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Nanoparticle Preparation - Science topic

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Most of the research using trisodium citrate to reduce Ag ion and its act as stabilizer. How if we replace trisodium citrate to sodium citrate monobacis? How is the chemical equation be?
Some was used both trisodium citrate and sodium borohydride in synthesize Ag nanoparticles. What if we used both trisodium citrate and sodium borohydride?Will both of the reducing agent take part in reaction to form Ag nanoparticles?How is the chemical equation be?
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NaBH4 is strong reducing agent, and used for synthesis of nanoparticles fabrication on the other hand sodium citrate stabilizer and as caping agent in cases.
NaBH4 manipulation for titanium dioxide, Ag, Au , Pd and other metallic oxide nanoparticles fabrication.
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The particle sizes of Nano/micro-particles measured using DLS and SEM differ greatly, i.e., around 80 nm was determined by DLS, while the same sample measured according to SEM imgae showed a size around 300 nm. Why?
Clear circular particles were observed from SEM, no aggregates, as very low particle concentration was used.
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So if your particles are disk-like, then the total specific surface area calculated according to the assumption of spherical particle shape will be overestimated about 2 times.
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What are the advantages of linking peg to a polymer to form a nanoparticle vs nanoprecipitation? (apart form the fact that the link in the former is chemically stronger)
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Dear Yasmin Choaie, please tell which nanoparticles and applications you are dealing with. PEGylation is done for many purposes depending on the goal the NPs are intended to. If it is just for stabilization, PEG coating is enough, however if the NPs are for drug delivery, covalent grafting is necessary to increase circulation time and reduce erosion during circulation. In addition to that and according to recent studies there are two alternatives to PEGs with regards to biocompatibility and toxicity. Polyoxazoline and polysarcosine are more recommanded whenever it is to protect NPs for drug delivery, diagnostics, and so on.
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Hello, I'm working on interactions of some inorganic metals/compounds with some protein of interest. Here the ligand are in nanoparticle form. So as for ligand preparation for docking these need to be in nanoscale range, is there any procedure for preparing it ?
Please suggest some user friendly software other than Vesta if possible!
Thanks in advance.
Regards,
Vinay
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Mohammad Kooti Sir, Thanks for your interest. Actually here the metal compounds that are needed to be converted to nanoparticles will be later subjected to molecular docking analysis with the protein of interest that's why I'm referring to them as ligands. Please guide how to use vesta for such conversion.
Regards,
Vinay.
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The fate of nanodrugs / nanoparticles in vivo draws a lot of attention, and many studies label fluorescent of nanodrugs / nanoparticles in order to disclose their distribution in vivo.
- What are its advantages and disadvantages ?
- Is it a reliable tool ?
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The study of the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with proteins is of great importance due to its relevance in several fields including nano-biosafety, nano-bioscience, nano-biomedicine, and nano-biotechnology. an introduction and a discussion of merits of fluorescent NPs compared to molecular fluorophores, labels and probes, the article assesses the kinds and specific features of nanomaterials often used in bioimaging. These include fluorescently doped silicas and sol–gels, hydrophilic polymers (hydrogels), hydrophobic organic polymers, semiconducting polymer dots, quantum dots, carbon dots, other carbonaceous nanomaterials, upconversion NPs, noble metal NPs (mainly gold and silver), various other nanomaterials, and dendrimers. Another section covers coatings and methods for surface modification of NPs..
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In my lab we are trying to prepare ZnO particle using ZnSO4 and NaOH. At the end of reaction, gel like matter forms and settles down.
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Dear all, there are various inoganic/organic salt precursors and synthetic routes to the preparation of ZnO nanoparticles, all with distinct final features of ZnO nanoparticles, in addition to the preparation conditions. Please have a look at the following documents. My Regards
DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.83338
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I've used chloroform to dissolve the MnO2, but it doesn't work. Are there any volatile solvent can dissolve MnO2?
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I am also finding the same problem with Mn3O4 nanoparticles..
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Hello!
Ive never made micelles before, but I gave it a go today and now I have some questions. I am generating thin films using my polymer solubilized in chloroform, evaporating in a rotovap, and then resolubilizing in water followed by 30 min of sonication. I currently (very sadly) do not have access to DLS, I am thinking about getting the Lens3 from Tosoh and analyzing my particles using MALS very soon, until then I dont have any physical characterization assays setup. As a very general description of my molecule, I have conjugated a hydrophobic molecule onto a cationic/hydrophilic polymer
1. What size flask is appropriate for 2mgs of polymer? I tried 100mL, 250mL, and 1L. the 1L sized flask was a bit cumbersome to do the hydration in and the thin films from the 100 or 250 mL flask dont look that thin
2. How quickly do I add water to the solution? Dropwise or all at once?
3. Should i start sonicating the micelles as they rehydrate? Should I rehydrate and then wait and then sonicate?
4. Does adding salt to micelles during hydration or after hydration change particle size?
5. How stable are cationic micelles in general in water or buffer? Hours? Days Weeks? The paper im referencing has no stability data
6. Are there any solvents that are not acceptable for forming thin films/micelles? Variants of my polymer are soluble in ethanol but not in chloroform so can I use ethanol instead?
Im still going through all the literature to find answers to some of my more basic questions, but any useful papers you can recommend would be very much appreciated and a big time saver for me!
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Micelle forming ability is dependent to your polymer physicochemical properties. Polymer charge and net charge in solution is important. Also HlB is a important parameter.
Furthermore you can use hhydrophobic fluorescence probes such as pyrene for study of micelles in your study. Block copolymers also without charge may generate micelle or reverse micelles in solution.
A book entitled as micelles , monolayers and biomembrane from M.N. jones is useful.
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I have made chitosan nanoparticles and harvested the nanoparticle by centrifugation. After that, I need to dissolve the pellet back again into aqueous solution, but the pellet wont completely dissolve. What solvent must I use to get chitosan nanoparticle to completely dissolve? What methods must I apply? Is it possible only using vortexing or do I need to use a sonicator (probe sonicator)?
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Thanks Ammar for sharing your own experience with us. Let me ask you if you use this for plants ?
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I am an M.Pharm student, currently pursuing a research project. I am trying to make Hesperidin-chitosan nanoparticles, but, it was failed attempt as Hesperidin is getting precipitated in the acidic environment and chitosan is soluble only in an acidic environment (I used 1% acetic acid).
So, I added HPBCD to tackle this problem, and now hesperidin is not precipitating. However, the entrapment efficiency of nanoparticles prepared this way is too less (almost 16%) And the Zeta potential is too large (almost 34).
Can anyone please suggest what can be the next to right approach? Any suggestion would be of great help.
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Nanoparticles prepared from ZnO and Mushroom . Am I also check antifungal activity in a room temperature ?? Please guide me , I am patiently waiting for your kinds suggestions .Thanks in Advance.
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Khetab Ullah The optimum temperatures for fungal growth were found to be between 25 and 30 °C.
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Lots of methods are reported for the preparation of the nanoparticle, but as we know nanoparticles have the big issue of particle size and consistency in stability over a prolonged period of time. Therefore, if anyone has any strong suggestion in this regard then please answer.
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Dear Eknath: P.S. I just read your statement "I want to Prepare polymeric nanoparticle (Anticancer Drug by using Polymers i.e. HPMC, Tween)." Here again the "Publications" section of RG is a good source of information. For example, I just came across the following potentially useful article:
Simple and feasible design of a polymeric nanoparticle for efficient anticancer drug delivery
Please check if the full text ofthis paper is available through your institution. Yet another interesting article is freely available as public pull text on RG:
Synthesis and Characterization of Polymeric Nanoparticles and Capsules as Payload for Anticancer Drugs and Nanomedicines
Also please see:
Targeting Cancer by Natural Polymeric Nanoparticles
As you can see, even more specific literature references can be easily accessed right here on the platform.
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How the the defects like oxygen vacancies and structure distortion from its original, un saturated bonds. particularly in Ferrites (Ni, Zn ferrites) can effect lattice parameter?.
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Lattice parameter of which one is high : Bulk and Nanomaterils?
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Magnetite Nanoparticles preparation
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Dear Arif
You are right, if magnetite is oxidized to Fe2O3, hematite form, it will become antiferromagnetic.
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Hello,
I have prepared a 0.3 mg/ml GO suspension in THF by freeze-drying a stable GO/water dispersion, probe sonicating for ~15 minutes, and water bath sonicating for 2 hours, followed by stirring overnight. However, the suspension still settles very quickly (<5 minutes) and is cloudy. When tested with DLS, the sheet size seems to be ~300nm before it settles. Any idea how to fix this, or what the problem could be?
I have read papers where the suspensions are stable for >24h by simple water bath sonication for 1 hour.
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Since I am from a physics background, I can understand physical treatment and fabrication methods of nanoparticle synthesis like arc discharge or lithography. But recently I have undertaken Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles. Let me show you and Fe- Sem image of WO3 nanoparticles. This is synthesized using the Sol-Gel technique. If the precursor isn't a typical metal alkoxide then the further reaction falls flat on literature.
Like I have used Sodium Tungstate (Na2WO4.2H2O) as a precursor. Now the acid would have a specific role, so would the capping agents, so would the rate of rotation in magnetic stirring. Even if I somehow figure out the chemical reaction, there would be a particular variable that could have been highly significant while others not so much in causing the structure to form. How do I develop a chemical intuition regarding the result? How can I reason the structure that is formed if I know the chemicals used. Is there perhaps a direct correlation between stoichiometry and structure? Kindly Suggest some literature that can help me.
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The tungstate ion is hydrolyzed to W (0H) 6 (this is a sol). Then it gradually turns into gel WO3 and xerogel with aging
WO42- + 2H2O = 2WO3 + 4H+
Pick up a dilute sodium tungstate solution. With dilution, an increase in the amount of water, the degree of hydrolysis increases. Apparently you took a concentrated solution and you have a photo with a mixture of sol and gel.
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Hi, how long is it necessary to dialyse to remove solvents like ethanol or acetone from a lipid nanoparticle or lipid-polymer nanoparticle preparation?
Based on papers of lipid nanoparticles from the group of Daniel Anderson , 2 h is enough even for in vivo studies:
Thank you in advance!
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That depends on the concentration and volume of your samples, the volume of the container that you are using for the dialysis, and how often you change the solution. For example, I have done liposomes to entrap dye at a high concentration. It usually takes me around 3-4 days. I synthesize 20 mL and the container to do the dialysis is around 600 mL, also I change the solution around 3 times a day when I am busy doing other experiments.
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Hi all,
I am working with lipid nanoparticles encapsulated with RNA and I need to calculate the N/P ratio for their preparation.
However, the literature is not very clear on how to calculate it. Does anyone know the standard equation for calculating N/P ratio, please?
Thank you very much,
Beatriz
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Dear Beatriz Dias Barbieri, to the best of my knowledge there is no standard protocole to do, either it is arbitrary or an experimental trials. Please check the following RG thread and documents. My Regards
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What is a good dispersant chemical that is for slurry preparatoin of ceramic nanoparticle (alumina, zirconia, SiC, etc.) to reduce the slurry viscosity?
It will be great if it's commercially available in US and for lab small batch purchase.
Thanks!
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If you require a minimum suspension viscosity, but the best dispersants for nanopowders are ethyl or isopropyl alcohols. To create low-viscosity water-based suspensions, add tensides (dishwashing detergent) to the water. For more viscous water-based suspensions, a polyvinyl alcohol solution or methylcellulose solution (wallpaper glue) can be recommended. The higher the viscosity of the suspension, the more resistant it is to sedimentation.
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Most of the reported mixed metal oxides are prepared from their precursor materials. I want to prepare mixed metal oxides from already prepared metal oxide materials. For example, CaO and Fe2O3 are available commercially, I want to combine them together via a suitable chemical method like making a core-shell structure, or CaO coating on Fe2O3 surface. Please give me an idea on how to make mixed metal oxides from prepared metal oxide and send me any reference articles.
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as per phase diagram of CaO-Fe2O3, mixed and heat in muffle furnace as indicated temperature
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hello
I am trying to synthesize CS NPs by ionic gelation method using TPP but I can not get PDI under 0.3. what am I doing wrong? here is my method till here.
my sizes are good and under 300 nm mostly. even though I use filtering (0.22 nm filters) and sonication and centrifuge. and I dilute my sample before testing for getting a more transparent solution.
the Conc of my LMW CS is 1 mg/ml (solvent 10 cc acid acetic 0.1 %) and Conc of TPP is 0.5 mg/ml (solvent 10 cc deionized water).
I let the CS to dissolve overnight on the heater stirrer with temperature 30-40 C. the next dey I have a transparent CS solution. after dissolving the TPP by stirring for about 10-30 min at RT, I add TPP dropwise to the stirring CS solution. I used syringes sometimes but the rate of adding was too rapid I think and by using burette I could control the rate but I think it was still high and with bigger drops. all of TPP solution will drop in about 4 min into the CS solution. how should I add TPP? with such rate and what equipment? after adding TPP, I let the solution to stirr for 1 h in RT in 7000 rpm trying to have a balanced stirr. and then I centrifuge for 5 min, 6000 rpm, after that filtration and sonication for about 2 min.
so now here is my QAs:
1. is there a special environment to work in to be sure that I am avoiding external Contaminations?
2.how should I add TPP? syringes? special made burette?
3.how can I control the rate of adding TPP? and how many drops per min?
4.is the rate of stirring(7000 rpm) while adding the TPP ok?
any suggestion will do
thank you
sorry for the long description
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You may use an infusion pump for controlled addition at a programmable rate.
Filtering out is not a solution to getting the desired particle sizes. By doing so you are just removing the undesired part of the sample, not the root cause.
Probe sanitation is also a good option but that comes with the associated drawback of metal from the probe contaminating your sample and you may find a grey precipitate at the bottom of your sample after you centrifuge it .
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I am having difficulty in dissolving ZnO nanoparticles.
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for ZnO, Ethanol or DMSO or CH3COOH are best dissolve
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Hello,
I have an experimental setup with which I am trying to get optical absorbance spectra of gold nanoparticles. From right to left, I have a light source (Ocean optics HL 2000), a collimating lens, an iris, a long glass tube through which the light passes via two flat faces at entry and exit sides (approx 1 meter long) and a spectrometer (FLAME VIS NIR). I am using a blank substrate of quartz as a reference and the sample substrate contains dried and drop-casted Au nanoparticles (prepared by simple NaBH4 reduction). I am unable to get smooth absorbance spectra and instead am only getting undulating curves, as shown in the attached image. I am unsure of what is going wrong with my acquisitions, and any help in this regard will be greatly appreciated.
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Thank you Giuseppe Curro for your time. We moved on to spin coating after initially drop casting, the latter method followed at the time of my posting the question, which I did not mention.
The undulating patterns due to the interference phenomenon as you said is very common in my experience when one substrate is placed on top of the other and a transmission experiment is done. But I do not see it when only one substrate is used, as the nanoparticles are not in the form of a film on the substrate and do not cause multiple reflections at the interface.
We do collect a blank reference spectrum with quartz before we do the absorbance measurements in transmission mode.
For focusing, right now we only use a collimating lens after the light source, but nothing that would collect all the light coming from the sample and channel it into the spectrometer. Maybe I am not having enough of a sample to account for the light lost from the source to the spectrometer.
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I am trying to make a Silver nanoparticle covered with FMN ligand. I tried docking using AutoDock but only a molecule can be docked on the nanoparticle but more than hundreds are required to cover whole surface area.
Is there any other way to create this kind of structure?
Any advice will be helpful.
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HI,
I have a thought but I am not sure it will work and if it worked if it has the end result you want. Now if you reacted FMN ligand with say KOH or NaOH you would get the negatively charged oxygen off the phosphorus. Now the problem I see is that the surface of the Ag NP should be negative. So you have two negative groups that don't want to join. So that said, there are mechanisms where one can take cationic polyelectrolytes and form bridges. My Phd Thesis,
reports on the use of polyelectrolytes and the use in different binding mechanisms. I have an achieved project folder with shorter articles as well that talk about this. Many have used cationic polyelectrolytes as a binder. This is well known in the literature. There are cationic and anionic versions. Polyelectrolytes are widely used in investigations with cationic polyelectrolytes binding to cellulose. In concept you could use say CPAM (cationic polyacrylamide) to bridge FMN and the Ag NP. Now that might not be what you are looking for but I think it is possible to do.
Now one complication is that this will also create Ag NPs that are bridging each other so you will get not only single NPs but complexes where they are bridging with each other NPs forming like floc like structures through binding. The question is what can you live with?
There are other bridging compounds as well to try. I hope this gives you at least some ideas. But the main thing is I see this as a problem to bridge your FMN to the Ag NPs. Good luck.
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Due to using probe sonicator for re-dispersing silica nanoparticles, I am getting black depositions at the bottom of the falcon tube. Can anyone suggest me any method to re-disperse silica nanoparticles?
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Bath sonicator and vortex are widely used for this purpose
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In UV-Visible measurement , blue shift was observed at absorption edge of ZnS nanoparticle prepared by CBD (chemical bath deposition ). On the other red shift was found in the PL spectra of the same specimen. Why do we have this two different phenomena in the same specimen when they were characterized by UV-visible and PL spectroscopy ?
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I presume you mean shifts of nanoparticles compared to ‘bulk’ ZnS.
For ZnS nanoparticles it has been demonstrated that the absorption of the surface states becomes more intensive and gives blue shifts in absorption spectroscopy. This is basically explained by the fact that the contents of the surface states increase as the size of the particles decreases.
‘Normally’ the broad and Stokes-shifted emission band in PL spectroscopy is attributed to the so-called trapped luminescence arising from the surface states and becomes more intensive and shifts to the blue as the size of the particles is decreased.
See for nice and rather complete overview (and references to the above description for ZnS):
Yoffe, A. D. (2001). Semiconductor quantum dots and related systems: electronic, optical, luminescence and related properties of low dimensional systems. Advances in physics, 50(1), 1-208.
As said by others it depends on what you mean by Red shift (compared to what) but the following paper described PL intensity spectra plotted against wavelength for different excitation wavelength (340-420 nm) and a redshift has been observed with increase of excitation wavelength which according to the authors “may be due to different contribution of excitonic emissions and their phonon replicas”, see for details:
Mukherjee, A., & Mitra, P. (2017). Characterization of Sn doped ZnS thin films synthesized by CBD. Materials Research, 20(2), 430-435.
Hope this helps you somewhat further.
Best regards.
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I was trying to design a nanocluster of 10 nm diameter using Material studio(MS) software. Due to the lack of the "nm" size option in the material studio, I have used a 50Å (angstrom) radius option available in MS to construct the nanocluster. I was confused when I found 60000 atoms in the generated nanocluster of size 10 nm diameter (100Å). Whether my conversion (nm to Å ) is correct or the Å mentioned in MS is different from my conversion?. I have doubt that a 10 nm-sized nanoparticle will have 60000 atoms in its cluster form. Please help me with this issue.
Thanking you
Hari Prasath
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What is the material that you are using for cluster?
Do you apply PBC or without?
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It is a very basic but important question.
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Sometimes polymers have low molecular weight since it is inherent of their nature and mostly if they are not synthetic. Some nano-particles such as graphene, helps generating a kind of "cross-linking" in the polymers transfering to it mechanical properties desired.
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Docetaxel is dissolved in DCM
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@rowaidah, if soluble the drug will be in the organic phase as solution, no matter the centrifugation.
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I want to know why the PLGA nanoparticle prepared by double emulsion method have not stability in water. 
I have used 20 mg of PLGA in DCM and acetone and mixed with 1 mg of Doxorubicin-HCl(O/W1) and sonicated for 1 min at 38% amplitude and then added the mixture in 5% PVA and sonicated for 10 min at 88% amplitude. Then this whole mixture is mixed with 10 ml of 0.1% PVA again and stirred for 16 hrs to remove DCM-acetone. Then centrifuged at 18000 RPM for 20 min and washed with water thrice. 
The particle is soluble in water or PBS. But gradually settles at the early hours of preparation in room temperature . Can any one please tell me what could have went wrong in this or what can be done to stabilize this? 
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If the particles settle down, the you have more likely microparticles.
Try to filtrate them through 0,45µm. I am sure, they do not pass.
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I would like make nanoparticles of Datura seed extract but mostly researchers have used Datura leaf extract to prepare nanoparticle. Why? Why not Darura seed extract?
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Yes. It's easy and more active
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Palladium chloride salt is very less soluble in water so I add diluted HCl solution to dissolve the salt but it also increases the acidity of the solution. I am preparing Pd NPs by reverse micelle method but no success yet. My solution stays turbid for a long time. micelles are not formed. Is it because of the high acidity?
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Thank You, Yuri Mirgorod for the article)
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I want to ask various techniques of separation of nanoparticles, I think different nanoparticles have different stability therefore different techniques should be used for separating them. Thanks in advance.
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SEC is one possibility, if all are genuine nano (i.e. 100% < 100 nm).
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I have successfully synthesized lanthanide up-conversion nanoparticle using hydrothermal method, they are hydrophilic in nature with positive surface charge as confirmed through DLS.
I want to make surface charge negative.
I know there are lot of articles about surface functionalization, but most of them are related to switching from hydrophobic to hydrophillic.
can anyone please share the relevant information about it?
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Zeta potential is not surface charge.
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I have found an article where cobalt ferrite (CF) was coated with gold. There,firstly cobalt ferrite was synthesized and then coated with Gold.  So, could I replace cobalt ferrite by zinc ferrite (ZF) using same methodology? However,  I have also prepared zinc ferrite NPs individually. So, could I follow the methodology used in CF-Au to coat ZF using gold. Since, gold and cobalt close to each other.
Then how do I conjugate/add/coat copper with ZF-Au nanocomplex/ on the surface of ZF-Au nanocomplex? Please give me any methodology.  
Thanks in Advance 
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I am currently trying to figure out how i can use an Anasys Instruments NanoIR2 instrument to characterize my chitosan polymeric nanoparticles. Is this a possible instrumentation to use, or should i use something else? If i do use it, what is the best method of preparation of the nanoparticles to get optimum results on the instrument? Protocals and papers are welcome. Thank you!
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I am trying to dry the silver nanoparticles prepared from fruit extract after centrifugation process. The petri plates were kept in drying oven for 70 degree Celsius for overnight. I am still not getting the dried form and the amount is less.
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Dear Amna
Why do you need to dry silver nanoparticles? If you want to use them, the silver nanoparticles are kept into liquid form to avoid aggregation. Once they are dried, it is impossible to make homogenous dispersion solutions. Hope it helps.
Xuhua
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BSA loaded chitosan nanoparticle was prepared using TPP ionic gelation methods. The lyophilized nanoparticle powder was assayed for drug release in (pH 7.5 or pH 5.0, 37℃, RPM 150) PBS , but the nanoparticles did not dissolve. What should i do? T.T
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Dear Seung-Yeon,
I understand what exactly you are asking, I think my colleagues have missed your point. Before I can go into details you need to check couple of things. First what was your entrapment efficiency, how much BSA were you able to load into Christan nanoparticles. Secondly, have you checked the Solubility of BSA in your release media. As you know the drug release from the nanoparticles is governed by the partition coefficient and the solubility of your drug in the release media. If your BSA has a low solubility in your release media, then you won't able to see much of the drug release. The drug will favour to stay in the nanoparticles. Regarding nanoparticles solubility, this term is not 100 true, if you want to dissolve chitosan nanoparticles, there is an enzyme you can use that able to dissolve these nanoparticles and break down the chirosan polymer. For the drug release from the nanoparticles, there are many mechanism that the drug released from the nanoparticles. For example but not limited to, erosion , diffusion and other. To know which mechanism your polymer follows, you need to perform drug release and then do some release modeling, from that release profile you can find out which mechanism.
Why you need your nanoparticles to dissolve?
Regards
Ali
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What is your suggestion a bout the best protocol for Cysteamine-modified Au nanoparticles preparation?
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I am working on nano-particle preparation of silver sulfide. I have a silver particle around 10-micron meter. I am continuously triturating in with the help of the ball mill but unfortunately, I could not prepare the particle at 20 nm range. I have prepared at the level of 400 nm silver sulfide nanoparticle with the help of trituration. What should I do..
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You should consider bottom up approach, like Hydrothermal synthesis. You can get the controllable as well as uniform nanoparticle size. As a matter of fact you can even achieve size range of 2-10 nm i.e. Quantum dots.
For further reading:
S. I. Sadovnikov  and  A. I. Gusev, Recent progress in nanostructured silver sulfide: from synthesis and nonstoichiometry to properties, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017,5, 17676-17704 .
Hope this helps. All the best.
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I have synthesized ~150 nm polystyrene nanoparticles with carboxylic groups on the surface. I used EDC chemistry to cross-link the carboxylic group with protein. After the reaction, I used Tris to quench EDC and Tween 85 to block the unbound sites. I also used sonication to break any aggregation. However, after about a week, the nanoparticles started to aggregate again.
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Your polystyrene nanoparticles(NP) are carboxylated which would make them neutral at low pH because there's excess hydronium ions in solution. When you react it with a protein through EDC conjugation, the carboxyl covalently attaches to the amines on your protein. Depending on the availability of carboxyl groups on your NP and whether or not you optimized your conjugation process with respect to the concentrations of the NP, the protein or the EDC as well as the pH of the reaction, there could be available carboxyl on the NPs and some free unconjugated amines on the proteins that are already attached to the NPs. And depending upon the pH and electrolyte levels at which you store your NP - protein conjugates, the free carboxyl from one NP- protein conjugates could be attracted by a free amine from another NP-protein conjugate. When multiple such interactions occur, you get your aggregated NP-protein conjugates. How to avoid it? Optimize your reactans and reaction conditions that I mentioned above and then react the available excess carboxyl on the NP with a neutral molecule to prevent interactions with free amines from the conjugated proteins.
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I was able to coat ~5 mg of iron oxide nanoparticles with silica. After increasing the quantities (ten times) I lost uniformity and the particles were agglomerated. So, can anyone suggest how to synthesize water soluble, monodispersed, silica coated iron oxide nanoparticles( 30-70 nm) on a large scale?
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You can follow this article given below for controlling size of core-shell (Fe3O4@SiO2) nanostructures
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If anyone prepared before copper nanoparticles from copper chloride and ascorbic acid, I tried the method different times but always I get copper oxide, how to get rid of this or how to prevent its formation ? Is there any tried easy method to do that ?
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I‘d suggest you to filter the nanoparticles and keep them slightly wet in an 0.1%-1% solution of ascorbic acid this will keep them reduced and stable in oxidizing environmen. If you need them dry I‘d suggest directly vacuum drying the Cu np with excess of ascorbic acid and storing them in a very small, airtight container
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In a paper, I saw the synthesize of silver nanoparticles using ethanol and PVA(poly vinlyl alcohol). I exactly followed the same procedure as they did. But, as ethanol is very volatile, most of the ethanol is lost by evaporation during the synthesizing procedure because it requires heating. How do I overcome this problem?
I am attaching the paper
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Dear brother,
If you are synthesizing nanoparticles through green nanochemistry, than use water as a medium for the synthesis of nanoparticles, which is more advantageous than ethanol.
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Hello everyone,
I have some problems about producing ordered-magnetic silica core/shell nanoparticles. I attached a file what I have done also I added the references that I used to synthesis.
I tried different protocols but still i could not obtain monodisperse and ordered core/shell nanoparticles. I observed aggregated NPs as well as worm-shape NPs. I kept the samples in an ultrasonic water bath for 1 hour before TEM analysis. Furthermore, I could not see the silica shell clearly in TEM analysis, even if the nanoparticles were well dispersed in water.
Does anyone have idea why I have shapeless NPs and what is the crux of getting core/shell NPs?
Thank you in advance!
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After obtaining the nanoparticles in reverse micelles, verify their size on TEM. Maybe they have already been aggregated before adding TEOS, i.e. before getting the shell. Magnetic particles you apparently get from hydroxide. Perhaps you badly calcined it when you received the oxide.
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After heating of ZnO which is synthesized by co-precipitation method, its colour turns green. It should be white...
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This is interesting! You have to confirm the purity ZnO phase by XRD and EDS. If you sure that you were use high purity precusors and clean environment, colouring of the heated ZnO powder may indicate the presence defects which effect the electroninc, optical and even the magnetic properties of synthesized product. Therefore, these defects may enhance the absorption peak and shift it to higher wavelenghts UV-Vis spectrometer). I observed yollow colouring of my prepared ZnO nanorods.
please check out the article along with the thread below for more details:
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My test drug is insoluble water ( lipophilic). I want to load the drug to target brain mitochondria?
1. Which nanoparticle will be more appropriate?
2. how to confirm the drug loading?
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Hi researcher,
You can use the lipid-based nano-biopolymers that functionalized with targeting agents such as monosaccharides, antibodies, folic acid, etc. in which smart nanocarrier actively target the mitochondria membrane.
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Iron oxide nanoparticles show magnetic properties. Are nanozerovalent iron nanoparticles also magnetic in nature?
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Recommend Darius Arndt answer
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I need to conjugate gold nanoparticles with either a peptide or folate but need a linker between these and the gold. What ratio should I use to make the thiol react with the gold? What concentration of thiol should I use? I have Cyclohexane thiol from Sigma Aldrich.
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what kind of bond is between the thiol and the surface of gold NPs?
if NPs capped with citrate, can thiol react with COOH?
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This is all about the preparation of silver nanoparticles by sodium citrate reduction of silver nitrate in aqueous medium.
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It’s so easy to measure the surface charge of your particles by using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) device.
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I want to understand the concept of nanoparticles. nanoparticles are considered better due to their size but as nanoparticles are prepared from corresponding ions by taking up electron through reduction process. further, in bottom up process, nano-atom is agglomerated to form colloidal metal nanoparticles. if we consider the size as only criteria to consider nanoparticles as better choice in many applications, then ions are smaller in size compared to its nanoparticles.
please explain the concept....
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Single nanopaarticles can produce hundreds of ions
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we may faced problem in removing plant extract from silver nano particles. If we check pharmacological activity as such we may not able to discuss the exact mechanism by which these particles show the activity.
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Subha Kandiyar we are washing in order to remove the un-reacted moieties and the loosely bound capping agent. So that the surface of our nano are free for activities
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I have produced silver Nonparticles from Bacteria , but I cant get the Nonoparticles to use it in farther applications .
How can i get it from the solution ? I have tried cooling centfugation at 4c for 15 mins but it just gave me a brown color on the wall of the eppendorf, and the weight of the eppendorf doesn't change( before and after ) . what should i do and how can i get large amount from the Nanoparticles ?
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Increase the concentration of silver nitrate. Then washed your nanoparticles wit ethanol 2 times.
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For purification of silver nanoparticles through centrifugation,
After centrifugation at 12,000 rpm for 30 mins, it is diffcult to disperse again in water for washing to remove unwanted reactants. What is the possible solution for this?
Does it cause agglomeration at high speed (12,000 rpm)?
What is the recommended speed (rpm)?
How to dry the nano silver after centrifugation?
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Use ethanol instead of methanol. Wash 2 time with ethanol.....after drying you will get powder for of AgNPs
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I am interested in the synthesis of oligosaccharide nanoparticles. In literature Chitosan has been used to synthesize its nanoparticles and conjugated metal nanoparticle. Does amine group has any role in formation of its nano form? I request the experts of this field to guide me/ share the methods used for synthesizing and stabilizing carbohydrate (oligosaccharide) nanoparticle.
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You can hydrolyze starch or cellulose (cotton) and get water-soluble oligosaccharides. They will not be nanoparticles, i.e. solid dispersed systems. Hitosan is also a natural substance, but with a large molar mass. Therefore, it is not soluble in water and exists as a dispersion in water. Chitosan (oligosaccharide), for example with MM = 20, 38 kDa, is water soluble. Researchers offer polysaccharide nanoparticles consisting of chitosan (CS) and cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives. For this you need to conduct a complex synthesis. Amino groups are not responsible for imparting nanoform. The nanoform is given by the molar mass of chitosan. Amino groups interact with a proton in an acidic medium and give a positive charge to chitosan nanoparticles.
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If I need to synthesize magnetic alloy nanoparticle using two or more than two metal
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I will surely go through the link. Thanks for your cooperation mukesh.
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Dear Professors,
I find many researches emerging on the hybrid nanofluids wherein the nanoparticles are taken and mixed in conventional fluids. But I do not know the chemical or physical constraints to be taken into account while choosing such particles. Kindly let me know the clear micro-structural phenomenon by which two or more nanoparticles could be chosen for preparing the hybrid nanosuspensions.
Thank you.
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hi,
A simplest approach would be to test thermal conductivity of a fluid under use which is as per your need/choice and compare it with the thermal conductivity of the same fluid after adding the appropriate metal/alloy nanoparticles. Usually the addition of such metal nanoparticles enhances the thermal conductivity of the fluid.Easy said than done. You need to optimized on many levels. An arbitrary choice for fluid and type of nanoparticle may give erratic results or may even cause degradation of the device under study. Just make sure you do the thorough research before you actually start mixing things together.
Regards
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Tried to prepare quercetin nanoparticles with Poly allylamine hydrochloride , incubation was for .5 hour , but after centrifugation for 10 mins at 10,000 rpm got false pellet . what could be the possible reasons for this spoil ?
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The concentration of nanoparticles precursor, addition rate and types of precipitating reagents, reaction time, temperature, stirring rate, used reaction medium, concentration of capping ligand etc. are the important factors for nanoparticles synthesis. You have mentioned incomplete recipe. You can follow the following literature.
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@ Nermin Zakhas asked me a question via PM, and as this forum is not a consultancy service, I will post so all experts can contribute.
Dear Dr. Alan,
I am trying to prepare magnetite nanoparticles using coprecipitation method and NaoH. Malvern analyzer showed good size. The zetapotential showed positive 17 mv. Can you please help me with might went wrong ? Is not magnetite nanoparticles prepared with alkaline medium should be negatively charged ? How can i overcome this ?
Thanks a lot for your time and help.
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What is your reason for thinking you have 'gone wrong'? Many metal oxides will be positively charged at pH's around neutral or even alkaline (you don't tell me the actual pH). At acidic pH's (e.g. < 2) then magnetite will dissolve. At higher pH's, Fe(OH)3 will precipitate. There is a limited pH range over which magnetite will not chemically interact with its surroundings. The major factor affecting zeta potential is pH.
If you have genuine nanoparticles (< 100 nm) then your colloidal suspension should be transparent (probably colored though) with no precipitation.
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Nanoparticles, modified methods
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looking forward for more specific question. Thank you
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Hi
Ive bought gold nanoparticles in the past but feel a higher concentration would be interesting to work with than is currently feasible for me to buy commercially. If I purchased a gram of chloroauric acid what kind of final amount of 10nm nanometer gold nanoparticles would I, realistically as someone who is familiar with the synthesis only through examining the literature, be looking at? If anyone has examples of stock solutions theyve created thatd be great.
Thanks for your time
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If you will synthesize gold nanoparticles from 1 g of chloroauric acid, then you need to take a large excess of citrate. 1 g is 0.0029 mol of acid. Take a 10-fold excess of a quotation of 0.02 moles and you will get about 0.0029 moles of 10 nm gold nanoparticles. This is 0.57 g of gold powder. During the synthesis it is necessary to take the concentrations that are known in the experiment.
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Which term is more apt in which case generally we use zetapotential for nanoparticles?
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See attached figure.
Positive counter-ions first attach to the negatively charged particle, forming a rigid layer called the Stern layer. The particle continues to attract more counter-ions but now these counter-ions are being repelled by other counter-ions in the vicinity and by the Stern layer itself. This second region is called the diffuse layer and together, both layers are referred to as the double layer.
Surface potential is the electrical potential between the surface of the particle and any point in the suspending liquid. The slip plane is where the Stern layer and diffuse layer meet and it is here the electrical potential is called the zeta potential.
Basically, the higher the absolute value of the zeta potential, the more stable the dispersion (particles are repelling each other). To aggregate the particles, you can change the zeta potential by changing the environment of the particles (pH, ions present, ionic strength, etc.) or by modifying the surface of the particles directly (active surface agents, polymers, etc.). A rule of thumb to aggregate the particles is to bring the zeta potential to between -25mV and +25mV. Hope it helps!
More info:
Google search this pdf -> Zeta Potential : A Complete Course in 5 Minutes
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This is my first attempt at making PLGA nanoparticles using the nano precipitation method. I've developed my protocol based on a variety of papers I've read online.
I'm using dichloromethane (DCM) for my solvent, and followed a simple protocol: dissolve 100mg PLGA into 10 ml DCM. Slowly add PLGA solution via drop wise addition (20 ml/hr) into stirring DI water. Evaporate DCM in hood stirring for 2 hours. Centrifuge at 15,000 RPM for 30 minutes to collect nanoparticles.
Unfortunately I wasn't able to collect any nanoparticles, and during my formation a sticky white residue formed at the surface of the solution and on the sides of the beaker. Is this something that you've seen before? Any idea how to stop it from happening again? Thanks.
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Dear Grace,
You may have to use suitable surfactant or stabilizer to get uniform NPs. You need it to regulate the growth and final particle size of ur formulation.
Since you are planning to crosslink the surface of the NPs, perhaps u choose surfactant with structural composition that cannot interfere with the process. There are range of them available with different composition.
I think incorporation of surfactant or stabilizer is more critical in NPs synthesis than replacing the dichloromethane with acetone because the solvent can be use if appropriate surfactant or stabilizer is in corporated in the dispersion medium. Pls check the methodology in the attached article.
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I am using PVP as a capping agent for nanoparticle preparation. How can I remove PVP after formation of nanoparticle, which is supported by carbon material? Thanks!
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Remove PVP by dissolving it in water. Add water and centrifuge the nanoparticles until the PVP is removed.
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What are the differences between stokes radius, radius of gyration and hydrodynamic radius ?? and how can they be measured (size exclusion chromatography, DLS, SAXS) ??
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Strongly recommend that you look up each term on the web. That way you can learn about them and answer any questions that you may have. Learning how to research questions on your own is a critical skill that is best acquired as early as possible in your studies.
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Hello all, Iam working currently on nasal insitu gels and nanoparticles for preparing insitu gels can any one suggest me new polymers .I have gone through literature but need a new polymer.
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Can someone help with the calculation of concentration of silver nanoparticles prepared from 2.41e+008+/-0.00e+000 particles/ml. Sample dilution is 1:10000
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You can also use Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) to get the concentration of silver in your nanoparticles. You will need to make standards for a linear calibration curve, which you use measure concentration of different dilutions of your sample then give you close values after considering dilution factors. Once you have the mass concentration from AAS and size analysis of your nanoparticles you can use that and average size of the nanoparticle (diameter) and if you know the shape you can go ahead and calculate concentration of your nanoparticles.
Number of atoms per particle=(volume of particle/Volume of unit cell)*number of atoms per unit cell (4atoms in fcc) then calculate mass of AgNPs=(# of atoms/particle *MW of Ag)/ NA. AgNPs concentration = Mass con(from AAS)/Mass of each nanoparticles.
It is more accurate this way!
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Hi every body,
Can anyone tell me how prepare chitosan nanoparticle ( preparation with ionic gelatin) without agglomeration after freeze drying or centrifugation. Because agglomerated particles have not measurable size with TEM and SEM. I used 5:1 (CHITOSAN:TPP) for synthesis and tried evading agglomeration using 0.05% CTAB.
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I used trehalose before freeze drying the chitosan nanoparticles. But as Dr. Rawle explains dried particles are greater than nanometer size when measured by DLS.
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Dear Respected RG Experts
What are the possible changes in the chemical / physical properties of crystalline oxide nanoparticles (prepared by co-precipitation method, well dried, finely powdered) stored for long time in room temperature (kept in air tight container, placed inside a desiccator along with silica gel)?
Is there any approximate time duration / limit for the observed changes, if any?
What is the best way for long time storing of these prepared samples so as to retain its desirable properties (avoiding unwanted changes)?
Please explain with suitable examples.
Your kind views and suggestions are highly appreciated and most welcome.
Thank you
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Dear colleague Elangbam Chitra Devi
Have a nice time and good day.
Peace be up on you your question's readers and all RG members.
There are many factors affect materials properties, One of these factors is Physical aging which can be divided into short and long term aging. It has positive or negative effects on the materials, thin, thick films or bulk...etc. The attached papers gives you aging's conclusion.
I wish this is useful and help you.
Yours
A. EL-Denglawey
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I have oleic acid capped iron-oxide nanoparticles which needs to be analyzed using ICP to determine the %mass of iron in the nanoparticle suspension. These nanoparticles being hydrophobic, can be suspended in THF, chloroform, and hexane, but readily precipitate in a mildly polar solvent like acetone. I have tried dissociating these particles based on literature reports which state the use of Aqua regia overnight, but a black oily layer(presumably the nanparticles) remains on the surface. I am presently trying to dissociate the nanoparticles in concentrated nitric acid overnight, but the oily layer seems to be still present. How can these nanoparticles be digested effectively for ICP elemental analysis?
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Can you first remove the oleic acid with solvent extraction?
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Hi
Im functionalising gold nanoparticles with thiolated oligos. Part of all (Or all that Im aware) protocols require spinning the final solution down at 13,300 rpm for 20 minute cycles to seperate any remaining unattached oligos. It seems like large amounts of the gold aggregate in this method even after 1 spin cycle. When the final product is examined under atomic force microscope this seems to be confirmed as there are large aggregates in solution and no smaller structures visible.
Does anyone have any experience with this method or advice?
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You need to increase the concentration of oliges in order to prevent any chance for aggregation. in addition that try to monitor the absorption AuNps after the addition as well as try to check the speed of your centrifuge
Regards
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In the past I have performed PEI/siRNA dissociation experiments using SDS (0.5%) and was able to achieve full recovery of the siRNA when I ran the samples on an agarose gel. Recently I have been forming the same nanoparticles at the same N:P ratios, however I have had to form them in a lot smaller volumes where by every 2ul instead of every 10ul has the amount of siRNA which is required. I then try to dissociate these nanoparticles using SDS, but repeatedly I have been unable to achieve even minimal recovery of the siRNA.
Has anyone else had this problem?  
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Hi Deniz/Emma
I m doing siRNA PEI quantification in pH12. I have a doubt, is it necessary to release the complex. If so , how you done it other pH change method.
Because seeing papers mostly, they quantitated in pH 12 or 1N Naoh.
Thanks
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Hello,
I want to make stable oil based ferrofluid from MnZn ferrite nanoparticles prepared via hydrothermal synthesis. I tried to coat it using NH4OH+Oleic acid and then added acid so as to remove water and then added Oils. In another method, after coating, I removed the water by evaporation and then added the oil. But in both the cases, my ferrofluid is not stable and particles got separated after 1 day. 
Is there any better way??
Thanks in Advance.
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Hi Mekap
Can you please share more details about the synthesis itself? What is the coating you have initially straight after the synthesis? Are they superparamagnetic (or very very low coercivity)? 
Best
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Are they available from any commercial manufacturer?
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As other people stated that individual crystals are non-porous but their aggregates are porous. If you are using your particles in dispersion form (Not as solid powder). Then you may avoid aggregation by proper dispersion of your particles at individual particle level. See following paper.
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I know that k-1 is used to measure the Debye length in an aqueous solution of salt. k-1 is affected by valency and concentration of salt. However in the case of different nanoparticle (say silver nano particle), is there any standard formula or model to calculate the Deby length for the same?
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The thickness of the double electrical layer can be calculated from the formula that is in the attached file in the file.
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We have the purified protein with the concentration of 80 microgram/ml. We had synthesize protein based nano particles with 80 microgram/ml of protein. But, after NPs formation the concentration of protein was low. What's the reason?   
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Could you please explain how the NPs-Proteins were prepared? 
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