data collected by GPS loggers)
Others
> Age
> Education Level
> Gender (considering the family head only)
> Dependency ratio
> Occupation Category (i.e. fisherman, farmer, business, labor, and others)
> Annual Income (sum of income from different sources)
> Length of residence
> Fuelwood collection (yes/no)
> Fuelwood consumption (amount in kg)
I want to develop a statistical model showing the effect of the determinants on the forest encroachment. 
I will be highly pleased to get advice on which type of statistical test should I go for.
Thank you in advance.
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First of all, I would like to recommend you to revisit previous literature and statistical methods that have been used preciously. Perhaps, that would be the best solution.
As per my understanding from your explanation, your data has been collected through observation and survey. Your dataset also contains both primary and secondary sources and have a dummy variable (though I don't know your standpoint).
If I fall into your situation, I would apply SEM once. However, I'm not confident that SEM would be able to answer the research question, yet I can see understand some pros and cons. 
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I want to now main source of soil acidification in cooler areas and how to treat to reclaim this problem with the available and possible solution for poorer farmers.
Thanks in advance for your quick response
Regards
Ararsa Boki 
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In Chile more than 30% of the world's copper is produced, however, we have a public expenditure of 21%, the lowest of the OECD. The artificial profitability generated in the copper sector generates a very large inefficiency, investments in clean industries are scarce. 70% of the exploitation today is private, who control the price of copper in the world. My country is potentially very rich, copper is indispensable, but we are very poor, with the greatest inequality in the world.
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There is no link between resource richness and country's prosperity. It depends on who owns those resources. If they are owned by public and the social system has some element of justice, resource richness will transform into prosperity. This was the case of the former USSR. Wild privatization in 1990s has stripped the population out of resources and the level of poverty grew a lot. Only after 2000 new Russian president Putin fought with oligarchs and introduced substantial taxes in oil and other resource extracting industries; see http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/ey-taxation-in-the-russian-oil-sector-learning-from-global-fiscal-perspectives/$FILE/ey-taxation-in-the-russian-oil-sector-learning-from-global-fiscal-perspectives.pdf . This has driven state budget up. However, the efficiency of its use is below one in the former USSR due to corruption. The recent fall in oil prices has driven the poverty.
In general, all population cannot be rich just because of resource rent. Saudi Arabia and some other oil extracting countries can do that because their population is relatively small (comparing to resource base). In general, income from resources has to be complemented with income from other economic activity, including industry, agriculture and services.
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In my research activity I am increasingly including the analysis of Ecosystem Services and their perception. Indeed, despite having studied dozens of papers and grey literature during my student career, I have found few textbooks. I am looking for a text that summarizes the state-of-the-art about ES and the techniques for their monetary and non-monetary evaluation. Is there any?
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Some aspects of ecosystem services by insects such as ants has been dealt with in my publication:
 RASTOGI, N. (2011) Provisioning services from ants: food and pharmaceuticals. Asian Myrmecology 3, 103–120
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While agriculture appears to be harmful in terms of Sen's welfare measures (the standard finding, see http://www.nber.org/papers/w15836), mining results entail the opposite. Added-value by mining activities are correlated with higher welfare measures than many industrial alternatives.
In this context, we are looking for empirical literature examining the role of mining rules in the awakening of China's new development mode.
We'll really appreciate any help.
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You can go through the following papers
Economic and social effects analysis of mineral development in China and policy implications
Human Resources and Safety Performance in China’s
Coal Mining Firms
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What are factors important for the success of community based natural resource management strategies?
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Embarking on an exclusive CBNRM may be problematic; in contemporary times, scholars and practitioners argue for a collaboration between community actors, state actors and NGOs to prudently create value for people and environment. Embarking on this requires some key social and technical processes. kindly follow the article below
Yeboah-Assiamah, E., Muller, K., & Domfeh, K. A. (2016). Rising to the challenge: A framework for optimising value in collaborative natural resource governance. Forest Policy and Economics, 67, 20-29.
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I am trying to estimate the impact of high ending stocks on wheat prices in Chile in the harvest season and if there a differenciated impact between different regions of Chile.
I have the price series for wheat in the different regions, so i was thinking to estimate a cointegration model between the regions and controlling for a variable (for example a dummy when the harvest season is affected for high stocks of t-1 year).
Here in Chile, we also import Wheat and the international markets affect the domestic prices, so i think i have to include the international price in the model (it could be the CIF or a reference price like HRW). So, finally, my question is where i have to include this exogenous variable?.
Gretl allows to put the exogenous variable in Johansen cointegration model (restricted) and also unrestricted in differences.
PD: All the variables are I(1).
Thanks
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If all variables are I(1) and you expect a long-run relationship between international and regional price, then a cointegration, i.e. VEC, model with both prices as endogenous variables makes absolutely sense. I would actually expect exchange rates also to play a role in this model, since probably the low of one price might be one of your long-run relation to be expected. Additional exogenous variables could be added to the model without problem as long as they are either stationary or I(1), in which case you should use them in differenced form. Good luck
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I'm investigating the determinants of foreign direct investment to least developed countries in sub-Sahara African countries and so searching for the operational definitions of the above words as considered in prior studies.
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You might be interested by this paper providing 8 governance principles for natural resource management:
Lockwood et al. 2010. Society and Natural Resources 23: 986-1001.
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I consulted the link below, rather i would kindly ask for clarification.
with thanks
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Dear Sailosi,
You may have a look at "The Economics of Brazil’s Ethanol-Sugar Markets, Mandates, and Tax Exemptions written by Drabik, Dusan ; De Gorter, Harry ; Just, David R ; Timilsina, Govinda R, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 2015, Vol. 97(5), pp.1433-1450
Description: Sugarcane in Brazil is processed into sugar and/or ethanol, often in flex plants that can switch between the two products. We develop an economic model of flex plants, export demands, and two domestic fuel demand curves for a blend of ethanol with gasoline consumed by conventional cars, and ethanol consumed only by flex cars. We analyze the market impacts of the following policies: the blend mandate; fixing gasoline prices below world prices; the high gasoline tax; and a higher tax exemption for ethanol blended with gasoline. Because Brazilian and U.S. ethanol prices have become linked, a change in Brazilian ethanol policy or a shock in world sugar markets can now impact U.S. ethanol and corn prices. We show that in theory, each policy analyzed has an ambiguous impact on ethanol and sugar prices. Empirically, however, a low gasoline tax and a high tax exemption for ethanol used in the fuel blend reduce ethanol and sugar prices; this contradicts conventional wisdom. Overall, we find that policy reforms implemented in 2010 offset the ethanol price increase by about 27% due to outward shifts in fuel transportation and sugar export demand curves, and due to a reduced sugarcane supply caused by bad weather. Our model illustrates the importance of Brazil's ethanol policies on world commodity markets; it also provides insight into how the Brazilian government can adjust policies to better control domestic inflation while minimizing impacts on investment.
Hope, it helps a bit to construct your idea.
Best,
Thida
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I want to know if someone has studied the effect of the spiral of economics of apparel dress shirt making in terms of speed of processing , different process for the making, if the size of the batch change is a limiting issue, if the discrete process approach of manufacturing lay out to a straight line manufacturing concept affects , or any other variables are considerable to as to describe or forecast an economic model upon the cost performance per unit produced in a developing country?.- Please any comments I would appreciate.
thanks
Alex Banegas 
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Maybe these articles can provide more details:
Saludos :-)
Management of international technology transfer: A case study in the Brazilian textile industry
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All Natural resources are "Free" before we start to make any use of them, and we need to place a value on them by the damage by their use they cause to itself and the rest of the environment, including man.
At present no-one is held directly responsible for any damage caused , who pays the price of oil spills? air pollution , noise pollution, mono cropping etc causing ecocide of all the micro and macro-flora of the soil and local habitat? The consumer is the one who demands this damage to occur by the price they are prepared to pay .
I believe we all should pay for the damage caused to the environment directly through the goods and services we all use and consume.
Existing means of green taxes and taxes on pollution and damage, are often at cross purposes with economic growth of economies around the globe and with the associated subsidies and grants that distort so many values of the resource we all rely on.
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Rob Gray, has done a lot of researches in that area since 1970. To the base my knowledge they are one of the leading authors,advocate and proponent of Environmental accounting. However, whether businesses should pay for environmental cost after corporate taxes which is suppose to take care of social and environmental cost is subject to debate depending on economic ideological perspective of individuals.
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Recommendation(s) for model may include econometric or statistical to support data produced. The study will be exploring pattern of degradation over time (Time Series may always seem the most obvious, but there others which will be helpful and your suggestion is welcomed).  
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Vensim model is a very good tool to develop mechanistic models. 
This papaer can be useful to define scales and processes. An Operational Framework for Defining and Monitoring Forest Degradation, Thompson et al 2013. 
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Please post links to any publications.
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yes. capital asset pricing model
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In my opinion, not all the adaptations are a response to climate change. For example, late sowing, attributed always as a response to changing climate, may be, most of the time, an outcome of crop intensification. When we are cropping multiple crops the sowing of these crops may shift early or late which actually is not a response to climate change. Similar to this, what other adaptation you think are not a response to climate change
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1998 is loved by the denier community. Although that community is vanishingly small, funny how one always pops up whenever climate change is discussed.
I live in a part of the world where seasonal weather variations (and hence agricultural production) are strongly affected by El Nino/La Nina (aka ENSO - El Nino Southern Oscillation). People may argue about temperature variations until the cows come home but one thing that is much less arguable is rainfall statistics. Basic meteorology: when it's wet it's warm, when it's dry it's cooler. The status of ENSO is in turn strongly influenced by the state of the North Pacific Interdecadal Oscillation (IPO) which is basically due to warm water sloshing backwards and forwards across the North Pacific over decadal time scales. Interdecadal rainfall and river flow data in New Zealand match IPO swings quite nicely but in the North Pacific it's much more pronounced. In its current state (since about 2000) the warm water has spent most of its time on the western side, hence we see floods in China, nasty typhoons to the south and droughts in California. This probably also accounts for the observed small decline in average land temperatures in North America, likely due to reduced cloud cover at night. Once the IPO flicks back (sometime in the next 5 - 15 years) watch out - droughts in China are likely to significantly compromise crop production and large quantities of California wash into the sea (in between the heat waves). The role of climate change in all this? Warming ocean temperatures intensify the effect. The arctic is isolated from the IPO by circumpolar winds and being virtually surrounded by land, hence steady ocean warming continues to further reduce sea ice and the Greenland ice cap year after year.
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Since the 90s there has been a growing literature about the socioeconomic effects of natural resources exploitation in developing countries. The mainstream view is that it usually harms growth (see Dutch disease approach), prompts corruption (see rentier-state approach) and even conflict (see the Collier-Hoeffler approach). There are alternative views to that, stating that in the long-run it doesn't harm (see Di John's works) and sometimes natural resources are 'red herrings' (see Brunschweiler and Bulte works). There is yet another view, in which natural resources can help to boost economic transformation. This view is put forward by several works of Morris and Kaplinsky. Which proxies would you use to test the contribution to economic transformation of natural resources exploitation in a specific country or region? I am particularly interested in Africa.
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The traditional view is to place natural resources on the input side of a production function and measure its contribution to output and standard of living and general welfare gains. But your use of the term "exploitation" brings skepticism to that view. It requires one to address how natural resources are transformed into capital goods for producing more capital goods for future growth and consumption goods for people’s standard of living. This view tends to split ideologies into orthodox models that use only technical relationships of production such as productivity of capital, productivity of labor, capital-labor ratio etc.,  and Marxian models that uses departments.
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I have trouble finding a text with a more or less precise definition of what is to be understood as environmental peacebuilding. I found that scholars are often either working with the term environmental peacemaking or just use the term environmental peacebuilding without defining it or explaining how it differs from other concepts such as environmental peacemaking. 
Text suggestion would be wonderful and much appreciated.
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Dear Maria:
According to the Institute of Environmental Law, United Nations Environment Programme, McGill University, the construction of Environmental peace integrates the management of natural resources in conflict prevention, mitigation, resolution and recovery to build resilience in communities affected by conflict. This is because the majority of armed conflicts occur in developing countries, where people depend substantially on natural resources for subsistence agriculture and livelihoods.
Natural resources are often intertwined with the narrative of conflict, with complaints about natural resources and their revenues that contribute to the emergence of conflicts, revenues from natural resources to fund conflict and combatants targeting natural resources and the environment. And the peace after conflicts related to the resources is fragile: countries with conflicts over the last resources are more likely to relapse, and to do it twice as fast.
Natural resources are one of the most important resources of a country to peace building. Land, forests, minerals, oil, water and other resources are the basis for the reconstruction of livelihoods and national economies.
My reading suggestions are: Harari, Nicole and Roseman, Jesse, Environmental Peacebuilding Theory and Practice: a case study of the Good Water Neighbors project and in depth analysis of the Wadi Fukin / Tzur Hadassah communities. (Amman, Bethlehem and Tel Aviv, 2008  http://foeme.org/uploads/publications_publ93_1.pdf )
Hope this helps.
Andréa
Obs.: 
The diagram below shows a conceptual view of the elements of environmental peacebuilding.
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I am interested to know the mechanisms used for actual payments to the service providers, particularly in Australia. Most of us may know about the C credits and water (especially in the GBR zone) incentives to the landholders. Any idea about the mechanisms used? or if there are any studies/review articles on PES for biodiversity or other ES in Australia?
- Any information will be highly appreciated.
Thanks.
Kamal
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Hi,
this document might help a bit (below). It does not refer to Australia particularly but it could provide some links to start the search. The second document might also be helpful.
Bests,
Anže
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It is customary to characterize sustainable development in a familiar typology comprising three pillars: environmental, economic, and social. The relationships among these dimensions are generally assumed to be compatible and mutually supportive and is particularly difficult to realize and operationalize. Recent years though have seen notable efforts among standard setters, planners, and practitioners in various sectors to address the often neglected social aspects of sustainability.
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Hi,
Would you please try reading books and papers about "community capitals framework" by Cornelia Flora, Jan Flora, Mary Emery and Cheryl Jacobs since there are relevant literature, frameworks and process steps to measure the 7 capitals, including social sustainability and their interactions. E.g.
Emery M, Fey S, Flora C. 2006. Using community capitals to develop assets for positive community change. CD Practice 13: 1-19.
Emery M, Flora C. 2006. Spiraling-up: Mapping community transformation with community capitals framework. Community Development 37(1): 19-35.
Fey S, Bregendahl C, Flora C. 2006. The measurement of community capitals through research: A Study Conducted for the Claude Worthington Benedum Foundation by the North Central Regional Center for Rural Development. Online Journal of Rural Research & Policy 1(1): 01-28.
Flora CB, Thiboumery A. 2005. Community capitals: poverty reduction and rural development in dry areas. Annals of Arid Zone 44(3 & 4): 239-253.
Best regards,
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Where can I find figures on aggregate (global or country level) private donations to wildlife conservation organizations?
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I'm not sure about the total value of donations that question but I think the value that the pubic organizations such as governments aimed at conservation can be extracted from the GDP numbers. Is that part of public expenditure that governments allocate for its annual management aimed at conserving biodiversity.
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Derive demand curve from choice experiment
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Dear Dr. William,
Sure thank you. I shall request again and thank you for the book recommendations.
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Lake Urmia is a salt lake in northwestern Iran and unfortunately recent drought and incremental demands for agricultural water in the lake's basin significantly has decreased the annual amount of water the lake receives. The Attached image shows satellite imagery from 1984 to 2011 revealing Lake Urmia's diminishing surface area (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Urmia). Now, I'm going to assess market and nonmarket effects of climate change at this lake. Can anyone introduce any related books or manuscripts?
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My suggestion is to apply a combination of different methods, depending upon the local aspiration how they value their system. You can apply scenario based approaches, e.g. using different levels of emissions, its impact on ES and how these values change.
Non-market values, especially cultural values will be a challenge until people's perspectives are incorporated. I attach my papers if these are of some value. 
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I am looking for a correlation between availability of natural resources (water) and increases in agricultural/industrial productivity.
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Dear colleague I have an article  so I give you the abastract:
IBERO-AMERICAN PROGRAMME FOR SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT
IBERO-AMERICAN NETWORK OF BIOECONOMICS AND CLMATE CHANGE
Environmental Technical Inefficiency Effects on Estero Real quality water: A Nicaragua
 
Ariel José,  Aguilar[1]; Osorio Urtecho, Katherinne  Del Rosario[2]; Prado Olivares, Mariela del Socorro[3]; Carlos Alberto, Zúniga González[4]; Rafaela Dios, Palomares[5]; Pablo, Sierra Figueredo[6]
Abstract
At the present study was an empirical application in panel data for environmental stochastic frontier model to measure the Estero Real Nicaragua quality water (Dios Palomares, 2014).   The productive path of Bioeconomy where this approach was applied is the Biodiversity Resource Exploitation.   The study aim was to measure the level of environmental technical inefficiency over the body water of the Estero Real.  We used a frontier stochastic model that it considers the environmental condition with chemical and physic parameters and the planetary magnetic activity.  The environmental inefficiency effects were assumption to be an independent distribution as truncations of normal distributions with constant variance, but means which are a linear function of observable Sampling Point-speciflc variables.      The results show that environmental inefficiency effects are understandable by inelasticity solar activity (-2.53) that reduce the quality water in 89 %, it imply according to Lynch y Poole (1979) a regular quality.
 
 
 
JEL CLASSIFICATION: Q:20, Q:25, Q: 53, Q:57, Q:58
Keywords: Stochastic Frontier, Solar Activity, Environmental Technical Efficiency,  Aquatic Bioeconomy, Biodiversity, Quality  water, Data Panel.
 
[1] Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua, León.  Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Agrarias y Economía Aplicada.  Laboratorio de Fisiología Animal.  Teléfono: 00 (505) 86238835. Email: ajagui2002@yahoo.com 
[2]Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua, León.   Laboratorio de Fisiología Animal.  Teléfono: . Email:
[3]Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua, León.   Laboratorio de Fisiología Animal.  Teléfono: . Email:
[4]Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua, León.  Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Agrarias y Economía Aplicada.  Email: czuniga@ct.unanleon.edu.ni   Teléfono: 00 (505) 84976448.
[5]Universidad de Córdoba.  Grupo de eficiencia y productividad de la Universidad de  Córdoba, España. Email: ma1dipar@uco.es,  Teléfono: + 34 957 21 84 79.
[6] Instituto de Geofísica y Astronomía, AMA, CITMA.  Cuba.  Email: sierrafp@gmail.com Teléfono: 00 (537)2714331.
 
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I am trying to calculate a natural capital indicator at regional scale (first administrative level i.e. province, department, region, state, etc. according to the country) in Latin America. Can anyone suggest some literature, or some reference methods?
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Luis,
See
I have some papers on green accounting in my profile that can be helpful for you.
I also suggest you to check the ESI from Yale to see what kind of information can be obtained from GIS data. http://epi.yale.edu/
Cheers,
Enrique
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Mountain areas are under increasing pressure to innovate in order to find strategies to emerge out of development standstills, to endogenously increase attractiveness and competitiveness, and to increase resilience in the face of global change.
The issues of the future are rarely considered in research as well as in government discussion on Alpine resources. Debates have usually focused on the past in order to uncover social-ecological processes or histories of Alpine communities. These studies have shown how during the centuries, Alpine people have been able to adapt to changing conditions while maintaining the well-being of the community and managing the landscape in a sustainable way.
Recent fast driving forces are creating new scenarios for living spaces and new values, such as those related to ecosystem services, that have not been investigated previously.
Through the implementation of instruments of policy planning (see i.e. common agricultural policy and rural development plans), paths of innovation both in government and technologies may foster opportunities for futurability of Alpine communities but also counterproductive actions, threatening their identity.
We aim to investigate the most relevant questions that, if answered, would have the greatest impact on resilience and futurability of social-ecological systems of the Alps.
In particular we are interested to learn how it could make relevant a collective management, as many of the Alpine resources are considered by law as commons.
We hope to gather some questions also during two workshops we are organising (one in Trento, 30-31 may 2014 see https://sites.google.com/site/memoriadelleregole/evento-maggio-2014 and the other at ForumAlpinum at Mid September 2014 see http://www.forumalpinum.org/).
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Have a look at our paper on commons in Tyrol, Austria that have managed the transition from peasant farming to tourism well without much help or interference from the outside.
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I have been proposing a replacement Natural Resource Tax, that would replace all taxes except a death tax. This in essence is a tax on the dangerous effects on the environment by the use of all natural resources, from land to fossil fuels to air and water.
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As both Smith and Stauvermann point out, any eco-tax is likely to be quite regressive. In addition, it is hard to imagine that any such tax would generate enough revenues to replace all or even most existing taxes. However, unlike other taxes, eco-taxes are efficiency enhancing rather than efficiency reducing. That is, the behavior they discourage is not a desired behavior like working or investing, but an undesireable, polluting behavior. Hence the optimal solution would be to implement as many eco-taxes as politically possible, and adjust the remaining taxes down in such a way as to maintain the appropriate overall level of tax progressivity.
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Most of Indonesian territory is waters; this consequently affects the long coastline (number 2 after Canada) and widely coastal area. Most of the highest biodiversity is in the coastal area and Indonesia has three dominant coastal ecosystem, i.e coral reef, seagrass bed and mangrove. It means that most of coastal people very much depend on these ecosystems' availabilities.
Most of the indigenous peoples in the coastal community have their own role in managing natural resources, including coastal resources, especially those related to their needs, such as fisheries. We known a few of community based management projects, which are run by indigenous people, such Sasi, Awiq-awiq, Panglima Laot, Parrompong, and so on. But most of them only manage how to maintain fisheries, not their habitat/ecosystem.
This is by the lack of education in most of indigenous people. They know that they should guarantee that they could earn or utilize their fisheries not only today but also at the future. But, they have a lack of knowledge about their fisheries resources being linked to their habitat or ecosystem.
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In my view the best way to share about ecosystem services is to establish a conversation that is about two-way communication. Seeking to understand the indigenous knowledge from their point of view first before trying to 'educate' them as to our way of thinking. In Australia the indigenous people understand ecosystem services but not in those terms, because they already think in a holistic way. It is the science approach that is segmented.
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I am looking for literature on valuation of ecosystem services, particularly in environments where water is not scarce but competitive use of it leads to socio-environmental conflict- for example the Amazon.
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Ecosystem services valuation (ESV) is the process of assessing the contributions of ESs to certain sustainable scales, fair distribution, and efficient allocation of space and resources, like having an appropriate mix of land-use types across scales such that ESs can be maintained. There is also the need to move from general estimates provided by Costanza et al. (1997) to more specific statements at regional and local scales. To effectively manage changes in the flow of goods and service we need to incorporate ESV into resource management decisions. However, moving from general statements about the tremendous benefits nature provides to people to credible, quantitative estimates of ESs has proven difficult. Among the crucial issues for obtaining reliable, quantitative estimates of ESs are those related to scales and interaction between services. Goods and services that humans obtain from ecosystems may span different scales in space and time, and can interact with one another in complex, often unpredictable ways. Improvements in the understanding of the patterns at multiple spatial and temporal scales at which ecosystem services operate are likely to provide more realistic ES values and also to improve ecosystem-based management practices. In order to introduce more efficient and reliable PES (Payments for ecosystem services) schemes, Costanza (2008) has recently classified the spatial characteristics of 17 ESs listed in Costanza et al. (1997) based not only on the scale of operation of the service, but also on the spatial proximity of service delivery to human beneficiaries. Services like carbon sequestration, which is an intermediate input to climate regulation, is classified as global non-proximal. This is because the atmosphere is generally well-mixed and removing carbon dioxide (or other greenhouse gases) at any location is equivalent to removing it anywhere else. However, at local or even regional scale, in certain areas and during certain periods of the year, conditions of stratified thermal inversion may occur in the lower atmospheric layers resulting in respiratory distress and infections in people. Local proximal services, on the other hand, are dependent on the spatial proximity of the ecosystem to the human beneficiaries. Use values for PES schemes will be determined by local patterns of land use, human population settlements and proximity to beneficiaries. The recreational function of a landscape or ecosystem, for example, is not only defined by the land cover of a specific location (e.g. natural area) but depends also on accessibility properties (e.g. distance to roads) and the characteristics of the surrounding landscape. Directional flow-related services are dependent on the flow from upstream to down-stream as is the case for water supply and water regulation. This kind of service is the basis for ecosystem service payments established in 1996 in Costa Rica to induce landowners to provide ecosystem services. In this case, downstream users pay upstream landowners to maintain forest cover on their land to benefit from protection of upstream ecosystem services. Other examples of this kind of service can be found where, like in Italy, the economic value of non-marketed services provided by forests for watershed protection and slope stability against landslides, can be very high. i believe that classifying the spatial characteristics of ESs could be a sound basis for making ESV and PES schemes effective.
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A must see video in the link below
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As it happens, I just re-read the original book (the popular summary). And it is quite instructive, I highly recommend to do so.
The core issue the booked raised at the time was to point out the impact of exponential trends (like population growth) on all aspects of policy and societies. It is fascinating to read how many things we consider 'common knowledge' today were completely ignored just a few decades ago.
In addition, it is highly instructive to follow the book through the iterations of the world model. Ultimately, the report mostly highlights what I would call "shifting bottlenecks". It shows what happens when you try to compensate resource scarcity. It starts with growth and human population collapsing due to resource depletion. Moving to a scenario in which technological progress can compensate resources - the system still collapses due to environmental pollution. Control environmental pollution, and food scarcity causes the collapse. And so on and so forth.
Our world models have hugely improved since the 70s. But as in so many academic fields, focus on the details in our specific areas makes us loose the big picture. The 'limits to growth' is a very readable and well structured reminder of the big picture - and the underlying premise still holds. While resource/oil scarcity seems further away than ever, the collapse of vital ecosystem services accelerates undiminished. Today, the limits to growth are just called 'planetary boundaries' (and mostly ignored by economists focusing on GDP growth - which does not account for a declining capital base).
For a complete assessment, the book to read would be the one below
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I am talking about some thing other than defining scenarios.
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I think that may be an issue of attribute level selection (getting the range of bid prices right), and model specification (main effects only or do certain attributes have interactions).
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There is an expression in English that describes a relationship of production where two producers share the results where one has the resources and the other provides the manpower?
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Hi Leonardo,
In the U.S., it is called "parenting" and until the child reaches 18, the co-producers are responsible for the product's support.
Gwen
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What are reliable sources to obtain information on value of mining export of India?
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The Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics (DGCI&S), Kolkata releases trade statistics which could be used.
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I would like to know about the cost of treatment of acid mine drainage per liter or cubic meter, if somebody have experience or research to treat the acid water, can you please share it?
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There is a company that makes a portable (3 semi trailers) that can do it for about $0.30
U.S. per gallon.
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I'm looking for parameters of water use in an applied general equilibrium model.
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Dear Martin, thanks for you advice. I know the article which has been derived from one of the PREM projects. At the same time, I was involved in three other PREM projects. Usually, CGE models make use of subst. elasticities (I've done it myself together with Reyer, one of your co-authors). The background of my question is my interest in the empirical analysis to derive substitution elasticities. Anyhow, I'll reread the article and thanks for your suggestion. Vincent