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National Innovation Systems - Science topic

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Nations of the world vary in their technological capabilities as they do in other measures of development. these nations can be classified into multiple Technology clubs, such as highly advanced or innovative nations that still create most of the innovations in the global innovation network, then there are those who are good at acquisition and adaptation of innovations originated elsewhere, these nations innovation systems are developing fast. and then there are those who show no signs of active convergence towards becoming an innovation driven economy. The first and second types have innovation systems and thus innovation policies at varying degree of effectiveness. while the third type are passive learners being dragged behind the global innovation train only growing with whatever trickles down, from the global innovation and production system, or serendipitous creative repairs type adaptation.
Effectiveness of institutions and policies is necessary for existence and performance of innovation systems, which are in essence, intentional and created systems not occurring in normal capitalist market mechanisms. thus these technology clubs must also be divided along the policy lines. Whether innovation policy institutions exist and how effective they are, might be a determinant of technological capabilities development.
what would be the measures of effectiveness of innovation policies? Output measures as well as input and throughput measures. What is the bare minimum threshold of effective technology/innovation policy? What policy guidelines should be suitable for such passive learning economies to escape their technology lock-in state?
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Financial & non-financial incentives can be the key elements to drive national innovation.
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I am working on the efficiency of the national innovation system in developing countries using the Malmquist index in Data envelopment analysis . My sample consist of 24 countries. I am concerned about the very low scores I get for some countries; less than 0.1. It seems like the results are more biased toward 0 efficiency. Do you think this is a problem particularly that it is  is rarely found in  previous papers? If this is a problem, how do you think I can fix it?
Thank you.
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DEA is data oriented and sensitive to outliers. Check your data. One way is doing an outlier test using FEAR package (see, the following link). 
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I'm looking for papers and books about the economics of science and technological parks, theoretically and empirically.
Theoretically, I want to understand the underlying logic and when science parks are a good or a bad choice.
Empirically, I'm looking for cost-benefit analysis: are they a good investment?
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I wish to thanks for the citations. I think that the reading of the mentioned paper could be so useful to better understand the real effects produced by a Science Parks 
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Many approaches have been devetod to explain and/or understand the innovation (knowledge) creation process within the National Innovation System. according to Carayannis and Campbell, the Quintuple Helix model is the most sophisticated one to explain innovation in the 21rst century, where environmental issues constitute the core partner.
These authors classify environment at the same level as university; indusrty; government or the public.However, I think that envrironment cannot be considered as a separate helice ( as University for instance) but as a key variable to be included in any innovation program. this is because the four helices (U-I-G and P) are either producer or user of innovation, while envrironment does not aquire this quality.
So I would like  discuss this issue and ask you to confirm or deny my point of view.   
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Lucio, thanks again for your detailed reply - apparently I have not been able to make my point clear enough. As I have no other idea how to rephrase my view, I also stop at this point.
Dekkiche, let's hope you have found something relevant for your work. As for your revised question, I can only repeat that I don't see any reason to add environment as a helice on its own right. I would not mix actors and incentives: these are two different "dimensions" in any analysis. Actors have various incentives.  
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Many models try to shape the innovation system: national innovation system, Mode 2; triple helix; quadruple helix; quintuple helix are examples.
The emergence of any model is regarded as rivalry; yet some attributes are frequently repeated such as cooperation/partnership characteristic.
Could you list some similarities and/or differences between these models?
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Hi Dekkiche,
Good question. There are several terms that have been used by researchers and policy makers over the years including innovation systems, clusters and triple helix. The term, entrepreneurial ecosystems is the latest in the rhetoric.
Most of these terms seem to have the similarity of involving the three main players of government, university and business. However, there are differences in terms of the geographic frame of reference – regional, national, global etc. Clusters usually refer to regions while national innovation systems (NIS) refer to the national level and regional innovation systems (RIS) refer to the regional level. Another difference it whether it is limited to one sector/industry or whether it refers to multiple sectors. For instance clusters usually refer to one sector while innovation systems may refer to multiple ones (unless the study specifies sectoral innovation system (SIS)).
See the following article:
Rampersad, G. C. (2015). Managing Innovation Clusters: A Network Approach. Journal of Management and Strategy, 6(3), p9.
Hope it helps.
Cheers,
Giselle
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I am looking for literature on RIS in solar energy/PV in  the Indian context.
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Krzysztof is right, I am afraid that asking for basic literature does not reflect a good researcher habit.
My advise is for you to utilize google scholar with some keyword (e.g "innovation systems energy" ... or replace energy with other industry) relating to the topic you are looking for. If you need help in downloading paid articles.. let me know, I should be able to help with that (just the major ones - because i don't have the a lot of time to download articles).
Good luck with your research.
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I want methods, techniques, approaches or other concepts that can help me to continue my research.
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Hi Saeed,
from a methodological perspective, I think you should look at the work by Bergek et al., 2008 (its a research policy paper). it proposes the use of a functional approach to analysing and determining performance of an innovation system (technological though). but I am of the opinion that it will work within a national context. you can read any of her (Anna Bergek/Johnson) works or look at that of Marko Hekkert. it should help. Should you intend to consider the approach, I can forward some of the pdfs to you.
Humble Regards
Habib