Science topic

Nanomedicine - Science topic

The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
Questions related to Nanomedicine
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How do you see the nearest progress in nanomedicine?
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Researchers are deeply focused in nanomedicines for a variety of medical applications. These include more efficient drug delivery and targeting, as well as personalised nanomedicine, in which a drug is administered to a patient based on their genetic profile.
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Nano-medicines are widely used in Oncology but are their actions on specific target cancer cells or they act on nirman cells also?
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Nanomedicine can provide a targeted drug delivery system that would be ideal for cancer treatment. It is a system which releases the drug at a preselected bio site in a controlled manner. Nanoparticle (NP)-based drug delivery systems have been shown to have many advantages in cancer treatment such as, good pharmacokinetics (PK), precise targeting of tumor cells, reduction of side effects thereby making a significant impact on cancer treatment.
Specially designed nanoparticles deliver medicines like chemotherapy straight to the tumor. They don't release the medicine until they reach it. This stops the drugs from damaging healthy tissues around the tumor.
The small size of nanoparticles allows them to deliver medicines into areas of the body that would normally be hard to reach. One example is the blood-brain barrier, which prevents toxic substances from getting into the brain. It also blocks some medicines. Nanoparticles are small enough to cross this barrier, which makes them a useful treatment for brain cancer.
By incorporating small-molecule drug conjugates (SMDCs) and miniaturized biologic drug conjugates (mBDCs), including peptide–drug conjugates into controlled-release polymeric NPs for multistep delivery to tumors, it could be possible to combine both the superior PK and tumor accumulation of NPs with deep penetration and specific tumor cell targeting of released SMDCs and mBDCs for optimal targeted cancer therapy.
So, cancer nanomedicine could usher in a new era of successful targeted therapy.
Best.
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I am doing research on nano medicine. When I was measuring the size of NPs using DLS instrument, I could get hydrodynamic diameter. I wanna know if there's a way to calculate the core diameter using hydrodynamic diameter.
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Tejashwini Lnu Use electron microscopy or SAXS for the (metal/electron rich) core.
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Greeting
I am curious to know whether it is possible to explain and analyze targeted drug delivery methods with the mathematical and physical relationships that govern them, such as the Peppas Higuchi model?
What other models are available in this field?
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Dear Farrokhfar Valizadeh Harzand, many approaches are dealing with modelling drug delivery with respect to the stimulus-responsive vehucules. Please have a look at the following documents. My Regards
DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73678
10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104238
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For example, DNA has functional groups such as methyl groups and nanoparticles can interact with them and alter them. I was wondering if we have any technique by which we can quantify them or maybe do a qualitative analysis. Any leads would be great, Thank :)
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Nanoparticle are used in Nanomedicine. Doctors have made it clear that these nps are not biodegradable; therefore, may cause damage to cells of tissues of organs they were used to treat. Is it safer to use Femto-particles which are products of Quantum Entanglement? Fps are proton - antiproton pairs.
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Particle size in products used in medicine, pharma, food, etc. are extremely important as explained in the attached paper.
Also note: THERE ARE MANY NANO-SIZED PRODUCTS APPROVED FOR HUMAN USE IN THE MARKET (including recent Viral Vaccines).
Equally important is PARTICLE NUMBER PER VOLUME (see the 2nd paper attached).
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I have biofunctionalized o-MWCNT with 2 recombinant proteins; the proteins had 10 histidine tags to attach to the o-MWCNT. After dispersing in media (without serum) to incubate with cells less than 24h o-MWCNT intensively aggregate (37C incubator). I have changed the media (less glucose and salt) and tried to improve biofunctionalization (for better coating), although the measures were inefficient.
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Discussion of the problem in this place raises questions that need to be constantly asked to each other. If you want me to help you, write in detail the composition of your mixture and your actions, your problems in a personal letter.
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In targeted drug delivery, when nanoparticles release their drugs, how can we estimate the concentration of the drugs at the tumor?
Is there any practical example where multiple nanoparticles release a single drug?
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fluorescent nanoparticles or using fluorescent agents loading at nanoparticles could be a good idea
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Nanomedicine - Future Medicine;
International Journal of Nanomedicine - Dove Press;
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine
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Dear Professor Kang
Based on the similar scope, in terms of Impact Factor (IF) and cite score (SC), the journal of Nanomedicine: Nanotech, Biology, and Medicine has the highest IF and CS, which are about 5.1, 10.3, respectively.
Regarding the time of first decision and time to acceptance, Nanomedicine (Future Medicine) is the fastest journal with one week to 1stdecision and three weeks for acceptance among other journals.
In my opinion, another important factor is the acceptance rate. Based on my search on different websites, the International Journal of Nanomedicine (Dove Press) and Nanomedicine (Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine) are nowhere near as acceptor as Nanomedicine, which has an acceptance rate of 80%.
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Targeted drug delivery through nanoparticle, the success rate of drug delivery at the tumor is 5%.
Is there any other success rate reference?
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In drug delivery, for efficacy, the drug concentration needs to be within LEC and MSC. How can we define that concentration?
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minimum effective concentration: The minimum concentration of a drug in serum required to produce a desired pharmacological effect in most patients
maximum concentration The peak concentration that a drug achieves in a specified compartment after the drug has been administrated and before administration of a second dose. Cmax is the opposite of Cmin—which is the minimum (or trough) concentration that a drug achieves after dosing.
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Hi everyone,
I have been trying to find any method for co-culture. My aim is to introduce a ScFv construct into the nanocarrier. I researched but I could not find an exact method. May you help me ? Also, can I design a nanocarrier with receptors? Is it possible? :)
Thanks and have a nice day.
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How do you think artificial intelligence can affect medicine in real world. There are many science-fiction dreams in this regard!
but how about real-life in the next 2-3 decades!?
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AI, deep learning, machine learning, and related disciplines are giving us a huge advantage in searching through the space of all possible hypotheses about the relationship between input data and output data.
Translated into medicine, AI et all allow us to make relationships between diseases and their real causes within extremely complex causal networks present inside of our cells/bodies.
This search, when done cleverly, can be fully automatized. According to my understanding from research on the prediction of TdP, VT, and VF arrhythmias, this is the near future of medical research.
Automatic mapping of all relationships present within living cells/bodies using huge databases of collected data is giving a strategical advantage to each country when it is pursued within its science.
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Can someone help me on what should be the major content to write while writing a literature review on the use of nanomaterials in nanomedicine.
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I agreed with Mohd Mughees, You also can add on the mechanism of action for particular targeted disease and talk about nano-safety for future use in clinical settings. Best of luck!
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I cannot find the IC50 value of 5-FU against HT-144 cancer cells, as determined via cytotoxicity analysis. I shall be thankful if someone help me with relevant literature.
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Be sure to check out GDSC database. To my knowledge, it is one of the biggest (if not the biggest) database of cancer cell lines and anticancer drugs available.
There is a IC50 value reported for 5-F in HT-144. However you will have to dive into the references to have a good idea of how the value was estimated and if it fits your conditions. As a reference compared to other cell lines or treatments it is still quite useful.
This link should take you directly to where you could find the IC50 for 5-f in that cell line.
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Does anyone know what the preferred concentration of chitosan coated PLGA nanoparticles for MTT assay? I am starting with a 10mg/ml concentration and have not gotten good results with a 1:2 serial dilution - any suggestions?
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MTT is a colourimetric test to measure cell proliferation. Use it if you want to measure the cytotoxicity of your nanoparticles in cells.
1.- Seed cells in a 96 well polystyrene 2.- Make series of dilution of your nanoparticles an add to the cells for 24h. 3.-Add 10ul of MTT for 4h, 4.- remove the medium and then solubilized the crystals of formazan with a solvent p/e DMSO/detergent, 5.- then look for the optical density at 570
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The main (and generalistic) advantages and disadvantages of each type of nanosystem have been widely pointed out in literature. However, the advantages and disadvantages stated are too broad and sometimes overlap. Of course, it can depend on several factors: the targeted tissues; the loaded compounds; the type of administration; the final formulation; industrial scalability; among others. This way, this question aims at opening a debate to untangle and explore further the potentialities of each nanosystem and, more specifically, the (1) differential and (2) more specific applicabilities of each one towards the right final choice for the preconized biomedical application. Personal experiences and opinions are deeply welcomed!
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Choose polymer based systems as they are more stable than lipid based.
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We all know nanotechnology used in many extraordinary applications in today's world. So what do you think about the future applications of nanotechnology? Where are we going?
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Significant questions will surely rise, Kemal Düzkar . Will Moore's Law be valid the next year? If yes, we need to bring in nanoscale microprocessing circuits replicating their macroscopic kin. For that to happen, the easiest way out I imagine would be to fabricate MEMS circuit elements using nanoelectronic technologies. You already have nanoscale inductors and capacitors being facbricated in labs, and Landauer's concepts can help us visualize low-dissipative resistors. Recently a whole IC was fabricated too. What might be next- an Intel processor measuring a few atoms across haha!
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Nano-based approaches for cancer therapeutics are undoubtedly important to tackle cancer. However, it is widely known that each cancer type has its own peculiarities and heterogeneity. This way, which are the main aspects / considerations you consider a "signature" and unique for each cancer type in what concerns nanomedicine-based therapies?
#cancer #nano #nanomedicine
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Hi dear Miguel, depending on the type of cancer, nano-materials, and nano-carriers with unique properties can be used for treatment. Liposomes and polymers with unique configuration can act as carriers that pass through the body's immune system due to their biocompatibility and release the drug when it reaches the site of cancer. The function of these substances can even be combined with other methods like chemical and electrochemical treatment and improve treatment.
I think following articles can be useful.
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More then 30 nanomedicine has been approve by FDA and in clinical practice. How they overcome the challenges such as large scale production, toxicity issues, instability in body or storage conditions etc which are the hurdles for commercialization of new experimental nanomedicine. My question is then how the approved nanomedicine overcome the mentioned challenges?
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Off target accumulation of nanomedicine such as in the liver, spleen is a major concern for clinical translation of Nanomedicine.
However, this crisis is prominent for some of the nanedicines not applicable for all.
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I'm interested in the required knowledge,skills and branches of science that I may need to study in order to make a research in nano-medicine for cancer therapy. A list of references or something similar would be of great help to me. Thanks for all your kind responses.
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I am new in this field but my understanding that someone need knowledge and skill for extraction of reducing agent, synthesis of nano-particle and characterization of nanoparticle by different types of microscopy ( SEM, TEM, XRD ... etc) and studying applications ( antimicrobial activity, anti cancer activity, etc)
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Dear Sir/Madam, I invited as a guest editor from high quality journals to handle special issues. If anyone can prepare a review similar to my review papers, particularly about a natural product in cancer prevention with focus on the structure activity relationship and mechanism of action, please kindly let me know to send an official letter. At this stage you should just send the title, authors and affiliation and abstract. Please kindly let me know as soon as you can. The suggested deadline for sending review is about 3 month. Best wishes, Suggeted topic: Genotoxicity of different agents and possble protection. Reducing side effects of radiotherapy and chomotherapy. Next generation of cancer therapy; Natural products. Natural products as novel therapeutic compounds. Radiation protection.
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What is names of the journals
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Which areas will develop further and gain momentum?
Which ones will be showing less interest?
Major targets? Major hopes? Which bounderies need to be overtaken? Which ones will remain unmatched?
Which is / will be The greatest challenge?
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I am planning to do a phototoxicity experiment in which I need to apply an UV Energy lower than the highest non citotoxic energy. Based on literature it should be around 5J/cm^2 for my cell line so I dont know if I can use my UV lamp and at which distance (5 cm or more) in order not to kill the cells with the irradiance. Could someone help me with the calculations?
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The most accurate way is to use a UV power sensor to measure directly. Not sure what the cheapest option is but we use the following one:
There might be other ways to estimate, but this is probably the most consistent and reliable as power may change with the life of the bulb as well.
Hope this helps!
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I need your precious suggestions,
How may i carry out an experiment, The use of nano-medicine for burned wounds. .
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There are several papers and literature on this topic, please see:
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What do you think are the major barriers or causes which stop nano particles from entering into mainstream treatment of lethal diseases in spite of success at lab scale?
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It is so challenging to get stable nanoparticles with high drug loading. Moreover, active targeting has many limitations that impede its applicability.
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BSA is not expensive as compared to HSA.
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Dear researcher,
If you are following the nanoparticle-based therapeutic procedure for in vivo applications, I do not recommend it; because it can lead to immunogenicity in the body serum.
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Nano-contribution for cardiovascular disease is quite vast. So, search for marketable nano-medicine for Cardiovascular treatment.
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yes BMC patented innovative mollecular need developpement and finances.
BMC is very active in HTA ,POTECT CARDIOVASCULAIRE,AND NEURODEGENERESCENCES,... but need finacial partenariat
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I am trying to determine the best possible method to measure the impedance on my monolayer of MDCK (Madin Darby Canine Kidney) epithelial cells. 
Does this require a specific metallic coating (via sputter coater or another method) on/ under (as a membrane the cells would grow on) my monolayer or would the liquid media itself simple provide the conductive element required?
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Our company develops 3D cell barrier culture systems for in vitro study of virtually any cell barrier, and the system comes equipped with both a Fluid Perfusion Unit and a Trans-Endothelial/Epithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER) Measurement Unit! The use of a vessel-shaped 3D environment has been proven more effective than 2D systems like Transwell (
Article Santaguida S, Janigro D, Hossain M, Oby E, Rapp E, Cucullo L...
), and our advanced TEER Measurement Unit allows for frequency sweeps between 0.1-1,000 Hz, automated time point sampling, logging of data to Excel, and additional measurement of phase angle for cell capacitance calculations! For those that are committed to Transwell use, we also have a TEER Measurement Unit that is compatible with nearly all Transwell products (Endohm cell cup chamber, STX2 "chopstick" electrodes, etc) and allows the user to greatly expand their testing capabilities with Transwell equipment. Additionally, we have smaller modular systems that connect to microscope-friendly cell culture modules: i.e., a miniaturized 3D cell culture system that you can use right under your microscope! If you or anybody on this thread is interested in learning more, I encourage you to visit www.flocel.com or email me at djanigro@flocel.com, thank you!
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....
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Bhasma is classical calcinated nano medicine. Mandoor is mentioned as one the main ingredient of Bhringraj Tailam. Many or practicinor use kashisha bhasma also in hair oil. How can we justify the effect of these bhasma on hair treatment. Bhasma has poor absorption through skin. Why classical texts mention mandoor like mineral in hair oil?
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Hair is dead. It is just keratin and it responds to anything that modifies protein. If a compound does not reach the follicles, then it is just another cosmetic product.
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I've experimented sterilization with autoclave, but the melting point of used polymer polycaprolactone is 60 ° C and so it is not suitable for my formula...and so on sterilization with filtration because I have microparticles.
gamma radiation?
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what if the polymer is damaged by heat? or by energy-containing methods, like beta (e-BEAM, which no-one has mentioned) or gamma radiation? Filtration affects the constituents of the polymer (e.g. solid content). Please stop repeating yourselves, and cutting and pasting, but THINK!
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For a research i'm working on, I've been reading different articles and have seen different protocols for the preparation of liposomes.  
The article that i have been reading and basing my research on, is using a 3:1 ratio of chloroform/methanol, while the SOP of my university is using a 1:1 ratio for the dissolution of the lipids. Both procedures allow the formation of 200 nm liposomes. 
How much does this matter for the preparation of the liposomes and which ratio should I use?
The mentioned article is: 
Corbo, C., Molinaro, R., Taraballi, F., Toledano Furman, N. E., Sherman, M. B., Parodi, A., … Tasciotti, E. (2016). Effects of the protein corona on liposome-liposome and liposome-cell interactions. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 11, 3049–3063. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S109059
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Dear Hassan,
Interesting question. The most commonly used solvents during the preparation of liposomes is mixture or combination of chloroform and methanol. The ratio used in most of the published article is Chloroform: Methanol 2:1 (v/v). You need know that these solvents are used for dissolving phospholipids, drug (lipophilic) other formulation ingredients such as cholesterol, stearyl amine, dicetyl phosphate  etc.. The reason to use the combination instead of single solvent is better solubility of lipids and other ingredients. 
The use of solvents have no effect on the liposomal physicochemical characteristics like particle size, entrapment efficiency etc... Irrespective of what solvent you use, you have to remove the solvent by evaporation during the thin film formation. The obtained thin film stored under vaccum overnight to remove the final traces of solvents. However, if you are concerned about the toxocity of your liposomal product, you may go for methods like heating method or mozafari method. But if your drug molecule is lipophilic, then entrapment efficiency is low by these methods.
Finally to conclude the hundred of article published on liposomal preparation methods uses 2:1 ratio of choloform: methanol.
Hope this information is helpful for you.
Regards
PVSN
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I'am a student in the final year of M.Sc.+ M.Tech in Nanotechnology, I would like to work on a project focused on the biological applications of Nanotechnology like drug delivery, anti-cancer, nanomedicine and bio-sensors. The project will be a part of my master degree final semester coursework and will commence from January 2018. I have attached my CV for any information regarding my qualifications and research experience.
Any prospective leads and suggestions would be highly appreciated. 
Thank you.
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 Dear Yash,
you can work on Nanoparticle synthesis and their biological application in translational research. 
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I'm working on a project on drug delivery system. My team is researching on the conjugation of HPMC (a semi-synthesized polymer) and Zein (a protein extracted from corn). If anyone knows any information about how to conjugate those two (maybe make them become a micelle we suppose), please let me know. Thank you so much for your support. You are helping to create a new tool for advanced nanomedicine application in enhancing the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs!
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Hydrophilic-hydrophobic polymer blend for modulation of crystalline changes and molecular interactions in solid dispersion. go through this article 
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I need to know how to change pH during release from pH 1,2, 6,8 and 7.4. the amount of HCl, NaOH used full steps in details.  and which method is preferred 
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Hi Milad,
Have a look at these literature, you may find answer to your question in them:
Advances in oral nano-delivery systems for colon targeted drug ...
by S Hua - ‎2015
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Controlled delivery of nanoparticles to the colon for tumour targeting ...
by Y Ma - ‎2015
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Large intestine-targeted nanoparticle-releasing oral vaccine to control ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov › NCBI › Literature › PubMed Central (PMC)
by Q Zhu - ‎2012
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ROS Measurement
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You can monitor singlet oxygen production by chemical method with DPBF (1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran) in organic solutions and with ADMA (anthracene-9,10-diyl-bis-methylmalonate) in aqueous solution. 
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I am trying to transform S.aureus/E.coli bacterial cells with naked Iron Oxide nanoparticles (200-250nm) with the aim of generating bacteria with magnetic properties. I am bombarding cells in 1ml suspension made of PBS and 0.75M Sorbitol. However, I am unable to confirm transformation after bombardment. There are a lot of particles in the suspension after the bombardment that respond to magnets but how can I confirm whether these particles are inside the cells, outside the cells or attached to the bacteria from outside? I am using 500ug of nanoparticles per bombardment and cells in PBS (not in media) because bombarding them in nutrient medium may cause them to grow and eventually lose the particles.
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You can always conduct TEM analysis of your bacterial samples to determine where the nanoparticles are located within the cell. It will take approximately 3 days to prepare your sample and you will need to section the cells (immobilised in resin) to get worthwhile images. 
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Hello, I am working on synthesis of nano medicine in conjugation.For that I have to prepare silver nano particles through reduction method using NaOH as a reducing agent and silver salt as an oxidising agent while the flow of reaction pH of the solution mixture will be reached up to 8 which will mark the end of reaction. I am wondering for the reason why pH 8 why not less or more. What is the speciality of pH 8 which will mark end of reaction and synthesis of desire product??
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pH play important role in the size of nanoparticles.  At high pH reduction rate is high. At low pH (below 5) instead of reduction oxidation will occur.  At very high pH (above 9, 10) reduction rate will be too much high resulting an aggregation of your nanoparticles.  So that is why pH 8 is desirable in order to synthesized smaller size nanoparticles
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Hi, I am working upon nano medicines. Drugs are made targeted to the site of action. So, I am wondering for how a drug can be made a targeted one. How does it reach to specific area without prior loss or being harmed?
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Hi,
Your question is based on an open research topic which needs a lot of explanations. but there are few important things to be considered.
1- specific site targeted drug.
2- Ideal polymers
3- if sustained release, then particle size is the most important.
You can find many papers on each site specific delivery system. I hope this will help.
Regards
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I am aware already of emulsion-based agents and certain polymer nanoparticle agents.
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Hi, Andrea - thank you for the paper. Looks interesting. Take care!
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actually particles less than 5 nm are rapidly cleared from the circulation through extravasation or renal clearance and when the size ranges increases to 15  micrometers accumulation of particles may occur, i wish to know is there any required particle size of nano formulation to target various cancer cells...
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The ability to target/reach a cancerous tissue is not only dependent on the size. With a size between 5 and 200-300 nm it should be possible. Particles below 5 nm can be exretated by renal filtration, bigger particles can be taken up by the RES. But all these features depend a lot on other factors, e.g. surface charge/zeta potential, stealth effect of the particle (PEGylation), etc.
There is a nice review about nanomedicine approved by the authorities or that is in ongoing clinical trials ("Nanomedicine in cancer therapy: Challenges, opportunities, and clinical applications" by Witzigmann et al.).
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I am trying to make PLGA nanoparticles, I need it to be ~100nm.
I am using different methods, with the nanoprecipitation, this is the protocol:
76mg of PLGA (MW 12 kDa, 50:50 lactide/glycolide molar ratio). Prepared in 5mL of acetone. I heat with stirring for moments to dissolve the polymer. Then, I add 14mg of Pluronic1 F-108. Add them to aqueous (50 ml) solution under vigorous magnetic stirring and left to stir overnight (rate of addition of organic phase (1 mL/min) to aqueous phase).
The next day, I centrifuge at 10,000 rpm for 20 minutes (Not sure if I should convert that to xg or not), wash twice with diH2O (I get a problem in resuspend them, they adhere too much to the wall of the tube (50mL tube)). I found aggregations when I used higher speed and removed them by quick spin the sample and take the supernatant.
Then, I snap freeze them using liquid nitrogen, and finally lyophilized under vacuum for 48 hours. 
For the characterization part: I am using Malvern Zetasizer ZS90. Reconstitute them after lyophilization in PBS "also tired diH2O". I add around 2-5mL. Then, serial dilution, 10uL of the sample into 990uL, the second is 20uL of the diluted into 980uL.
Every time I try different SOP, I got a very poor sample, either the Z-average (88-900) Or PDI which is always above 0.1 (0.3-0.8). And most of the time it stop and asks me to change the sample because it's poor. 
I tried two samples and changed the following: 
Speed of adding organic phase, it was drop-wise and 1mL/min
Speed of stirring during addition of organic phase, I used 360rpm
What should I change? The concentrations? The characterization part? Should I try different solvent or surfactant? The speed of centrifuge? 
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Hi Ahmed 
what is the size of your nanoparticles before freeze drying? 
You could try with Tween 80  or Vitamin E TPGS instead of P-F 108, as surfactants.
Also try to reduce the time you leave the particles under stirring before centrifugation ( I used to go for 1 hour).  
Also, I used to do  2 centrifugation steps, the first at lower speed (around 8000 rpm) to collect the first pellet,, followed by centrifugation of the supernatant at higher speed (11000 rpm). 
Hope this helps 
best
Clara
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i am not an expert in membrane science, 
but i was wondering if that possible to deplete/remove or deactivate all glycoprotein on cell membrane by adding some chemical agent in cell culture medium?
if yes, can you give me the related article ? and the name of the chemical agent 
if not, maybe you can explain to me, and correct my misunderstanding 
thanks
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Hi Wei-Xiong,
I presume you are trying to remove the glycan attached at the surface of plasma membrane proteins. You can treat your cells with PNGase which will remove surface glycans (you may need to co-treat you cells with neuraminidase too to improve PNGase efficiency). Also, if you want to prevent glycosylation of newly synthesized proteins you may want to treat your cells with Tunicamycin - but it will likely alter the trafficking of proteins to the cell surface. We have been using these strategies in this study http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23503728
Hope this helps. Norbert
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We are running this in-vivo experiment that involves coating of vicryl suture with a protein to assess its effect on wound healing. I would like to confirm that the coating was successful but to do this, I would need to chemically detach the protein from suture before ELISA.
I would appreciate suggestion from anyone with experience in this.
Regards
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Hi Evaristus, I have to admit that I am not familiar with vicryl sutures, but looking at the structure, I'm inclined to say that the proteins can form amide bonds by protein primary amines attacking the C=O bonds.   
If there is a covalent bond formed, then proteins will not be detached by boiling in 1% SDS. They will be detached when incubated with trypsin or proteinase K.
(BTW I'm in lab 130 at BRI, so we can talk)
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My question is caused by a dual voice of research papers I have read. On one hand graphene or it's derivatives is used in composites with potential medical applications (stents, implants). I've even encountered one where a nitiol implant was covered with graphene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3622089/) without adverse effects to cells.
On the other hand graphene on it's own is not the friendliest material to handle. From rash in case of direct contact with the skin to news that with it's small size graphene particles can get inside cells and destroy them from within. A dental filling with graphen (to increase the durability) was deemed too toxic to use in patients.
I'm hoping for some personal opinions or other infromation on that matter
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  1. Please go through my paper- Graphene oxides show angiogenic properties.
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Hi, I am trying to administer orally MPs (approx 400 um in size, disperse in water) to ICR mice but facing difficulties like aggreagtion of MPs in gavage tip or in syringe. I tried different size gavage use for mice and rats.   I will appreciate any suggestion to solve this problem.Thanks
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Try by spending in a liquid and adding through a tubing via funnel. May get you good result...
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I want to study aggregation of my particles in blood in vitro. I have found this paper http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1549963407000056 but I have some questions about attenuation and refractive coefficient of the sample. 
Thanks. 
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Teresa - Bonjour!  
En ce qui concerne DLS dans le sang, être très prudent!
DLS in whole blood will not be possible - the number of large particles (e.g., platelets ~ 1 um, red cells at ~7-8 um, and white blood cells at ~ 12 um) is overwhelming and will not only violate all of the DLS physical assumptions, but will also simply be far to opaque to work.
Nanoparticle aggregation in this context will primarily be driven by the features of plasma, not of the cellular component.  So consider pursuing the question in plasma from which all of the cellular material has been thoroughly centrifuged out.  Additionally, it's important to use plasma rather than serum, for these experiments.  Plasma has all of the clotting factors intact, while serum will be largely depleted of them.  Because the clotting factors are so critical to particle surface interactions, you'll want them included in the assay.  
As you'll be using plasma, it will also be important to determine how best to anticoagulate the sample.  Common anticoagulants are a problem -  EDTA or citrate will bind divalent cations and distort your conclusions on the basis of DLVO effects.  Heparin is a large, polydisperse polyelectrolyte that also will behave unpredictably.  I'd recommend using a direct thrombin inhibitor as the anticoagulant such that the plasma will remain as 'physiological' as is possible.
Because plasma is not water, you'll need to take independent measurements of viscosity of the fluid to allow appropriate interpretation of the autocorrelation curves from the DLS rig.  
Lastly, assuming that your cool material survives its assessment in plasma, your next step might be to look at particle - cellular interactions.  If the particles activate complement, they may not aggregate but would rapidly bind onto complement receptors on red blood cells.  They might also readily undergo phagocytosis by circulating white blood cells (or Kupffer cells in the liver of a creature into which they're injected), so those interactions will ultimately need to be understood as well.
You ask a great question, and I'm happy to help as I can.  In exchange, what are the changes that you get me a T-shirt from the Institute Lavoisier?  Antoine is a personal hero of mine - when I was at the University, I had a great lecture on Lavoisier's career and, specifically, whether or not he should get credit for oxygen (He should).
Best,  John
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I am seeking potential collaborators for an NIH/NCCAM grant or private foundation grant to evaluate for low levels of plant, animal, and mineral/metal nanoparticles in a form of alternative medicine and/or to compare biological effects with modern nanoparticle forms of same source material. Please contact me if this interests you.
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Dear Dr Bell,
I have been following your work during many years. I am MD and specialist in Family Medicine with several year of training in Biochemistry. I have been developing many studies using high dilutions in some medical pathologies. These, were used in clinical and preclinical models. Some of these results are available in my profile and others are in drafting. In addition, we have created a research group in order to study the properties of BFRs, which also belong in the range of high dilutions. I am very interested to collaborate with your project because I have extensive experience with successful models in this field. My personal mail is sairareinar@gmail.com
Best,
Saira
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I need to detect intracellular ROS of HDFs after treatement with nanoparticles.
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To my knowledge, they are just different names for the same compound
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Could any one please tell me the maximum concentration of ZnO nanoparticles that can be considered as bio-compatible based on blood hemolysis studies. Does it depend on nature of the animal from which the blood is taken and studies are carried out?
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While I can't answer on the concentration, I can definitely help you with the nature of the blood.
Different animals, including humans, have different blood composition and, in most cases, different red blood cells. Size and shape are the main factors here, but they are the results of a different membrane composition. In my experience I worked with human, mouse, rabbit and pig blood, and especially RBCs; I can tell you that it is quite difficult to translate one situation into another. Human RBCs are the tougher, both in terms of flexibility and resistance to osmotic stress, whereas mouse RBCs do not stand a chance against even minor osmotic shocks. Rabbit and pig stay somewhere in the middle, with pig slightly more resistant.
You may want to consider biocompatible a concentration that gives you less than 10% hemolysis in isolated human RBCs. This corresponds to a 20-25% hemolysis in mouse if hemolysis occurs via osmotic shock, and a bit less if there is any direct interaction with the membrane.
One more thing, the storage condition and the age of the blood will have a huge impact, too.
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Are there any globally accepted guidelines and testing procedures for nanomedicines? If so, please mention the link.
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Dear Arun,
You can get more information on the following link
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zein nanoparticle tend to aggregate and coagglutinate when i added it to DMEM media to treat cells
I use tween80 as surfactant \ pluronicF86.
can I incubate the cells with nanoparticle dissolved in ddwater with no Media
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Dear Shaimma, 
I completely agree the last answer: cells in ddH2O won't survive for long...I'm not used to work with Zein nanoparticles, but I did with others... Do your particles have any coating? Do you use DMEM supplemented with FBS? On the other hand...I guess you did, but have you tried to reduce the nanoparticle concentration? 
If I were you, I'd first try with PBS, then move to DMEM (without serums), and finally, with complete medium, Once you optimize the nanoparticle concentration, I'd go for the assay with cells. 
Cheers, 
Maria
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Something that can be used in aqueous media to prevent microorganism growth, and that is does not show UV absorption between 200 - 300 nm?
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Dear Annette,
Wavelengths below 210 and above 400 nm can be eliminated with a filter solution (1.14 mol l−1 NiSO4 / 0.21 mol l−1 CoSO4 / 0.01 mol l−1 H2SO4).
G Michael
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I want to study about nanoparticles targeting for wound healing purposes
Which type of nanoparticles are specific?
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I use a lot of the dressing Acticoat in my practice, and have studied it extensively in clinical trials and in vitriol. Acticoat contains nano-crystalline silver. I am reliably informed that when water is applied to the dressing the nano-crystalline structure gives off silver ions and silver atoms. The silver ions kill bacteria, and the atoms have an anti-inflammatory action. This is certainly the effect that is seen clinically. Unfortunately the silver also is toxic to keratinocytes. Therefore it is a balance between killing bugs and killing keratinocytes.  For example, Acticoat will delay wound healing if used on non infected burns, but is a superb dressing if used on an infected or dirty wound that has a strong potential for infection.
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Hello everybody!
We all know that Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has an antibacterial proprieties. When added to a polymer matrix (e.g PCL), what's is the maximum percentage of this antibacterial charge (AgNPs), to have a better antibacterial properties ?
Thank you!
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The antibacterial property depends on the type of polymer and the size of AgNP , Im working in composite of polymer with AgNP and found the best antibacterial activity against gram and negative bacteria by using 5%
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I want to know the actual value or range, as there is much variation in the literature related to this?
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Thank you sir.
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A nanomotor is a molecular or nanoscale device capable of converting energy into movement. It can typically generate forces on the order of pico-Newtons. The applications consists of  directed drug delivery and novel treatments in  nano-onchology. For instance, those nanomotors are categorized as below:
1- Molecular motor proteins found in living cells.
2-  DNA nanomachines.
3- Chemically powered or UV triggered artificial nanomotors.
4- Catalytic nanowire motors, such as Pd-CNT nano tube and  fuel-driven catalytic nanomotors.
5- Bubble-powered catalytic microtube microengines.
etc.
Your comments are appreciated !?
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Very Fantastic Idea
Fabricating prototypes of artificial nano-motors.
Creating nano-motors that could travel through the body to manage insulin for diabetics or pumping biochemicals and travel through fluids.treat tumor cells without hurting the good cells.
I recommend to see Vincenzo Balzani et al work in this area.
"Autonomous artificial nanomotor powered by sunlight"
Natural molecular motors, however, are extremely complex, and any attempt to construct systems of such a complexity, using the bottom-up molecular approach, would be challenging. What can be done, at present, is to construct simple prototypes of artificial molecular motors and machines ,con- sisting of a few components capable of moving in a controllable way, and to investigate the associated problems posed by inter- facing them with the macroscopic world particularly as far as energy supply is concerned.
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I have to measure globule size of micro emulsion which was incorporated into Hydrogel ( Hydrogel was prepared by incorporating micro emulsion in the Hydro gel of carbopol 940).
There are many instrument available for measurement of globule size of microemulsion in liquid form, but i have not any idea about to measurement of globule size in gel form.
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Cryo-TEM
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Would like know if there is any instrument other than ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spec) that I could use to determine the amount of AuNPs taken up by the liver and other organs during in vivo studies. Thanks
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While ICP-MS is a gold standard for it, one can also use AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopy) for this purpose.
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I synthesized a carbon material,which is hydrophobic nature.I heard it from one of the researcher hydrophobic particle cant transfer into the cell
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Your hydrophobic particle may not remain hydrophobic once introduced to physiological fluids (culture medium, blood etc). Almost certainly, various biomolecules will adhere to it, forming a biomolecular 'corona'. The cells will encounter this corona, rather than the bare particle, and may well take it up. This will depend on the properties of the particle-corona composite.
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If respiratory infections are exacerbated by exposure to particles then another explanation is mechanical removal at an oxygen exchanging surface aside from biochemical interactions inside the cell. There might be no significant biochemical interaction between nanoparticles and the immune system. Reducing the availability of O2 to alveoli surfaces reducing normal cell function weakening them when infection occurs could explain survey data, no? Nanoparticles simply block O2 path?
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InsyAllah I will explain in detail soon.
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I have prepared the CaP/Ag nanoparticles for the biomedical applications in drug delivery,give the suggestion for using surfactants. 
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You may go with CTAB, MUA, PVP, PEG etc.
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What are the various routes  they take to enter cells?
Like they may enter through ion channels or by some other physical ways
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Uptake is primarily by endocytosis!
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I need to find a company/facility that is interested in loading a drug inhaler cartridge (something generally used for asthmatic people) with monodisperse microsize particles. These are solid spheres in the range of 1-10 um. I want a cheap and quick way to create an aerosol using this inhaler for the testing of samplers. Any suggestion and contacts are very welcome.
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Very simple.
You should buy any drug powder inhaler that works with hard shell capsules.
Fill the capsules with your microparticles and ...it is done !!
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Will there be any difference if the material showing non stoichiometric crystal defect at nanoscale. 
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Hi Aditya,
I think this will be helpful, though it is for polymer coated nps.
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The nanoparticles I am working on aggregates in physiological media and conditions. In-vivo they seem to accumulate in the liver and spleen, and not in the target site (tumor). I want to compare the hemocompatibility of the unmodified nanoparticles and the PEGylated nanoparticles. I did a in-vitro hemolysis assay using mouse blood, and found unmodified version causes 25% hemolysis.
I would now like to do some more checks to compare the hemocompatibility of the nanoparticles in-vivo.
1.Will doing activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) or prothrombin time (PT) make any sense to my data?
2.Does nanoparticles (no heparin) administered intravenously cause activation of clotting factors by any chance?
3.What other tests can be done to check hemocompatibility in-vivo?
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PT and APTT are blunted assays. For your purpose you Need ultra-specific F10a/F2a chromogenic thrombin Generation assays. Analysis of systemically circulating thrombin activity might help.
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I would like to use dendrimers with oligo(ethylene glycol) but not poly(ethylene glycol).
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Contact 'Dendritech" they can be best solution to your problem.
There are many companies which can custom design dendrimers.
Please check with them directly. Here are some links
Contact these vendors, I am sure they can do custom design for you.
Good luck
Rakesh
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  • Please help me in calculating plasma drug concentration-time curve (AUC). I evaluated two different Nanoparticles formulation for their colon-specific drug delivery ability in Rats and compare bioavilability from 0-24hrs by taking blood samples from tail. i got conc-time curve from which i can calculate Tmax and Cmax. I need Help in calculating AUC.
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Either you can use softwares associated with that instrument like chemstation as well as some stated above by Dr. Arnold. Other alternate can be manual method, which may be tricky.
In this method, you can cut the chromatogram into as much as accurate shapes like rectangles and triangles. Then you can determine the area of these shapes by simple calculation. At the end you can sum up all areas to get area under curve.
Best wishes Muhammad
Rakesh
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I have bio-synthesized a bialloy metal manoparticle and now I want to cap this nanoparticle with a drug .
There are some method which I learnt but all were for the chemically synthesized nanoparticles.
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Generally water soluble drugs can be attached with colloidal green synthesized nanoparticles by simple mising as proteins from plant extract act as coating agent. Although this kind of binding is not strong and % attachment of drug also less, but as you are using green synthesized nanoparticles you can use more concentration of it for therapeutic doses.
See my paper:
Green chemistry approach for the synthesis and stabilization of biocompatible gold nanoparticles and their potential applications in cancer therapy
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Share your view on Siddha/traditional nanomedicine.
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Truly siddha or traditional nanomedicine has huge potential. Our group also recently doing research on medicinally active plants and nanoparticles. Please go through my profile and check the articles. It may help you.
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Instrumentation and procedure
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It will depend on your purpose and also on the drugs you plan to load. Generally speaking, you can load drugs through covalent and non-covalent linkages. The former route, you should have certain reactive groups within the dendrimers, which can be done through codendrimer methodolgy. For the latter route, you can use hydrophobic interactions or host-guest interactions, which all have been proven to be very effective.
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Brief explanation please?
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The relation between siddha medicine and nanotechnology is mostly related to the size. 
The size of some siddha powders like Ayakantha chenduram, ayabringa chendrum are observed to the nearly 25 nm in size as per my investigation using AFM analysis. 
And the some of the nature of pashubams such as Ag, Au is similar to that of functionalized gold and silver quantum dots. 
It seems to be siddha medicine uses nanoparticles long years before. 
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Could anyone please tell me the preferred concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles for MTT assay against lung and breast cancer cell lines?
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Dear Prashanth, it'll be best to use 10 fold dilutions starting at lower concentration. May be from 0.01-100 µg/ml range. Select the broad range and narrow down eventually.
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I am trying to conjugate a peptide molecule of size ranging from 10 -40 KDa to the silver nanoparticles size of 40-120 nm (from SEM analysis). For this I am using charge dependent binding of the protein (at pH 8.0) to the nanoparticles, still I am unable to get a prolonged stability of the conjugates (Silver Nanoparticle-peptide), to maintain stability would you please suggest any protocol for the nanoparticle protein conjugation.
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Hello
It is a bit hard to answer without knowing how do you prepare your synthesis your NP.
I have added an article with whys of modifying different kind of metalic NP by using different molecules:
After amine/carboxyl/thiol modification of the NP, you can use crosslinking or even try to conjugate it by creating acyl-chloride of modified NP with carboxylic acid: http://www.masterorganicchemistry.com/2011/12/03/reagent-friday-thionyl-chloride-socl2/ (never tried it before since crosslinking works well enough)
Hope it helps
 
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The TUNEL labeling for apoptosis in the tumor tissues was visualized by BrdUTP incorporation, detected using red fluorescence labeled anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody. However, the overall red intensity is low. I'm wondering whether it's acceptable or not to adjust the overall brightness/contrast for all the groups.
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Linear adjustment of brightness/contrast to the same extent to the entirety of both images (essentially tuning the look-up-table, LUT) is perfectly fine, just don't mess with the gamma, as that can be regarded as a form of manipulation.
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Can a metal oxide nanoparticle having lower surface area exhibit better bactericidal property than a metal oxide (same material) nanoparticle having higher surface area? If so, then what could be the factors which are responsible for this behaviour?
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ZnO nanoparticles exhibits both size as well as shape dependent toxicity. Speciation is also a factor. Bactericidal activity varies w.r.t. medium of assay (e.g., saline, pbs, culture broth) as aggregation of nanoparticles  is largely dependent on pH and organic content of assay medium.