Science topic

Natural Hazards - Science topic

A natural hazard is a threat of a naturally occurring event that will have a negative effect on people or the environment. Many natural hazards are interrelated, e.g. earthquakes can cause tsunamis and drought can lead directly to famine or population displacement. It is possible that some natural hazards are intertermporally correlated, as well.
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The Geology of the Himalaya is a record of the most dramatic and visible creations of modern plate tectonic forces. I wonder how vegetation flourished in such a mountain system.
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Tectonic processes work over long time spans. The pre-Himalaya land surface would have been well vegetated and would have supplied the diverse variety of flora. As the mountains rose, much of the plant life would have needed to adapt to colder conditions. Once steeper slopes were created, rockfall and landslides were inevitable.
Plants need soil and parent material provides the base from which soils develop. Therefore the local rock type is critical to the early development of soil. Calcareous rocks, e.g. limestone, provide a rich sweet element base to support grasses. Quartzites on the other hand break down to infertile silicates and soil develops very slowly on such. Another factor related to rock type is its propensity to weather and/or slide. Marls, clays, shales and highly micaceous schists are very prone to rapid weathering both physical and chemical and also to slippage along planes of weakness. Granites, quartzite and psammites are much more durable forming blocky scree in which little soil can form or plant get rooted. Mosses and pioneer species take hold first.
i have noted that in areas affected by recent debris flows that vegetation can very rapidly recolonise even in one year, so that any recent activity can become concealed.
George Strachan
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It will be great if you can help me with the links of free satellite imagery for natural hazard assessment
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Vuk Gajić Thank you very much.
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Donald Trump's withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement threatens its future. Now, whispers of Brazil's withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement is heard. Seems Brazil's withdrawal influenced by the withdrawal of the USA. Under this situation, will other countries also withdraw from the agreement?
In your opinion, how will the withdrawal of these countries affect the future of this agreement?
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With the departure of Donald Trump, new president has entered the Paris climate agreement.
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I want to start a research about cultural rights and the environment. It is related to my last work "Preventing and pursuing the destruction of Shiite holy sites according to the case of Bamiyan's Buddhas". I consider the aspects of the relation between cultural rights, eg. cultural sites, and the environment. How can we promote our protection of cultural sites against damage? What are the damages that threat cultural sites? Is there any action that the states should fulfil? What about native people? ...
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An important discussion that is useful in raising cultural awareness on the topic of the environment
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I've read numerous papers about socioeconomic vulnerability assessment and I found out that most of the papers focused on natural hazards and disease(such as COVID-19 pandemic). I can't find anything related specifically to water pollution. Therefore, what are the potential parameters/indicators for adaptive capacity for socioeconomic vulnerability assessment of water pollution?
Based on the article, the indicators are risk awareness, early warning capacity, regulation control and emergency response.
In this article, education, access to mobile connection, income, access to water facilities and health awareness camp were as indicators.
However, the indicators used in this article were in demographic domain such as population growth rate, population density and percentage of illiterate households.
I think the biggest challenge is finding a way on how to quantify it. Another obstacle is the availability of socioeconomic data of appropriate geographical coverage.
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Just a suggestion
Use the Cause and Effect logic to create a flow chart of events and then prioritise your indicators
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Movement of barchan dunes cause hazards on urban roads and agriculture.
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ASSALAM ALIKOM
Yes there are many, and it is recommended to stablize dunes aroun human infra-structures only. As the dunes are part of the ecological systems in the region and any large scale interference from human will definitly causes a disturbance in the system. Anyway there three methods:
1-Mechanical methods (using gravel, mixing with mud or plants residue)
2-chemical method (not recommended due to pollution risk)
3-biological methods (cultivation) most recommended but using native plants.
Please see attached as an aswer:
1- (2) (PDF) Barchan Dunes in Northern Kuwait (researchgate.net)
2- (2) (PDF) Mapping and monitoring of dunes in Northwestern Kuwait (researchgate.net)
regards
Ali
‪Ali Al-Dousari‬ - ‫الباحث العلمي من Google
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Hi, I would like to know where can I get historic global/national (preferably USA) level time-series data for the following (preferably gridded data)?
Flood, Drought, Max temperature, Min temperature, Hurricane, Tornado, Earthquake, Wind, Severe storm, Winter days, Wildfire, Precipitation, Sea level rise, Storm surge, Fog, Hail, Lightning, Landslide, Volcano, Tsunami
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You can also retrieve the historic global/national level hydrometeorological data (e.g runoff, rainfall etc) from the ERA5 data archive.
The ERA data archives climatic data on a global/national level for a period of 40 years and above. The ERA5 is the fifth generation ECMWF reanalysis for the global climate and weather for four decades (1979- till date). The data has been re-gridded to a regular Lat-Lon grid of 0.25 degrees for the reanalysis.
The hydrometeorological data are available in hourly, and monthly products. Both on pressure levels (upper air fields) and single levels (atmospheric, and land surface quantities).
Here is the link to access the data
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What are the number of days between receipt of a manuscript at the editorial office and the editorial decision to accept or reject for peer review process?
I'm specifically looking at the following journals:
  1. Water Resources Management (Springer)
  2. Natural Hazards (Springer)
I would greatly appreciate it if you kindly share your experience.
Best Regards .
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Depends on journal. Maximum duration is 6 months
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Hi, In my city i have seen a discussion among volcanic hazard researchers (Colombian Geologic Service and the local University), the central subject is the quality on the accuracy of volcanic hazard methodologys (i.e. deterministic method vs probabilistic method), i´d like to learn more about works that compare these two methods with observed events. Please, could anybody share me papers or books about the subject? Thanks a lot.
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Hello !!
Source Rock of the Volcanic Fragments in Wadi Al-batin, Iraq: Geomorphological, Petrographical and Geochemical Evidences
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The term Geology [gē: ‘earth’; logia: ‘study of’, ‘discourse’] encompasses various aspects of the study of solid Earth. It includes: study of rocks of which the Earth is composed, and the processes by which they change over the period of time; study of plant and animal fossils indicating the kind of life forms that existed in the past; study of energy resources, e.g. coal, oil and variety of minerals; and also study of environment, climate change, and natural hazards like landslides, volcanoes, earthquakes, and floods.
However, with the man’s stepping over Moon followed by study of various aspects of Moon rocks, the term “Geology of Moon” or “Lunar Geology” came into use. The terms Selenology and Selenography are also used for some kind of studies on Moon. Whether the time has now to coin a new term for the study of Moon rocks?
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We, my collegues and me, have done the same question during our dicussion. A new term or a similar to earth term? Or perhaps Moon-logy? But the term exists. For what concern th study of physical features of Moon the right term is Selenology (Study of Moon). Selene was the ancient greek name of Moon. We have written a paper where we speak about Selenology, actually the paper is accepted and we are waiting for pubblication.
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Developing states as well as developed states facing a problem of environmental hazards like floods, cyclones, tsunami etc due to the global environmental changes. Mostly affected are the under-developed states due to lack of resources. South Asian states especially Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Maldives, Bhutan, etc. are facing serious problems of floods. I am seeking literature regarding flood hazards in Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh.
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Check C. Emdad Haque and M. Q. Zaman for case studies in Bangladesh. Brammer on floods in Bangladesh.
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Natural hazards risk
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Matchew,
Yes, that's exactly what it is. The impacts of these disasters on infrastructure and agricultural land. Many of the indicators are used (Social Vulnerability Index: SoVI). So I would like to have an idea about suitable indicators in a mountainous area like the island of Idjwi.
The objective is to assess the socio-economic vulnerability of Idjwi populations to the risks of water erosion and landslides. This is where I have to have a vulnerability map drawn up, since the susceptibility map has already been done.
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Please provide reference models and frameworks for agent-based modeling being used in social dynamics during disaster emergencies.
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Agent-based modeling in disaster management:
1) ABDiSE (Agent-Based Disaster Simulation Environment).
2) D4S2 (Dynamic Discrete Disaster Decision Simulation System).
You need to study the models carefully and customize according to your study context.
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Tsunami is one of the natural hazard, which can impact places thousands of km away from Seismic Source. I am interested in knowing presence of Tsunamigenic source in Red-Sea, Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea (other than Makran) and their maximum magnitude ? Can Red-Sea and Gulf of Aden has potential source to generate a local Tsunami ?
Looking for experts response.
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Dear Sushil,
Excuse me for before superficial response, perhaps my second response will more useful...
In the Red Sea exist tsunami-genic sources: example Zubair-Group: (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zubair_Group) and their potential seems very small, lack of water potential… (You have to examine if exist other active volcanic regions under Red see, and examine what type them…) In the Gulf of Aden, I have found: Afar plume http://www.mantleplumes.org/Afar.html
So this zone could provide be the stronger tsunamigenic source than in case of Red Sea example, but actually seems that their effect same seems weak… You need a stronger geological and geophysical examination: of the second example… I do not have opportunity to give better information because it needs a better investigation of the mentioned zone by me)…
Shortly:
A.)City Hodeidah has a tsunamic genic source at 50 km to East from it, (water supplying is minim)- this zone needs better investigation) – to give a proper result to your question!
B.)  In the case of the coastal city of Aden the tsunamigenic source is bigger Afar plume- same needs a better investigation, here you need to examine the source of Earthquakes of entry of Golf Aden: https://earthquaketrack.com/r/gulf-of-aden/biggest
(needs complex analyzation)… In the case of this city needs more and bigger study (as I mentioned before)… you have to consider the influence of Arabian Sea…
Regards,
Laszlo 
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I am working on modelling the social dynamics and human responses during flash floods and forecasting the socio-economic impacts of flash floods.
Could you please share any relevant scientific papers/reports or any other related resources?
Thank you.
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2nd Springer Euro-Mediterranean Conference for Environmental Integration (EMCEI 2019: www.emcei.net), 10-13 October 2019 in Sousse, Tunisia
1. EMCEI-2019 has now opened to receive submissions until 15 May 2019. 2. Accepted papers will be published in the proceedings by Springer before the conference. 3. EMCEI-2017 proceedings by Springer was indexed in Web of Science (ISI). 4. Best extended papers of EMCEI-2019 will be published in Springer journals after the conference. 5. More details at: https://www.emcei.net/
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Following............
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I am interested to participate and organize a summer school in Uzbekistan on natural hazards, landscape ecology, soil sciences and foresrty.
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You might want to have a look at the 17th International Symposium on Geo-disaster Reduction held on Aug. 19-23, 2019, at the Aurora Conference Center, Issyk Kul Lake, Kyrgyz Republic.
The conference is organized in the frame of the activities of the International Consortium on Geo-disaster Reduction (ICGdR), with the support of Liege University and Namur University, Belgium; Institute of Seismology, NAS, Kyrgyz Republic; Institute of Geomechanics and Mining, NAS, Kyrgyz Republic
For more information have a look at the project Registration web-page: https://liege-universite.events.idloom.com/17ISGDR/register that will be open until July 5, 2019.
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There is little irritation of what a 'natural hazard' is, even if we admit that many 'natural hazards' are the result of human activity (e.g. often flooding is the result of deforestation by humans; drought and desertification the result of human land use changes, over grazing etc.
But is there something we can call 'natural disaster'? A disaster is an event of society, not an event of nature.
Disaster Risk Reduction is the effort to prevent that 'natural' hazards turn into disasters. If this effort fails then it is difficult to talk of 'natural disaster' as it is society, human that suffer damages, injuries and loss of life.
Isn't the expression 'natural disaster' not even misleading giving the impression that a disaster is a natural event, an act of god so to say and as such unavoidable. Indeed, however, as highlighted earlier, it is an event of society and become often disastrous as society is not well prepared to face the powers of natural hazards.
What do you think????
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I am agree with Nyirenda Sir
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Hello dear sir, I am interested in your project. I have been working with the coastal environment since 2014. I am preparing a PhD PhD thesis on the vulnerability of the coastal environment in Cameroon. I am interested in climate change issues and natural hazards.
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kindly indicate your specific interest so that i could simply understand your concern
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Given the fact that the resilience concept in Disaster Science is new, how can we define it in a way that it is differentiated from the typical vulnerability concept? What (or what type of) indicators one should utilize to assess them both?
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Sajjad,
Vulnerability and resilience of a community to disasters have many dimensions (i.e., social, economic, environmental, infrastructure, etc.). And there are multiple indicators, models and frameworks that have been developed in the last couple of decades. The concepts are far from new to the disaster science field, and significant advancements were made too.
For social vulnerability, I would recommend you read Cutter et al. (2003), it is one of the most recognized social vulnerability models in the States.
Burton et al. (2014) developed and validated a multidimensional resilience model for disaster recovery.
There are different other models and attempts, for example Mavhura and Collins (2017).
Or Cutter et al (2008) framework for disaster resilience (DROP model).
The listed research are just pointers and many others can definitely be found.
Best of luck
Mohamed
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How intensity and frequency of natural hazards is going to change in future??
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Have you checked what the IPCC report says about these issues?
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There have been arguments that just like sustainability, the resilience within the systems (here talking about the communities as a system) can not be measured but improved as it is a continuous process. So I am thinking if it is reasonable to measure it on the basis of different components shaping that resilience.
Moreover, what is the role of Risk-Assessments in resilience management? can resilience be managed without considering the risks or any external/internal shocks?
Regards
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@ Muhammad Sajjad
The resilience is defined as the amount of disturbance a system can absorb and still remain within the same state .....
Resistance system won't show any reaction at all.
The following reference will give you better understanding.
De Bruijn K.M. (2005) Resilience and Flood Risk Management a Systems Approach Applied to Lowland Rivers. doctoral thesis, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
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I am looking for a single term that can be used to describe both "trends and patterns" of natural phenomenon such as natural hazards (storms, floods, rainfall, tropical cyclones etc.)
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Dear Muhammad, the expression that I suggested is very common and used in many documents. It covers all the hazards that you mention. There are a lot of official documents and articles to cite if search on net. I attach you 2 examples. Regards.
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On the basis of the calculations performed on the basis of the PFO-CFO Theory, we arrived at the conclusion that all widely-discussed mass extinctions were caused by quite definite solar events. There were no principal changes in nature after the series of the past extinctions, and, thus, it can be expected that the events that occurred multiply in the past, will occur hereafter. Do you think that people should prepare the ways for minimization of possible future harmful effects of solar phenomena?
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Kenneth,
First, this sentence was written by Marpha Telepova-Texier, and I only cited it.
Second, if we would discuss the «physical law» term philosophic definition, we would go too far aside from the question formulated by me.
You try again to shunt from discussion of socially important problem of advance protection against the conditions harmful for the Earth's flora and fauna. Meanwhile, if some natural phenomenon repeated multiply on the Earth in the past, it will repeat in future because no principal natural changes occurred either on the Earth or in the Solar System. You can regard or not regard this statement as a physical law, but you are scarcely capable of disproving this statement, and, thus, it should receive the attention it deserves.
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Does anyone know how frequently sand storms and dust storms that arise from middle east or north africa travel to Pakistan and North India? I was wondering, in view of the already worsening air pollution levels in North India, events such as dust and sand storms reaching the subcontinent may exacerbate the situation. How rare or common are such sand and dust storms being carried from their place of origin (usually middle east and north africa) and intermix with fog or haze intensified by smoke or other atmospheric pollutants in another far off location? Has there been any similar, possible mixing of phenomena (dust storm and smog) reported/documented/studied anywhere around the globe at any time, preferably that was also caught by polar or geostationary satellites?
I was looking at a true-color or natural color satellite image acquired on 29th Oct. 2017 by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the joint NASA/NOAA Suomi-National Polar orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite around early afternoon. I've attached a screenshot of the image as well as provided the full link to access the satellite imagery. These satellite images have been stitched together to create a global mosaic. Unlike MODIS, VIIRS do not show any data gaps (except sun glints!). I found this satellite image particularly compelling because it clearly shows the sand storm picking up over northern Saudi Arabia and moving around Iraq, Iran, Caspian Sea towards Afghanistan with the movement of wind. I also think the Earth's rotation from west to east has a role to play in the movement and direction of the wind laden with sand and dust. But it seems difficult to understand their dynamics. The smog over North India and parts of Pakistan can be differentiated from the sand storm over middle east in this satellite image. In North India this is the time of the year when there are intentional crop fires due to the traditional slash-and-burn agriculture practice.
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Drought has been generally defined as a recurring extreme climate event that occurs NATURALLY... Given the current anthropocene, one may ask if drought is still strictly a natural hazard?
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Dear Zilefac Elvis Asong, my answer to your query is definitely yes.
In the perspective of tropical climates, where I was born and grown, drought is a result of prolonged dry season over the wet season naturally. This prolonged dry season will result in depletion of water sources, drying of plants and consequently result in drought. But we have to bear in mind that our unprecedented intervention to the natural ecosystem contributes much for drought occurrence.
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Does anyone want to become a collaborator of an interdisciplinary group to perform research within the project: Systems for Sustainable a Planet? Are you interested or experienced in any of the following global issues?
  • Availability of clean drinking water
  • Reusability and treatment of water
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Reduction of carbon emissions
  • Renewable energy systems
  • Natural hazard risk assessment
  • Natural hazard remediation
  • Organizing healthcare in developing countries
  • Renewable energy in developing countries
I am looking for motivated individuals who would like to contribute to the greater purposes and goals of the project in any way they can. We can use ResearchGate.com and e-mail to communicate and combine our ideas, wherever you are in the world, and with whatever free time you have available outside of your current jobs and busy schedules.
Reply with "yes", a little bit about yourself, ideas for collaboration.
***You just follow me to become a collaborator on the project.***
Thanks for looking! I hope you'll join us.
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YES. I am PhD in Environmental Engineering, Law and Management (c) and Dean of Gujarat Technological University India. Let me know how to go ahead.
I am interested in following areas:
  • Availability of clean drinking water
  • Re usability and treatment of water
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I need any handbook for "GIS systems in engineering geology" and/or "GIS systems in natural hazard assessment" and unfortunetelly.
If anyone can help me, I'll be very thankful.
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მირიან, ვიცი შენც გაქვს წვდომის რაღაც საშუალებები, მაგრამ მაინც გიგზავნი ამ წიგნებს, თამრიკო
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There are many different seismicity levels in the world. it is obvious that France is less exposed to earthquakes than Japan, China, Turkey, Iran, Italy or California, What is your level of fear of this natural hazard in your particular area? The results of analysis of answers of this question (if they are numerous and representative enough) may help to understand the effect of past experience in lowering or enhancing the level of fear.. thank you for your contribution.
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Dear Najib Abou Karaki ,
Currently, I am working as Senior Research Officer Cum Disaster Professional at District Disaster Management Authority, Madhubani, (Bihar) India to carry out research work related to floods, Earthquakes, Training & Capacity Building, Education & Disaster Management Community awareness or other areas related to Disaster Management/governance. This Madhubani district is located in the northernmost part of the state of Bihar bordering Nepal. The district has been traditionally vulnerable to different disasters on account of its unique geo-climatic condition. Floods, Drought, Earth Quake (Zone- V), Cold Waves and High Wind have been recurrent phenomena. Since this area is located very close to Himalaya thus the rate of seismic activity remains fairly. It comes under Very High Damage Risk Zone. Therefore risk perception is very high among peoples , citizens.if you want to know the perception level of tourist, please see the paper.
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Measuring millimetric precursory deformations of large crustal areas on earth surface by remote sensing techniques ( InSAR) is already a well established reality. The best available way now, as an Early Warning System against earthquakes and subsidence, landslides related hazards?
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I agree with the statements of both Dr. Omran and Dr. Ahmed. Remote Sensing has very useful application in monitoring natural hazards, but to some limited extent. As already mentioned, there are many inter related sub surface actions/disturbances which ultimately result in earthquakes or landslides. Hence it is best to have field level equipments like micro geophones, etc., in addition to remote sensing.
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Dear Colleagues,
we would like to invite you to submit an abstract for the interdisciplinary session “Natural hazards and climate impacts in forest areas” at the next EGU Assembly (Wien - Austria, 8-13 April 2018), organized by NhET (Natural hazard Early career scientists Team).
This session aims at collecting experiences from researchers working on natural hazard having forests as one of their targets. The session welcome abstracts addressing any natural hazards, going also beyond forest fires.
Contributions should be submitted on the website of EGU general Assembly 2016: https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2018/abstractsubmission/27717
Contributions  are solicited from all scientists, and especially from Early Career Scientists.
Please note two important deadlines:
- December 1, 2017: Deadline for Support Applications (abstract should be submitted);
- January 10, 2018 (13:00 CET): Deadline for Abstract submission.
We kindly ask everybody to apologize us for cross-posting; on the other hand, if you have questions or queries, just contact us!
Best Regards,
Jonathan Rizzi, Luigi Lombardo and Svein Solberg
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I would rather thank you for your interest.
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I am looking into people's knowledge to deal with natural hazards in the Pacific Island region. I have come across some materials, but I assume that there is much out there, possibly buried in ethnographies, where the titles give little indiction that it contains such materials......... One particular interest is about cultural knowldege about hazards and its application in the material culture (e.g. house construction, agriculture, food preservation and food security, etc....
I thank you very much for your tips
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hi professor, you might get some info in my publications. please visit my web page. if u need full publications please let me know. cheers, Dr Younus
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Dear colleagues (scientists, engineers and communicators),
in October (~3rd week), the Early Career Scientist representatives of the Natural Hazards division of European Geoscience Union (called NhET) will launch the EGU Natural Hazards blog online.
I will be the editor of the blog together with other scientists/friends that will equally contribute to the maintanance and development of the blog itself.
We plan to post online interviews and other elements that would open up natural hazard concepts to a very wide audience.
This is why I am writing here.
Would you be interested in being interviewed for the EGU blog? The topic needs to fit within Natural Hazards of course but as almost everything can fit in this profile, I would like to hear your ideas on the matter. How could you contribute? What topic are you familiar with and can we make the effort to discuss it keeping in mind a communicative purpose?
The NhET plans to release a post on a biweekly basis. This can be either a review of an important article (not authored by the interviewee) in a given branch of science or a discussion of the state of the art of a given scientific topic or technique.
The target length of the interview must be 500 < words < 1000.
Let me know your ideas and potential availability.
Thanks!
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Hello Hein,
I answered yesterday but it appears that me reply was never added here. Your topic is quite stimulating. Are you interested in contributing with an interview?
Just send me an email and we'll take it from there.
Thanks in advance for your interest and potential availability.
Regards,
Luigi Lombardo
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what are indigenous techniques to mitigate landslides in changing climate ?
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Indigenous communities in the Ashanti Region of Ghana have deliberately instituted taboos against the construction of buildings near watersheds, rivers, and streams. There is a bank vegetation of 50-100 meters that is supposed to be left around river bodies and streams. Pathways and streets are not supposed to be disturbed since the ancestors and deities would be furious on culprits and may inflict lasting plaque on the entire society. Therefore, traditional councils in most local communities here punish culprits severely while the entire community in a collective fashion desolates all structures that could change the hydrological patterns that may eventually lead to a landslide.
Indigenous farming practices such as agroforestry, ban against wildfires and slash-and-burn practices also aid in avoiding landslides.
The stringent cultural practices, traditions and belief systems of local communities can be harnessed and utilized in modern policies against landslide and other serious environmental challenges that destroy lives and properties.
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A catastrophy is an anthropic interpretation of an event which categorises it as essentially destructive.  Naturally occurring 'catastrophes' however are clearly responsible for, in fact are an essential element of evolution in both biological and social contexts.  
Major bio-evolutionary changes have been facilitated by natural 'catastrophes' such as trap volcanos or comet/meteorite impacts.  Similarly societal evolution has been precipated by similar events such as a comet strike around 12,800 years ago.
Does catastrophism provide a mechanism for understanding and as such is it a science in its own right? 
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Catastrophy is one of the examples of (environmental/ physical/ chemical/ biological) change. The study of the causes and consequences of (environmental/ physical/ chemical/ biological) change is explored in different scientific fields.
Because catastrophe is not more than an interpretation, science would take the risk to consider it as a science per se?  
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Disaster Risk Reduction has become a central agenda in many parts of the world. This is due to increases in intensity and frequency of extreme events like cyclone/typhoon, heavy rainfall, earthquake, tsunami etc. Ecosystems are the close entities of causes to consequences of these events. However, a system approach that relates ecology and ecosystem services of a particular region are not significantly addressed. Do you think so, and why? How to address these?
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Risk management often refers to situational response and tactical thinking. And the ecological approach assumes continuous monitoring and strategic thinking. They should be used in combination, as in reality is done in most countries (although this is not obvious from official documents). But they can not be interchangeable, each is needed in its own way.
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Kindly share your paper  'Ón increasing monsoon rainstorm in India' published in Natural hazard  Vol 85(3)
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Dear Dr Ray
Please find attached paper.  I hope you will find it useful. 
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More and more the AF and GCF are funding sources that finance important climate change adaptation interventions in the developing world. It is important that the academia contributes in assessing the impact of these funds and interventions on the most vulnerable. 
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great
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How can I find open source model of landslides related disasters. I want learn something about the process of  developing such kind of model including statistical or physical based models.
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I am interested to use InSAR data and techniques in the Himalaya and Karakoram Ranges to identify geohazards like landslides and to make further hazard assessment, analysis to mitigate the georisk. Thanks for valuable comments and suggestions.
Regards
IJAZ
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ESA's Sentinel-1 acquires SAR data in Interferometric Wide Swath Mode that can be obtained for free from the ESA Sentinel Data Hub.
ALOS-PALSAR and PALSAR-2 have acquired some interferometric pairs but the SLC images are only available by submitting a proposal for data access to JAXA.
TanDEM-X is a single-pass InSAR constellation and provides the highest resolution, but again you need to request access to free data from DLR in Germany.
COSMO-SKYMED by ASI has similar capability but is commercial.
My opinion is that Sentinel-1 (C-band SAR) and its precursors ENVISAT-ASAR, ERS-1 and 2 are your best data source. There is still the problem that the method will likely not work very well in very rough terrain such as the Karakoram Range. But it may be worth a try. Perhaps you get good results for some parts of the study area at least.
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Dear colleagues,
I face the following issue when I try to import the ASTER GDEM data (ascii format) in the Flow-R environment (http://www.flow-r.org/home):
14:44:02: Error: ƒGƒ‰[: ones
14:44:02: Error: ƒTƒCƒY‚Ì“ü—͂͐®”‚Å‚È‚¯‚ê‚΂Ȃè‚Ü‚¹‚ñB
14:44:02: Error: ƒGƒ‰[: DataStudyAreaSelection (line 153)
14:44:02: Error: ƒGƒ‰[: GuiData>studyarea_Callback (line 82)
14:44:02: Error: ƒGƒ‰[: gui_mainfcn (line 96)
14:44:02: Error: ƒGƒ‰[: GuiData (line 20)
14:44:02: Error: ƒGƒ‰[: @(hObject,eventdata)GuiData('studyarea_Callback',hObject,eventdata,guidata(hObject))
14:44:02: Error: Error while evaluating uicontrol Callback
My ASTER GDEM data with the heading is shown below:
ncols 333
nrows 333
xllcorner 98.3417454074
yllcorner 3.1204627302
cellsize 0.00029999999999999
nodata_value -9999.0
1780.882 (data) ......
I would like to generate the susceptibilty map for Mount Sinabung, Indonesia. Attached file is the ASTER GDEM data (ascii format) of my study area.
Can anyone help me? Any technical assistance is appreciated.
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This is quite an old question, but for those who have the same issue, here is an update. You don't need anymore to have the corner coordinates dividable by the cell size. What you really need is:
- A grid with a metric coordinate system
- A cell size that is an integer
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Hi, 
Could anyone can provide me some materials or guidelines that allow me to understand how to develop a new stage-damage function for flood event. 
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Maybe even this thesis may be interesting (urban flooding)
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Are there any publications on natural hazards in Central Asia available which are not published by UN institutions ? Does somebody have some detailed information on landslides and mudflow impacts ? And maybe some official document on the impacts of climate change in Central Asia ?
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Yes, lots!  Look up the publications of Aldar P. Gorbunov, and publications by the Chinese.  You may need Russian and Chinese to read all the papers.  Also look up those by N.Sharku from Mongolia.  You should be able to build a bibliography from these sources.   However, also look through the past Proceedings of International Permafrost Conferences.  These include a lot of papers on this subject.
Stuart.
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Dear all, 
I have few SAR imagery which are non-peak flood time imagery. Mostly are 2 or 3 days from the peak time. So, how do I solve this problem.
Thanks.  
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Hi - my first suggestion would be for you to define clearly your "problem". After all, you can use SAR images to answer a number of flood related questions. I assume you are interested in maximum flooding extent. In principle, if there is a temporal offset between your images(s) and the max flood extent you have a problem. If you have additional information, for example whether the peak occurred before or after the image acquisition date, you can refine your answer. If the image acquisition took place after the max peak, depending on how much time has passed, the (likely still) high soils moisture, or the relative smoothening of the area that was flooded can still help you to delineate the peak water extent like. Often water also leaves a bit of a debris line that should be detectable in the radar imagery. If, however, the image was acquired before the peak was reached only a modelling approach can help you, where continued water input into the system, and detailed elevation, needs to be used.
Hope this is useful, Norman
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The tool or the software should be "opne source" that I can download from the web.
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Dear Mohammed,
Beyond the HAZUS (that lauch a new version last December) you can use Capra developed by WolrdBank.
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I am working in the field of landslides along a ghat road section with 70 hairpin bends. Need suggestions, how can I relate the road density with landslide occurrences.
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Dear Ramesh,
As Marten told, the roads usually don't generate directly impacts to the stability of soil/rocks (of course if respected regular physical stability rules), but change the drainage systems and when this changes are not properly you can induce the water concentration and trigger a landslides.
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There have been debates about the applicability of core flood test results to reservoir conditions. It is clear that a small plug can not represent a giant reservoir. However, core flooding is frequently applied as a conventional method to simulate flow through porous media. Yet, many tests are performed at temperature and pressure below reservoir conditions.
I am seeking for a method(s) to extend the costly, time consuming core flood test to reservoir conditions. 
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One question, what would you evaluate studies in a single well?
If the surface you want to analyze is important should be made two-dimensional models. The data obtained from well test enable calibrate the model.
It would also be nice to have physico-chemical studies of well water for the model parameters.
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Hello,
I guess we have all heard about the ongoing tragic and worsening situation in Greece since 2008 for a large fraction of the population there and for refugees from Europe and elsewhere who ended up in Greece.
I am no socio-economic or political  expert but I gather that the number of people living in  precarity has soared there. I have certainly met benevolent social workers  who shared stories of despair that are hard to forget.
Greece is afflicted by a range of natural hazards and risks of disasters. It has a recurrent and documented history of such disasters.
I am wondering to what extent it is still possible for Greek scientists and/or the international community to suitably anticipate and monitor for those potential disasters and to suitably prepare for a disaster response, considering the ongoing and arguably worsening (?) situation in Greece ?
I am thinking about large forest fires (and eg. resulting biodiversity loss and atmospheric pollution), severe thunderstorms, land erosion, flash floods and mud flows on the one hand, and of tectonic earthquake and volcanic eruption hazards that may also lead to a tsunami risk in the Mediterranean on the other hand.
With the situation in Greece, aren't the vulnerabilities and the risks of impacts from such potential disasters much greater in Greece, and for some of these hazards for the European-Mediterranean regions ?
Has anyone studied how vulnerability of the Greece population to such eventualities may have increased since 2008 ?
Has anyone studied how the risks themselves for a given disaster scenario may have increased considering increased vulnerabilities and other changes in the structure of the Greece socio-politico-economic systems ?
Tectonic earthquakes from the Aegean arc submarine faults in Greece could trigger a tsunami affecting the Mediterranean region.
Can the adequate monitoring and disaster preparedness efforts still be pursued at the present time ?
And if not, what may be the wide-ranging impacts ?
The unmonitored active shallow-marine Kolumbos Bank Volcano (6km to NE of Santorini volcano) erupted explosively in 1650 AD. If it erupts again in a similar way, what may be the risk of an impact for international air traffic similar to that which related to the Eyjafjallajokull 2010 eruptions ?
What may be the tsunami risks in the Mediterranean  if the Kolumbos Bank volcano erupted explosively again ?
So to sum up, I am wondering if socio-economic-political changes in Greece since 2008 have affected vulnerability, resilience and risks for a diversity of disaster scenarios ? And also who may have studied aspects of this ?
I am also wondering to what extent scientists in Greece and elsewhere can continue to adequately monitor for, anticipate, research, sensitize for, , and generally prepare for such disasters occurring in Greece ?
And if it is the case that  the Greek scientists have difficulties continuing their work (?), to what extent the European Commission and international negociators on debt alleviation in Greece may have taken such considerations into account ?
Is this not the sort of situation making the ground much more fertile for much-enhanced impacts of geo-disasters ? Including for some that may affect much of Europe or the  Mediterranean Countries ?
Anyhow, a whole series of inter-related questions there.
I am wondering what colleagues think of all this and if some of you may have elements of answer to some of these questions ?
Many thanks in advance for any insights.
With best wishes and kindest regards,
Gerald
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Hello Gerard,
 In your extensive analysis you did not include the fact that the Greek population is well educated and aware of the natural dangers that hit all too common for millennia. Although the country is short of money, many research projects are funded from EE and elsewhere, so there is not a big increase of risks since 2008.  You see some of the projects mentioned above.
For example, the Greek people were well aware of tsunamis before Dec. 2004, unlike most of the rest of the world. I think Greek people are better prepared than those in Canada by comparison. In the last 10 years or so the federal funding for anything to do with the environment including research at universities in Canada has been severely CUT to avoid people get the facts on weather, natural disasters, etc. The reason is the government has been extremely pro-fossil fuel with a “forget the environment” attitude (also was the only country to officially return its signature from the Kyoto Protocol).  The result is a big problem for preparedness in a developed country and a worry for those trying to educate the public/schools, etc
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As the due to the earthquake other natural hazard such as landslide in the steep slope area is very prone. Moreover, resettlement is a complex process that create serious social, economic and cultural problem for the people if not conducted properly. But resettlement can also be the opportunity to improve resilience and living condition of affected people and reduce exposure to disaster risk. 
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Try not only to consider single parameters but think of combinations & multiple effects. When it comes to assessment of risk, I prefer the "risk triangle model". The sides of the triangle are hazard, exposure and vulnerability, thus risk can be reduced in different ways, e.g. in case of floods by building retention basins, moving away from shores and/or building dams. In your case (earthquake) you should know where the hazard is high, so you will need a fault map and a catalogue of historical earthquakes, observations etc. Then you should know the local geology, especially the upper strata, from groundlevel 100 meters downward, and their geotechnical parameters. Because you focus on relocation, the 2 points I highlighted (active faults, hard upon soft rocks) are essential for building codes in the areas designated for resettlements. In case of landslides, rock slides etc. you will need more intensive geological investigations of slope areas, but also hydrographic data (precipitation). From geotechnical point of view one should imagine: does the relevant creek/river bed allow a maximum runoff and are the shores stable against erosion? Where are the weak points (low bridges, sharp bends)?
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There are several things which can cause the formation of earth vibrations initially; I wish to know in detail.
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The following natural or induced processes can generate earthquakes.
(1) Tectonic (2) Triggered (reservoir; fracking) (3) Volcanic (4) Mining (5) Oceanic microseisms
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I prepared physical and social vulnerability maps of Seoul and Busan megacities. But I could not find the methods to validate those maps.
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I do not work with social modelling, but I would use old data and analyse them against the predictor variables (environmental and others). And based on this statistic I would create a predictive models and then used a second old dataset to validate, or rather evaluate, the predictive model. But that requires that the data used for happening is within the range of the data used for creating the model, if not you can not trust the predictive model if you  do not fully trust the interpolation that is made.
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My research is on coincident flooding using joint probability method but I have limited background knowledge of joint probability. I an expecting a sample of calculations.
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see this paper of a colleague of mine. It may help, 
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my values vary form .15 to .45 for different stations over Himalaya......
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HSS.is a skill score relative to random forecast. A valuev above .3 can be said relatively good score for sample of reasonable size for binary forecast. I am not aware that any one has reported HSS greater than .5 for reasonable sample size for binary forecasts when predicted event is rare like precipitation days vs no precipitation days in the Himalaya during winter. Climatological event probability can also be taken as reference for hss
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Hi,
I’m interested in teaching several introductory labs about the ocean for geology and physics students. I am particularly interested in doing hands on activities about waves and tsunamis. Does anyone have suggestions of activities, demonstrations, or case studies that are low cost/free to set up that you like to use with your classes?
Thanks in advance for your helpful hints!
Sarah
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Demonstrations of different wave phenomena at five stations.Students work with the five hand-on demos in small groups
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I have read widely on vulnerability indicators and assessment as well as food security indicators. However, I have found little on perception of vulnerability to food insecurity and how to assess and measure that.
I am trying to see if others have done a study like this before. Thank you.
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Dear Charlene,
You have some good advice here. I will take your question from a process-oriented perspective: What? Who? and How? There are no easy answers to perception-based analysis. Depends on the issue and the target audience. 
What/Why:  Since your question is based on that, you should first define and try to categorize how these terms are seen and defined by your target community - what factors do they use and then shape your query around those and what indicators and how sensitive they need to be to be able to measure if the community feels there are positive, negative or no change in terms of their experience or if these may be experienced at specific times and not all times and for some crops or for some aspects of agriculture.  
Who: You would also want to define your community into groups based on how their experiences can shed light on the issues from different angles. The factors that influence their perception i.ee. - gender, age, location, type of occupation (between farming and non-farming households), size of farm, income levels. And decide which of these might be key and important and for also making your study informative to the literature as well as for decision-making by them and their engagement in decision-making.  
Where the literature can help you is in on the best science and rigour you can use in defining and executing your assessment i.e. reducing overt and subtle bias in your questions so that your findings are more reliable. See one paper  that might be useful: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22805711. And another: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24157411. Here is how I tackled some aspect of this in some recent research: https://riopluscentre.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/gender-and-csa-background.pdf
And there are some recent studies using some aspects of PBA - http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/agsaare14/. This paper seems relevant: Food Insecurity in Uganda: A perception based analysis by Almazea Fatima and Paulo Santos.
How: It also depends on if you are proposing to use a structured survey, focus groups or a combination of the two and that should be defined by the initial baseline review i mentioned first. Why? If literacy, timing and time and human resources are issues for you , then a survey seems less useful than a combined approach or even going for focus groups. Each choice has pros and cons and you would need to read thoroughly on that before deciding what suits you best and writing that justification clearly before proceeding. If literacy is an issue - images can also work. 
I hope that helps. Good luck!
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Usually an Internet search would return billions of results when the following keywords are looked up, 'disaster statistics' or 'natural hazard statistics'. Further exploration reveals official and unofficial numbers. To complicate matters there are various news reports which  furnish unverified  figures. Although I believe it may not be that easy to come to a consensus on putting a numerical figure on the losses but still where does one look for the right sources.
Having said that, I would appreciate if I can get some help in identifying the legitimate sources. It doesn't matter if it is at the International, national, regional or even local level.
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There are no reliable data about disasters, as all sources have both (avoidable and unavoidable) technical problems, scope, and not least self interest in manipulating the information (political, financial or otherwise). In addition, you have serious problem of aggregation across events, countries and over time when, especially but not only, using panel data. As long as you are aware of these deep failures, you can entertain some loose thought experiments. But my recommendation would be that you should be extremely careful from reading, let alone interpreting, too much from available data. Have a look at my 2013 book (Routledge) “Disasters and the Networked Economy” (especially Chapter 1: The Problem with Quantitative Studies).
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Coastal cities mitigation and adaptation to Climate Change
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Local governments in New Zealand   have completed coastal hazard assessments, with maps showing areas expected to be affected over the next 50-100 years and  adopted the following:
  • restricting development in coastal erosion areas
  • planning for managed retreat
  • rejecting consents for alterations or extensions to existing buildings in the coastal zone
  • discouraging the construction of defences such as sea walls.
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Do you have some articles on landslides in Sicily, mainly on the relationship between rainfall and historical landslide activity? I need information to compare them with the results of a dendrogram morphological analysis that I'm doing on different landslides in Sicily. See (photo) a typical example of tree tilted by mass movement (Licodia Eubea (CT) - Sicily).
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Thank's Ana Maria!
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Natural hazard management systems use to have different components. Backend systems composed by a web server, database, modelling and analysis systems and a frontend in a form of a fat client or simple a web dashboard. Can you tell us about your experience designing and using this kind of systems and what is the importance of interoperability in the development of those systems? 
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Hello,
The example I can provide is a system considering chemical plant hazards. When I worked at this company a few years ago I believe dashboards were being thought about. Standards were just starting to be published on Plant diagrams to aid interoperability. They are a university spin off company so hopefully someone will be interested to answer your questions.
Regards,
Claire Palmer
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I would rather prefer ArcMap - friendly software (not LAHARZ)
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TNT mips is very good solution for your need.
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The archaeological record is useful to look at in terms of palaeo hazards but has not been utilized that much yet.
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We sent two interesting cites on the subject:
Lario, Javier; Luque, Luis; Zazo, Cari; Goy, José Luis; Spencer, Chris; Cabero, Ana; Bardají, Teresa; Borja, Francisco; Dabrio, Cristino J.; Civis, Jorge; González-Delgado, J. Ángel; Borja, Tsunami vs. storm surge deposits: a review of the sedimentological and geomorphological records of extreme wave events (EWE) during the Holocene in the Gulf of Cadiz, Spain César; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementary Issues, Volume 54, Number 3, July 2010, pp. 301-316(16)
M.A. Rodríguez-Pascua, R. Pérez-López, J.L. Giner-Robles, P.G. Silva, V.H. Garduño-Monroy, K. Reicherter. A comprehensive classification of Earthquake Archaeological Effects (EAE) in archaeoseismology: Application to ancient remains of Roman and Mesoamerican cultures. Quaternary International 242 (2011) 20-30.
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It is possible to use model building for avoiding risks of all natural hazards and taking the most important measures need through forecasting way?
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Forecasting and predicting are part of the solutions for early warning systems and preparedness policies identified b governments. It is the essential input information for the simulation models during catastrophic events, especially for floods, droughts, deserticiation, slides, typhoons, etc.... 
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We're working in a study to calculate the social vulnerability in small islands.
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There are no one best way to calculate social vulnerability Index.  The work cited Bryant above is good. So too are the works by Cutter and others, Pelling and Uitto, and Birkmann.  I am doing some work on social vulnerability in the Caribbean and one of the difficulties, as in other small islands is availability of data.  While I cannot calculate an index per se, I am looking at other methods of examining what are the key variables/factors that influence social vulnerability in the region (e.g. factor analysis)
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Invasive species, most of which are exotic, have become significant threat to our environment, economy, health and well-being. The best way of control is to prevent establishment in the first place by adopting prompt eradication action. However, if an invasive species is established, options like chemical control or mechanical excavation for removal can cause environmental damage. Target specific biological control can work well; otherwise there is a risk that the control organism might also become an invasive species. Alternative, such as manipulating existing natural enemies and/or the environment to enhance biological control, are also on hand. Despite all these tackling the problem of invasive species remained a great challenge. Hence what should be the sustainable solution and practicable strategy to deal with the continually growing problem of invasive species?
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Dear Yogesh,
Until the population density of an invasive species is low eradication can be effective. E.g. the successful eradication of Metcalfa pruinosa by pesticides in UK and the Czech Republic. However, strict quarantine is the best solution that is thorough investigation of all kinds of goods and products in order to hamper the introduction of dangerous species.
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The relict deposits around paleolandslides provide an opportunity to understand the formation and evolution of the natural dams.
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Thank Donnelly for your all answers. Indeed there are many processes that can create the natural dams. At present, literatures involving the life span of natural dams are quite scarce. It is interesting to know of how long the natural dams can exsit, which is very useful for their risk assessment.
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Which are the best methods to do RRA for perception study? What should be the number/size of sampling units? How to remove biases?
**Please provide some good review papers regarding methodologies and principles of RRA.
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Thank you Seyyed and yes I have already gone through these.
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Nowadays, the non-conventional gas exploitation and geothermalism, are growing up into the strategical energy policy in well-developed countries. A powerful industry devoted to fluid injection is emerging and new geosciences outcomes are emerging also. However, there is unclear the role of the governments in the developing of such industry and worse, in the role of these governments as guarantee of the environment and safety for the people located in the affected area. In this sense, some draft documents can be obtained from the web but the official position of the strong nations (USA, CANADA, EU, CHINA, etc.) are hard to locate. Also, technical documents elaborated by these countries and estatal agencies are unusual. My query is about technical and legal documents regarding induced seismicity all around the world.
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I am looking for articles about using GIS for the mapping of natural risks on archaeological sites.
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Many Archaeological Sites are near moving water sources such as rivers,
and streams. The GIS could be used to determine if, or when a site
could and could not be excavated depending on things like the annual
run-off hydrograph of the river, from a known source or two,
both upstream, and downstream of the site. Rainfall, snowfall, and
annual periods of dry spells, or frequent precipitation could be obtained
and used to limit damage during excavations.
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In general, the earthquake catalogs include a lot of information about the seismic wave parameters related to the earthquake source, but they rarely include the polarity of P-waves although in most of the cases these catalogs include the value of the amplitude for the P-waves (Pg, Pn..) and S-waves (Sn). In general, the automatic focal mechanism solutions are provided for earthquakes with magnitudes greater than M5 and in a few cases, M4.5. I have been browsing the net to check different softwares and free codes provided by universities and geological services. Most of them are compiled in Fortran although they do not specify the range of value of the earthquake magnitude to obtain a nonsense solution. In this sense, I would like to obtain a feedback about researches which are working with small earthquakes (M<4) and seismic swarms related with focal mechanisms solutions.
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It is entirely free.
Look for download at the bottom of the page.
Calculating focal mechanisms is one of the standard functions here and is all explained in the manual.
Christian
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What is temporal dimension or temporal factor ? How to add the temporal dimension to the susceptibility maps at a regional scale to produce real hazard maps ?
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Great question. To "add the temporal dimension to the susceptibility maps," does this mean that maps must be generated for each time step? I think so.
We can use precipitation as an example to demonstrate this, but we need to know the precise timing of the landslide, which is often difficult to obtain. Combining "static" geospatial inputs such as slope, land cover, anthropogenic factors, etc. with temporally-dynamic satellite-based rainfall is shown in this example: http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications_dir/potential_landslide.html
For a good example of a national-level decision support system, El Salvador combines automated rain gauge data with maps of steep slopes to identify low, medium, and high, landslide potential based on prior knowledge of recent and accumulated rainfall: http://mapas.snet.gob.sv/geologia/deslizamientos2010.php
Both of these examples, at very different scales, depict the most imminent landslide hazards based on rainfall as a triggering factor. And so, a new hazard map is created every day.
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In 1983, geographer Michael Watts published an influential essay entitled “On the Poverty of Theory: Natural Hazards Research in Context,” where he launched a powerful critique of cultural ecology and traditional hazards research which had tended to look at natural disasters in isolation from broader political economy systems embedded on [local] human-environment interactions. At that time, climate change could be considered a minor controversial topic discussed mostly by physical scientists. More than 30 years later, climate change is now considered one of the greatest challenges of our time and calls for adaptation are everywhere. Adaptation to climate change has become an imperative, many would argue. In the developing world, governments, international organizations and NGO are implementing adaptation projects to support what is being called more resilient communities, here understood as communities that are capable of bouncing back from adverse situations and to adapt to change through self-organization and learning. Although often acknowledged, development deficits remain outside the scope of many of these projects that tend to focus on the symptoms of the problem and less on its causes.
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It is indeed surprising that PE is not a stronger field in climate change adaptation work, given that cultural ecology was all about human adaptability, and political ecology pointed out that the processes of human adaptability are deeply imbued with power relations and struggles.
There have been several conceptual nods to the relevance of political ecology in the field of climate adaptation (see especially several works by Adger), but not a lot of published case studies thus far that explicitly analyze climate change adaptation processes/projects from a PE lens. These are starting to emerge, however.
Much of the PE literature on environmental change and development is quite relevant, but not necessarily integrated into the CCA field, which often (but not always) tends to have more technical or instrumental bents. That being said, CCA is a still a relatively young field, both in academia and policy, so I see this as a significant growth niche for PE research.
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Some data sources have separate data for coastal hazards and hurricanes. How are they different?
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There are areas under coastal hazards such as tsunamis, coastal erosion (coastal retreat by sediment removal and cliif retreat), storm surges not related with the two exaples you gave, or even coastlines affected directly by storms which have are not classified as tropical storms or hurricanes. Or for example, coastal hazards related with pollution. There are many kinds of coastal hazards.
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27th August 2007 - wet downburst on Latium region (central Italy) hit 600 sqkm: example of big trees uprooted.
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Dear Rosanna, uprooting of the trees depend on many parameters specially water condition of soil and texture as well as tree species. As I see in your picture i think its a big red oak uprooted. How can an oak tree uprooted is a surprising question, because Quercus species have deep and strong root systems even on fine textured soils. Check if the tree roots are not affected by any pest and/or fungi.
Refer to these article for more info:
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